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Objectives: 1.1 To measure the resistivity of semiconductor materials by using four-point probe .
1.2 To determine the energy band gap Eg of semiconductors.

Apparatus: 3.1 Probes Arrangement 3.2 Ge and Si Samples 3.3 Oven 3.4 Four Probes Set-up 3.5 Thermometer

Theory : The four points probe, contains four thin collinear probes are made to contact the sample under test. Current I am made to flow between to outer probes, and voltage Vis measured between the outer probes and voltage V is measured between the two inner probes, ideally without drawing any current. Resistivity= 4.523 t (V/I) Where t = thickness (0.50 0.01) mm V= measurement voltage I=initial currents (fix 0.5mA) Many conventional methods for measuring resistivity are unsatisfactory for semiconductors because metal-semiconductor contacts are unusually rectifying in nature. Also there is generally minority carrier injection by one the current carrying contacts. An excess concentration of minority carriers will affect the potential of other contacts and modulate the resistance of the material.The method described here overcomes the difficulties mentioned above and also offers several other advantages. It permits measurement of resistivity in samples having a wide variety of shapes, including the resistivity of small volumes within bigger pieces of semiconductor. In this manner the resistivity of both sides of p-n junction can be determined with good accuracy before the materials is cut into bars for making devices. This method of measurement is also applicable to silicon and other semiconductor materials. In order to use this four probe method in semiconductor crystals or slides it is necessary to assume that: The resistivity of the materials is uniform in the area of measurement. If there is minority carrier injection into the semiconductor by the current carrying electrodes most of the carriers recombine near the electrodes so that their effect on the conductivity in negligible.(this means that the measurement should be made on the surface which have a high recombination rate, such as mechanical lapped surfaces) The surface on which the probes test is that no surface leakage The four probes used for resistivity measurement contact the surface at points that lie on a straight line

4.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES. 4.1 The sample Germanium ,Ge was put on the base plate of the four probe arrangement .The pipe holding was unscrewed and the four probes rest in the middle of the sample.A very gentle pressure was applied on the probes and the pipe was tightened in this position .The continuity between the probes was checked for proper electrical contacts. 4.2 The distance between probes s and the thickness of crystal W was measured. 4.3 The four probe arrangement was placed in the oven and the thermometer was fix in the oven through the hole provided. 4.4 The ac mains of Four probe set-up was switched and digital panel meter was put in the current measuring mode through the selector switch.In this position ,LED facing mA would glow.The current was adjusted and the meter would read the voltage between the probes. 4.5 The digital panel meter was put in voltage measuring mode .In this position LED facing mV would glow and the meter would read the voltage between the probes. 4.6 The oven power supply was connected and the oven switched on .The measurement was recorded for increasing temperature(up to 140C). 4.7 The oven was switched off and the voltage was recorded for decreasing temperatures.

Data analysis: Temperatur (Increasing) T(K) 1K Voltage V(volt) 0.1mV Resistivity Ln (temperatu re increased) 0.082 0.083 0.085 0.085 0.081 0.073 0.061 0.047 0.036 0.028 0.020 0.015 0.010 Temperatur Voltage e V (volt) (Decreasin 0.1mV g) T(K) 1K -1.09 403 -1.08 393 -1.07 383 -1.07 373 -1.09 363 -1.14 353 -1.21 343 -1.33 333 -1.44 323 -1.55 313 -1.70 303 -1.82 301 -2.00 30.4 39.0 49.8 68.0 86.5 112.3 143.7 169.1 186.0 189.4 185.6 183.1 0.014 0.018 0.023 0.031 0.039 0.051 0.065 0.070 0.084 0.086 0.084 0.083 -1.85 -1.74 -1.64 -1.51 -1.41 -1.29 -1.19 -1.15 -1.08 -1.07 -1.08 -1.08 3.37 3.30 3.19 3.10 3.00 2.92 2.83 2.75 2.68 2.61 2.54 2.48 2.42 Resistivi ty, Ln 1/T (x10ex p -3)

297 303 313 323 333 343 353 363 373 383 393 403 413

181.5 184.2 188.7 188.8 180.0 161.3 134.2 105.5 80.3 61.2 45.2 33.8 25.8

Precaution :

Observations should be noted while the temperature is falling. Current should be kept constant throughout the experiment. The Ge crystal is very brittle. Therefore, only the minimum pressure is required for proper electrical contact.

Result /Data analysis : The band gap Eg for the given semiconductor = 0.55 eV Percentage error= Standard value experimental value X 100% Standard value =0.67-0.55 X 100% =17.9% 0.67

Task : 6.1 What is the advantage of four probe method over the other conventional methods? -The advantage is ,the four-point probe method can eliminate the effect introduced by the probe resistance, probe contact resistance and spreading resistance. Therefore it has more accuracy than the twopoint probe method. -A four point probe is used to avoid contact resistance, which can often be the same magnitude as the sheet resistance.

6.2 Can we use an ordinary milivoltmeter instead of electronic milivoltmeter or potentiometer to measure the inner probe voltage?why? Cannot .Its because ,the inner probe has been installed in the oven ,so as the thermometer .Also The milivoltmeter cannot been install directly from external source.

6.3 Explain the behavior of the ln () vs 1/T curve.Calculate Eg from the curves.

From the graph we obtained that the graph of ln () should be proportional to 1/T .From the graph we obtained that the Eg from experiment is 0.55eV .Calculation was shown in the data analysis section .

6.4 Why a semiconductor behaves as an insulator at zero degree Kelvin? At absolute zero (0K), an intrinsic semiconductor will act like a perfect insulator. At this temperature, the electrons in the valence band will remain there. The heat energy required to excite the electrons from the valence band to the conduction band is insufficient at 0K. When the temperature increases, some of the electrons from the valence band got excited and moves to the conduction band. This will give rise to the conductivity of the semiconductor.

Discussions: 1. A band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a
solid where no electron states can exist. I

2. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap generally
refers to the energy difference (in electron volts) between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. This is equivalent to the energy required to free an outer shell electron from its orbit about the nucleus to become a mobile charge carrier, able to move freely within the solid material. So the band gap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of a solid. Substances with large band gaps are generally insulators, those with smaller band gaps are semiconductors, while conductors either have very small band gaps or none, because the valence and conduction bands overlap.

3. From this experiment ,we use the four probe method to measure the resistivity of semiconductor (Ge) because of It permits measurement of resistivity in samples having a wide variety of shapes, including the resistivity of small volumes within bigger pieces of semiconductor. In this manner the resistivity of both sides of p-n junction can be determined with good accuracy before the materials is cut into bars for making devices. 4.From this experiment we obtained that when temperature starts to increased ,the voltage starts to decreased .The maximum temperature gave 25.8 mV .

5.But when the temperature starts to decrease, the voltage was increased and gave maximum value is 183.1 mV . 6.From this experiment we obtained the band gap Eg for Ge is 0.55 eV .This is difference from the standard value which is 0.67eV .The percentage error is 17.9% .This maybe happens because of the error when we take the value .Also the current was not constant to 5mA during this experiments was conducted . Conclusions : 1. The energy standars energy band gap of Ge should be 0.67 eV .But from this experiment we get 0.55 eV .Maybe there was an error during the experiments was conducted. 2. The resisitivity for Ge can be measured using the four probe methods. The four probe method more accuracy rather than two probes. References: 2. 3. 4.