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Chapter 11 Notes on my own (Ms.

Q Lecture highlighted)
Motivation~ is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Nature- physiological “push” Nurture- cognitive and cultural “pulls”

Motivational Concepts
4 Perspectives to try and understand motivated behaviors -Instinct Theory (now evolutionary perspective) focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors - Drive-reduction theory focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact - Arousal Theory focuses on finding the right amount of stimulation - Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs describes how some of our needs take priority over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology - With Darwin‟s theory of evolution it became popular to label all behaviors as instinct - However, this only named instincts rather than explaining them - e.g one may say that someone criticizes themselves because of a “self-abasement instinct” however, they are not explaining why one may have this supposed instinct. - An instinct is actually a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. - Common in other species, but also in humans (babies‟ instinct for rooting and sucking) - Most psychologists view human behavior as directed by physiological needs and by psychological wants - Instinct theory failed to explain motives behind behavior but assumption that genes predispose species-specific behavior remains as strong as ever. Drives and Incentives - Original instinct theory of motivation collapsed &replaced by drive-reduction theory ~the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. - with few exceptions, when physiological need increases so does a psychological drive(aroused motivated state)

lacking stimulation=boredom=look for way to increase arousal .g hunger + smell of baking bread Need (e. water) Drive (hunger. physiological needs that must first needs and then psychological Physiological NeedsNeed to satisfy hunger and thirst . need to avoid lonliness and seperation Safety NeedsNeed to feel that the world is organized and predictable.Once biological needs satisfied. needs~ pyramid of human needs. competence. Self-Transcenence NeedsNeed to find meaning and identity beyond the self Self-Actualization NeedsNeed to live up to our fullest and unique potential Esteem NeedsNeed for self-esteem.when need and incentive = strongly drive e. achievement.g temp. also „pulled by incentives ~ positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us . to belong and be accepted.Some motivated behaviors actually increase arousal . Stuff I don't know. feel driven to experience stimulation and hunger for info . need for recognition and respect from others Belongingness and love needsNeed to love and be loved. for food.too much stimulation can come stress and then search for way to decrease arousal A Hierarchy of Motives . thirst) Drive-reducing behaviors (eating.„pushed‟ by our „need‟ to reduce drives.g.“infovores” .Abraham Maslow creates hierarchy of beginning at the base with be satisfied before higher-level safety needs become active. Material random needs I think. and independence. . drinking) Optimum Arousal .aim of drive reduction is homeostasis ~ maintenance of a steady internal state e..human motivation seeks not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of it . need to feel safe.

Number of hormones elated to hunger~ Orexin increase—Hypothalamus—increase hunger Ghrelin increase—stomach—increase hunger Insulin increase—pancrease—increase hunger Leptin increase—fat cells—decrease hunger PPY increase—digestive tract—decrease hunger -Manipulating the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body “weight thermostat” .The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) depresses stimulation~ destroy=eats ravenously . and intestines and then send signals to the hypothalamus -Glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight . causing to eat ravenously . opposite.Still feel hunger even without hunger pangs .Heredity also affects basal metabolic rate~ the body‟s resting rate of energy expenditure .Hunger The Physiology of Hunger -Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to our brain telling us that we‟re hungry . Levels are low=hunger . liver. but rats still ate . food intake increases and energy expenditure decreases. I weight is gained. When the body falls below this weight.Tsang removed rat stomachs and attached esophagus to small intestine. .Levels of glucose are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach.Heredity affects set point~ point at which an individual‟s “weight thermostat” us supposedly set.The lateral hypothalamus (LH) brings on hunger (stimulation) ~destroy=no hunger -Reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin the LH.If weight is lost.

Binge-eating disorder ~significant binge eating ~ followed by remorse or guilt ~do not purge. showing a genetic connection. fast.Bulimia Nervosa ~ may be triggered by a weight-loss diet.Eating disorders do not provide telltale evidence of childhood sexual abuse -Younger children may develop eating disorders when raised in families where weight is an excessive concern . fear gaining weight. most severe during and following binges . ~bouts of depression and anxiety.The Psychology of Hunger .Memory important role in hunger ( when last ate. broken by gorging on forbidden foods ~late teens early twenties (females typically) ~over-eating is followed by purging ~may be: vomiting.Anorexia nervosa ~typically begins as weight-loss diet ~usually adolescent females (3/4) ~typically drop 15% or more below normal weight ~still feel fat.) ~Amnesia patients have trouble with retention and if given food will eat continuously . laxative use.Studies have shown that eating disorders are more likely to appear in identical twins than fraternal. . excessive exercise. obsessed with losing weight ~half display a binge-purge-depression cycle . fasting.Body chemistry and environmental influences determine when hungry and what for ~Countries with hot climates use more bacteria-inhibiting spices in meat dishes Eating Disorders . or excessively exercise . when should eat etc.

US: 2/3rd of women want to lose weight and ½ of men (lose $ on diet programs) . gallstones.To actually lose weight: begin weight-loss program.&forgive lapses Summary Chart Biological: -mid-hypothalamic centers in the brain monitoring appetite. and certain types of cancer~ therefore shortening their life-expectancy . hypertension.when females were made to look overweight they were less likely to be hired Physiology of Obesity .mood Eating Behavior ~ over past 40 years weight gain has increased Social-cultural: . avoid temptation.Obesity ~disorder characterized by being excessively overweight ~ increase: cardiovascular disease.learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness . -appetite hormones -stomach pangs -set/settling point weight -universal attraction to sweet and salty foods .30-40 billon fat cells in the body.culturally learned taste preferences . weight loss was minimal 6% and metabolic rate a mere 15% ~ Obese defend their weight by conserving energy .Obesity in children increases chance of diabetes.Obesity and Weight Control~ fat is an ideal form of stored energy and readily available ~in times of famine fat was sign of affluence .Twin studies reveal genetic factor .Death rate highest in overweight men . arthritis. exercise.Set point and metabolism~ when calorie intake reduced from 3.memory of time elapsed since last meal . arthritis.500 to 450.BMI~ Body Mass Index  healthy under 25 . heart disease.Obesity .Lack of exercise major contributor to obesity Losing Weight . and back problems .adaptive wariness towards novel food Psychological: . high blood pressure.sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods . diabetes. these can increase to 2 to 3 times the size and number (75 billion) in an obese person .

less likely to use contraceptives. pulse.Sexual motivation is nature‟s lever way of making sure we reproduce and survive . we die. Sexual release ~ Resolution. . Women take longer to resolve Problems .Ignorance. penis enlarges ~ Plateau. e.Social-cultural: family and society values. and sexual orientation .Men typically suffer from two types of problems: premature ejaculation and erectile disorder. and blood pressure ~ Orgasm. cultural expectations Contraception: . which reduces levels of testosterone. and blood pressure. increase in breathing. in animals) activate sexual behavior .Masters and Johnson describe four phases of the sexual response cycle ~ Excitement.Minimal communication. pulse. testosterone. but w/out sex we do not die . -.Psychological: exposure to stimulating conditions.Sex hormones effect the development of sexual characteristics and (esp. secretes lubricant.contractions all over the body. many teenage girls feel uncomfortable discussing contraceptives . religious and personal values.Sex is not a need however.Testosterone: ~Levels of testosterone remain relatively level in men so it is difficult to activate sexual behavior. guilt reduces sexual activity but also use of contraceptives . without it.People with spinal cord injuries and no genital sensation can still feel sexual desire Sexual Behavior influenced by…… .Engorged genital release blood men have refractory period (can‟t orgasm again). sex hormones esp.Alcohol use. vagina expands. sexual fantasies .Biological: sexual maturity. media portrayal of unsafe extramarital sex reduces use of contraceptives .g Canadian girls . ~Castration.Estrogen: females animal in “heat” exhibit peak levels of estrogen ~Sex hormones may have a milder effect on humans than animals ~Women are more likely to have sex close to ovulation (increased testosterone) and men show increased testosterone when socializing when women.Mass media.Sexual Motivation .Guilt related to sexual activity.Women: orgasmic disorders ~Not personality disorders and may be treated through behavior therapy and drugs such as Viagra Hormones and Sexual Behavior . hunger is.genitals engorged with blood.Excitement peaks such as breathing. using alcohol prior to sex less likely to use contraceptives . lowers sexual interest .

thus raising expectations of oneself . religious teens and adults are more likely to save sex for marriage . depression. Achievement Motivation .Social bonds increased ancestors‟ chance of survival ~Protecting (esp.Father presence.Reduce Sexual Activity . we resist breaking social bonds.High intelligence. sense of belonging increases self-esteem.g Cast Away.Desire for significant accomplishment .People have different attitudes towards work ~ Job: have to do for money ~Career: opportunity to advance from position to position ~ Calling: fulfilling a socially useful activity . the young) against predators ~ Procuring food ~ Reproducing . and ~ keep persisting until success is achieved . social exclusion leads to demoralization. students who participate in programs that help prevent teen pregnancy are less likely to have unsafe sex . Tom Hanks) .Learning programs.People with high motivation to achieve tend to: ~ choose tasks that allow for success yet ~still require skill and effort.Flow marks immersion in one‟s work . even bad ones -Ostracism.Flow is the experience between no work and a lot of work .Homosexuality exists in the animal world ~Homosexuality seems to run in families ~ Identical twins more likely to both be homosexual than fraternal twins ~ Experiments with fruit flies show genetic tampering can cause males to act female and Need to Belong -Separation from others increases our need to belong (e. teens of higher intelligence are more likely to delay sex . and at times nasty behavior. father absence can cause higher teen sexual activity . social segregation decreases it .Homosexuality is more likely biologically based rather than environmental .Those that flow in their work are less driven by extrinsic rewards and more by intrinsic ones .Social Acceptance. need to belong colors out thinking and emotions .Maintaining relationships.Religiosity.Parents and teachers have an influence on motivation ~ Emotional Roots.learning to attribute achievement to one‟s own competence.learning to associate achievement with positive emotions ~Cognitive Roots.Wanting to belong.

and productivity .Intention vs.Observed that employee engagement means: ~ Knows what is expected of him ~ Has what is needed to do the work ~ Feels fulfilled at work ~ Has opportunities to do his best ~ Thinks himself to be part of something significant ~ Has opportunities to learn and develop . and productivity in his or her organization. satisfaction. Nothing only has one factor.Organizational psychology~ Studies how work environments and management styles influence work motivation. and resolution.Effective leaders need to select the right people. Humans feel the need to belong. and hierarchy of motives. engagement.Interviewers more likely to talk about employees who were successful .Interviewers prior knowledge about candidate may affect judgment. Eating disorders and obesity are also contributed to differing factors.Successful Employees.Human Factors psychology~ explores how machines and environments can be designed to fit out natural perceptions The Interviewer Illusion . it‟s all fine. Maslow‟s pyramids shows human needs with the most basic physiological ones at the base and self-transcendence at the top. Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are unlearned.Presumptions about candidates. Teens of higher intelligence are more likely to delay sex. Hunger and what we hunger for are influenced by multiple factors. K that‟s my summary :) .Interviewers wrongly presume what they see is what they get . Sexual motivation is nature‟s clever way of making sure our race survives. arousal. . instinct (evolutionary). Satisfaction and Engagement .Preconceptions. There are four perspectives to explain behavior. Habits~ Intentions matter but long-lasting habits matter more . determine their employees‟ talents. plateau. Masters and Johnson described the sexual response cycle in four stages. and develop their talents and strengths. adjust their work roles to their talents. Summary Motivation us a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. orgasm.Industrial/Organizational Psychology . excitement.Personnel psychology~ studies the principles of studying and evaluating workers .Every leader dreams of managing in ways that enhance people‟s satisfaction. drive-reduction.

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