Egyptian Archaeology
VOLUME 94 2008


ISSN 0307–5133

Printed in Great Britain By CommerCial Colour Press PlC. 185 Forest road. essex iG6 3Hx and PuBlisHed By tHe eGyPt exPloration soCiety 3 douGHty mews. london wC1n 2PG issn 0307–5133 all riGHts reserVed . Hainault. anGard House.

examples of the vowel graphemes include oua. Egyptian Phonology: Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language (mzÄS 2. the first word had a different vocalization and has actually survived in Coptic as wmk (‘swallow’. 77–8 with respect to the name Khephren. and W. and the airstream mechanism is pulmonic. making it a verb like nkotk. Vycichl. Peust. which has survived Coptic as eime. 1 * The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 94 (2008). but carefully uses the phrase ‘for some reason or another’ in his explanation. its phonation is voiced. and anx). ¥wwt.1 Characteristic features of the sound seem to be that its manner of articulation is approximant or fricative. Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch–Deutsch: Die Sprache der Pharaonen (2800–950 v. the Greeks clearly heard a nasal component in the sound. Hannig. 3 In r. L. Schenkel connects egyptain wa/oua with a Semitic root *wHd*. Göttingen. the etymology of this word proposed by W.19–184. Sat. 99–106. one might wonder if. in fact. 5 Peust. because the name of mn-kAw-ra appears in Greek. as ‘mykerinos’. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue copte (Leuven. 292 from the relatively uncommon ano (Wb. 7 this is merely a suggestion. albeit by one that looks to me like an unvoiced dental: thus. Greek.3) (‘to flood/cause to flood’) is also possible.6 the first seems to have disappeared or been ‘swallowed’ up by the second. designated in the International Phonetic alphabet by the symbol ʕ. 1983). Egyptian Phonology. aA becomes tai and ab becomes tap. Enchoria 8/2 (1978). Koptisches Handwörterbuch (Heidelberg. 100 on p. 4 J. and its hieroglyphic form is ü. Brief Communications. I. 102 argues that the sound begins to behave erratically in roman Demotic. which seem to overlap.) (KaW 64. indicating that it is still not fully clear how the sound change has come about. which has incorporated the 2nd masculine singular pronoun into its structure). and it raises the question of what happened to the relatively common am meaning ‘swallow’. which means roughly that the airflow is constricted but not always enough to produce the turbulence typical of consonants. ray. It is clear from the discussion in Peust that not all of this applies to the egyptian sound.3 the voiced dental consonant /d/ changed around the beginning of the middle Kingdom into /ʕ/. Coptic. presumably based on a pronunciation familiar to them. but the connection in meaning seems to me fairly distant.4 the various dialects of Coptic reproduce aain in writing in two ways: as a/w and n. wnx (wa.7 I am grateful to the two anonymous referees for drawing my attention to the works of C. a much more comprehensive account can be found in C. 206.2 according to C. I. 101 notes that W. He cites examples collected by Kammerzell of words where the ancient egyptian grapheme aain is clearly reproduced in Coptic by a dental consonant. Chr. Kammerzell. Westendorf. 1977). ray makes the same point in ‘Nasal Vowels in egyptian’. 275–310 ISSN 0307-5133 . D. 1997).5 the verb am seems particularly interesting. Peust. Egyptian Phonology.BrIef CommuNICatIoNS The sounds of aain in Egyptian.22. though there is the Boharic form xwp/xap. 101. its place of articulation is the pharynx. It seems to have had two forms and two meanings: ‘swallow’ and ‘know’. and Arabic* a brief discussion of aain including new Coptic evidence from two unpublished letters from Kellis. In the various Semitic languages there is a letter named aain (which means ‘eye’ in both Hebrew and arabic. Peust proposes an ingenious explanation of this phenomenon in n. 6 Wb. mainz. 183. 1999). Peust and J. and is arguably the source of the Greek ‘omega/omicron’). 2 Peust. 294. largely following f.

Griffith. 15 ft. 81e. Die Gesamthöhe der Säule betrug nach Griffith ca. Prof. Petrie. found at tell el Yahûdîyeh. the aain (&) and the Hā’ (∏). perhaps from abusir.2 Weiters identifizierte Petrie sie als eine von merenptah usurpierte Säule aus einem Bauwerk der 12. 9 r. displaying a variety of techniques of reuse in the ramessid > SAa-mtw=f-sdm. michael Neumann (universität Wien) verdanke ich die grammatischen Korrekturen. erich Lehner (technische universität Wien) und Hrn. Bei der Nachgrabung durch du mesnil du Peust. II. The Antiquities of Tell el Yahûdîyeh. P. KRI IV. 1 f. Copt. Griffith legte am ende des 19. 10 Which will appear in Coptic Documentary Texts from Kellis. Kell.-Prof.8 the verb kw (xAa) in P.-P. 41. Die Nachgrabung von Petrie ergab mit 172 in.t=f-sdm > SAa. Petrie ließ diese Säulenfragmente am ort zurück. x n. 49.11 However. 1–20. has been misinterpreted since the end of the Nineteenth Century. the other shows a unique formulation of a monolithic column into a sculpture. Hrn. das mir präziser als das von Griffith erscheint. 1964). Dr. Hrn. ao. ‘un texte arabe transcrit en caractères coptes’. 1906). while f. 105. London. Kasser. funk. m. an unvoiced pharyngeal fricative. Junge Einführung in die Grammatik des Neuägyptischen (Wiesbaden.derives from the Le (r)-SAa-m-Dr. Casanova. Egyptian Phonology. 2 Hb. Peust does not cite this text. 3: tNmNt¥bhr’ nakNtf en abal our companionship will not leave him. Dr. reinald Bendl (universität Wien) und Hrn. anthony alcock Bemerkungen zu zwei usurpierten Säulen aus der Zeit Merenptahs * two examples of reused granite columns are discussed. 8. * für die kritischen meinungen bedanke ich mich bei Hrn.276 BrIef CommuNICatIoNS JEA 94 examples of the consonant graphemes include the largely upper egyptian conjugation prefix ¥ante--. though there is a reference to it in his bibliography. Copt. Shin-ichi Nishimoto (Cyber university). a medieval arabic text written in Coptic letters demonstrates clearly how the sound of the arabic aain was reproduced in writing by Coptic speakers of that time. 81f.1 Nach seinem Bericht handle es sich hierbei um eine der Länge nach halbierte Papyrusbündelsäule von acht Stängeln. Zu den Inschriften vgl. and I. which Kasser describes as having the sound values of ‘a’ and/or ‘n’. Ll. ein maß. one column.(Crum characterizes this form in Sahidic as ‘archaic’). it is reproduced by the Coptic x. 2 W. Dynastie. London.9 the latter sound is preserved in the writing of the pronominal form in two letters from Kellis (Dakhla oasis):10 P. 1 f. Egyptian Phonology. on the ‘devoicing’ of /ʕ/ to Coptic x. gives another set of possibilities: SAa-j. the origin of both columns can be attributed to the royal buildings of the fifth Dynasty. in which the monolithic granite column was eventually turned upside down to produce a larger naophorus statue out of the ‘entasis’ of the six-stemmed papyrus shaft. f. BIFAO 1 (1901). which in fact is used to represent two different sounds. W. not retained in the Coptic script. Kell. alcock.. Compléments au dictionnaire copte de Crum (BdeC 7. 106 claims that ¥ante. also etwa 8 e. 1996) 103. currently being prepared by the editors of volume 1 (a. Cairo. 11 P.jr. Bodmer VI. Jahrhundert in tell el-Jahudija eine monolithische Granitsäule frei. manfred Bietak (universität Wien). in its pronominal form. Dr. 3. and Miscellaneous Work in Lower Egypt during the Years 1887–1888 (meef 7/[2]. cf. 1890). and the writer distinguishes between them by the simple expedient of writing the arabic aain over the appropriate x. seems to make use of two letters. Hyksos and Israelite Cities (BSae 12. 8 . 11: jNtaikNthne abal Mpi`jiepistolh Since I left you. what it actually sounded like is another matter: in each case. Prof. Peust. I have not received a letter. not cited by Peust. preserved in Bohairic as ¥ate-. Gardner). die heute in zwei Blöcken ist.

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