THE

POLITICAL

SCENE
AN ESSAY ON THE VICTORY OF 1918

BY WALTER LIPPMANN

CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

THE

MONAGHAN COLLECTION
The Gift of

Frank Monaghan
Cornell 1927

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3 1924 027 876 097'

M B Cornell University Library The tine original of tliis book is in Cornell University Library. the United States on the use of the http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924027876097 . There are no known copyright restrictions in text.

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BY WALTER LIPPMANN THE POEMS OF PAUL MARIETT Edited with an Introduction A PREFACE TO POLITICS DRIFT AND MASTERY THE STAKES OF DIPLOMACY .

THE POLITICAL SCENE An Essay on the Victory of 1918 BY WALTER LIPPMANN NEW YORK HENRY HOLT AND COMPANYl 1919 .

Copyright. BY Inc. igtg HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY . BY 1919 THE REPUBLIC PUBLISHING COMPANY.COFVRIOHT.

DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF WILLARD DICKERMAN STRAIGHT .

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. The Natural Master House" The Covenant . " of the 29 . The Test I : 80 Conflict in its Rela.CONTENTS PA6B Introduction CHAPTER I... . Peace as of January. 19 IV..35 A World Pool . V. . . 1918 Absolute Victory ... . VlII. . . .: ix 3 11 The Task at Paris II. VII. 83 104 tution of the Text of the Proposed ConstiLeague of Nations . . .. . . '. Appendix Appendix The World tion to II: American Democracy . III. 40 46 54 66 Alternatives Amendments Bolshevism IX. . X. VI.

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press. the Czechs and the British elections at the bottom of their deepest depression. but the country. Our minds turned in those days to higher things. and thought we were going to die. that day was bad: outbreaks on the Dalmatian quarrels between coast. is and inspiration raging in the French : He shook his head sympathetically " This our old Europe. but that is We have had our American phase. rise at dawn. juid a gospel of the simple life. We made We swore we got well this time. The news Poles. we would stay well. fear . entrancing self-confidence. over now that the war is finished. good resolutions as that if sick poets do. We have been through a frightful illness. exercise. the strength of youth. to bed early. You know no more city life. and along came the Americans with a perfect bedside manner. and you Americans must not be surprised.INTRODUCTION ONE evening last December I was talking with an Italian scholar who had come to Paris for his government. — a cow.

and the Revolution. From them the political scene is engendered. It was It sincere at the time. met the old cronies.Introduction God. the Reconstruction. and why. this war. For a new Europe That much it emerge from is certain. and felt most awfully bored with the everlasting morality of the Fourteen Commandments. Three great influences are at work in the world which may briefly be described as the Re- action." In the essay which follows I have tried to indicate some of the reasons why if my friend was it- wrong. Behind the Reaction are those hostile rivalry who believe that and recurrent wars are permanent European institutions. self in the face Europe is to reconstruct of the international revolution. the democracies of the West must devote themmaking of a cooperawill selves unreservedly to the tive peace. and listen to Woodrow Wilson. and that the object of a treaty of peace is to secure as many advantages . paid a visit to the old haunts. and the only questionjs whether will be organized at Paris or disorganized fr om Moscow. Then Europe It recovered. put oflF going to the country. A little of that goes a long way.

" what politician an insubordinate described as American " verbal military has massage.Introduction for yourself and your friends and put as xi many for handicaps on your enemies and rivals as the traffic will bear. order created by if violence. Anything has else is what a French ideal- royalist paper or called "vertiginous ism. that the " idealogy " of the Wilsons merely confuses and blurs the issue which is about to be fought out between the old order resting on violence and the new. all Lenin and his followers in countries say quite frankly that liberalism is dying and should be extermi- nated. own victory is He is quite right. Men many will prefer a violent hope to a terrible despair. The old order which so of the states- men at Paris are trying so earnestly to maintain is utterly incapable of creating the security. his assured. is Lenin has no doubts that ever the choice narrowed so that the masses must choose between him and the reaction. the . Thus you prepare yourself the competitions and the wars which are certain to ensue." The Revolution thing else is is equally convinced that any- highfalutin nonsense.

One thinks then of the Committee on Public Information and the erican diplomatic service abroad. is That an immensely difficult thing to do.xii Introduction and that temper of reconciliation well-being which alone can avert There is a universal revolution. beitself cause moral fervor can easily lose in a world where needs are stark and scruples few. and a soraewhat slim one. Amin- and of the numerable occasions when responsible American . one chance. and the shrewdest use of opportunities. honestly applied. that the purposes if which Wilson has voiced can. requiring the most persistent education. Many who have supported Mr. open an orderly road to re- vival and freedom. Those who have said " We demand this territory" have known just exactly what they wanted. as have those who say "We is de- mand the complete overthrow of existing gov- ernments." But the Wilson movement an ef- fort to temper the policies of existing govern- ments in order to justify their existence. still support him in know that his ideas have never had the precision and downrightness which characterizes both the Reaction and the Revolution. Wilson and all loyalty. I call it a slim chance.

From war the day of Am- erica's entrance into the to the day of the liberal armistice. the chance to lead Europe to a in the reconstruction was completely hands of the President. and that the peace will which emerges from the secrecy of Paris rq>resent the faith that has been proclaimed to all the world. and the winter in Paris has been spent wran- gling over points that could have been settled with marvelous ease at any time during the course of the war.Introduction officials in xiii Europe derived policy their notions of Am- erican official by reading the morning newspapers. he can get it Does he know? He has an ideal. . but has he a program?" This much is certain. With the end of the war. can But only those who feed on see failure at and those who wish to be do anything now but pray anxiously still that they will settled. Paris. this chance diminished. as my Italian friend remarked. prejudice. I think especially of the discom- forting remark made to me by the diplomatic agent of one of the smaller nations shortiy be" If he fore the President arrived in Paris : knows exactly what he wants.

where first appeared. L. 1919. New York March City. 23. is included in the Appendix. . W. 191 7. An address delivered before of Political Science in the American Academy April.xiv Introduction to reprint the text For permission lows I it which fol- am indebted to the New Republic.

THE POLITICAL SCENE .

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and they are things are really rather disappointed at the way working themselves that once the out. Wilson engaged them passeth all making a peace that to understanding. least to not to righteousness. at like something rather what still it enjoyed in the days lionaires when the Kaiser was flattering mil- and professors. They had licked. instead of the comfort of having won and 3 letting the other fel- low worry. of fear seems to exist among those who little not only were heart and soul for the war themselves. in Instead they discover Mr. the anticipated. but were convinced that they were a soul more heart and for it than anyone else. it seems to be the victors who have to .THE TASK AT looks as if a ITwere thoroughly large PARIS number of Americans Curiously enough frightened at what a world war can do this state to the world. Hun was if world would automatically return. They expected better of this war.

" War measures " the vast interruptions necessary to the fight. The to old idea that tp the victor belong the spoils. Sultan and Czar were the foundations of law and o rder in Europe before 1914. everybody's troubles. has turned into the victor's duty of listening that.— The Political Scene perform the extremely complicated and unmistakably dangerous task of setting the earth to rights. . becomes clearer every day that the war interruption which will end with the was not an end of the war. but His duties do not end with do actually involve a mass of the future of which icans it is fair responsibility for to say most Amerwould had no notion when they entered the war. Hapsburg. Not only listening. did not suppose that so They many things be irrevocably changed. we shall not understand either the or the conse- meaning of \ their destruction. but now they would It like to resume. And until we master the fact that the empires of Hohenzollern. they endured without murmuring. For the plain fact is that in- ternational relations as they existed in 1914 were almost completely determined by the military imperialisms of which Prussia was the chief.

From Prussian Grermany came the example of or hated how to modernize and make a success of ideas at which this generation first was inclined to jeer. and of normal conditions. necessities." such as was. lusion. Those towering systems power te necessitated the building of another sys- m of power to balance them. Where her peculiar danger lay was that in all the others there had arisen controlling popular forces. as ica men lie suffered them. and reluctantly or otherwise the game was played. the administration of tyranny was collapsing through sheer incompe- . com- matter who liked their game They made the game. The character of the competition they created in the backward portions of the globe stimulated an imitative petition. Only Amer- seemed to outside the orbit of their in- fluence. as in Russia. The ambitions. It did not it.' The Tank quences of our at Paris own victories. and tyrannies of those empires were the point of reference for in all the world. They set the pace of armaments. it They *were the j basis of " peace. or. She was not the of the imperial depotisms. and this proved in the end to be a deintrigues. nor altogether unique either in manners or morals.

Political Scene But ^Prussia was competent. which leaned upon pended on nothing. and vassals made a in the mockery of those empires which existed dreams and propaganda of hopeful " Europe. riot She came uncomfortably close only to making her will the law of three con- tinents.The tence. is it jingoes. most of the population Its organizatio n is still there. to be sure. presented itself to the old-school is still gone. The continent there. is hopelessly to the from the Rhine to the from the North Sea all Moslem world are susfar- broken. is but Europe as a diplomatic system gone. Pacific. it and on a world-wide Her downfall brought down with of those feebler petitors or the hopes empires which existed as comor imitators." as diplomat. and the subsidiary organizations it. but to making her ideas the pattern of conventional onstrated ful human thought. Only small groups of men have comprehended even partially . seeing and against it. She almost demhow tyranny could be made successscale. and because ideas of that competence she threatened to erect a dazzling modern triumph out of which lingered only fitfully in the dusty corners of stale chancelleries.

should ideas which belonged to it. they presup- —a victory which did not its wrack every nation to depths. Pichon should have forgotten nothing but a little of what democratic France has professed.The Task that this is at Paris what the " victoire integrale " to would no mean. still act for the that Baron Sonnino should behave like a diplomat of the Triplice. then. that M. Pasic should be puzzled by the younger Serbs. posed an easy victory Moreover. that victory would compel us make a It is new framework for human society. or M. wonder. educated in that ruined order. The meaning of complete victory was certainly not known to those statesmen who wrote the secret treaties and memoranda which passed between the Allies in 191 5 and 1916. cisive. that many elder statesmen. the execution of To be what they claimed would to be de- have required clear victory over the Central Powers. it But although the victory was was somehow to change nothing very spirit radically. and call forth . These-documents belonged in to a world in which Prussia was temporarily de- feated. but in which Prussianism survived as the pacemaker of Europe. sure.

but was the existing authority in law We sent two million men to France with orders it to tear down. We have willed and in fact. the suppressed energies They were written under the double illusion that the Europe of Sazanov. classes Why central anyone should suppose that it was pos- sible to tear down the authority which ruled in and eastern Europe without producing it is difficult disorder. and possibilities. Events proved that Prussia could not be replaced by paler reflections of herself. Sonnino. the Quai d'Orsay and the Morning Post was strong enough to defeat the German Empire —and that having defeated her. was a vile authority. to crush it beyond hope of resurrection. the stirrings of new life long . We it have it torn down It authority. Europe could carry on as before. a supremely evil We and is started to destroy it is thing it destroyed.8 The Political Scene of revolution. And when you tear down. to understand. it For in de- was necessary to awaken dorand the mant peoples and submerged western hemisphere. to tear down. The result of destroying is left destruction. stroying her. and what are fragments. you have torn down.

fortable. and endless agitation. Nor can we some idiotic cure it. where hundreds of millions of people altars of have been wrenched from their ancient obedience. It calls for imagination to picture just what has happened to Europe and the world by the disappearance of find its imperial organizations. or save ourit selves. by calling everybody who examines like dispassionately name pro-Ger- man and Bolshevik. old wrongs being avenged. They are full of rumor and fear. These people have lost homes. and thoroughly uncomdeliberately But we cannot. It is chaos by every standard of our thinking. children. and precariously obtained. their lands undefined. fathers.The Task at Paris suppressed. where the necessities of bare exist- ence are scarce. Their leaders are untried. their class interests and property in a jumble. they cannot see ahead three . leave the wreckage in a panic and it is whimper that dreadful. perhaps infectious. old hopes released. having torn a central part of the world order to pieces. wild and dangerous. and subject to every gust of agitation. We ourselves in a world where four of the eight or nine centers of decisive authority have collapsed.

For Prus- Germany was the last strong source of authority in Eastern Europe^ and the only bul- wark of absolutism turn for help. was inevitable that it should be so. once the decision was taken to destroy autocracy to sian its foundations. to which the old order could .lO The Political Scene It weeks with assurance.

and although Pershing was in France. no secret now that a combination of conservatism and war-weariness nearly brought the conflict to an indecisive end some time be- tween June. he was a general without an army. The sumdepression mer months had been a time of deep in France after the military failure of the spring. 1918 IN the winter of 1917-18 there were countries men in all who saw this. and urged a com- promise with the Prussian It is state. eastern front. in early August the Pope made his appeal. II was no longer an The Italian front seemed to be a Saloniki was re- . 1918. liability. 1917. its In July the German Reichstag passed famous "Majority Resolution". everywhere Stockholm was debated.II PEACE AS OF JANUARY. and March. Caporetto was followed brai swiftly by Bjmg's failure at CamThere and by the Bolshevist revolution. Kerensky's failure was already apparent.

Mr. Within the Central Powers there were revolt. inclined to abandon definitely and Lord if Lansdowne had " civilization " announced that — i. Beneath the surface the efforts at peace were continual : General Smuts had gone to meet Count Mensdorff in Switzerland. parleys at and the opening of the stirred Brest-Litovsk men deeply. an immediate peace was necessary. Lloyd George and Lord Milner were Russia.12 The Political Scene garded cynically as a great Allied internment camp. the East and a frightful military gamble on the . By Christmas the yearning for peace had risen high in all countries. All the while Luden- dorff was moving ten weeks divisions to the western front. They saw Three the final attempt to save the old system and avert European revolution.e. Clemen: The choice lay between a peace which yielded to Germany the organization of ceau and Wilson. undoubted signs of popular which called forth a certain feeble response from the Em- peror Charles and Count Czernin. first The from December to mid- February were the time of supreme decision. was to be maintained. the old European order. figures dominated Ludendorflf.

but he had been affected by the reports of feeling in England. fourth and January The invitation to Czernin was plain . and be- cause he succeeded he will belong to the assembly of great men. but he did undoubtedly see that unless the Allied cause were morally unified by diplomacy. he had by December hope in acquired interest in the Reichstag Resolution of July. He determined to try the diplomatic adventure of offering a separate peace to Austria.: Peace as of January. Wilson's position was more com- He never for an instant yielded to the suggestion of an unclean peace at the expense of Russia. could Clemenceau forced the issue. He did not intend to yield to Prussia. by the spectacle of the early days at Brest-Litovsk. he too was willing to set gamble. Ludendorff and Clemenceau were all for a death struggle in which might be lost. It was for this setting that the Congressional Addresses of December eighth were prepared. and he had a certain lingering Czemin. plicated. IQlS man (13 western front. More than that. the issue of which no foresee. the combined peace and military offensives from Berlin and Vienna might disintegrate the Allied peoples.

Wilson followed with the address of January eighth in which he offered to negotiate with representatives of. thus abandoning for the moment the clear purpose of the Allied reply to the Presi- dent a year previous. Clearly Mr. Wilson not yet arrived at the conclusion that the League 1 is a means of making peace as well as a guaran- I tee when peace has been made. Lloyd George spoke in the same vein. the Reichstag majority on the basis of the Fourteen Points." Early in January Mr. of ours what they do with their own life. reason is that^ ttg^ Poufteea-Eoiptsjjist ^co nceived^ as a settlement in a world not radically differea4: . and the peace is merely the Fourteenth of treated as a kind of seal upon had when made. It was as events showed a summons to the dead. Mr.w 14 " The Political Scene to ourselves to We owe it. for the majority had disappeared by that time. It is a very significant fact that the project of is a League of Nations the articles. erjC The. however. say that we do affair not wish in any way to impair or to rearIt is no range the 'Austro-Hungarian ^Empire. and the abortive strikes of early January had made Ludendorff military dictator of Germany. either industrially or politically.

and out of nothing could result than the necessity of creating a new framework formternational decision to fight that camp. 1918. outside territorial waters. is They were not burned Article II. iCbe m<irftnt that the world had burned The its br idges.written bef.ii [Ti soc iety.Qrfi_tbat campaign was fought. igi8 15 _ This was the only kind of peace possible uTjanuary.Peace as of January. But the peace which has Paris to-day is actually to be initiated in the result of the 1918 campaign." article opens with an attempt to safe- guard the rights of neutrals. alike in peace and in war. That much of it . social phases was the Its less most penetrating conclusion conflict in modern it hi story. sharpest proof of this to be found in which reads: "Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas. except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforce- ment of This international covenants. and that campaign in its militaiy. in the Fourteen Points. d iplomatic and . At bottom it would have been an Agreement of the Powers. was radical. and nothing more. The Fou rteen Point s_jaaj:e.

an adjust- ment of a few outstanding grievances. that after igi8 it became the central framework of the structure. and the acceptance of a number of general principles resting upon nothing more than common agree- ment. institu- Above tion. that previously statesmen saw the League of Nations as a useful annex to the structure of peace. I venture this criticism simply because it illustrates a truth of special importance to us at this (in moment: that the war became revolutionary word) only as a the exact sense of the result of the 1918 campaign.i6 The Political Scene supposes a world not controlled by a League of Nations. all it recognized war as a normal In the document from Paris the League's is action virtually complete. As the propo- sition stood on January eighth action it seems to imply united and occasional by the League. the seas But the portion beginning " except as foreshadows Article may be closed " is XVI of the constitution drafted at Paris where the boycott provided as a sanction. That isjwhy__the_terrijariaL5ections of Mi:^ Wilson's program are in so far as they affect . Early last winter the best that leading states- men planned was a balance of claims.

igi8 17 Powers chi efly self-denyin g pr dinance s. Serbia is promised is the outlet so long denied her.— Peace the Great as of January. Here the phrase "indisputably Polish popula- tions" expressly precludes those geographical fantasies which reach into Lithuanian and Ukrainian territory. - ^__^. Italy's portion conspicuously ignores strategic considerations.. all. for it is the wrong of 1871 and not is wrong of 18 15 which to be righted. but Jugo-Slavia not mentioned because the Austro-Hungarian Empire's integrity is presupposed... The Czecho-Slovaks do not appear dismemberment of Turkey the only is The not specified. and except for the establishment of Poland. assumes a reconstitution of the former boundaries of the Empire. is The Saar the reference to Alsace-Lorraine carefully phrased so as to exclude the annexation of the basin. — life which the short. That mechanism . Finally the Fourteen Points do not deal with i the mechanism of economic —^ . a ge of ships. and is new state definitely demanded Poland. Rumania at retains her old boundaries vis-a-vis Hungary. the Russian section avoids mention of the border nations. food and material s compelled the Allies to organize in igiS.

both in international and in domestic affairs is was that New Freedom fight- which the Old Manchester. ing edge of that ideal possible. as the constitution of the League indicates. then as now. Mr. political appreciation But the and we politics of it lags behind. approach the modern period with a new and an unrevised thinking is industrialism. Not all of our as swift as events. Its bearing is not adequately realized today. But even the so far as of all economic barriers" has been blunted by the discovery that not is much removal possible. The practice of international cooperation in trade advanced extraordinarily in 1918. George Rublee. Wilson's ideal. Dwight Morrow and Mr.8 1 The Political Scene the Points were formulated. . —" the removal. barely existed Its when bearing upon the whole peace was not under- stood then except by a few far-sighted men like Mr.

Instead of the modest project of Hamburg to Bagdad she toyed with a bewildering choice of routes and markets and materials and jobs across the Such a jig-saw puzzle Ukraine to the Caucasus.ooo bayonets was not enough to complete the break 19 . But such Germany under Ludendorff had no tame ambition. His margin of reserves and materials was too small. was the in- a little over a year ago.Ill ABSOLUTE VICTORY REFORM. tention not reconstruction. The only diffi- was on the west had hold of shake them off Luden- Germany's coat To dorff determined to strike in Picardy for the Empire of the East. that the Allies tails. Facing towards the East she assessed the materials of empire to from Finland comparatively Turkestan. a superiority of a little over 3cx). of thrones and concessions never delighted the mind of culty the craziest diplomat.

and so It a counter-offensive was planned. and the superiority was growing. . the Marne. Mihiel. immediately. and brilliantly smashed by General sive Gouraud's army. The with Allied offen- opened extraordinary results. the Then through exwork on the part of the German attack of mid-July was completely foreseen. and bring America enormously fif teenth^ to France. Three objectives were down — the reduction of the salients at Montdidier. Foch commanded more ing men than Ludendorflf. cellent intelligence French. German army was bombarding The aggressive faction in Allied circles had guessed a German weakness from the diminished intensity of the June battles west of Soissons. The But it Political Scene was enough to frighten the Allies into unity. feat in By June in spite of the defight- Champagne. steadily The German government little undoubtedly knew the figures. believed at the end of June. and a over a week speech later Ktihlmann made his extraordinary renouncing military victory while the Paris. and St.20 through. that the was even and so prophesied. German collapse might occur by the end laid of September.

Benes. . Their task was to form a working partnership between the nationalist forces of Central Europe and the Allied and cause. Lloyd George and working for the "victoire during the winter had depressed the groups integrale. in them were themselves leaders and many of the work by which Allied and American diplomacy was turned during 1918 from the policy of compromise with Austria to that of dismemberment. the diplomacy of the Allies 21 was being rearranged on the axiom of a complete victory. Masaryk.Absolute Victory Concurrently. Seton-Watson and others led the way with a skill. an expert knowledge. and they made in the one most indispensable periodical the English-speaking world. Its contributors were gathered from all parts of Europe. The references to Austria-Hungary the President made by Mr. Steed. to disrupt middle Europe from within while the finally German army was held They realized beaten in France. rest of us their and a vision which made the pupils and their debtors. organ was The Their it New Europe. Trumbic." These groups had always been as radically anti-Haps- burg as they were anti-Hohenzollern.

But before an alliance with these nations could actually be realized a formidable series of diplomatic full obstacles had to be overcome. In 1918 they decision set Once the was taken war to a conclu- sion many men came their assistance who were not primarily the nations.22 The Political Scene before most of us that the apparent strength of Prussian Germany had the fatal weakness of reposing upon the subjugation of smaller peoples through the alliance with German Austria and the Magyar oligarchy. And knew equally well it that once this power was wrecked would be necessary to rebuild the about wrecking it to fight the to whole diplomatic structure of Europe. . The this story of partially all the manceuvers by which is was achieved in 1918 an intricate tale. They knew alliance that the destruction of absolutism that military meant the break up of through they and bureaucratic which these nations were held down. interested in the freeing of Thus they were able gradually to convince the statesmen of the West that the encouragement of rebellion would be an important military factor in the final result. and the facts are as yet unrevealed.

to be one of the best educated and most trustw. .i£3J|JjL3&JBaa^3£@-i)&aPy nation on the continent. their in- and the definiteness of their TheXIzedio-Slovak s were knoggt. Allies itself to the status If that could be adjusted the allies would have as the two nations of Central Europe through whose lands ran the chief arteries of the German-Austrian system. moreover. The problem soon narrowed of the Jugo-Slavs. difficulty arising by the internal out of dynastic jealousies at the court of the Serbian kingdom. the Jugo-Slavs. But the Jugo-Slav question turned on the validity of the Treaty of London which was the price of Italy's participation in the war. The their case of the Jugo-Slavs was complicated by and territorid conflict with Italy.Absolute Victory But the main told : outlines are 23 known and can be Two nationalities had strategic importance —the Czecho-Slovaks and ternal strength. aspirations. both because of their geographical position. their territory did not touch Allied territory at any point.orthy ploples in the world — p(djj. They had. Would Italy . a rtost important advantage over the Jugo-Slavs. and there was no Allied group of any significance interested in thwarting them.

as sD ^i. policy adopted by the reformers was shrewd.24 The Political Scene renounce those portions of the treaty which assigned to her lands inhabited by Jugo-Slavs? If she would. whilejhe more important figures in the embassy ^Lg^me were. England and France could not they had signed the treaty. and every small nation watched the diplomatic debate anxiously for evidence as to whether any one of the major allies would yield annexationist all claims for the sake of the principles they professed.^itgir!iappens to American The abroad very . and inspired interests by a genuine devotion to the larger and honor of Italy. They set about inducing Italy herself to take the leadership in cementing the alliance between the nationalities Austrian step and the Entente. Austria would soon be out of the justice to the war. For ethnic Southern Slavs became the touchstone of Allied sincerity. tant officially press Italy to accept a revision of the treaty because America was hesi- and at first not particularly well informed. muchunder the influence o f fashionable chauvinism at the capital. If she refused untold complications faced the Allies. The first was .

and at the Versailles council of early June Baron Sonnino refused to assent to the complete recognition of the Jugo-Slavs. and the Jugo-Slav leader. the result had . made Vienna however. taking refuge behind Mr. At the end of May the United States recognized the aspirations of the subject peoples. Italy's official.Absolute Victory the pact concluded on 25 March seventh. but the language employed was vague. and in early April the Congress of the Oppressed in Nationalities Hungary was held that Congress Rome. Trumbic. result it was highly important in Central fearful. was not altogether for the Treaty of London had not been renounced. The resolution of demanded the dismemberment of Austria-Hungary by the constructive liberation of the oppressed Austro-Hungarian nationalities. Lansing's obscurity. representing a committee of the Italian Parliament. Italian liberals within the Chamber of Deputies and in the press well understood the peril to Italy and to Europe of Baron Sonnino's flesh. Dr. be- tween Dr. The The Italian Premier blessed the deliberations. insistence tipon his pound of They coopof Austria- erated loyally. 1918. Nevertheless. furious and action. Torre. Europe.

This precipitated a violent Italy. and was the cause of the post- ponement of peace proposals. another attempt was made to induce Baron Son- nino to recognize the claims of the Jugo-Slavs. Lansing cleared up the obscurity. Wickham Steed. political controversy in At the same time Great Britain and the United States formally recognized the Czechoslovaks as belligerent allies. This action caused dismay in Vienna. and definitely stated that the liberation of these peoples ' was an American war aim. The argument of the . under the influence primarily of Lord Northcliffe and Mr. At the end of June Mr.26 been The sufficient to Political Scene cause the disaflFection of Slav in troops. The and note was already drafted when Britain America recognized the government of Masaryk. For Austria had determined early in August to ask for peace. and by implication declared for the dismember- ment of the Dual Empire. and had secured the consent of Germany following the success of the Allied counter-offensive. which finally came from Austria a month later. In August. and the offensive on the Piave June was materially weakened by the pfopaganda of the Allies.

and at that moment Mr. and so the delivery of the note was delayed until mid-September. George. the diplomatic campaign had been extended to Bulgaria. At any rate with the fall of Bulgaria the resurrection of possible. communique recognizing Jugoand the Allied world waited for an Italian offensive against the disintegrating Austrian troops. During the summer. when it was launched virtually unamended in a gesture of 3espair. At about the same time Italy issued an ofiEicial slav aspirations. Wilson made the sensational speech of Septem- . though the disaffection of Bulgaria had been prophesied ever since the fall of Radoslavov and the visits of Ferdinand to Germany. erally It is not gen* known just what was the character of the which led secret manoeuvers up to the success of Franchet d'Esperey's attack in Macedonia. Some spoke know- ingly of the cavalry of St. Rumania became peril. and Hungary was in Then the Ukraine revolted against the foraging detachments.Absolute Victory 27 Austrian note was based upon the speeches of January in which the integrity of the Empire was promised. slovaks The recognition of the Czecho- made it meaningless.

its This speech with coincided with the extraordinary moderation successes of the first American river army between Meuse. called and the government of Prince to accomplish it.28 The Political Scene ber twenty-seventh. from behind his When the opening phase of first the three American attack carried through the positions Ludendorff demanded an armistice. the Argonne Forest and the battle That gigantic had as its purpose the defeat of Ludendorflf's plan to retreat to the Meuse. to establish a new defensive line for the winter and negotiate peace defenses. which was read in Germany during the first days of October. Max was upon .

the armistice The successive renewals of show that the first terms were dictated unconditionally. Germany did in fact surrender as unconditionally as Austria.IV " THE NATURAL MASTER OF THE HOUSE " did MAX. 39 . and in face of the Lorraine offensive which had been prepared and of the revolution within the Empire. the Fourteen Points late After the military decision of October. in reality. must. tried to do a few weeks He tried to secure peace as of January instead of October. because of the revolutionary events of 1918. what Austria had earlier. the peace which is actually being made. differ radically from that which was contemplated when were written. And though in form the armistice was signed on that basis. The only lasting significance of the armistice negotiations was the voluntary acceptance by the European certain Allies of a few negative obligations and general principles.

the orily i workiaag^sartnership stat esmanship. its nav|il. A nglo-American t^iq i rritatioil in offiy^^ rirrles. It was a time when the tendency and get.QUt ^of the war helter- was to pull apart. It November was a period of victory The had come of swiftly. JIIms^ same ™s«ea«^^ . appeared at the decisive vigor. The^most was an serious feature to spe ak frankly. two Powers whirh had the resources for a cr^tiye The Pi«sideataa32£djitJ&e. mili- and American it In the Austrian armistice appears that Italy was given a free hand. its French views seem to have prevailed in tary features. and suspicious.30 The Political Scene The original armistice was prepared hastily. tired. And almost everyone was dazed. fnr ppar^njTtlii' weaicLdepended upon a betateen. The Treaty of London moment with renewed great anxiety. with the result that the line of occupation had a fatal resemblance with certain additions to the line of annexationist claims.. had brought the necessity reconstructing Europe externally and of internally. skelter. British in in its political.Yerymoissii^^ mon counsel was least. all. and national propaganda most evident.

No man knows what .ac^ ment. His presence soon changed the atmosphere. the same individuSism. was epi-i d^ic "^ "" in lEurope. the statesme n were forced to star t i n by creating. vsrritten A rigid treaty of peace cannot be tiiere is when no stable government any- where east of the Rhine. For here great unifier was a task which reached beyond into the future. and by January America and Britain had ceased The pinching each other. The be Allied conference in Paris began in Jan- uary to build peace in the only built. way that it could Faced with a world in which -ffei^ernpr«. Jiad_disaiiDeared over r^""'"aft in which the old tool diplomatic sys tem was ruined."" The Natural Master of the House " 31 accojints for the President's address to Congress before sailing. the with which peace could be administered. and threw into a humane perspective the more immediate demands which had become so clamorous. They knew that there are no final solutions to be had just now. It national vanity lifted was a task which men's minds once again to the exalted aims which had consoled them for the war. was the determination to make the League of Nations the basis of peace. and were at work.

is a complete misunderstand'jtaje d The jrces truth-has b?f. jgxecuting and a machinery fo r is them and that . a period of unpredictable To suppose that the conference was merely fumbling with a vague future under the pressure of idealists ing. nor Russia. or the condition There a worldbe con- of capital. what adjustments required in the years ahead. a con- tinuing series of decisions .n by the of majijwhose happiest decis ive "Statesmanship oi: has been one the t'ke Ku rope and j5tirtiat>s te3"at Pa^r is. In . none can predict what revolution will do to the process and method of trade.32 The is Political Scene Germany odd Asia. nor does anyone the know what will be movements of immigration. to be. nor the twenty nationalities of Eastern Europe and Nearer be No man can possibly ioresee. the essence of the L eague of N ations. not even will Mr. trolled It ca nnot It requires by agreement alone . is wide regroupi ng in progress. It is a constitution of in common action adopted by the -Stable powers changg. James Beck. or the character and policies of any government five years hence.

a repartition of Europe at a moment when Europe a result of partitions is bleeding at every pore as less than half a century old. and the League to this great estate. and enough to drive the torn and broken peoples of the world to that despair of th e state which is the motive power behind Russian Bolshevism." The Natural Master of the House " 33 a pamphlet published the middle of December. of Nations must be the heir peoples left behind by the decomposition of Russia. they care mostly destitute and will require much nursing deficient in toward economic and political independence. would indeed be incorrigible madness on the part of rulers. Austria. the future of Europe must indeed be despaired of. The application of the spoils his- system at this most solemn juncture of the tory of the world. and Turkey are mostly untrained politically. he states the core of the matter as fronts the Peace Conference: it con- "Europe The is being liquidated. 1918. In . many of them are either incapable or power of self-government . If there is going to be a scramble among the victors for this loot. Surely the only statesmanlike course is to make the League of Nations the reversion^ ary in the broadest sense of these empires.

but the natural naturally master of the house." . It becomes and obviously the solvent for a problem which no other means will solve.34 this debacle The Political Scene of the old Europe the League of Nations is no longer an outsider or stranger.

and cooperate in the execution of the treaty. therefore. knew that final j of trouble are ahead. an arrangement devised by men who knew 3rears the condition of things. They provided. knew that no settlement would be made now by mortal man. 3S first of all for the 1 . if heads of governments did not bind themselves to meet arotmd a there table and speak face to face. then rise was little hope that the world could out of the prostration of the war. They understood that if each nation went its own way and the secret jealousies re- vived. exchange information. if the old suspicions were allowed to fester in each foreign office and in each general staff. Europe would revert to anarchy unless I knew that I the governments of the world agreed to meet regularly . f make decision s together.THE COVENANT IT is useless to discuss the covenant as if it were an abstract document snatched from It is the blue.

Qfficial spatches^Jikeja3iQ§t^ngwspa^ j&ditoiaal&tjhey sif^k a re with infallibility and there is nothing worse for Ae4)teace.mdA^^ni.g_isone i mankind can be If method of insuringjhe Jga^on of it is gnorance and suspicion ^ lo ng distance tele- eaaphic c ommu nic ation betw een the heads of governments. No decision can be made on no discussion can take place without involved mis- understanding by the old method of scattered information and criss-cross correspondence be- tween negotiators. ent importance. departments time. decisions of th«:. in_.^oTa fallible diplomats iitteria^^^EQug sentiiT^fipt at each . dispatches of the You have only to read the Twelve Days which preceded which results the war to realize the paralysis from the lack of any one place where the great centralized. pijai£. men who can itself is speak for This in of transcend- For modern diplomacy cannot its continue to transact business through the state machinery of embassies and alone.3^ The Political Scene presence in one city of the governments. tfv THejnere acroF^nniitting tfip i deas paper fnr smitiny nf biographers Stiffens ^I^IT'"'^ aiTld firmi'i'^s t^f dis astrous desire to pose nablXi_^Th^ <fi is little gpod^toMBqr.

dinners and business t itillation is week-end parties of a capital that into / made an artifici al for the .The Covenant other from opposi te end s^of a cable. too. you have orodupe^ ^ . In gachcapital there. j By them were not it is refined and subtilized and screened in pers onality. and transla ^g. a rniTnnpnIitan •'^iliggp Vnoyyq as the dipl o^ TlfF*"! matic set where aresti^.. with t» itn^iSS-JZ^ecrecy and knowrv. and ^ynssip is^ nf nnriil resis t all it whispering a delight. but when you add to it Ae sheer nuisance of coding. IS 37 Writing posterity^kaJgad-ttLdomg bad enough. trpmpndni^<.." for jtqi ^ness.y^^ -""'"**' """ e^Iim^-^T:^si3S?r — subtf e Then. decoaing. it is neverthel ess jJae a concrete and practical bu smess. littlf. is maak ind All this complicated further by the employ- .1y awfiilJnt. the atmosphere in which embassies exist invites intrigue. with tiie correlative arts^ofcrackinpr codes and listening-in.^^ \ of a bored group O f privileged people.state~p^ers". r°T^"'*'y PJiat'TsVinw diplomacy derives it s false glamour. as if the happiness of at stake. Few can 4ie lure of a good " inside " rumo r. is. ^% ij^^linafy'Tmsffl ^Ut game in fess between natiop&jBiay be difficul t. ".

B ut some if day the technic must be investigated judgments of peoples are' the to esc") (-^rr"irt'>a<^ is told. it will exploitation. 'Ehe. from outright subsidy to the award of and the ribbons.38 .cu ss international propaganda freely. ing this war the delibe. syht- s eeing tou rs. When the story cover a range of subjects extending from ship to reptile press.art of befuddlement engages . .ff''^^n1'fa9ture of opiS5Snnbo5rforexeQiLfliuLiQiu^^ tion has reached the proportion of a trial operalimi: major indusnor^s It This is nnt ^)fif pH^re y< ^ pUtiSlble without breach of confidence to di s- . right way of conducti ng .^te n.piento f The Political Scene Diji:- propaganda to manipulate opinion.r. legal censor- from wilful fabrication to the purchase of writers. and a vast amount of stibwalgESiran"'^'''^ness. It will include entertajn- ment.

The Covenant sentatives. 39 Two men write. thpy |j eyer will catcfi'lip "ly?ffi'^"p^^ other^s misund erstandi ngs. and that why a its league of peace cannot get along without a board of delegates and a standing committee as executive. . tallf' it else's wife. and what wives heard from somebody deeper into confusion. doing business will write and write and and listen to what their their friends say at the club. and go ever Unless they meet and nut. There is no other basis even with the best of intentions for common action and decent intercourse. is So with govern- ments. If the nations are to work together responsible leaders must confront one another.

40 The argument does not . a proposal that no statesman in Europe dares to contemplate. submarines. Henry A.VI A WORLD POOL AND hibitive. him only in the absence of the tax There that is cannot be another race of armaments flat. they cannot afford to . — There is no need to argue from reasons of humanity. Those who dream of renewing the competition. For one thing the To start in where the war had us. That is left for theorists like Mr. appear in shining armor each morning cost is proled after breakfast. gas. and no one need waste ink and breath trying to convince them. Wise Wood. airplanes. to pile up heavy artillery. dreadnoughts. if they mpet. and I suspect for bills. destroyers for a is war as great as the possibilities of science. and contemplate calmly another war fought by our children. transports. are impervious to such arguments. tanks.

These are the British Empire and the States. As far as we can see into the future Russia will be militarily impotent. is if Brit a in . or to permit any aggressive armament in Asia. Nor can it re-establish a English-speaking peoples. such a preponderance of power is make all notion of a balance impossible An Anglo-American entente means the substitution of a pool for a balance. United The only possible which a balance could be created way in now is by abandoned putting for the these two powers up as the leade rs . and in that pool will be . I suppose. I unless the supreme madness descends upon the that take it the Treaty of Peace will contain provisions for the disarmament of Germany as a world power. and nobody in his senses. of rival coalitions nonsense If this idea that their it is. There are in fact but two great states with the resourcq^ and the wealth for really modern munitions manufacture. and America work out common purposes then created as to . but between the possible and the impossible. The world cannot balance of power arm competitively. intends to arm Africa.A lie World Pool 41 between right and wrong.

— 42 The Political Scene rests the found the ultunatciorce upon. they are assured of the active assistance of the smaller nations everywhere. It is a . of the and only irt& peoples In spite of the can be trusted with great power. which may be put in this What is assurance is there that this pool- ing of force can be maintained in an emergency? The answer that the covenant provides a prois cedure in disputes. the final object of which to insure delay accompanied by publicity. A question fashion : remains. League of Nations. and they are appreciated by the bulk of the world. Britain For if tiie united power of and America — ^potential and actual — ^is wielded for the ends they now both officially profess. Nor does it rest internally upon the existence of a large a regimented population. which. comparison between navalism and militarism there are these fundamental differences between them. caste in control of all- Sea power can be liberties powerful without destroying the nation which exercises it. for this sea is The reason that they exercise a form of force in conflict and power —which is irtesistihle yet cannot be used permanently to conscript and enslave alien peoples.

and put a pressure upon the ir gov ernments This faith is may be unfotmded. has prevailed in the delibera- tions at Paris.'A World Pool 43 in their earlier mechanism for airing quarrels stages. which the whole project It assumes as its working theory that democratic faith in regard to the causes of war. The most "It is radical feature of the covenant springs from this faith. It may be that there universal pugnacity which requires satisfaction. who to-day press against every governand may to-morrow control them. that the ma sses in no nation have anything to gain by conquest. which says that aggression is the work of a minority . tracting parties to draw the attention of the body of delegates or the Executive council to any cir- cumstances affecting international intercourse . in the course of time peoples fail to Perhaps. . but the ment. war for its and the League may keep the peace. hereby also declared and agreed to 6^ the FRIENDLY RIGHT of eock of the high cotv-. and that the masses would refuse such wars if they had a chance to examine their pretexts . hold and it this faith. Here is the ultimate guarantee upon rests.

for example. because a is is put upon the truth that the peace of the world a vital interest of all nations. to sit by helplessly and see a conflagration prepared its which may burn down own homes. which peace depends. It states is flatly that America.44 The Political Scene which threaten the to disturb international peace or good understanding between nations upon . not to remain mute while some diplomat fixes up a war until which cannot be ended two million Americans are on foreign soil. neutral in a dispute. in the Balkans It says that international duelling is over. and that every nation can discuss the causes of a fight before the fight takes place." That clause is the most precious in the whole it document because tion strikes so deeply at the isolaIt is which breeds arrogance. It abolishes those alleged private quarrels which in the end involve every- body. The active forces of peace are released this by it According to new doctrine it will not be necessary for any people. Above all it enables any government lic in the League to arouse the pub- opinion of the world wherever a condition . by far the introseal most revolutionary idea which could be duced into the comity of nations.

A

World Pool
The

45
faith is

appears which threatens the peace.
that no quarrel can

grow big enough

to justify

war when the peoples who must do know about it soon enough.

the fighting

VII

ALTERNATIVES

R

EMAINS

the question of our

own
is

adher-

ence to the covenant.
easily,

This

not to be
well

answered

and

I

think

we may
the

congratulate

ourselves

upon

appearance
It will

of a genuine and respectable opposition.

insure a thorough examination of the whole prob-

lem and

we

shall enter the

League,

if at all,

as a

democratic people should.
It is necessary, therefore, to

make a somewhat

tedious analysis of America's position in the

world as a result of the war.
Previous to 1900 the continent of Europe was
divided into coalitions

^the

Triplice, consisting

of Germany, Austria, and Italy, and the Dual
Alliance of France

and Russia.

England

still

played the role of guardian over the balance of

power.

In the years leading up to the war, the

aggressiveness of

and moved

in

Germany grew with her power, two directions ^towards Turkey

46

Alternatives
across

47
conflicted

the

Balkans, where

it

with

Russian claims, and towards naval power where
it

threatened England's security. Gradually Eng-

land
ship,

was drawn away from mere guardianand forced to throw her weight to Russia
far in favor

and France. The balance tipped so
to be

of Germany that England's whole weight had

thrown

into the scales to right

it.

Even

the

defection of Italy, foreshadowed in the Tripoli-

tan war, did not restrain the increasing aggress-

So when the war began, Europe was divided into two coalitions
iveness of the Central Powers.

of such nearly equal strength that three years of
furious warfare failed to break the deadlock.
all this

In

America was the

neutral,

and though the
the

issue between the

two

coalitions involved

existence of small nations,
liberal

and the survival of

governments, there was no body of con-

siderable opinion

which proposed to enter the war
alone.

on those grounds
It

was only when Germany brought the
use,

sub-|

marine into

and threatened

to disintegrate

sea power that Americans felt themselves menaced.

There was no difference in principle here

between Roosevelt and Wilson.

Mr, Roosevelt

48

The

Political Scene
to

would have gone

war when the Lusitania was sunk; Mr. Wilson went to war when diplomacy
failed

had

to

mitigate the

submarine attack.

Neither of them proposed to go to war before
the

submarine appeared.

As

President,

Mr.

Roosevelt would perhaps have protested against
the violation of Belgium
feel that
:

Mr. Wilson to-day may
it.

he wishes he had done

But both,

in fact,

were

driven to action only

when

the

threat against sea

power became

real.

This

is

a very significant matter, for a response

of this kind arises out of the deepest political
interests

of

a nation.

Both were American
felt

statesmen, and neither

a

real

menace to

American

life until

the control of the seas

was

endangered.
the saying

The conflict came home to us, as is, when the aggression reached the
Then we
entered

world's highways and struck at the basis of

mastery by the naval powers.

the war, saying that the autocracy of

Germany

must be overthrown and the
safeguarded.

rights of

democracy

What we have
and yet must

perhaps not so

clearly realized,

realize, is that the
is

protection of democracy , as
built

we understand_it,

ugon the

joint

admi nistration of seajqwer

Alternatives 49 by the British Empire and America. Britain and America. as a matter of plain fact closest neighbors of the British vital point. But exists mightily. and if we have enjoyed a century of immunity from European aggressions the real cause lies in the successful maintenance by England of a balance of po wer upon the continent or the . It was a principle of English policy fully as much as ours. because the English realized that the security of the Empire over large areas was protected by after it. is built Our own its Monroe Doctrine as if upon it from inceptalk tion to the present day. common purposes are irresistible. the most serious threat ever directed against sea power. Now. Though we often power we were the only great in the western hemisphere. and the . We have never had the navy Monroe Doctrine it is si army to enforce the against a European coalition and mischie- vous form of self-deception to proceed on the theory that the Monroe Doctrine has been respected simply because we willed it.' we are the Empire at every So habitual and so unobtrusive has its this relation become that we almost forget it existence. emerge the undisputed Their lea ders of world politic s.

to be sure.50 The Political Scene is destiny of all governments their hands. realizing this and smacking its over the concentration of power under Anglocontrol. That means war. now. as the basis of a good headstrong foreign . looks to American a permanent alliance policy. so publicly. for the moment in How that joint power shall be used is the heart How. They do not say of the world's problem. because after a period of competition war seems preferable to perpetual menace. Naval competition makes naval war. The two together can wield it it. But they cannot each wield parts of for any length of time. but a certainty. then. Another lips school. might snatch it from her. America. shall it be used ? There are some who would seem to favor a course by which we should find ourselves preparing for wdr with Britain. but they dream of supface the fact planting Great Britain as mistress of the seas. Britain may wield it. but divided it They may not fact is a —sea power cannot be permanently. not a probability. is The control of the seas mefital that it is so delicate and so fundait impossible to leave in dispute. after a disastrous war.

why not continue. no matter their present purposes how is idealistic may be. power the nucleus of its world o rganization to guarante e file uses before whde_world. and leads straight to those very entangl ements against which Washington warned the nation. to bind ourselves in honor to it employ only for the security of does. al l nations. against us first to all the troublesome- Such a policy would soon awaken the jealousy and then the eiimity of the excluded nations. and profit by it? it This is the policy of imperialist allianc e. That is what the League The actual own- . It is a method of whetting the worst appetites of each . An alliance would too be a temporary thing. A mere offensive and defensive to back the other's ambitions alliance between two or three powers means in practice that each has and mistakes. The masses of the world are stirring. There is only one other course. they will not long trust themselves to any selfish combination of powers.1 Alternatives 5 Since America and Britain temporarily control the world's destiny. and that sea is to make Anglo-American . for there much it disruptive energy in the world to tolerate long. and of committing both ness of either.

It is the force by which such lib erties as we may This is devise are finally secure d. but uses are stipulated in a covenant By this we avoid the dangers of competition and alliance. doctrine that hemisphere must remain safe for democracy.52 ership of The Political Scene in British power remains its and American hands. by the abolition of neutrality becomes the ultimate guarantor of the world's aflFairs. Taking ad- vantage of England's position and her liberalism Monroe proclaimed the later. if intelligently this pro- gram can serve the made to same ends. nineteenth century At the beginning of the we were a weak people and weak republics which the neighbors of a string of had just secured their independence. power. fortified Anglo-American sea . In Europe a great war had ended with the triumph on the continent of autocracies which hated republics and were resolved President this to crush them. But so far as mortal man can administered be an extremely perplexing future. while retaining the possession of the necessary force against an emergency in case the League were destroyed. another great war has Now. There is no see denying into that. a century . not the old isolation.

for European peoples seeing mira- cle it is to the continental mind. there was opportunity was made. But nevertheless.Alternatives closed in which those autocracies are crushed 53 and a string of weak ruins. if would have been wiser he had acted singly in committing the nation. They have taken his word as America's. and no formal objection Our honor is consequently very seriously involved in the President's promises. In spite of our strength we have re- mained true to those very things which we proclaimed when we were young and weak. Perhaps was wrong of him Certainly less it to arouse such expectations. and built their it hopes upon it. to object. was never before given They have heard an Ameri- can president announce their liberation and promise their safety. and while the war was engaged they heard no dissent because in fact there was none. . have turned to us with such faith as to a distant people. this miracle. and our intervention decided the issue. republics has risen from their We stand as the richest and strongest power in the world.

Revision need not . 54 . For at is merely the conference made quite competent permanent and the conference to make is the necessary decisions of the next half a dozen months. while a more adequate instru- ment provided out of the provisional text con- tained in the Twenty-Six Articles. be agreed now. and it becomes not only possible but desirable that the covenant should be subjected to drastic examination.VIII AMENDMENTS too often that the cannot ITpensable be asserted be taken at Paris action to indisis to prov ide fo r a continuous meeting in the . that in one form or another the contacts which exist shall not be broken. Nothing else Twenty-Six Articles can be regarded as criticism beyond the reach of Let it and amendment. bottom the League . delay the making of th e — Peace Treaty because the Congress of Versailles if it does not adjourn —<:an is adequatdy per- form the immediate tasks of the League.

Amendments The document itself exhibits all the 55 marks of haste and patching. Now an organic law which should not burden itself virtually unchangeabl e with those abstract nega- . The covenant is very difficult to is amend. does one suddenly discover another provision ject in ori the subfree- XVIII ? What is the meaning of " dom of transit and equitable treatment " in XXI. For example. or simply that they cannot be changed by threat of war? that if lapses Does this X mean a state once member of the League colthrough misgovernment the mandatory it ? principle cannot be applied to Apart from these general and technical diffi- culties there are certain specific criticisms to be made. agencies. and one has to search through most of the covenant to discover the complete doctrine on any specific point. General principles. A#hy having read Articles VII. VIII. and how does it relate itself to X where " political independence" is guaranteed? Does- this same X mean that the boundaries to be fixed at Ver- sailles are immutable. arti- procedure are scattered through the various cles in considerable confusion. and IX on the subject of armaments.

56

The

Political Scene

tive principles,
tionists.

which are the refuge of obstrucX,
guaranteeing
politicjil

Article

territorial
is

integrity

and existing
It is

independence,

of this tfpt.
to be wiser
t

an

ar ti cle of distrust ,
,

an

effort

han the next generation and

to curb

the action of the future by a magic set of words .

Contrast

it

with Article XI, which makes

it

a

" friendly right " to
stances

draw

attention to circum-

which threaten peace and understanding.

X binds the League in a formula;
League
one
is restrictive,

XI

releases the

for an active policy of conciliation.

The

the other permissive, and the

two

clauses bark at each other.

X

is

one of
every

those

grand

generalities

behind which

opponent of change can barricade himself.

He

can always declare that anything he does not like is " external aggression " against his political
independence, and there
is

always sure to be some

nation ready to vote against a unanimous recom-

mendation.

The
which
quest.

clause will not protect a nation's independ-

ence against the kind of economic penetration
to- day constitutes the chief

mode

of con-

But

it

will protect

a government in bad
It will

practices

and oppressions.

hamper the

Amendments
honorable nations by ruling out interference;
will
assist

57
it

the dishonorable governments
affairs in

who

have learned to manipulate
of
legality.

a costume

It

may

put minorities beyond the

scope of the League's protection, and enforce the
privilege of the oppressing state.

Moreover,

it

puts a preqjitmi upon insincerity.

In the actual

conduct of

human

affairs there is

an increasing

limitation of political dependence resulting

from

the necessities of economic cooperation.
necessities are stronger than

Those
axiom,

any

political

and

will prevail.

But under Article
and

X

they will

prevail in roundabout fashion

furtively.

The

framers of the covenant, and the majority of
well-informed people do not believe that a state

can do what
In the future

it

pleases within
believe

its

own

boundaries.
for they

men will

it still less,

are discovering that "international relations" are after
all

nothing but the result of what goes
different nations.

on within the

Surely at the

end of this war it is perfectly clear that the " political independence " of empires like that of
the Hohenzollerns, Hapsburgs, and Sultan
is

not

something the world can afford to regard as

beyond the jurisdiction of the League.

58

The

Political Scene

The

Article should be revised .
all

The preamble
without setting

contains

that

is

valuable in

it

up .a piece of

political

dogmatism derived from the
Provided that international
,

eighteenth century.

law

is

given binding sanctions

it is

not the busi-

ness of this generation to put the substance o f
that that

law in a straitjacket law
is

When we have

agreed

binding

sary guarantees.
cases

we have given all the necesWhat the law is to be in specific
facts as they are

must be determined on the
.

developed by events
believe,

There

is

every reason to

for example, that sooner or later the

world will require a far greater regulation of
international trade than

any one has yet dared

to

suggest.

The

experiences of the

war

point that

way.

They

indicate the impossibility of per-

mitting

unfair

trade

practices

between

sup-

posedly friendly nations, or of profiteering by

governments, or the use of monopolies as a

means of conquest.
had

The

conferees at Paris have

avoided these matters in the draft.
to.

Perhaps they

But statesmen
and

in the future
it is

may

not be

able to avoid them,
jto

the part of

wisdom

eliminate any dogmatic rule

now which might

exclude such action.

In parliamentary countries the ministry . in the organic law. its spirit and its letter. let ourselves up in the presence of those to defeat who may use the letter of it the spirit. sufficient to . flexibility and the possibilities of growth must be assured. That we can do by eliminatit ing the negatives.Amendments If the covaiant is 59 to serve through the perils that confront the next generation. To upon attempt. to go beyond "in- struments " to legislation is to turn our back a century of experience with written constitutions. then. the When we tie have accepted League we intend to abide by us not. majority and minority to be balked." The President's it is own experience shows how necessary to secure the intimate cooperation of executive and legislature. We can do also by enlarging the " instru- mentalities. but can stifle the more inventive but scrupulous minds. Nq printed text can govern the energies of it a generation. if the action of the League is not is No meeting of executives alone it is bind the nations. and a stultifica- tion of democratic control to erect a structure on the theory that the legislature will accept the commitments of the executive after they are made.

And having spoken. but there no obvious reason why delegates from its Foreign Relations Committee should not be present to consult with the executive and with foreign legislators to share the responsibilities.6o The Political Scene will fall if its representatives make commitments Under likely to of which the legislature disapproves. and advise Both the during the course of the negotiations. Inevitably. A disnothing agreement between House and Senate to is what a disagreement between the legislatures of many nations would be. having reached a complicated agreement. the mere act of securing agreement is under the machinery of the League impossible unless the delegates are capable of speaking with assurance for their countries. is congressional government the result be a deadlock. is The only solution apparently to have the legislative branch particit is ipate in the original discussion. so that not confronted each time with an accomplished fact To is be sure. administration parties and the opposition parties . the whole legislature of every state cannot be at the seat of the League. it is infinitely confusing to throw the whole busi- ness back to the legislature for revision.

this advis- representation need be nothing more than ory. as politics is managed to-day. is No government on the conti- nent of Europe of the masses. But this supposed to be a League not of governments . of the negotiations. Finally. and no not at the end. rooted deeply in the affections Those who are now at Paris may not all be there a few months hence. but the advice should be in the course. I trust him beyond any statesman It is in the world to-day. It is question of trusting or distrusting Mr. and when per- haps some other person will be in the White House who needs Above all. except the power to obstruct. and the 6l resulting commitment would have a surer Unless Congress is basis. when Mr. a matter of downright democratic responsibility which the legislature cannot abandon. will insist upon representation of the legislature in the structure of the League. Formally. it is to be checked by Congress. a matter of the future. to abandon power over it foreign affairs. Wilson will be a private citizen."^Amendments would thus be on the ground. it is necessity. Wilson. no matter how a excellent a President may be. will rise to No man covenant knows who is power.

Surely it is nothing but common sense to ask that the leaders of the opposition should remain in the closest personal touch with the affairs of the League. and that contact with international politics the texture of diplomacy is is meager. each legislature is preoccupied with purely local affairs. debating with one another as well as within their own chambers. The no less than the administration. Had Mr.62 The Political Scene but of nations. cials. If the world to have peace and understanding some means must be found of creating a community of feding be- tween parliaments. The value of here. in Paris. studying the confidential to responsible and talking European had he been made to feel that what he . and that implies that the complexion of political parties must be represented. Yet largely made out is of the acts of legislatures. The opposition of to-day may be the government to-morrow. They should have ways of opposition. should have direct access to that subtle but decisive information which can be obtained only by being on the spot. this participation does not end Everyone knows that even with the best enormously its will in the world. offi- Lodge been reports.

he would insensibly have tended to forget that his role was officially that of opposing what crats propose. The irreconcilable radimuch less irreconcilable when he can himself and when he has to share respon- Now ihe irreconcilable radical is a very considerable person in the modern world.Amendments thought really matters. Wilson. as it 63 undoubtedly does. What true of Mr. Deny him the chance to protest and to advise. if any is settled national policy is to emerge. and is once he becomes convinced that the League a secret manipulation he will be equally convinced that it is a sinister manipulation. he will certainly attack and condemn. Lodge is equally true of the extreme cal is ever so express sibility. be difficult It will enough in all conscience to secure harmony in a League when half the world anti-socialist. left. is necessary to expose th e opposition to the same influences. In other wiords. And when he returned to DemoWash- ington Republican senators would have listened to him as they will never listen to it Mr. and the sam e information . is socialist and the other half By calling in representatives of the elected parlia- ments this schism can be modified and an indis- .

and anything he does suspect to it But M. loves France. Mr. Henderson can in work for understanding Lloyd George can cal explosion. only is produce a rhetori- So if the League not to find irreleits marooned on the dry sands of it vance should take steps to introduce into own structure the conciliatory influence of the opposition parties. but unless the bridges to moderate radicalism are maintained anarchy will follow just . Clemenceau. For there is one sure protection against those things rest of us which Senator Lodge and most of the fear. for example.64 The Political Scene pensable bridge built between the conservative governments and the more radical masses. itself groups when Mr. M. yet he can socialists. and I do not see how to be anything any sane person could wish them else. Thomas converse with also loves France. nor does consist in losing your to head and trying to stamp on those who wish . but he will never have the confidence is of Socialist Europe. Conciliatory they are. That protection does not it consist in play- ing the ostrich. Senator Lodge talks menacingly about building bridges across chasms to anarchy.

It consists in remembering the very wise remark of the British Prime Minister that he feared reaction more than Bolshevism everything . shevism extraordinarily easy to combat in a its well-fed country. you think it begins at a line drawn sharply albng the frontiers of Senator Lodge's mind. But if you put the frontier far enough to the left so as to in- clude that huge majority of men who want Bol- change. and existence is a sign of disgraceful incompetence in the governing circles. and are not yet blind with desperation. there is no reason is to fear anarchy here. then I fear most of us will find ourselves on the other side of the chasm. . and one of the sure ways of making a botch of them is to close your mind to the loyal opposition. Bolshevism arises only where rulers have made a botch of their duties.Amendments make life to o 65 decent to be the breed ing place of anarchy. For depends on where you think the If chasm is.

there not enough imagination and courage applied to the policies for which the instrument is used.- it is altogether probable that the complete collapse of establis h ed authority will follow .IX BOLSHEVISM THE League which the can be made the instrument by disrooted populations of the world It may readjust It themselves If peacefully. to save civilization by dividing The hope of world order 66 to-day is confronted . the Western powers have to listen to those poisoned by their men whose minds are unown fears and their own hates. may not be. war cries. The peril is too real for self-indulgence in the lazy repetition of really bent and those who are on preserving the order of the world cannot allow themselves to be silenced by those moral terrorists who are pretending it. is can be. It is entirely true that if authority tr ansition is to be preserved and the will controlled .

they are angry and fiercely distrustful. They have seen governments blinded by privileged groups and and cowed by the forces of reaction. to the America to them. The army . and thereby pillar made the strongest of faith in authority standing intact in the It is world to-day. purpose. seen governments bungle. a terrifying thing rather than this a cause of vanity that should be so. Americans did not plan to have thrust upon them such responsibilities as these. They sit restlessly awful judgment Their theories upon the Lodges of the world. though skeptically. which Wilson has described ica did the incredible thing It ForjAimer- fought without selfish among governments. They are turned. and they have in little to lose. It waged a itself clean war.Bolshevism by the diminishing faith of vast 67 masses of people. who have send men favoritism. falter and uselessly to death. What holds them from almost universal despair and dissolution is still is a lingering hope that perhaps there left enough generosity and mercy statecraft to in Western still meet the issue. are a tiny part of their true feelings. They more have borne the pain of the most extensive calamity in human history.

Those negotiations are watched intensely through the crevices of publicity which the Peace Conference permits. another Some one wants a some one else wants to make wants to work a little intrigue. and distorts the proceedings. all this is it The goodness or badness of a trivial question compared to the fact that represents the truth about the world to-day.68 The Political Scene went humbly to the veterans of France. piece of land. to follow rather than But wh^n the actual revealed. The situa- American people intended to lead their Allies. that revolution is The imminence of nating thought of the domi- all men everywhere. and It is their voices are heard in every discussion. The direct and this stuff of the old diplomacy obscures vision. . money. they tion of Europe was found their own diffidence a source of confidence in others. Lenin and Liebknecht sit in the Council at Paris. and a with- drawal by America from the positi on she occu- ^es will be the signal for a European revolution. this basic negotiation are But cutting across a thousand strands of special claim and ambition to interrupt and entangle. with them that the world for its is negotiating to-day own preservation.

They want to fight Lenin with one hand and use the other for their own purposes. they are even panicky. but they are not serious enough about the menace to be willing to subordinate every other consideration to the creation of a Europe which will be sterile to Bolshevism. and that the American people do . Having realized that the armies of France and Great Britain cannot be used to police Russia.Bolshevism business of the conference set it 69 is to feed the world. do not take seriously enough what he rep- They are frightened to be sure. ever prevents the existing governments in Eu- rope from reestablishing normal those life encourages who say that the existing governments are damned and that there is no salvation in them. people. to work. The reason why Lenin may succeed is that the victors resents. They are reto to peating the error of those the who wanted win do war and at the same time continue business as usual. Out of this desire arise those ingenious dipis lomatic futilities by which the old intrigue to be maintained as a method of crushing the Bolshevist power. and reconcile is its Whoever What- impedes that fiddling for a disaster.

the idea of direct military intervention has been abandoned. and for it has been substituted the fashionable phrase "sanitary cordon.yo The Political Scene not intend to bury half a million boys in a wilderness for ten years or so. Communist Hungary and Spartacide Germany. a Greater Rumania. squeezed in between gigantic revolutions in both Germany and Those new states are fragments of destroyed empires. to be erected Then another dam is on the Rhine. and statesmen representing these nations have actually been found who are willing to have their countries used as a dam. and Jugo-Slavia. Each one moreover at least . and each contains within itself problems that have is all the seeds of disorder. These new and fragile republics are to be erected between Bolshevist Russia. and the whole thing guaranteed by an alliance with Great Britain and America disguised as a League of Nations. This is a very dangerous bit of fooling . Czecho-Slovakia." is The theory is that a dam to be erected in the east of Europe consisting of Poland. No one who knows anything of the internal conditions of the for new states of eastern Europe can a moment imagine that they will survive Russia.

This a more complicated version of at what was there tried Brest-Litovsk.Bolshevism partially in the 71 reflect hands of men whose ideas the old imperial system. the her people become new is states are to be an iron fence dividing two areas of Bolshevism from each other. and to paralyze splitting off Germany by a Rhenish republic. One Amfrom what for eleven erican observer returning in January was Austria-Hungary had accounted tary cordon. the scheme a was to use these same border states as buffer. states as The new version is to use these a buffer facing two ways. it is German people and the Western If the cordon can be made to stand up to possible to keep Germany if prostrate and escape the danger to Europe desperate . It would require as its first condition the mainte- . with the result that there has been through the winter a tangle of little wars on the frontiers of all of them. little states as the buffer of the world It is to evade the disagre eable nec essity of effecting a reconciliation b etween the nations. separate military campaigns going on in the sani- The motive for using these is clear. and then to paralyze Russia by splitting off the Ukraine.

if it cannot pre- . the only type of gov- ernment in central Europe to-day which can make that part of the world is immune against the If disorder which traveling westward. is what Ebert represents a failure. such as the Ebert is government represents. eat the heart out of Rumania. socialist republic in A Germany. the occupation of to follow . if in is profound dis- food not given and factories set going and the burden of debt made bearable. The plain fact is that the reconstruction. Germany would have in both Russia For Bolshevism and Po- Germany would soon land. order. and Hungary where social condi- tions are already desperate. Now any one who supposes that the populations of France and Great Britain will endure the human and is econ- omic cost of such an occupation suffering from a severe case of reading nothing but censored news. of Europe requires an orderly government and a contented population in Germany. The very moderate existence of the new state s depends upon protect- ing their flanks against revolu tion. as it With Germany will be.72 TKe Political Scene nance for an indefinite period of a huge army on the Rhine.

Now if this were the Last Judgment it be quite plausible to think of the horrors of Bel- gium and France. repudiate obligation and go Bolshevist. But the Conit not the Last Judgment. sible all authority and the three pos- Of Germanys — ^Junker. and to it is desirable to extricate such a people its from the damnation of gress of Versailles is is defeat. . as well as the omnipo- tence and omniscence of the Last Judgment are denied to them. responsibility for the future.Bolshevism serve 73 Germany from dismemberment and a long only alternatives economic bondage. be- time. and that freedom from. or Spartacide. But the persistence of Ebert depends entirely upon his ability to extricate Germany from her would immediate troubles. desirable as that might cause German mothers German children. then the open are to restore the HohenzoUems or to give up in desperation. is there can be no doubt that Ebert's the one with which the world can best live at peace. a meeting of statesmen to determine the fu- ture of mankind. Ebert. people for all They cannot damn bear the German be. deny that to recall the exultation which accompanied the Lusitania's destruction.

both against the hypothetical peril of renewed aggression and the actual peril of revolution within the . Having ehminated the but a sanitary Europe dangers of a sudden Prussian revival by disarming the German nation for war their first concern should be to preserve a continuous area of stabl e democracy to the frontiers. But this feeling which will in varying degree govern the conduct of Western peoples has no place in statesmanship. convention or the victory of the Sparta- Moral reconciliation will come more slowly. statesmanship is not to . serve. That is the true way to protect France. With the in- dividual grown-up citizens of what was the Ger- man Empire the resumption of spiritual inter- course will always depend upon a preliminary discussion of the past. of Bolshevist Russia .74 The Political Scene to the hell they de- They cannot consign them the center of Europe. because the location o£ that hell will be They are limited to nar- row choices among present day facts reconciliation — ^to an economic and political with the Weimar cides. and not altogether until a guiltless gen- eration has grown to maturity. The business of that make a sanitary cordon.

with whose whole conception of for- society Lenin is avowedly at war. And it is formless. The ward nations. the revolutionary torrent in order to stem For the creation of a solid area of liberal governaegis of the ment under the nary to the final League is prelimi- problem of dealing with Lenin. but are baffled by contentment. the League it of Nations will have a basis in reality that can . can go to deal with him successfully only when they have left no formidable discontent in their own rear. You can kill a government by occupying its capital and a few . and has no vital center. With a settlement in Europe which weaves Germany and the new states into the texture of western commerce and political life .Bolshevism next few years. is of communication are thing The perplexing that it is about Bolshevism being primitive primitive. and throwing little states out into the middle of it. never obtain by making a schism at the Rhine. So long as the nations of the league are perforated with maladministration and loss of faith they are its lines like an army advancing while cut. 75 That is the true way of dealing with Lenin's ambitions which will corrode an army.

will be allowed to go home. The odium of all the privations which occurred during the is occupation this upon it.76 of its The Political Scene chief strategic points. and it is the experience of set war at least that an administration up by the conqueror has country to be escorted out of the when the conqueror leaves. It is Bolshevism has no strategic points. Now which if a sufficient army could be raised. government These atoms have to be stamped on one by one. That is why the policing of Russia would require an enor- mous army even it distributed over its whole area. the discipline of that army would be difficult to is most tion maintain. no government established by an army of occupation is likely to last after the army goes because it bears the stigma of being the creature of the invading alien. It is possible to make war upon a nation or- . because no one of them is profoundly dependent on the others. a complete dissolution of atoms of self- centralized organization into local . cannot be. An army of occupa- a bored and discontented army and the it more time successfully it maintains order the more has to growl against the politicians and it wonder when Moreover.

nor to curse her into it. 77 There is no way of winning a war against several hundred thou- sand more or is less independent villages. Yet that the fundamental condition in Bolshevik RusAll the ordinary rules of warfare are sia to-day. And The because of this. the Baltic. As a the Allied forces now operating in various parts of Russia. To this end a suggestion might perhaps be preliminary to the withdrawal of oflFered. She will have to be drawn into it by reestablishing the bond s of economic inter- dependence between her fragments and the organized society of the west. process of recfintegration canall not be pushed fast because the ties of habit It is upon which government rests are torn.Bolshevism ganized under a government. not possible to bully Russia into or der. the Black Sea and the Pacific should be constituted international cities under the administration of bodies appointed by the League of Nations. inapplicable. agreement should be reached both with the local Soviets and with the Central Soviet at Moscow that certain ports of the Arctic. and including for this purpose repre- . the ordinis ary short cut of force instead of negotiation inapplicable.

If it were used promote the counter-revolution. And with contact of would come that sense of the .yS The Political Scene (sentative of the local and Central Soviets. ment and business which vival of Russia. trade union or corporation that could give the necessary guarantees. These the goods imported by cor- and exported for an international trading poration organized for the purpose by the nations having commercial resources for the enterprise. coop- erative society. The In policing of these ports would be by naval forces including marines authorized by the League. They could also distribute relief where the need existed without means of payment. is necessary to the re- ' The relation would be and if mismanaged would to certainly fail. if . these ports economic commissions representing the League would be set up with authority to make trading agreements with any soviet. The fail- ure to uphold the guarantees would be followed by boycott of the particular commissions would sell offender. and from might Now sulting the raising of the standards of life re- from this trading relief gradually restore the contact of the Russian people with the outer world. realities govemdelicate.

if in short the thing in were done col- bad faith. with a high sense that the Russian people too have a right to choose their own ways of life and obedience. itself about Russia by listening to opening a commercial tittleit By regime. By permitting the members of the League actual observation of it Russian affairs might make unnecessary the spectacle of the United States Senate trying to inform tattle. might avert the awkwardness of attempting diplomatic relations with a state that denies all the premises of international relationship. and attach Soviet Russia to the world community. generously. . it Finally might prevent whatever danger there may be in the single exploitation of Russia by a resur- rected Pan-Germany. it might well undermine the Bolshevist regime. the experiment would certainly lapse.Bolshevism these commissions were 79 made the centers of anti- soviet intrigue. But if it were done humanely. tolerantly.

No one who has grasped those problems as they press upon mankind can persist in the idea that peace consists in signing a treaty.THE TEST THE three problems presented by Germany. do not exhaust the perplexities which victory has brought to the victors. ing home Mon- roe Doctrine. lems do indicate the need for an thes e probis how pressing and p ractical international o rganization by which the world can be administered into an era of stability. Russia. and the intervening border states. Perhaps the . Perhaps nothing can be done So . One has But only to mention Turkey and China. have shared and have wondered whether anything could be done with that jangle of mem- ories which so often seems to be the mind of Europe. shaking hands with the Allies. I know this feeling quite well. and returnto gaze in rapt admiration at the I it.

1 The Test memories and the appetites are too strong save the world from a period of despair. They shall not be able to claim that the peace of the world was shattered because the strongest and safest of all was too timid to help is them. We shall know soon whether they have made a But peace upon. But if you make it a peace that can be maintained only by the bayonet shall leave we our you to the consequences and find own security in this hemisphere. and nothing less than that would ever justify . a peace that Europe will endure. it. 8 to Per- haps the Paris are too men who are meeting so much divided to use secretly in the instru- ment of cooperation which they have framed. they shall not be able to say that they failed because America failed them. It will have to be a very bad peace indeed to justify any such action on our part. and that the dishonor is hers. which a League can operate. America's true policy in this day to say to Europe: We shall stay with you and if share the decisions of the future the peace you will make w€ are asked to share.

.

19 16. decisive utterances of American foreign The Sussex pledge had just been extracted from the German Government.APPENDIX I THE WORLD CONFLICT IN ITS RELATION TO AMERICAN DEMOCRACY address delivered before the American Academy of and Social Science at Philadelphia. Many of those who are disappointed or pleased say they are surprised. the President made a speech which will be counted among the two or three policy. April. 6sth Congress ist Political An Session. Reprinted as Senate Document No. 1917. 80. In May. The way mighty in which President Wilson directed America's entrance into the war has had a effect on the public opinion of the world. prised had they They would not be it sur- made their business this last year to understand the policy of their Government. and on 83 the surface .

The prestige of the Allies was low ebb. was most confusing because promised peace manoeuvers. and that that American we were prepared it to join a League of Peace. hinted at a separate arrangement with the Russian court party. Through the summen America must assume for the President insisted again and again that the l^me had come its when share of responsibility a better organization of mankind. and. In the early autumn very It startling news came from it Germany. . and was intended to make istic clear to the its world that America would not abandon traditional policy for imperialif adventure.84 American speech lation The Political Scene neutrality seemed assured. that America had to fight it would It fight for the peace and order of the world. Never was the more at perplexing. there was treachery in Russia. was a great portent in human history. The iso- was an announcement was ended. and at the resumption of unlimited submarine warfare. This was the founda- tion of all that followed. but it was overshadowed at the time by the opening of the presidential campaign. The months from November tell to February situation were to the story.

In April. With the election past. tion That the rejec- would be followed by the submarine war certain. and a continuity of adit ministration assured. We know now was prepared to make that the peace last Germany Germany December was the peace of a conqueror. but at the time could pose as a nation which had been denied a chance to end the war. there- fore. son's task to clarify this became President Wilbold make some move which would the muddle.. The danger was that America would be drawn into the war at the moment when Germany appeared to be offering the peace was for which the bulk of the American people hoped. While he was preparing That move. It was necessary. the German chancellor made his highit handed proposal for a blind conference. powers was . igiy as Mr. dent's circular note to the The Presiissued. We were not only on the verge of war. Lansing said. to test the sincerity of Germany by asking publicly for a statement of terms. would be rejected was obvious. but on the verge of a bewildering war which would not command the whole-hearted support of the American people. 85 America was on the verge of war.

and showed that she wanted Allies a peace by intrigue. away when Germany brushed produced a docu- the President aside. The ment which contained a number of formulae so cleverly worded that they might be stretched to cover the wildest demands of the extremists or contracted to a moderate and just settlement. since both sides claimed to be fighting for the same things.86 The Political Scene This note stated more precisely than ever before that America was ready and at the to help guarantee the it peace. same time gave all the bellig- erents a chance to show that they were fighting for terms which could be justified to American opinion. Above vant. The note was very much misunderfirst stood at because the President had said that. all the Allies assented to the league of peace which Germany had dismissed as irrele- The war was certain to go on with America drawn in. neither could well refuse to define the terms. It was an internatignal program . after submarine warfare had been decided upon but before it had been proclaimed. The misunderstanding soon passed the replies came. On January 22. the President made his address to the Senate.

. That America would not submit "was assured.In April. The question that remained to be decided was the extent of Should it our particfpation in the war. the German Empire was' isolated before mankind principle as the final refuge of autocracy. igij for democracy. By no twist of language could a part- nership with that Government be ent with the principles laid made consist- down by the Presi- dent in his address to the Senate. It 87 was also a last appeal to Ger- man liberals to avert it. or should The real source of confusion was the treacherous and despotic Russian Gov- ernment. The o f its life is destr uctive of the peace o f the world . a catastrophe. i They did at- not avert and on February Germany tacked the whole neutral world. When Russia became a republic and the American Republic became an enemy. How destructive that principle is the ever-widening circle of the war has disclosed. The Russian science revolution ended that perplexity -with a clear con- and we could enter the war and a whole heart. be it merely defensive on the high be a separate war ? seas.

We was a conspiracy ment. that Russia. was trying to destroy Austria. 1914. using Serbia as an instru- ment. by what miracle could But the old hostility between England and France and Russia have been wiped out so quickly ? there is positive evidence that no such conspiracy existed. and that the Entente had already detached that all this Italy. Supposing were true. it would remain an extraor- dinary thing that the Entente had succeeded in encircling Germany. By had the Anglo-German agreement of June. Had that empire been a good neighbor in Europe. recently published. a satisfactory arrangement . Germany's place in the sun is Asia Minor. Our task is to define that danger so that our immense sacrifices shall serve to end it. I can not do that for myself without turning to the origins of the steps war in order to trace the logical by which the pursuit of a German victory read statements by Germans that there against their national develop- has enlisted the enmity of the world.88 The Political Scene II. that they found themselves encircled by enemies.

Prof. Rohrbach has ac- iaiowledged that Germany was given concessions " which exceeded all expectations. was this highway which Germany determined chief to control absolutely obstacle on that highway was Into the complexities I Serbia backed by Russia. than the United States has ever had against Mexico. do no more than fol- low Lord Grey in the belief that Austria had a genuine grievance against Serbia. had been secured by negotiation. 19 14. when the war was months old. certainly. But the road to that place lay through AustriaIt Hungary and and the the Balkans. von Bethmann-HoUweg declared in the Reichstag that " this understanding was to lessen every possible political friction. however. am not competent to We need. of that Balkan intrigue enter.In April. a far greater one. Central Powers took of settling When Grermany declared that Europe could not be consulted." and on Defive cember second." The place in the sun. that Austria must be allowed to . had an But Britain had no stake in the Austro-Serbian quarrel itself. It interest in the method which the the quarrel. igi^J 89 been reached about the economic exploitation of the Turkish Empire.

Had Belgium been merely a small neutral nation the crime would still have been one of the worst in the history of the modern world.go The Political Scene crush Serbia without reference to the concert of Europe. horror the Belgian horror the fiercest of The burning. greater than the sum of Belgium's It . Germany proclaimed herself an en- emy of international order. the starving. This brought Russia and France into the field. If it could not sur- then is no internationalism was possible. the shooting. Instantly Germany acted on the same doctrine of unlimited national sovereignty by striking at France through Belgium. It was an as sertion of un limited natio nal sover- eignty which Europe could not tolerate. and the is robbing of small and inoffensive nations enough. tragic is But the German crime in Belgium misery. For Bel- gium represented what progress the world had made toward vive cooperation. That why through these years of horror is upon all. The fact that Belgium the in- was an internationalized State has made vasion the master tragedy of the war. all She preferred a war which involved of Europe to any admission of the fact that a cooperative Europe existed.

this What it America would do about importance. and undoubtedly violated many commercial If it rights of neutrals.In April. became of decisive chose to uphold the rights . em- ployed sea power to the utmost They barred every road to Germany. Had en- the war remained a Balkan war with France gaged merely because of her treaty with Russia. The Allies. all the free nations Whatever justice there may have been in Austria's original quarrel with Serbia and Russia was overwhelmed by the exhibition of national lawlessness in Belgium. This led to the third great phase of the war. the phase which concerned America most immediately. directed by Great Britain. I think this is the accurate way to state the fact. world must build or The invasion of Belgiiun instantly brought the five British democracies into the war. IQiy is 91 a crime against the bases of faith on which the perish. the British German come Empire might have the into the war to save balance of power and to fulfil the naval agreements with France. but the conflict would probably never have become a people's war in of the Empire. had the fighting been confined to the Francofrontier.

thrown great weight 'against Germany. To such an alternative there was but one an- swer for a free people to make. it The Political Scene would aid Germany and cripple the it If refused to do more than negotiate it jWith the Allies. to America refused attack from the rear. Ities had. The German was very British It mastery of the seas must be broken. America was a case of he to be counted as an enemy. It had earned the enmity o£ the German Government. Somewhere in the winter of 1915 America which was forced helped to choose between a policy Germany and one which helped the Allies. tack If could be broken by an American at- from the rear or by the German submarine. is It was who is not for me against me. Allies. an enmity which broke out into intrigue and conspiracy on American soil. To become the . whatever the technicaliits of the case might be. the proclamation of submarine warfare in we were told that either we must policy aid Ger- many by simple: crippling sea power or be treated as a hostile nation. We were confronted with a situation in which to choose between opening a road to we had With 191 5 Germany and making an enemy of Germany.92 claimed.

but history. will one of the decisive events of the war. I think. can deny. vised a Poetic justice never de- more perfect retribution. IQ17 ally of the conqueror of 93 Belgium against France utterly out of and the British democracies was the question.In April. without spectacI ular announcement. no longer the possesof the any one The supremacy rests Navy in this war on international on the consent of her Without that allies and of the coftsent the blockade of Germany final could not exist. For mastery of sion of British consent. the seas nation. this alignment The power effect of was to make is sea absolute. and to open these resources to the Allies. Our choice was made and policy the su: preme question of American far will became How Germany shall carry the strike war against us and how hard we back? That we were aligned on' the side of Germany's enemies no candid man. The effect was to deny Germany access to the resources of the neutral world. The nation . happened gradually. neutrals. call it think. and the decision of resist Allied sea America not to blow which cut It off power was Germany from the the world.

Eng- land and France would have to surrender and make a peace on in Europe. It decided that if it enough ships were destroyed. those communications should be cut. it might be a good idea It to sink every all ship afloat. That partnership between the neutral world and Germany's enemies rested on merchant ping. . the basis of Germany's victories Therefore on the thirty-first of January. to the ship- This suggested a new theory of warfare German Government. Germany policy in the abolished neutrality in the world The which began by denying that a quarrel Balkans could be referred to Europe. decided that since the high- ways of the world were the communications of the Allies.94 The Political Scene to gain which had struck down a neutral ' a mili- tary advantage found the neutral world a part- ner of its enemies. It decided that since every ship afloat fed the resources of its enemies. 1917. culminated in indiscrim inate attack upon t he merchant shipping of of exclusive all nations^ The doc- trine nationalism had moved . ships or didn't matter what whose ships. went on to destroy the internationalized State of Bel- gium.

The very thing Ger- many challenged Germany has established. By denying that a society of nations exists. The all terrible logic of result. The ortho- dox view was its it that each nation had a destiny of its own. America lay apart with a budding imits perialism of own. spheres of influence of own. Germany convinced even must be the most isolated of neutrals that order preserved by common effort . a society of nations has been forced into existence. with effective com- Europe was into shifting democracies and autocracies jumbled together. III. out alliances. China was marked as the helpless victim of exploitation. and that was somehow beneath the its dignity of a great State to discuss so-called vital interests with It other governments. Germany's policy had a striking at the bases o f stupendous By internation al order . aspiration. That old politi- . was a world almost withfew split common mon ideals. Be- fore 1914 only a handful of visionaries dared to hope for some kind of federation.In April. igij 95 through these three dramatic phases until tho se who held it were at war with mankind.

compromised about muddled along with it. cau- and timidly. Other nations had applied ^tiously it here and there. The American Russia Republic has abandoned its isolation. with absolute preparation.g6 cal The Political Scene system was one in which the German view In- was by no means ternationalism altogether disreputable. it No other nation in our time had ever applied with absolute logic. toward a higher degree of spiritual unanimity than has ever been known before. From all parts of the world there has been a movement of ideals working slowly toward one end. China and India have been stirred out of their dependence. has become something like a republic. was half-hearted and generally regarded somewhat cynically. Other nations had it. What Germany did was to demonstrate ad nause am the doctrine of competitive nationalism. dallied with it. where the Out of the necessities of defense against it men have gradually formulated the ideals of a coope rative nationalism. just and Germany taught the world doctrine lead s. But Germany followed through. The Brit- . and with absolute disre- gard of the consequences.

when the impossible becomes possible. There are politicians and com- mercial groups who see in this whole thing nothing but opportunity to secure concessions. have arisen to possess men's times There are when a prudent statesman must build on a contracted view of human nature. I do not wish to underestimate the forces of reaction in our country or in the other nations of the alliance. This may . loose which they can no longer this and out of immense horror ideas souls. — ideals of local autonomy and joint action Men are crying that they must be free and that they must be united. The grand alliance German aggression a military i called into existence is by the than now something more coalition. They have learned that they can not be free unless they cooperate. manipulate tariffs. But there are times when n ew sources of ene rgy are tapped. and extend the bureaucracies. that they can not cooperate unless they are free. to deal with them.In April. it Common ideals are work- ng through . when events outrun our calculations. We shall know how let Forces have been control. igiy ish 97 Empire is moving toward closer federation.

98 The Political Scene be such a time. The alliance to which we belong has suddenly grown hot with the new democracy of Russia and the new internationalism of America. It has had an access of spiritual force policies of the which opens a new prospect in the world. That great end and that great hope less it is nothing I than the federation of the world. to has grown and growing to into a union of peoples deter- mined end forever that intriguing. those forces are not to grow cold and frittered they must be turned to a great end and offered a great hope. sive military is no longer an offensive-defen- agreement among diplomats. IV. believed that the Good democrats have always common interests of men were . but it That how is it started. We can dare to hope for things which In fact we if never dared to hope for in the past. but is big enough to describe the alliance. be sure. little know sounds a old-fashioned to use that phrase it because we have abused no other idea It is so long in empty rhet- oric. adventur- ous nationalism which has torn the world for three centuries.

That is what we It establishes its power at home . if the y are to be safe . Well. for the democracies are unloosed. with its criminal rivalries in the backward places of the earth. strategic frontiers. Those were the stakes of the diplois mat's war. but that the nations must be partners. dissolving into a stupendous revstill A few months ago we argued about the Bagdad corridor. igij 99 greater than their special interests. rivalries must cooperate. Those democracies have nothing to gain and everything to lose by the old competitive nationalism. The democracies.In April. The scale of values is transformed. the old apparatus of diplomacy. nations. For the old mean fric - tion a nd armament and a . that ruUng classes can be enemies. . distortion of all the hopes of free government They mean the life of that na- tions are organized to exploit each other and to exploit themselves call autocracy. and the force of nations that its now stirring the world to is foundations. this war is being fought by called to is It is the nations it is who were arms. The war olution. The whole perspective changed to-day by the revolution in Russia and the intervention of America. colonies.

It was and her one great chance. The first is by political revolution in . To have stood aside when Germany made would have been this terrible bid for victory to betray the hope of free gov- ernment and international union. who most peaceful of democracies. marine would give is The success of the subGermany victory. That is why practically the whole world is at war with is the greatest of the autocracies. fights its enemies abroad by dragooning the population at home. are at war. V.lOO The Political Scene It by pointing to enemies abroad. That would be That the outcome if Prusso-Germany won. I war against Prussian militarism would result the other way. knoTV. are the would be the that is result of And why we. a German victory. is That why the whole world turning so passionately toward democracy as the only principle on which peace can be secured. There are two ways now in which peace can be made. that instead of lib- eralizing Prussia the outcome would be a Prus- sianization of the democracies. that the Many have feared.

IQ17 Germany and Austria-Hungary. are entirely secondary. there has. the war can be ended by by the negotia- The other path to peace is definite de- yfeat of every item in the program of aggression. a demonstration on the cible. field that the a renunciation German army is not invinby Germany of all the terfal- ritory she has conquered . is new If done. new is policies are proclaimed. a special compensation to Belgium. The objects if which we are at war will be attained we can . when there good evidence that orientation. to it come through we shall know that has come when new voices are heard in Germany. Frontier questions. and beyond this now minimum for program the United States has no direct interest in the territorial settlement. loi It is not for us to define the nature of that revolution. is for them to decide if what peace political institutions is they will adopt. been a that tion. at a minimum. This will mean.In April. and an acknowledgment of the lacy of exclusive nationalism by an application for membership in the league of nations . indeed. We It can not dictate liberty to the German people. but revolution. colonial questions.

ultimately at the council of peace. justifies the our duty to see that the end means. determined to erect a larger and more modern system of fighting for. That is what we are in the moment. For a ruling caste which has been humiliated abroad has glamour at home.102 The Political Scene defeat absolutely the foreign policy of the present German Gkivernment. later perhaps in France and Belgium. shipyard. to reject all the poison of hatred . of their miseries. to its destroy to conquests. and to throw it back at last into the arms of the Ger- man people marked and discredited as the author It is for it. and in the factory. at this inte rnational law upon a federation o f the world. If we are strong enough and wise enough to win this victory. the lost its So we are deny at war to defeat German Government its prestige. it We can win nothing from this war unless culminates in a union of liberal people s pledged to cooperate i n the settlement of all outstanding questions. sworn to turn against the aggressor. final settlement them to make the with If it is our privilege to exert the power which it is turns the scale. in the outer world. on the ocean.

We triot it shall call that man un-American and no Europe and is pa- who prates of liberty in resists at home. igiy abroad and intolerance at home. and our slums. shall turn We with fresh interests to our our own tyran- nies — to Colorado mines. For ourselves we committed as never before to the realization of democracy in America. We who have gone will to war to insure democracy in the world have raised an aspiration here that will not end with the overthrow of the Prussian autocracy. Our own their Billy reactionaries will not assuage with Sundays or control it through lawyers and politicians of the old guard. our autocratic steel industries. A force loose in America as it well.In April. we shall 103 have made a nation to which free men will turn with shall stand love and gratitude. our sweatshops. .

by the prescription of open. 104 . New Yoik. jusfice and by the maintenance of lous respect for all and a scrupu- treaty obligations in the dealthe jngs of organized people with one another.APPENDIX II TEXT OF THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS* COVENANT Preamble In order to promote international cooperation and to secure international peace and security by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war. by the firm establish- ment of the understandings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among governments. The action of the high contracting parties under the terms ' of this covenant shall be effected Reprinted from pamphlet published by League to Enforce Peace. just and honorable relations between nations. 130 West 42d Street. powers signatory stitution of the to this covenant adopt this con- League of Nations: Article I.

of meetings at more frequent intervals of an Executive Council. Article II. to- . shall Meetings of the body of delegates be held at the seat of the League. Each of the high contracting parties shall have one vote. or at such other places as shall consist may be found convenient. and of representatives of the high con- tracting parties. and Japan. The Executive Council shall consist of repre- sentatives of the United States of America. but may have not more than three representatives. for the purpose of deal- ing with matters within the sphere of action of the League. and of a permanent international secretariat to be estab- lished at the seat of the League. Article III. France. Meetings of the body of delegates shall be held at stated intervals and from time to time. as occasion may require.The Proposed League of Nations 105 through the instrumentality of meetings of a body of delegates representing the high contracting parties. the British Empire. Italy.

at which matters directly affecting its interests are at to be dis- cussed. and no decision taken any meeting invited. representatives of shaH be members of the Execu- tive Council. at the seat of and any matter within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world may be dealt with at such meetings. four States shall be gates The selection of made by the body of and in such these dele- on such fit. and at least once a year. in- cluding the appointment of committees to inves- .Io6 Appendix gether with representatives of four other States. will be binding on such a power unless so Article IV. Invitations shall be sent to any power to attend a meeting of the council. at whatever place on. failing the League. members of the League. principles manner as they think Pending the appointment of these representatives of the other States. may be decided any such decision. or. All matters of procedure at meetings of the body of delegates or the Executive Council. Meetings of the council time to time as occasion shall be held from may require.

The ity at Secretary General shall act in that capacall meetings of the body of delegates or of the Executive Council. shall be regulated the body of delegates or the Executive Council. League shall which shall constitute the seat of the League. The permanent be established at secretariat of the . tariat shall be appointed secre- by the Secretary Gien- eral subject to confirmation by the Executive Council. ance with the apportionment of the expenses of . under the general direction and control of a Secretary General of the League. The secretariat shall staff as comprise such secretaries and may be shall required. The first meeting of the body of delegates and of the Executive Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States of America. who The be chosen by the Executive Council. Article V. and may be decided by a majority of the States represented at the meeting.The Proposed League of Nations 107 by tigate particular matters. The expenses of the secretariat shall be borne in accord- by the States members of the League.

Admission to the League of States.lo8 Appendix the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union. No State shall be admitted to the League units less it is able to give effective guarantees of sincere intention to bbserve ligations its international obto and unless it shall conform such principles as may be prescribed by the League . and the buildings ocits officials. when engaged in the business of the League. Representatives of the high contracting parties and officials of the League. including dominions and colonies. shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities. cupied by the League or or by repre- sentatives attending its meetings. and shall be limited to fully self- governing countries. Article VII. shall enjoy the benefits of extra-territoriality. Article VI. not signa- tories to the covenant and not named in the pro- tocol hereto as States to be invited to adhere to the covenant. requires the assent of not less than two-thirds of the States represented in the body of delegates.

The high contracting parties recognize the principle that the maintenance of peace will re- quire the reduction of national armaments. shall not be exceeded without the permission of the Executive Council.The Proposed League in regard to its of Nations 109 naval and military forces and armaments. when adopted. to the lowest point consistent with national safety. common action of interna- having special regard to the geographical situation and circumstances of each State. and the enforcement by tional obligations. The Exe- cutive Council shall also determine for the consideration and action of the several Governments is what military equipment and armament and reasonable forces laid in proportion to fair the scale of down in the program of disarma- ment. and these limits. Article VIII. itself to grave ob- and direct the Executive Council to ad- . The high contracting parties agree that the manufacture by private enterprise of munitions and implements of war lends jections. and the Executive Council shall formulate plans for effecting such reduction.

and agree that there shall be full and frank interchange of information as military to their and naval programs.no vise Appendix how the evil effects attendant upon such which manufacture can be prevented. Article X. Article IX. The high contracting parties undertake in no way to conceal from each other the condition of such of their industries as are capable of being adapted to warlike purposes or the scale of their armaments. due regard being had to the necessities of those countries are not able to manufacture for themselves the munitions and implements of war necessary for their safety. The high to respect contracting parties shall undertake and preserve as against external agintegrity all States gression the territorial political and existing independence of members of . A permanent commission shall be constituted to advise the League on the execution of the provisions of Article VIII. and on military and naval questions generally.

The Proposed League the League. Article XII. Article XI. is hereby declared a matter of concern to the League. whether immedi- ately affecting any of the high contracting par- or not. It is effectual to safeguard the peace hereby also declared and agreed to be the friendly right of each of the high contracting parties to draw the attention of the body of dele- gates or of the Executive Council to any cir- cumstance affecting international intercourse which threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding between nations upon which peace depends. and the high contracting parties reserve the right to take any action that may be deemed wise and of nations. in case of of Nations iii In case of any such aggression or any threat or danger of such aggres- sion the Executive Council shall advise upon the means by which the obligation shall be fulfilled. The high contracting parties agree that should disputes arise between them which cannot be ad- . Any war ties or threat of war.

112 justed Appendix by the ordinary processes of diplomacy they will in no Case resort to war without previously submitting the questions and matters in- volved either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Executive Council and until three months after the tion award by the arbitrators or a recommendawill by the Executive Council. For this purpose the court of arbitration to which the . and that they not even then resort to war as against a member of the League which complies with the award of the arbitrators or the recommendation of the Executive Council. Article XIII. In any case under arbitrators shall be time. The high contracting parties agree that when- ever any dispute or difficulty shall arise between them. this article the award of the made within a reasonable and the recommendation of the Executive Council shall be made within six months after the submission of the dispute. which they recognize to be suitable for submission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by diplomacy. they will sub- mit the whole matter to arbitration.

In the event of any failure to carry out the award the Executive Council shall propose what steps can best be taken to give effect thereto. any ture. The Executive Council international justice. Article XV. members a rup- of the League. The high contracting parties agree that they will carry out in full faith good any award that may be rendered.The Proposed League case is of Nations 113 referred shall be the court agreed on by the parties or stipulated in any convention existing between them. Article XIV. shall formulate plans for the establishment of a permanent court of and this court shall. be competent to hear and determine any matter which the able for submission to parties recognize as suitit for arbitration under the foregoing article. when established. the high contracting parties agree that they will refer the matter to the Executive . dispute likely to lead to which is not submitted to arbitration as above. li there should arise between States.

who For will make all necessary arrangements for a eration thereof. indicating the nature of the dispute and the terms of explanations as settlement. If the dis- pute has not been settled. setting forth with all neces- sary facts and explanations the recommendation which the council think just and proper for the settlement of the dispute. the high contracting parties agree that they will not go to war with any party which complies with iiie recommendations. other than the parties to the dispute. statements of their case. a report by the council shcdl be published.114 Appendix Council. may forthwith direct the pub- Where the efforts of the council lead to the settlement of the dispute. together with such may be appropriate. and that. a statement shall be published. as promptly as possible. with all the relevant facts and papers. if any party shall . and the Executive Council lication thereof. either party to the dispute may give notice of the existence of the dispute to the Sec- retary General. full investigation and consid- this purpose the parties agree to communicate to the Secretary General. If the report is unanimously agreed to by the members of the council.

and of Article XII. in The Executive Council may gates. all days after the submission of the dispute. Should any of the high contracting parties break or disregard XII. provided that such request must be made within fourteen In delegates. If effect to the recom- no such unanimous report can be made it shall be the duty of the majority and the privilege of the minority to issue statements. it its covenants under Article shall thereby ipso facto be deemed all to have committed an act of war against the other . and containing the recommendations which they consider to be just and proper. Article XVI. any case under this article refer the dispute to the body of dele- The dispute shall be so referred at the request of either party to the dispute.. relating to the action and powers of the and Executive Council.The Proposed League of Nations ii^ refuse so to comply. any case referred to the body of the provisions of this article. the council shall propose measures necessary to give mendations. shall apply to the action powers of the body of delegates. in- dicating what they believe to be the facts.

ii6 Appendix members of the League. The high contracting parties agree. further. the prohibition intercourse between their nationals all and the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the prevention of all financial. or personal intercourse between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State. that they will mutually support one another in the financial and economic measures which may be taken under this article in order to minimize the loss and inconvenience resulting from the above measures. whejher a not. commercial. which hereby undertakes immediately to subject it to the severance of of all trade or financial relations. and that they will mutually support one another in resisting any special measures aimed at one of their number by the covenant- breaking State and that they will afford passage through their territory to the forces of any . It shall be the member of the League or duty of the Executive Council effective mili- in such case to recommend what tary or naval force the members of the League armed forces to shall severally contribute to the be used to protect the covenants of the League.

Article XVII. the Execuan in- tive Council shall immediately institute quiry into the circumstances and merits of the dispute best and recommend such action as may seem effectual in the circumstances. or between States not members of the League. shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute.The Proposed League of the high contracting parties of Nations 117 who are coopera- ting to protect the covenants of the League. and upon acceptance of any such invitation. and member of the . the high contracting parties agree that the State or States. the above provisions shall be applied with such modifications as may be deemed necessary by the League. In the event of disputes between one State member of the League and another State which is not a member of the League. Upon such invitation being given. and most In the event of a power so invited refusing to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such taking any action against a State dispute. upon such conditions as the Executive Council may deem just. not members of the League.

Article XIX. which in the case of a State the League would constitute a breach of Article XII. The high League vision shall contracting parties agree that the be intrusted with the general super- of the trade in arms and ammunition this with the countries in which the control of traffic is necessary in the common interest. be applicable as against the State taking such action. refuse to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute. To those colonies and territories which. the Executive Coundl may take such action and as will prevent hos- make such recommendations tilities and will result in the settlement of the dispute. have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which for- merly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves tin- . as a consequence of the late war.Il8 Appendix member of shall League. If both parties to the dispute. the provisions of Article XVI. Article XVIII. when so invited..

subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory power until such .The character of the mandate must differ ac- cording to the stage of the development of the people. Certain communities. their experience. and that this tutelage shoul^ be exercised by them as mandatories on behalf of the League.The Proposed League of Nations 119 der the strenuous conditions of the modern world. can best undertake this responsibility. . or their geographical position. its economic conditions and other similar circumstances. have reached a stage of development where their existence as independ- ent nations can be provisionally recognized. who by reason of their resources. the geographical situation of the territory. The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such peoples should be intrusted to advanced nations. formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire. there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such peoples 'form a sacred trust of civilization and that securities for the performance of this trust should be embodied in the constitution of the League.

subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals. can be best administered under ^ . the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade. subject to conditions antee freedom of conscience or religion.120 Appendix The wishes time as they are able to stand alone. There are territories. such as Southwest Africa Pacific Islands. the fic. of tiiese communities must be a principal conselection sideration in the of the mandatory power. especially those of Africa. or their small size. Other peoples. or their geographical contiguity to the mandatory State and other cir- cumstances. which. arms traffic. are at such Central a stage that the mandatory which will guar- must be responsible for the administration of the territory. and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other members of the League. and the liquor traf- and the prevention of the establishment of or military and naval bases and of fortifications military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defense of territory. or their remoteness from the centers of civilization. and certain of the South owing to the sparseness of the population.

both in own countries and in all countries to which . or adminis- tration. women. and their cliildreh. The high contracting parties further agree to establish at the seat of the League a mandatory commission to receive and examine the annual reports of the mandatory powers. be explicitly defined by the Executive Council in a special act or charter. if by the mandatory State. and to assist the League in insuring the observance of the terms of all mandates. interests of the indigenous In every case of mandate. not previously agreed upon by the high contracting parties in each case. control. humane The high contracting parties will endeavor to conditions secure and maintain fair and of labor for men.The Proposed League of Nations 121 laws of the mandatory States as integral portions thereof. to be exercised shall. the mandatory State shall render to the League an annual report its in reference to the territory committed to charge. !Article XX. subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the population. ^ The degree of authority.

and to that end agree to establish as part of the organization of the League a permanent bureau of labor.122 their Appendix commercial and industrial relations extend. they agree that such international bu- reaus to be constituted in future shall be placed under control of the League. special arrangenecessities ing in mind. under the control of the League bureaus already established by general if the parties to such treaties consent. among ments with regard to the regions devastated during the of the war of 1914-1918. havother things. Article XXI. Article XXIL all The high contracting parties agree to place international treaties. . all Further- more. The high contracting parties agree that pro- vision shall be made through the instrumentality of the League to secure and maintain freedom of transit and equitable treatment for the com- merce of all States members of the League.

and that no such treaty or international engage- ment shall be binding until so registered. is The high ing all contracting parties severally agree that the present covenant accepted as abrogat- obligations inter se which are inconsist- ent with the terms thereof. Article XXV. . Article XXIV. It shall be the right of the body of delegates to time to advise the reconsideration treaties from time by States members of the League of which have become inapplicable and of international conditions of which the continuance may endanger the peace of the world. and solemnly engage that they will not hereafter enter into any en- gagement inconsistent with the terms thereof.The Proposed League of Nations 123 Article XXIII. The high contracting parties agree that every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by any State shall member of the League be forthwith registered with the Secretary General and as soon as possible published by him.

124 Appendix In case any of the powers signatory hereto or subsequently admitted to the League shall. THE END. . be- fore becoming a party to this covenant. the duty of such to procure its it shall be power to take immediate from such steps release obligations. Article XXVI. Amendments to this covenant will when ratified by the States whose tives take effect representa- compose the Executive Council and by three-fourths of the States tives whose representa- compose the body of delegates. have undertaken any obligations which are inconsistent with the terms of this covenant.

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America or wherever else his presence has been or is A THE SOCIALIST MENT cisco ArgonoMt. Its History.. PROFIT SHARING _ AND Ex> „. Green. and effects of unemployment. Hirst. UBERALISH A POUTICAIi THOUGHT I From Herbert Spencer to the Present Day By EaHEST ford. man of the British Labor CX>. good paper. author of Democracy and Reaction. OF ENGLISH — Cbafhak.L. clear. MacGregos.A. Conatltntlon. Professor of. also maps '\f\ or illustrations where needed. Paul Vihogkadoff. "The latest authoritative exposition of Socialism. Editor of the London Economist. the psychological basis. author study Problenu of Poverty. T. liant account of the genius and mission of the Irish people. W. chester. Social and Roles ^Legal Sights and Duties —Facts and Acts in Law ^Legislation—Custom—-Judicial Precedents—Equity^-The Law of Nature. Vinerian nnfessor of English Law. trade fluctuations. the COHUON-SENSE IN ^iXW remedy or relief. BoBSOH. and Praetlce By Sir Courtehay P. workmg BliBMENTS OF POUTICAIi By By Prof. PreEducation. and I would advise eve^ one with a drop of Irish blood in his veins or a vein of Irish sympathy in his heart to read it. H. L. masterly philosophical and historical review of the subject. University of Leeds. The meaning. Professor of Economy and Dean of Faculty of Commerce and Administration. Professor of Manchester. Admirably Sun. A Intntdne- tlon to the Stndy of THE SCIENCE OF WEALTH of By J. FiNDLAY. "Can be praised without reserve.PARTNERSHIP important. Ilsert. Ox- VNBHPIiOTHENT By A. the modern business world. Volume HENRY PVBUSHERS HOLT AND COMPANY New York . BUBGHAXT DuBoiB. ox the theory of the subject for non-expert readers. and the theory of the school with a rare. Clerk of the House of Commons. M. distribution. D."W^«w Yorb A J M m »««. power of sum- A. sents the history. pel and sold separately. University of ManS. Reveals to the non-financial mind the facta about investment. J. E. or both. Political ECONOMY A THE SCHOOLS An Edncatlan Gbldart. . An outline of the r» cent changes that have given us present conditions of the classes and the principles involved." San Fran- By Ahbukih Williams. R. HOME author of Soult of Black Folks. ChairParty. — Le^ BUaiHENTS By W. :PARI<IABIENT.C. "An entrancing work. and some proposals of THE EVOLITTION OF By DUSTRT IN> D. basic principles of the English legal system on which that <if the United States is based.. C. and disputes. Rahsay Macdohald. measure^ ment. Each complc^ 3\^^ brilJ.— SCIENCE BOOKS ON SOCIAL LIBRARY UNIVERSITY THE IN THE jnBJGRO By W. mary and suggestion. history of the black man etc in Africa. its relation to wages. THE STOCK EXCHANGE By Prof. M. plains the various types of copartnership or profit-sharing. ^oa Cloth bound. . speculation. LL.Political Economy at Cambridge. and gives details of the arrangements now in force in many of the great industries. clear statement By J. By F. of the structure and working of A IRISH NATIONAIiITT By Mrs. FiGon.D. dear type. Bakkek.. M. 2S6 pages |m per volume^ bibliographies. J.A. and the other terms which the title suggests. Oxsimple statement of the ford. indices. Professor of Political Economy. Timef Review. HoBHonsE. clear zao uotb Douna."—W«w yorb HOTX3- By J.

PRESIDENT: A BRIEF APPRECIATION OF WOODROW By mUJAM ARCHER The liness.) A THE PEACE. ANARCHISM AND SYNDICALISM Bs BERTRAND RUSSELL.League of Nations as presented by one of (Germany's radical leaders. auMor of "Why Men Fight The London Times: able man. WILSON New York Sun: "Will reap the reward of time. and the to be represented. the Reichilag. Memhet of Bernard Mian.) . ERZBERGER.25 net. reward of attention for its own merit. ($1. but deserves ($1. Translated by German view of the.) : PROPOSED ROADS TO FREEDOM SOCIALISM.25 net." ($3. ($2.00 net." HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY PUBLISHERS NEW YORK ." BOOKS FOR THESE TIMES THE PEOPLE'S PART Bjt IN PEACE ORDWAY TEAD basis The economic question of how labor is of the League of Nations.) THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS: THE WAY TO THE WORLD'S PEACE By M.) SDC HOUR DAY: AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL QUESTIONS £b LORD LEVERHULME THE London Christian World: " Here is the one clear voice from the side of enlightened capitalism heard above the babel of reconstructive chatter." "A remarkable book by a remark- ($1'!S0 net. .10 net.

the matter authoritative. 3rd printing. It gives the facts upon which opinion may earlier fate of safely rest.— BY CHARLES — DOWNER HAZEN 1815 Library edition. ALSACE-LORRAINE UNDER GERMAN RULE 12mo." first volume of note in this field of history." Publishers^ Weekly. Professor of History. the scope widely inclusive. _ For the last twenty-five years it is almost without a competitor. Belgium has suffered under our own eyes. but the Alsace-Lorraine lies in a period of European history which is hazy to most Americans. The style is fresh and attractive. yet actually sufficient. " Has easily the field in English. HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY PUBLISHERS NEW YORK . and their great popularity js based as much on their accuracy and fairness as on their readability. This book provides a brief and reliable account of the matter. ^.at the very heart of the present struggle. Should be on every book-shelf for reading or reference. Columbia University EUROPE SINCE Octavo. with 14 colored maps. The author's 'magic ofistyle' makes his books the most widely circulated of any American historian's writings. ttet. "By "The far the best short.00 The author starts at the Congress of Vienna.30 net." Harvard Graduates Magazine. iil. presentment is of a question that —Boston Transcript. and comes down to and explains the situation out of which the present war has developed.