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Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Head Office:
22A/11, T.F. 1, T.B.Sapru Road,
Civil Lines, Allahabad-211 001
Mobile No.: 9415247602, 9415560743
Address of the Field Head Office:
Devri Nadi Teer, Halia Block, Mirzapur District,
Uttar Pradesh-231 211
“An organization is consciously coordinated social entity, with a relatively identifiable
boundary, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of
This is the basic definition of organization. We tried to understand AAK according to the
above-mentioned definition.
Background Of AAK
AAK, acronym for Arthik Anusandhan Kendra, is a non-profit, secular, non-government
development organization established in the year 1968 with the aim of carrying out research
on governance issues and socio economic conditions prevailing after country’s independence.
The founder director of AAK, Dr. Kripa Shankar guided the organization for thirty long years
till his retirement in 1997, providing strategic leadership through period of growth and
turmoil. It was during early 90s, AAK realized that direct development intervention was
necessary to make a larger impact on poverty. The organization, therefore, extended the scope
of its work to include developmental programs that would benefit people and build their
capacities. The people were ready to play a more active role in management of public
institutions and village governance.
About the Area
Mirzapur, which is known for its carpet industry is also the home of many tribes and falls in
the contiguous tribal belt extending from Bundelkhand in Uttar Pradesh to Chhottanagpur in
Bihar. One among the numerous tribes that inhabit this region is the Kols, one of the poorest
of the region who trace their ancestry to the Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh and are
scattered all over the region.

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The villages where AAK works in Hallia block of Mirzapur are predominantly tribal and
comprise of poor peasants. The area is one of the most neglected areas of the state of UP. The
state and the landlords both play a vital role in initiating and perpetuating exploitative
processes and is, therefore, the source of all the structural inequities and miseries.

1.1 Brief History Of AAK

Arthik Anusandhan Kendra was established in the year 1967 with the aim of carrying out
research on governance issues and socio-economic conditions prevailing in the era of post–
Nehru Socialism. The roots of the organisation were tied to communist visions of an
egalitarian society and a consciously adopted mandate of critiquing the efficacy of the
existing welfare policies of the State. The founder Director of AAK – Dr. Kripa Shankar,
himself an ardent communist ideologue and economist – guided the organisation for thirty
continuous years till his retirement in 1997, providing strategic leadership through periods of
growth and turmoil.
The reputation earned by AAK in its early years as a proficient social research agency was
due largely to the formidable intellectual capital brought in by the likes of Dr. Kripa Shankar
and many other dignitaries who joined its ranks. Shri P. N. Sapru, former Member of
Parliament and Justice of the Allahabad High Court, was the co-founder of AAK, lending his
vision and guidance to the organisation as its founder President for ten years. Subsequently,
many other dignitaries served AAK as its President, including Mr. Chandrashekhar, who went
on to become India’s 9th Prime Minister, Prof. A. D. Pant, former Director of G.B.Pant
Institute for Social Sciences in Allahabad and Mr. Krishnawatar Pandey, former Director of
UP Adult Education Board. In the formative years, the organisation earned a good name for
itself by undertaking several prestigious research studies for the Planning Commission and
Indian Council for Social Sciences Research. It also undertook District Profiling exercises in
several districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
During the seventies and the eighties, mainly research activities and relevant academic
interests of its functionaries accentuated the structure and growth of AAK. The core
functionaries played a pivotal role themselves in administration of various research
assignments and consolidation of the outcomes thereof. Dr. Kripa Shankar himself published
a large number of monographs and occasional papers in various journals of repute. The
organisation remained small, with ad-hoc staffing arrangements for carrying out occasional
research activities.

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A significant turning point in the history of the organisation appeared in the late eighties,
arising out of its association with National Wastelands Development Board, which gave AAK
a small grant of Rs. 14000/-, for undertaking tree plantation activities in the Shankargarh
block of Allahabad. For the first time in its life, AAK crossed the self-determined boundaries
of research and tilted towards undertaking field-based development work. Soon afterwards, it
received support from CAPART to undertake land-based activities in few chosen pockets in
eastern UP. The late eighties involved AAK in renovation of traditional water harvesting
structures and deepening of ponds in Shankargarh (Allahabad district) and Khagah (Fatehpur
district). The transition was justified on the grounds of increased felt-need for relevance with
regard to the lives of the poor and the deprived in the far-flung areas of Allahabad and
Mirzapur districts of Uttar Pradesh.
During the early nineties, AAK continued to receive support from CAPART. It collaborated
with the Primary Health Center of Hallia (one of the most backward blocks in Mirzapur) in
undertaking a Safe Drinking Water Awareness Programme. Subsequently, a Social Animators’
Training Programme was organised with the aids received from CAPART, an event that
founded the cornerstone of AAK’s integrated development programme in the course of the
following years. By around this time, the organisation had also identified Shri Harigovind
Singh to join as its Assistant Director to handle its interface with potential donors and other

1.2 Mission
“To encourage a participatory process of change, with the poor, in favour of the poor, by
enabling them to build and strengthen their beliefs, ideas and organisations. Our core strategy
is based on the belief that the consciousness of the poor, marginalised people needs
awakening with respect to the exploitative processes that have been internalised and that an
adequate support net would ensure that the rest would follow.”

1.3 Vision
AAK’s vision is “Establishment of an exploitation free society”.

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1.4 Basic Philosophy

 To establish sustainability mechanism of already developed structures and assets,
which include human and physical.
 To transfer the project management role to the community group.
 To prepare documents/literature on the effects and learning of project initiatives.
 To shape the rights based efforts into initiative/campaign mode with the help of
community-based organisations and federations. To expand working area and forge
new alliances/associates

1.5 Values
The intervention of AAK is based upon some values and those are participation, transparency,
equity and equality and participatory methodology.
Participation is one of the basic values and pre-requisite for AAK’s working methodology.
Organization related activities in the village are planned, implemented and monitored by the
community or with its active participation. Details like the community contribution; roles and
responsibilities of community members etc. are decided by user groups/sangathans. The
community does all evaluation of the year’s activities, performance of the organization etc.
Transparency is practiced in conduct and works of AAK. The organization does not at any
stage attempts to conceal facts and figures from its working staff and community members.
All decisions are held in decentralized manner. All information and details are displayed on
the walls of the community centers. The estimated (and actual) expenditure of AAK on
particular activities, the community contributions for the same are within the accessibility of
all in the village.
Equity and Equality
AAK adheres to the ideology of equity and equality in all its programmatic process. The past
experience has reflected disproportionate sharing of benefits with major chunk of it being
eaten away by powerful and socially advanced community. While AAK believes in justifiable
sharing of natural resource and programme benefits to deprived and marginalized community,
it has been working on these lines ever since.
Participatory Methodology

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Conducting training and facilitation in participatory methods has emerged as strength area of
AAK. The organization has facilitated PRA exercise at Chamba (HP), Raipur (Chhatisgarh)
and in villages of MP, for a Delhi based leading NGO. It also built the capacity of block level
functionaries of Hallia (Mirzapur) in participatory methodology, and facilitated in
preparation of micro-level village plan of 10 panchayat villages, under the UNDP –sub
project. Besides, AAK has been given an important assignment on assessment of health,
hygiene and environment in rural areas of seven blocks of Mirzapur, under a healthy district
project of W.H.O.
AAK’s area of concern.
• Social inequities;
• Inadequate sustainable livelihood;
• Dysfunctional state support services in the area of Education, Health, PDS, Revenue,
Forest etc;
• Unorganized people;

1.6 Board Of Directors

Arthik Anusandhan Kendra’s Board comprises of the following eminent persons:
Designation Name Occupation
President Sh. Vishnu Bhagwat Former Chief of Naval Staff
Vice- President Sh. Manoj Kumar I.G. (Police), U.P.
Vice- President Dr. Sanjeev Bhadauria Lecturer
Director Sh. Hari Govind Singh Project Director
Treasurer Smt. Mithila Singh Social Worker
Member Dr. Kripa Shankar Writer
Member Sh. Lalla Singh Social Worker
Member Prof. Ganga Ram Farmer
Member Sh. Kishun Prasad Farmer
Member Smt. Kanta Chopra Nurse
Member Smt. Mahraji Devi Farmer

AAK is working in two programme areas namely Hallia (Mirzapur, U.P.) and Chitrangi
(Siddhi , M.P.). The head office is at Allahabad and Director heads it. All the strategic
decisions are taken by group of members called board of directors, which in case of AAK
consists of 11 members. The Director heads all the programmes. Project Co-Ordinators are
given the whole charge of implementing as well as the monitoring of the project. They are
supposed to report to the director. Organizational support team comprises finance,

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administration, and human resource. And development support team comprises cluster
coordinators, community motivators, and the village workers. Organogram of AAK is given
in the figure 1.

Figure 1: Organogram
Board of Governors


Allahabad Devri Office

Office (Hallia)

Accountant Engineer Office In Various project

Documentation Office charge Coordinators
coordinator/HRD Assistant

CLUSTER OFFICES (Cluster Coordinators)

Village Workers Community Motivators

Village Communities

The Staffs at Allahabad office remains directly in control of the director. Documentation
Coordinator is the only staff having a professional degree (M.B.A., H.R.D.). All the
communication with outside agencies is done from Allahabad office only. The rationale
behind keeping the office at Allahabad is that it is easily accessible by all means of
transportation and good communicational facilities like Internet and mobile, whereas Devri is

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still devoid of even basic telephone facilities. Devri office is center of all the operation of the
organisation, which in turn supports the various cluster offices by all the means as shown in
the figure 1. Cluster Coordinators remain in charge of the cluster office and he reports to the
office in charge as well as the project coordinators of the concerned project regarding the
progresses and difficulties.


Table-1: Sources of fund

Source of fund Intervention area
Action Aid, Lucknow Integrated Rural Development/shelter
homes for urban homeless
Oxfam India Trust, Lucknow Watershed, Livelihood, Girls’ Education
The Hunger Project, New Delhi Increasing women leadership in Panchayats
Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra (SSK), Strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions
The Paul Hamlyn Foundation, New Delhi Lift Irrigation projects
Christian Aid, New Delhi Empowerment of Adivasis in Koraval
region of UP and MP

(Source: Annual report 2004-05)

Organization has its own source of earning, which is the garden adjoining to its office
through which they earn around Rs.1500 per annum deducting the expenses. The
organization is not involved in any other income generating activities and entirely depends
upon various funding agencies. Few of the most important projects (financially) of the
organization are going to be over by the year-end and there is anxiety in the organization
because of the same.

There are 68 staff members at present working in the organization, out of which one holds
engineering degree and another one has diploma from polytechnic, except these two people
there is no other employee who holds a technical degree. The entire workforce except one has
been sourced from the local areas of Hallia and Chitrangi, the only person who does not
belongs to the local area is Mr. Bhardwaj, who belongs to the state of Andhra Pradesh, Mr.
Bhardwaj was previously running his own organization but due to financial crunch joined

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AAK. The average age of staff is around 27 years. AAK has little choice in the matter of
selection of suitable employee because it is very difficult for the organisation to find
reasonably educated people who can undertake numerous related functions associated with
the different projects effectively. Organisation emphasises on willingness and competency to
work in local conditions, ability to interact with target people and work with them effectively
while selecting any employee. So the organisation puts lesser emphasis on qualification in
terms of degrees and certificates possessed by the candidates. Recently, AAK has started
giving more importance to the selection of women employees as it has felt their significant
role in various activities especially in projects related to women’s empowerment. Finding
suitable women employees still remains a challenge for the organisation. Therefore AAK is
providing relaxation in terms of standards and lead-time to adapt to working conditions while
recruiting women employees. The turnover in the organization is extremely low primarily due
to the fact that it is very difficult to find another job in the area. Despite widespread
dissatisfaction among the employees regarding the pay policy of the organization they are not
able to leave the organization. The highest salary in the organization is that of director that is
Rs. 8000 and the lowest being Rs.1500 that is paid to the cooking and gardening staff and the
field level employees. The motivation level of employees is extremely low and almost all of
the field level employees remain absent from the office, when we went to visit in the field.
The vision as stated by the organization is not necessarily that of employees and they have
their own perspective that is more concerned with the salary.


The evolution of Arthik Anusandhan Kendra from a tiny research agency to a directly
intervening voluntary organisation is full of twist and turn. These changes marked by
overhauling of the organisation coincided with unpleasant interpersonal rifts within the
organisation. During the seventies and the eighties, AAK’s identity was centered mainly
around the various research assignments carried out by its core personnel, which did not
require too many people on its payroll. The few people working in the organisation were
mostly involved as volunteers working with minimal compensation for their work. Initially,
there were neither any long-term plans directing its activities, nor any discernible leanings
towards working directly with the poor for improving their lives, an area that later
distinguished AAK in the nineties.

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The advent of the nineties brought about a significant transition in the life of AAK as an
organisation, due to many reasons. For the first time, the think-tank of the organisation was
widened to include enthusiastic, younger people like Harigovind Singh and Rameshwar
Dwivedi, who brought in a more responsive character to the organisation’s functioning with
respect to its relevance for the poor. Research activities of academic nature continued to exist
in the leadership of Dr. Kripa Shankar, but more as one of the lesser priority functions.
Organisation gradually changed its form to meet the information needs of managing an
integrated development project. With the resources from the government and support
agencies like ActionAid, OXFAM and CAPART in the nineties, the organisation reoriented
itself to gradually evolve into an NGO of repute, which later contributed significantly to the
drafting of the Watershed Development Guidelines of the Government of India. But the area
that distinguished AAK from most other similar organisations of the nineties was arguably
the efficient management of its core personnel and the strategic processes guiding its growth
in the chosen field. The top level political warfare ultimately led to the redundancy and
resignation of Dr. Kripa Shankar, removal of Rameshwar Dwivedi and emergence of
Harigovind Singh as the Director of Arthik Anusandhan Kendra. By the late nineties
organisation established its identity among the Kol tribals, all due to systematic processes in-
built within the functioning of AAK.

Frictions at the top level started in the early nineties itself, after Harigovind Singh was
appointed as the Assistant Director to look after AAK’s work with various external resource-
agencies and the field operations. His staunch opponent Rameshwar Dwivedi, then
designated as the Project Coordinator in AAK used to enjoy an influential status in the Hallia
region on account of his prior work experience in CREDA, a local organisation. He was also
responsible for recruitments and payments relating to AAK’s work. Rameshwar Dwivedi was
a strict work master and is still remembered for the stern disciplinary actions taken by him
against some of the field-staff. The course of unpleasant events that followed included
leveling of a string of allegations by Dwivedi including charges of financial irregularities
against Harigovind Singh, who was steadily rising in popularity within the organisation.
Rameshwar Dwivedi wrote about his allegations to not only Dr. Kripa Shankar, the Director,
but also to the District Magistrate and the key functionaries in the local administration and
other resource agencies. This upset Harigovind Singh and he decided to quit the organisation,
but not before calling for a systematic audit of all the vouchers relating to AAK’s programme
expenditure. He emerged clean after the audit, which strengthened his position in the eyes of

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AAK staff and Dr. Kripa Shankar in particular. In fact, irregularities were later detected in
some of the affairs handled by Rameshwar Dwivedi himself, who never used to sign on any
voucher. A meeting of the core personnel of AAK was soon convened and Harigovind Singh
was empowered to take disciplinary action against Dwivedi, who was subsequently asked to

Shaken by this experience, the sanstha karyakartas (AAK functionaries) felt the need to
develop and enforce stronger control processes and structures to prevent similar recurrences.
Several drastic measures were subsequently undertaken, including reconstitution of the
governing body of AAK. Equal number of academics and rural development professionals
were inducted in the Board, and the move was attributed to Dr. Kripa Shankar’s limited role
in diffusing the crisis. In the course of the following years, the gap between the precepts of
academic theories and the day-to-day challenges of the field were felt to have widened, and
Dr. Kripa Shankar started gradually abstaining himself from the operations of AAK. In 1998,
Harigovind Singh formally took over as the Director of AAK. The first move in the reform
process was made earlier in late 1996, when a Decision Forum was constituted to handle
most contentious matters, including processing of applications, recruitment etc. Harigovind
Singh, then the Assistant Director of AAK initiated the move. A group of five people,
including the Assistant Director, the Project Coordinator, one representative from the Board
of Governors and two women constituted the Decision Forum. The salient decision areas in
its purview also included those pertaining to flow of funds to different programme areas.
Harigovind Singh reserved with himself the decision relating to salary administration, mainly
to respect the sentiments of some senior functionaries with regard to the issue. Some of the
more responsible karyakartas working in the twenty odd project villages of AAK were
elevated as Cluster Coordinators soon afterwards, with each of them being made directly
responsible for the processes in five contiguous villages. Most of these people were drawn
from the local villages, which significantly improved AAK’s standing with the people. After a
year, by late 1997, some of the efficient Cluster Coordinators were promoted as Sector
Coordinators, each responsible for programmes relating to organisation of people’s
collectives, gender issues, education, health and economic activities’ sectors respectively.
This not only helped the top management to take stock of programmes in a more holistic and
sector-wise manner, but also leveraged more strength to the team of core functionaries. By
1999, the authorities of endorsing and verifying payments and expenditures had been passed
down to the level of Cluster Coordinator, with the Sector Coordinators, now renamed as

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Community Motivators, were assigned internal authority for auditing vouchers. AAK has
recently initiated moves to gradually delegate some of these functions to the level of village

In January 1999, a workshop was convened at Devri, the village housing AAK’s field-office
by the side of Belan river involving representatives from AAK’s top management, the
Community Motivators, the Cluster Coordinators, the village Karyakartas and people from
some of the project villages. The workshop facilitated by resource persons from PRAXIS
helped the organisation assess the expectations of functionaries at various levels of the
organisational hierarchy from each other, as well as from the people and vice versa. Some of
the critical functions and responsibilities of the people at various levels were subsequently
formalised, based on expectations of each other and people. The current Project Coordinator
of AAK looking after the programmes supported by ActionAid India is Dharmesh Singh. He
has been promoted recently based on his outstanding performance and the recommendation
of his colleagues. The processes of periodic introspection and appraisal of roles, personalities
and performances has been a regular feature of AAK’s work, not exempting even the Director
from receiving the feedback of his subordinates in an open forum. Comprehensive reviews
are conducted once or twice every year involving all staff, and even the more periodic
meetings of Cluster Coordinators and village Karyakartas are sometimes used for assessing
personality traits. The sanstha personnel, who abstain from smoking, drinking or indulging in
any other addictions, lay a lot of stress on maintenance of certain non-negotiable morals and
ethics. The sanstha believes in setting examples amongst the poor people of Hallia through
the conduct of its own personnel, while conducting Nashabandi (prohibition against
addictions) campaigns in the project villages. Karyakartas caught with any addictive in their
custody are punished severely, and are even suspended from their work. The organisation’s
response to a few reported instances of misappropriation of funds and resources by
Karyakartas has been prompt and exemplary. Karyakartas found guilty of such offences on a
few occasions in the past were not only removed from their services, but social pressure
tactics were effectively used to recover amounts embezzled by them. On a couple of
occasions, repentant Karyakartas with the ability to deliver useful services to the people were
taken back into service, although under strict vigilance of colleagues.

A lot of investment is made every year by AAK on capacity development of staff for
discharging their functions more effectively. Several Karyakartas have been provided

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opportunities to attend training workshops of national and international fame. Services of

leading resource agencies have been used to this effect including organisations like PRAXIS,
SSK, and EKTA PARISHAD etc. Long-term agreements have been negotiated with agencies
like PRAXIS for availing of ongoing support for the various field level processes undertaken
by AAK. A large number of AAK Karyakartas excel in facilitating participatory processes at
the field level, e.g. preparation of micro plans, resolution of conflicts, situation analysis,
mobilizing people for campaigns, periodic monitoring and evaluations. The organisation has
also initiated moves to work closely with Panchayats in selected locations in its region of
work. Right from the days of its induction into the field of integrated development, the
organisation has successfully managed to keep itself in the good books of influential forces
like senior bureaucrats and administrators in the government, resource agencies and local
political circles. This has been achieved on its own terms, without compromising on its core

AAK’s vision of future envisages a strengthened role of the Kol Mahasangh in pursuit of the
development interests of the backward people of Hallia. The organisation plans to phase out
its involvement in the various interventions over the next few years, and aspires to grow as an
agency committed to build local capacities in furtherance of such missions. On the whole,
AAK’s story is a mixed bag of successes and stray cases of disappointments, challenges and
adversities, conflicts and growth, but the cream of it all lies in the exemplary management of
the organisation reflected in the efficient handling of its personnel, processes and situations.


Transparency is considered to be the hallmark at every level of the organizational activity,
which facilitates the process of monitoring and evaluation smoothly. Be it programmatic or
financial planning, implementation and review, organization has devised a unique mechanism
to ensure accountability for its functionaries.
6.1 Indicators
The organization has been working on the processes that could help community analysis
reach a point where the community determines the indicators of success. Presently, there is no
formal mechanism to determine the degree of success. Success indicators like food security,
rate of migration, employment opportunities, etc are applied for impact assessment.
Comparison with the other village where organization has not intervened is also used to
evaluate the success parameters.

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6.2 Review & Impact Assessment

Participatory review and reflection processes have been initiated in the organizations work. In
this process, the community reviews and analyses the interventions of the past period and
measures its effectiveness in the larger (and often changing) context of their lives. Thus it is a
move away from analyzing “what has been” to “what should have been”. A step towards the
same has been taken and is in the process of being strengthened with the community.

6.3 Impact Assessment Of Advocacy Efforts

Advocacy interventions offer a challenge in terms of measurement of the impact by the
community. Here, level of awareness, degree of confidence is used for impact assessment of
advocacy effort by the organization. Moreover comparison with other village where
organization has not intervened is also used for assessment.


AAK has network and alliance with several N.G.Os on the issues of land right, active
governance, education and watershed projects. The list of the organizations with whom AAK
has alliance and the purpose for which they fund AAK is given below.

• OXFAM, Lucknow (Watershed, Livelihood, Girls’ Education)

• Action Aid India, Lucknow (Integrated Rural Development/shelter homes for urban
• Christian aid, New Delhi (Empowerment of Adivasis in Koraval region of UP and
• Paul Hamlyn Foundation, London (Lift Irrigation projects)
• UNDP (Employment generation, poverty eradication)
• Canada High Commission, New Delhi
• World Health Organization, New Delhi (Health related programs)
• Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra, Lucknow (Strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions)

Apart from these funding agencies AAK has associated with organization like PRAXSIS,
Patna and ALLRIPPU, Lucknow for its capacity building and training programs.

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Apart from this AAK also used to provide consultancy and training programme to various
N.G.Os, the details of these programs is given below.

Table-2: Training & consultancy provided by AAK

Subject of Consultancy Organization
Participatory study of impact of Water Nadi Ghati Morcha,Raipur (Chhatisgarh)
(Shivnath river) privatization on
Participatory assessment of causes of poor CARE – Raipur, Chhatisgarh
RCH malnutrition & vulnerability to HIV-
Micro-level planning of Panchayats in National Institute of Rural Development
Block Hallia (NIRD) Hyderabad
Participatory Assessment of Health, National Institute of Urban Affairs, (NIUA)
Hygiene and Environment New Delhi
(Source: AAK documents)

The details of the community capacity building training programme carried out by the
organization during the year 2004 are given in tabular form.

Table-3: Workshops conducted by AAK

Subject Parti- Resource person Place Dura-
cipant tion
Media Orientation 35 Correspondents, Devri Nadi Teer 1 day
Amar Ujala &
Dainik Jagran
Formulating Federation’s 19 Mr.Prasad Rao& Irrigation Dak 1 “
strategy (Mahila-Sangh) Ms.Arundhati Bunglow,

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Communication Training 23 Mr.Shiv, Alla Rippu Devri Nadi Teer 5 “

Formulating strategy for 12 Mr.Dharmesh Devri Nadi Teer 1 “
Social Audit (KAVS) Singh
Interface with Media persons 18 Correspondents Devri Nadi Teer 1”
Dainik Jagran,
Amar Ujala and
Agriculture Dev.Training 29 Mr.Jhuru Lal Devri Nadi Teer 2“
Revolving Fund trg.for SHGs 45 Mr.Dharmesh Devri Nadi Teer 2“
Women leadership 31 The Hunger Project Devri Nadi Teer 2 “
development Representatives
POWER Abhiyan on 495 Smt.Devki/Devki/R At Nyaya 10 “
Panchayat women am Lalloo Panchayat level
representatives/ leaders
Inter-project visit 26 Smt.Indravati Watershed village 2 “
Sh.Girija Shanker Umariya

(Source: AAK documents)

7.1 Suggestions For Effective Networking

One of the problems prevailing in Halia block related to land is that there is no
synchronization between the revenue department and Forest department. The forest
department follows the map, which is being amended in 1969, but the map of revenue
department was being amended time and again since then. Hence some times it so happens
that after a piece of land being given to a land less person by the revenue department the
forest department claims it to be forest land. In order to make the process hassle free the
organization should establish a network with forest department vis-à-vis revenue department
by involving high-level officials in this process.

AAK has, over the years, in collaboration with other individual/NGOs been able to influence
policy changes in the following areas like Land rights, irrigation, building of women
leadership, health, income generation programs and education. These have been
described below:

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8.1 Land Right

Land is the most significant factor in lives of marginalized poor. A plot of land can provide a
household with physical, financial, and nutritional security, and provide a labourer with a
source of wages. Land is a basis for identity and status within a family and community. Land
can also be the foundation for political power. AAK has been continuously working to
provide rights to the poor to access their land. The situation was so that the poor didn’t know
whether they have a piece of land even after getting it after land reform scheme. The
approach made by AAK in this regard is given below:

• Initiate distribution of Gramsabha/ceiling land

• Organization of workshop for Land Management Committee and member.
• PIL against cases of ceiling stay in High Court
• Organization of camps for Patta distribution
• Organization of camps for Public complaints
• Meetings with revenue and forest departments
Here the controversial land with forest department and the cases solved by efforts of
AAK is given.

Table 4: Controversial land with forest department

Serial Village Controversial No Of Resolved Remaining controversial
Ownership Cases Ownership
(1998) (2001)
1 Kushiera 7 5 2
2 Uchaka 10 7 3
3 Bandhva 7 7 *
4 Bellahi 35 24 11
5 Duriya 50 29 21
6 Khambhua 2 2 *
7 Saraihava 18 * 18
8 harra 5 * 9
9 Aunra 6 * 10
10 Dhamauli 2 * 11
11 Sindhwania 57 * 57
12 Chaura 1 1 *
13 Patpara 2 * 2

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Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

14 Baidha 32 32 *
Total 234 107 127

(Source:AAK documents)
8.2 Irrigation
Migration is rampant in Halia block the reason behind is, people don’t have access to
irrigation facility hence they have to depend only on monsoon for cultivation hence the
agricultural labours have to migrate in drought season in search of work. To help such people
to gather their livelihood irrigation project was implemented in 2001. The result of some such
projects is given below in tabular form.

Table-5: Beneficiary Of Irrigation Project

S.No Village name Proposed Actually benefited
Family Area Family Area
1 Devghata pande 19 9.5 ha 19 9.5ha
2 Devri 43 17 ha 43 17 ha
3 Dhuriya 22 19.5 ha 22 18
4 Basuhara 18 9.2 ha 18 9
Total 102 55.25 ha 102 53.5ha

(Source:AAK documents)

8.3 Building Of Women Leadership

Society in this region is usually male dominated; women usually don’t have any role in
decision-making process. In order to empower women AAK initiated the process to provide
joint ownership of land (both husband and wife). Some other measures taken by the
organization to empower women are

• Formation of Self Help Groups.

• Discussing problems related to women issue regularly.
• Encourage women to take initiative in Panchayat related activities.

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8.4 Health
The region of Halia block comes under the most under developed remote region in the map
of Uttar Pradesh. Public health system in this region is really pathetic. AAK has tried to
develop linkage between community and public health system. AAK initiated the program to
educate traditional dais regarding hygiene and safe health practices. AAK has been
collaborated with the public health department of the Halia block to arrange immunization
camps for infants. AAK also initiated hygiene awareness and diarrhea management program
in this region, as it was the main cause of high infant mortality rate in this region.

8.5 Income Generation Program.

In order to make women economically empowered AAK has successfully conducted IGP
activities exclusively with women groups in the area through self-help groups. According to
the available data the amount of loan distributed to the beneficiary, the amount repaid is given
in tabular form below:

Table-6: Distribution of fund through SHGs

Cluster No. Of Loan disbursed Repayments Balance
beneficiary (In Rs)
Chhatariha 6 34000 16000 18000
Mavaikala 9 70500 40597 29903
ardihakala 8 15000 5500 9500
Mahogarhi 10 30000 6200 23800
Babura 28 70000 33400 36600
Raghunathpur 6 12000 6900 5100

(Source: AAK documents)

8.6 Education For Girl
It would be an astonishing fact to know that the literacy rate prevailed in Halia block is mere
23% and women literacy is still low i.e. 8%. The actual figure may still be low because
women in this region usually don’t go for education if any literate women is found she would
came here after marriage. Education campaign, facilitated by AAK has been initiated in the
work area. Emphasis is on changing the attitude of people towards education and especially
towards the education of girl children. In the year 2003, a middle and a primary school for

18 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh

Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

girls already started in 2001, are operational by the organisation. The features of the girl’s
school are

• Precaution of parents to not to discontinue sending their girls to school

• New way of teaching
• Regular evaluation of each student
• Appointment of female teaching staff
• Regular interaction with parents
The data that we got from the organization and our visit to the school regarding the
achievement of this program is mentioned below:

• Both the schools have attained primary level recognition of the Govt.
• As of now, 323 girls of 200 families have been linked with education in our two
• 68 out of 134 educationally deprived girls under survey have been linked with our
• 62 girls have passed primary level class against 47 who have passed middle class
The castiesm prevailing in this region proved to be a major hurdle during the initial period,
because parents of higher caste didn’t like the idea that their children will seat together with
children of lower class people. But after continuous effort from the organization the situation
came to an even keel, now there is no hesitation among parents to send their children to
educate with the children’s of lower caste people. The caste composition of the students in the
school is given below in tabular form.
Table-7: Ethnicity in school
Byugna School 32 5 64 45
Mavaikalan 13 0 46 22

19 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh

Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Figure-2: Caste Composition at Byogna School






Figure-3: Caste Composition at Mavaikalan School


27% SC/ST
57% GEN

Culture is the most important internal factor of an organisation. It is organization’s unique
way of doing things. Culture gives identity to the organisation and differentiates it from
another identical organisation. It gives the employees a sense of belongingness and develops
pride to belong to the organisation. AAK's staffs come from the rural areas. Their
commitment, ability to innovate and work in a participatory manner is the hallmark qualities
that make them different. In all, the team comprises of 68 people. AAK strength lies in its
multi-disciplinary team, which has the ability to facilitate development interventions with the
most marginalized and weaker sections of the society. As far as formalization is concerned its

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level in AAK is very low. There is no work schedule. After getting the task the workers are
free to do it according to their convenience. As far as centralization is concerned the
organization is highly centralized, all the administrative decision is been vested with the
director of the organization. According to our empirical observation the organization is
mostly dominated by upper caste people i.e. all the key positions are held by the Rajput
community. Hence the field level workers feel they are being dominated by the upper caste in
the organization.

10.1 Expansion
AAK has planning to expand its activities to Siddhi and Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh as
the area suffers from both social and economic disparities and is inhibited by schedule tribe
and marginalized communities and those people mostly depends upon Mirzapur district of
Uttar Pradesh for their livelihood rather than Madhya Pradesh.

10.2 Federation For Women Organization

AAK has the ambitious plan to link up the women self-help groups to form a federation who
in deed address the problem of women with more vigor. It will address issues like women
right, land issues and integrated income generation plan.

10.3 Future Network And Alliance

AAK has plan for formation of network and alliance with more number of organizations
working in the field of land right and women empowerment to learn their expertise and share
its experience with them.


As we were not able to get the income expenditure statement of the organization for the year
2004/05 here we included income expenditure statement for the year 2002-03 and 2003-04
(Table 8) in the next page.

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Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Table 8: Income & expenditure A/c for the period from April 2002 to March 2003
Expenditure Amount Income Amount
Awareness in Opening balance
community 97424 01.04.2002 1160604
Grant in aid from
Capacity building in OXFAM India Trust,
community 168755 LKO. 3894483
Natural resourse Grant in aid from
management 2694325 PEPUS, Allahabad 40000
Agriculture dev. and Grant in aid from
livelihood 362914 Action aid, LKO. 4681410
Promoting gender Grant in aid from
equity 33826 S.J.K.S, Jalaun 90000
Health support to
distress families 19015 Donation 4800
Influencing govt
policies in favour of
poor 147425 Agricultural Income 35803
Salaries 788639 Income from garden 10000
Staff/wokers capacity 52137 Bank interest 42618

22 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh

Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Programme support
cost 2196302 Membership fee 380
Administrative and
capital cost 1695328 Sale of motorcycle 13000
Closing balance as
on 31.03.2003 1717008 0
TOTAL 9973098 TOTAL 9973098

Table 9: Income & expenditure A/c for the period from April 2003 to March 2004
Expenditure Amount Income Amount
Awareness in Opening balance
community 582104 01.04.2003 1717008
Grant in aid from
Capacity building in OXFAM India Trust,
community 237859 LKO. 4146618
Natural resource Grant in aid from
management 1247615 The Hunger Project 282572
Agriculture dev. and Grant in aid from
livelihood 383638 Action aid, LKO. 2236407
Grant in aid from
Promoting gender Paul Hamlyn
equity 225463 Foundation, N.D. 377715
Health support to Grant in aid from
distress families 5089 SSK, LKO 286797
Influencing govt
policies in favour of Grant in aid from
poor 224876 NIUA, N. Delhi 150000
Grant in aid from
Educational support 1285096 S.J.K.S, Jalaun 50000
Land right
programme 571175 Donation 28300
Staff/wokers capacity
building 133695 Agricultural Income 59000

23 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh

Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Programme support
cost 1489466 Income from garden 52480
Administrative cost 876669 Bank interest 36469
Closing balance as
on 31.03.2004 2161521 Membership fee 900
TOTAL 9424266 TOTAL 9424266

From the income expenditure statement we can find that the administrative expenditure
during the year 2002-03 is 17% whereas it dropped significantly in the year 2003-04 to 9.30
% the reason of which as explained by the accountant was that the organisation had invested
hugely in purchase of land, vehicle etc during the year 2002-03.


Figure-4: Population Coverage


60000 55388

40000 32324
Population 23064 21516
Chitrangi Hallia block Total Population
block population covered

The organization is currently working in two blocks, one each of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar
Pradesh. The population of chitrangi block of Madhya Pradesh has a total population of
23064 and that of Hallia block is 32324, out of which the organization is covering 21516


Figure-5: Gender Ratio in Organization

24 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh

Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Gender Ratio

9, 13%

59, 87%

Men Women

The staff of AAK comprises of 68 people (59 men, and 9 women). The reason for this gender
gap is unavailability of minimum qualification among women as required by the
organization, the other problem being that most women or their family members are not
comfortable with the idea of them working in remote corners of the area, where connectivity
and communication is almost non-existent.

Figure-6: Diversification
Local governnace
Land right
Watershed process study
Korawal adiwasi vikas samiti
Income generation program
Natural resource manegement
Land and Water edevlopment
Women oriented land development


Lift irrigation project
Ashray abhiyan

Table 10: New Projects on Governance Issues

CBO'S 61
LIFT IRRIGATION PROJECT 3 25 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh
Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

(Source: AAK documents)

The above given diagram and table represents the diversification in the activities of AAK.
Though most of the programs have stopped growing, still the organization is involved in
maintaining the status quo of the same. The organization has also added few new programs to
its service line for example Ashray abhiyan for the destitute in the city of Allahabad, there are
some more new projects being undertaken like that of local governance.


Figure-7: Time Utilisation

Time utilization

4.5 4

3 2.5
1.5 0.75
1 0.5 0.25



ti v






li z

















The above given figure represents the time utilization by the employees of the organization
on various kinds of activities. The major part of the working hours goes into unproductive
activities, as most of the programmes of the organization are presently not operational; the
emphasis is that on the maintenance of the existing facilities and infrastructure. The major
cause of unproductive utilization of time is lack of formalization and self-motivation

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Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

regarding the timings of work hours (we have taken work hours from 9 in the morning to 5 in
the evening) and attendance on time. Also as most of the staff at Devri resides in the office
compound, because of the dearth of any project at present they are also not left with the much
job to do.


Figure-8: Space utilization

Space utilization

Garden Open space Concrete structure Shed

Table 11: Space Utilisation




SHED 0.2


The above diagram and table represents the utilization of space, which is available with the

27 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh

Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

The utilization of space is done in a prudent manner by the organization and most of the
space is devoted to gardening on which mango, guava, bamboo and neem trees are there
which acts as an income generating activity for the organization.


Strength Weakness
 Local knowledge  Lack of professionals
 Eminent personalities in Board Of  Centralization of authority
Governors  Misuse of resources
 Networking  Low level of formalization
 Goodwill
 Transparency

 Middle aged organization
(experienced staffs)

Opportunity Threat
 Governmental apathy in the area  Termination of agreements with
 Target group is well mobilized leading funding agencies

 Penetration in Urban area through  Absence of second line leadership

Ashraya Abhiyaan  People’s Organisations
 Target group always looks the
organisation as a provider agency.


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Arthik Anushandhan Kendra

Being student of development we had a preoccupied idea regarding development and society.
We used to dichotomize the society into black and white i.e. in the society there is a section
of people who got exploited and another section of who used to exploit them. It was our idea
that in order to uplift the lesser fortunate people we have to fight against the exploiting class
but during our OTS segment this misconception was changed. We got a radical change in our
view that enlistment of one section can not be done by ignoring or fighting against other
section. We have to bring them join the bandwagon of development other wise all efforts will
go in vein or clash and social unrest will emerge. The organization AAK had done this thing
very meticulously in all its intervention in general and intervention for land right in particular.
Another thing we learnt from our stay at AAK is that in order to become successful an
organization has to fulfill a certain condition i.e. there must be proper match between the
organization, the development programme and the beneficiary.

1. The development programme started at a particular place must have the ability to
address the problem of the beneficiary’s problem.
2. The organization must have the expertise to implement the project effectively and
3. The beneficiary must get a chance to participate in decision-making process of the

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Arthik Anushandhan Kendra


1.Annual Reports 2002-03, Arthik Anusandhan Kendra

2.Annual Report 2003-04, Arthik Anusandhan Kendra

3.Annual Report 2004-05, Arthik Anusandhan Kendra

4.Banejee Anindo, Kols Of Kushiera, 1995

30 Ashvin, Dev, Parthasarthi, Rakesh