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Bones of neurocranium. Neurocranium is portion of skull that supports,surrounds and protects brain.

The eight bones are 4 single bones(sphenoid,occipital,ethmoid,and frontal),2 pair bones(one on each side):temporal and parietal. 1.sphenod bones: -This single,irregularly shaped,midline bone cradles the base of the brain and pituitary gland and form the posterior part of the has the processes that serve as part of the attachement for three of the four pairs of major chewing muscles. -It has foramina (holes) that are passageway for the nerve branches that supply all teeth and surrounding structure -Sphenoid bone has processes or wings projecting laterally .lesser wing cam only be seen internally.greter wing also seen internally but best view externally. -external surface of greter wings is part of temporal fossa where temporalis muscle attach to neurocranium . -fissure internally between greater and lesser wings called superior orbital fissure,which is passageway of ophthalmic nerve(nranch of trigeminal nerve) -there are two processes that project downward from the base of skull just adjacent to the posterior surface of maxillae called pterygoid processes.pterygoid processes contain fossa about size of end little finger called pterygoid fossa.a fossa where one end major chewing muscle,the medial ptrygoid muscle attach.ptrygoid fossa bounded by lateral plate of bone known as lateral pterygoid plate(or lamina) and medial plate of bone (mdial pterygoid plate).lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate also call lamina is where lateral pterygoid muscle attach. -two pairs of foramina is foramen rontundum and foramen ovale.the oval,foramen ovale is the skull opening for the passage of mandibular nerve,The rounder,more medial anterior foramen rontundum is the opening for passage of another part of trigeminal nerve called maxillary nerve. -space between pterygoid process and posterior wall of maxillae known as pterygopalatine. -sphenoid /angular spine is sharp ,small process on inferior surface of sphenoid bone which superior attach to the sphenomandibular ligament. 2.temporal bones

there are 14 facial arch of teeth.roots of the teeth embedded in individual alveoli(tooth socket).zygomatic.they function in both respiration and digestion.where infraorbital fissure located.shape of each alveolus or thin bony socket naturally corresponds closely with shape of roots of tooth it surrounds.Bones of face (visceral apparatus) Form of facial bones gives us appearance.maxillae (right and left maxilla) -body of maxilla:part of maxilla forms floor of orbit of eyes. . 1.and lacrimal well as within maxilla.the entrance to the alveolar canals where the nerves to the maxillary teeth enter the maxilla are very small foramina located posterior and anterior to the third molar.important nerves and vessel enter this fissure and canal. (4) palatine process of maxilla -maxillary sinus or antrum:sinuses are hollow spaces within bones and found within sphenoid.and ethmoid bones.six paired are palatine.nasal.nerves and vessels exit maxilla on the fae through infraorbital disappears anteriorly to become infraorbital canal.frontal.made up of dermal and intramembranous bone.2 single bone are mandible and well as maxillae and inferior nasal conche(turbinates).give off branches within the canal which supply some of the maxillary teeth and surrounding tissue. -bony processes on each maxilla: (1) frontonasal or nasofrontonasal process (2) zygomatic process (3) alveolar process:extend to form an arch shape of bone that surrounds root of max.

3)articular disc.interposed between bony parts.TMJ is articulation between mandible and 2 temporal has three parts : -one horizontal body -two vertical rami(ramus) A joint or a connection between two separate parts of the skeleton.2.mandible Mandible is the largest and strongest bone of skull. Anatomy: . There are 3 articulating parts to each TMJ: 1)mandibular condyle 2)articular fossa with its adjacent eminence(or tubercle) of temporal bone.

.mildly convex mediolaterally. -upper surface:strongly convex anteroposteriorly. -posterior aspect:it’s wide and narrow mediolaterally with narrow neck.Mondibular condyle: Its about the size and shape of a large date pit with greter dimension mediolaterally. From : -side:looks like round knob.

smooth on surfaces.these two wedge portion help the disc move harmoniously with condyle.this indicates the functional portion of joint when we are chewing food with mandible in protruded and/or lateral position. Articular disc: Its not bone.this fibrous .there’s no tight contact among head of condyle.when the wedge portion becomes flattened or the centre of /disc thickens.which is quite annoying yet a fairly common occurrence. The articular eminence or transverse bony ridge is located just anterior and inferior to articullar fossa.the disc is a tough oval pad of dense fibrous connective tissue act as a shock absorber between mandibular condyle and articular fossa and articular eminence.the upper contour is cncave-convex anterioposteriorly to conform the shape of articular eminence and fossa.the functioning regions are covered with fibrous connective tissue.which permit complex functional movement of mandible.(in other words.and convex’s particularly tick on top of condyle over the region where most function occurs when condyle is forward from resting position.adapting the upper surface of convex mandibular condyle.thinner in centre and round its not prepared in a dry skull. Articular : articular fossa(nonfunctioning portion) Articular eminence(functioning portion) The articular(glenoid) fossa(anterior three-fourth of larger mandibular fossa) is considered to be nonfunctioning portion of joint.Condlye is in the position it would occupy when the teeth come together as tightly and as comfortably as possible(maximum intercuspation).conforming the shape of articular fossa that it loosely rest against.resulting in popping or gratting noise (crepitus).indicating that considerable force occurs on these surface of joint.surface is lined by thickened layer of fibrous connective tissue. Function: -divide shape between head of condyle and articulating fossa into upper and lower spaces .as when we bite our front teeth or incisors together.disc fails to move synchronously with condyle. -Anterior and posterior contain specialized nerve fibres called proprioceptive fibre which help unconsciously to determine position of mandible -help to regulate movement of condlye .with an elastic posterior attachment disc move with head of condyle during function but only about half as far.lower surface is concave in both directions.the fibrous layer of joint and disc are avascular(devoid of blood vessel and nerves).the disc and the concave part of articular fossa.avascular type of connective tissue is adapted to resist pressure.its to fit under articular aminence. dIsc forms one natural wedge anterior to the condyle head and seconde wedge posteriorly to the condyle because of extremely slippery surfaces.coze when teeth are tight occlusion.more than rest articular fossa.

.-stabilize condyle by filling space between incongruous articulating surface of the cvex condlye and concave-convex articular fossa/eminence. -cushion the loading reducing physical wear and strain on joint surface -lining of capsule surrounding produce synovial fluids that lubricate movement of joint.

and inferiorly by floor of mouth.Oral cavity is bounded anteriorly by lips.laterally by cheecks.or space between teeth(supporting alveolar process) and can be divided as: -outer oral vestibule.Oral anatomy/ mades up of 2 layers: -outer stratified surface epithelium -underlying connective tissue Lips .Mucosa membrane lines the oral cavity.superiorly by palate.teeth and alveolar process. 2.

1. 11 orbit. 1 Nasal septum. 14 pterygomaxillary fissure. 41 crypt of developing mandibular third permanent molar tooth. 35 middle cranial fossa. 27 mental foramen. 13 zygomatic process of the maxilla. 40 angle of mandible. 43 primary second molar tooth showing physiological root resorption. 33 inferior orbital rim.Fig. 24 fourth cervical vertebra. 2 anterior nasal spine. 44 maxillary permanent central incisor tooth. 31 epiglottis. 29 hyoid. 30 pharyngeal airspace. 26 mandibular canal. 7 airspace between soft tissue shadow of upper border of tongue and hard palate. 19 mandibular condyle. 10 nasolacrimal canal orifice. 21 first cervical vertebra (atlas). 36 bite-block for patient positioning during panoramic radiography. 25 mandibular foramen and lingula. 20 external auditory meatus. 15 maxillary tuberosity with developing third permanent molar tooth. 22 second cervical vertebra (axis). 46 maxillary permanent canine tooth. 9 maxillary sinus (antrum). 28 inferior border of mandible. 37 chin holder (cephalostat). 48 maxillary . 47 maxillary first premolar tooth. 16 zygoma. 8 lateral wall of nasal passage. 32 coronoid process of mandible.7 Annotated panoramic radiograph. 18 articular eminence of temporal bone. 5 superior turbinate. 45 maxillary permanent lateral incisor tooth. 39 ethmoid sinus. 4 middle turbinate. 38 shadow of cervical spine. 3 inferior turbinate. 12 infraorbital canal. 42 developing mandibular second premolar tooth. 23 third cervical vertebra. 34 mastoid process. 17 zygomatico-temporal structure. 6 soft tissue shadow of the nose.

permanent first molar tooth. 50 pterygoid plates . 49 ramus of mandible.

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