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TO MAKE AN EARLY CONCLUSION TO WHAT HAD OBSERVED WHEATHER IT IS HAPPENED OR HAD ALREADY HAPPENED PROCESS : A) State the event that been observed. B) Give reasonable reason or early conclusion.

Why ? Why it’s happen ? How it’s happen ? What cause it ? Because ……… Maybe it ……….

ANSWERING TECHNIQUE A) Observation and inference sentences are saperated ; i) Observation : Plant A have many leaves ii) Inference : Because it have enough water. Observation and inference sentences are combine / join ; → Plant A have many leaves because it has enough water. Differentiate Inference i) Observation : Plant A have more leaves than Plant A ii) Inference : Because plant A have more water than plant B OR i) Observatin : Plant A have many leaves while plant B have less leaves ii) Inference : Because plant A get enough water while plant B get less water. OR iii) Plant A get more water compare to plant B.

B) C)

Figure 1 show two papaya trees planted on different type of soil. Both trees was produce with enough water and sunlight.

FIGURE 2 a) State an observation about the fruit on Plant P and Q in figure 2. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ b) State the inferences based on your observation in (a). ( Thick √ for the correct inferences) Answer Inference 1. Plant P had enough water 2. Plant P got more sunlight than Plant Q 3. Plant P is given fertilizer compare to Plant Q 4. Soil at Plant P is more fertile 5. Plant Q get less mineral than Plant P 6. Plant P is given quality fertilizer compare to Plant Q

c) State another observation to support your inferences in (b) ( Thick √ for the correct answer) 1. Plant P is bigger than Plant Q 2. Plant P has more fruit than Plant Q 3. Plant P has more leaves. 4. Plant P is bigger 5. Plant Q is smaller than Plant P Question 1

The bar chart below the information obtained by the pupils. The number of extinct animals in year 2000 is higher than year 1800. 2. 3. . 4.A group of student gathered information about the extinction of animal species in a particular forest. The number of extinct animal in year 2000 is the highest. ( a ) What observation that can be made from the result in the bar chart above ? [ Tick ( √ ) the correct observation and cross ( X ) for the wrong statement ] Answer Observation 1. The number of extinct animals increases. Every 50 years the number of extinct animals increases.

The number of human population increased 3. The number of animals species are decreasing 4. the longer time needed to melt. . Deforestation for housing development 2. The forest area are decreasing. Increasing of industrial area. Humans population increased. CONCEPT : A SENTENCE IS KNOWN AS “ HYPOTHESIS SENTENCE “ WHEN IT FACT OR CONCEPT CAN BE TESTED WHEATHER IT IS CORECT OR WRONG EXAMPLE : a) The bigger size of ice. Many dams have been built.( b ) State the suitable inference based on your observation in (a). ] Answer Inference 1. [ Tick ( √ ) the correct inference and ( X ) for the wrong inference. (c) Give other observation to support your answer in (b) [ Tick ( √ ) the correct observation and ( X ) for the wrong observation] Answer Observation 1. Polluted water occurred. 6. 50 species of animals facing extiction in year 2000 3. 2. Increasing of illegal hunting 5. 4.

Criteria that need to be fix or keep the same during the Investigation EXAMPLE 1 Diagram show an investigation that carried out by a pupil. P and Q have the same size.b) If the volume of water increased.Things that is change to see the different result .Things that is change by the person who is making the investigation 2) RESPONDING VARIABLE / WHAT TO OBSERVE/MEASURE . . P and Q is blown with the same strength. the the boiling time also Increased PRINCIPLE : SHOULD HAVE 2 VARIABLE. P is the first one to be drop down.The result that been observe / get 3) FIX VARIABLE / WHAT KEEP THE SAME . shape and material. EXAMPLE : MANIPULATED RESPONDING The bigger size of ice If the volume of water increased IDENTIFY VARIABLE : 1) MANIPULATED VARIABLE / WHAT TO CHANGE . the longer time to melt the boiling time also Increased .Source that cause the different in experiment result. MANIPULATED (WHAT IS CHANGE) AND RESPONDING VARIABLE (WHAT TO MEASURE) THAT CAN BE RELATED WITH THE TREND.

(a) Based on the investigation. state :( Underline the correct answers ) i) Manipulated variable / What to change ( Shape of the object / Base of the object / Base area of the object / Length of the object / Stability of the object ) ii) Responding variable / What to measure/observe ( Stability of the object / Time for the object to drop down / The strength of the object ) iii) Fix variable / What to keep the same ( Shape of the object / Object base / Object base area / Type of object / Lengh of the object ) (B) State hypothesis can be made on this investigation The higher / wider / longer _______________________________________. the longer / stronger / bigger_____________________________________ EXAMPLE 2. Figure 1 show an experiment carried out by a group of pupils.. .

2. Type of nail / mass of nail / condition on nail / volume of water / type of water b) What is the hypothesis can be made in this experiment? Thick [ √] at the correct answer and[ X] at wrong answer Answer Hypothesis If the nail been expose to water. If the nail been expose to air. Nail Q and R not rust. the more rusting will be. 3(a) Nail Observation Anhydrous Calcium Chloride after a Nail P rusted. Example 3 . Responding variable / What to observe ?:Shape of nail / size of nail / colour of nail / rusting of nail iii. the more rusting will be. The more expose to water. If the nail been expose to water and air. state : i. the nail will rust. a) Based on this investigation. the nail will rust. Constant variable / What to kept the same ?:.cork P Figur tap water Q e1 oil boiled paper string R nail week. the nail will rust The more expose to air. Manipulated variable / What to change ? :Presence of water / Presence of air and water / Presence of air .. ii. 1.

4. the less _____________________________________________ Question A group of pupils carried out an experiment to investigate the ability of sponge to absorb water. The different size of sponge were put into the beaker which contain the same volume of water. .After two minutes the sponges were taken out. A group pupils carried out an investigation to investigate the total of weight of eight paper The results are shown. state : i) Manipulated variable :_______________________________________ ii) Responding variable : _______________________________________ b) State hypothesis can be made on this investigation The more ____________________________________________. Time(hour) 1 2 3 4 Total of weight of eight paper / g 180 160 135 110 a) Based on this investigation.

1. _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ .Figure 4 (a) State the following variable : i ) ii ) Manipulated variable / What to change ?: ______________________________________________ Responding variable / What to measure ?: _______________________________________________ (b) Suggest two hypothesis based on the result in Figure 4 .

Aiman and Amin carried out an investigation about the number of swings by each pendulum P and S as shown in diagram below. • To investigate the relationship between the distance of plants (what to change )and the products of plants obtained (what to observe /measure ) QUESTION 1. • Stating the aim of investigation is to relate the relationship between what to change ( manipulated variables )and what to observe/ what to measure (responding variables ) KEY WORDS FOR AIM/PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION. ( what to observe /measure) EXAMPLES : • To study the relationship between size of ice ( what to change )and time for ice melting (what to observe ). . • To study the relationship between ________________________ ( what to change) And ______________________. 1.STATING THE AIM OR PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION CARRIED OUT.

To study the relationship between the number of pendulum and number of swings in 5 seconds. 3. Tick √ or X . What to kept same Types of pendulum Size of pendulum Number of pendulum Size of the string Mass of pendulum Pendulum Height of pendulum The swings (√ ) What to change Number of pendulum Length of pendulum (√ ) What to observe Number of pendulum The number of swings The swings The pendulum The swing of pendulum (b) What is the aim of the investigation ? Tick ( √ ) for the correct answers or ( x ) for the false statements. To study the relationship between the string of pendulum and the swings . To investigate between number of pendulum and number of swings of the pendulum. 2. Answers for aim of investigation 1.Pendulum Bob Number of swings in 5 seconds (a) ( √) P 10 S 5 Tick (√ ) for the correct variables below.

5. . QUESTION 2. To study the relationship between the length of pendulum and the number of swings. To investigate the relationship between the length of pendulums and the number of swings in 5 seconds. The bar chart below shows an information of 450 grams of “ kurau” fish .4. The fish was dried under the sun in a week.

( Mass of kurau fish / Types of fish /The number of days / The number of fishes) (b) What is the aim of the investigation ? To investigate _________________________ between __-______________________ and ______________________. QUESTION 3 The diagram below shows the comparison sizes of three different fruits.( a ) Underline ( i ) What is the Manipulated Variables. . ( The mass of kurau fish / The time of drying ) ( iii ) What ia the Constant Variables . ( The mass of kurau fish / The time of drying ) ( ii ) What is the Responding Variables .

( c ) Based on the statement above .Table 2 shows the result of the investigation. (b ) What is the aim of investigation that can relate the relationship between the two variables that you have mentioned in ( a ) ? An orange can be produce 6 ml of juice when squeezed and watermelon can produce 15 ml of juice . Types of fruit Time to ripe Langsat 5 days Mangoesteen 7 days Durians 11 days ( a ) State 2 variables that must be collected during the investigation. . what is the aim of the investigation.

cause the longest time for the ice melting. the longer the time to the QUESTION 1 . The bigger the size of ice.MAKING CONCLUSION : STATE A SENTENCE TO RELATE THE MANIPULATED VARIABLE (WHAT TO CHANGE) AND THE RESPONDING VARIABLE (WHAT TO OBSERVE) CONCLUSION MUST COVERED ALL THE INFORMATION OR DATA Examples : ice melting. The most/greatest number of flower is produced when the temperature at 35 °C to 45°C. The biggest size of ice .

state the following variables: [ Underline the correct answer ] (i) Manipulated variable (what to change) (Type of thumbtacks / Mass of thumbtack / Section of Magnet / Type of magnet) (ii) Responding variable (what to observe) (Type of magnet / Number of thumbtacks / Strength attractive of magnet / Number of thumbtacks that can be pulled) (iii) Fixed/ Controlled variable (what kept the same) (Section of magnet / Shape of thumbtack / Number of thumbtacks that can be pulled / Type of thumbtack ) . The diagram below shown the number of thumbtacks that can pulled by the magnet at the different section.In an experiment a pupil uses several thumbtacks and a magnet. (a) Based on the above experiment.

3. the number of thumbtacks that can be pulled the most. the number of thumbtacks that can be pulled least. At the end of magnet. The middle section of magnet . Question 5 Planet J K Distance from the sun/ million km 230 780 Time of revolution/ year 2 12 . The more to the end of the pole. the more the thumbtacks. the increase the number of thumbtacks that can pulled. the least thumbtacks that can be pulled. 2. Answer (c) State a conclusion based on the above experiment.(b) What conclusion can be made from the experiment? [ Tick √ for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer ] Conclusions 1. 5.. At the middle section of magnet. the more thumbtacks will be pulled. The more to the end of the pole. 4. [ Underline the correct answer ] Answer : The (most / least) number of thumbtacks that can be pulled at the ( end/ middle ) section of magnet. 6. At the poles section.

L. ii.L M N 1470 2870 4500 76 84 165 Table 2 shows the distance of planet J. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ (b) What conclusion can be made from the investigation based on Table 2? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ . K. i. M and N from the sun and the time taken to make one complete revolution around the sun. (a) State two variables in the investigation.

) Trend : Increase / Ascending / Higher : 10. 45 °C. ) Trend : Decrease / Descending / Lower : 100. QUESTION 1 . 95 °C 2. 46 °C. 10. 80. 58 °C. 58 °C. 60. 42 °C. 20. 90. 58 °C. 58 °C. 35 °C 3. ) Trend : Unchange / Constant / Same : 10. 50. 30. 70. 40 85 °C. 46 °C. 69 °C. 59 °C. 76 °C. 40. 50. 82 °C. 10. 60 35 °C. 68 °C.IDENTIFY TREND : 1. 35°C PREDICTING : PREDICTING IS A PROCESS OF FORECASTING EVENTS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS AND PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES OR CERTAIN PATTERN OF RELIABLE DATA. 10 35 °C.

Based from the information in the above table. K. The study took four weeks.Planet J K L M N Distance from the Sun/million km 230 780 1470 2870 4500 Duration of movement/year 2 12 76 84 165 (a) The above table shows the distance of planet J. M and N from the Sun and the duration of movement around the Sun. L. Increase Ascending. The investigation involved caterpillars and sparrows in the school garden. predict the location of the object. (Tick √ for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer) Answer Trend Increase Decrease Constant Unchange Ascending Descending Constant. The observation was recorded in the table below. (Tick √ for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer ) Answer Prediction Between M and N Between J and L Between M and L Between L and K Between J and K Between L and M Between L and N Between J and M Remark QUESTION 2 An investigation was carried by Fiza to find out the relationship between food resources with numbers of consumers. . Descending Remark (a) An object takes eight years to make a complete movement around the Sun.

Week Number of caterpillars Number of sparrows 1 30 6 2 24 9 3 19 13 4 15 18 (a) What is the trend for number of sparrows? ( Tick √ for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer ) Answer Trend Increase Decrease Unchange Ascending Higher Descending Constant Remark (b) State the trend for number of caterpillars and number of sparrows. Answer Trend for the caterpillars Increase Descending Unchange Increase Higher Become lower Constant (c) Based on the answer in (b). Week Number of sparrows 1 6 2 9 3 13 4 18 5 6 ? Question 3 . compare the trend for number of caterillars with the trend for number of sparrows. predict the number of sparrows on the 6th week. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ (d) From the trend in (a).

The result of the investigation is recorded in the table below. Time 1 hour 2 hour 3 hour 4 hour Total weight of eight tissue paper/g 180 160 135 110 (a) What is the trend of change in the total weight of the tissue papers during the investigation? __________________________________________________________ QUESTION 4 The number of seeds grew out of 80 seeds in 20°C are 10. The tissue papers are put to dry and their weights are recorded every hour. Surrounding temperature /°C Number of seeds grew . in 35°C and 40°C are 70. their total weight is 200g.When eight tissue papers are moistened. in 30°C are 40. in 25°C are 20. A group of pupils carried out an investigation on the growth of seeds (a) Complete the table below. in 45°C are 10 and no seed grew in 50°C.

(b) State the trend of changes of the number of seeds germination. (Underline the correct trend in each box. what is the trend for the number of germinated seeds when the temperature increae? ___________________________________________________________ (d) Predict the number of seeds that grow in 41°C.) 10 – 40 seeds Increase / Decrease / Unchange Descending / Ascending /Constant Become higher / Become lower / Unchange (c) 70 – 70 seeds Decrease / Increase / Constant Increase / Unchange / Decrease Same / Increase / Decrease 70 – 0 seeds Ascending / Descending / Same Increase / Decrease /Constant Become lower / Become higher / Constant Based on the answer in (b). .

.) Answer Prediction 58 More than 40 Between 70 to 10 Less than 45 Remark QUESTION 5 Diagram below shows an investigation carried out at a place in Pulau Pinang.(Tick √ for the correct answer and X for the wrong answer.

____________________________________________________ (c) Predict the direction of the shadow at 9.00 o’clock in the afternoon.30 in the morning. ____________________________________________________ .(a) What is the trend for the length of the shadow from morning to afternoon? ____________________________________________________ (b) Predict the length of the shadow at 6.

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