UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

DESIGN: MOORINGS

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) DESIGN: MOORINGS Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the copyright holder.

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND (Preparing Activity) AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY

Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/) Change No. Date Location

_____________ This UFC supersedes Military Handbook 1026/4, dated July 1999.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 FOREWORD
The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance with USD(AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is also governed by Status of forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.) Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the more stringent of the UFC, the SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable. UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to users as part of the Services’ responsibility for providing technical criteria for military construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic form: Criteria Change Request (CCR). The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed below. UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following source:
• Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/.

Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current electronic version prior to use to ensure that they are current.

AUTHORIZED BY:
______________________________________ DONALD L. BASHAM, P.E. Chief, Engineering and Construction U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ______________________________________ DR. JAMES W WRIGHT, P.E. Chief Engineer Naval Facilities Engineering Command

______________________________________ KATHLEEN I. FERGUSON, P.E. The Deputy Civil Engineer DCS/Installations & Logistics Department of the Air Force

______________________________________ Dr. GET W. MOY, P.E. Director, Installations Requirements and Management Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Environment)

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) NEW DOCUMENT SUMMARY SHEET

Description of Change: The UFC 4-159-03, DESIGN: MOORING represents another step in the joint Services effort to bring uniformity to the planning, design and construction of piers and wharves. This UFC contains extensive modifications in the following areas: Heavy Weather Mooring Passing Ship Effects Ship Generated Waves Conversion from Mil-Hdbk to UFC and general updates and revisions Reasons for Change: The existing guidance was inadequate for the following reasons: Need to convert to UFC format Incorporation of changes described above Update to referenced documents Impact: The following direct benefits will result from the update of 4-159-03, DESIGN: MOORING: Although primarily a U.S. Navy document, a single, comprehensive, up to date criteria document exists to cover mooring design. Eliminates misinterpretation and ambiguities that could lead to design and construction conflicts. Facilitates updates and revisions and promotes agreement and uniformity of design and construction between the Services.

.4 Currents .............................. 3-6 Vessel Design Considerations ............................................................... 3-5........................................................... 3-8...............1 Winds...7 General Mooring Integrity ....... 2-2.............................................................. 3-5....................................... 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 17 19 20 21 21 22 22 25 25 25 25 30 30 32 32 36 36 36 36 36 36 40 40 42 42 45 50 53 ii .............................UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Paragraph 1-1 Purpose and Scope ............................ 3-8 Environmental Forcing Design Considerations .................. 3-2........ CHAPTER 3 BASIC DESIGN PROCEDURE Paragraph 3-1 Design Approach ..........................2 Ship Hydrostatics/Hydrodynamics Coordinates ............................................................................................................................................................ 1-2 Purpose of Criteria...................... 3-4 Risk .........5 Ship Conditions.......................1 Mooring Service Types .............3 Local Mooring Coordinate System..................................................................2 Dynamic Mooring Analysis....................................... 2-1......8 Quasi-Static Safety Factors .................................................................................6 Design Methods...................................................... 3-3............................ 3-3 Design Methods......................... 3-2...........................................4 Strength ......................................................................................... 2-2..................... 3-2............................................ 3-5............ 3-5.............................................................................. 3-8........................................................................................... 3-8.............................. 3-2.......................2 Wind Gust Fronts................................................................1 Quasi-Static Design .............................. 3-3................................................................................................................................... 1-4 Cancellation ................................1 Purpose of Mooring ................................. 3-2...... CHAPTER 2 MOORING SYSTEMS Paragraph 2-1 Introduction ................................................................ 3-2.........................3 Ship Hardware Design Criteria for Mooring Service Types.............. 3-5 Coordinate Systems .............1 Fixed Mooring Systems .............. 3-2...............................................................................................9 Allowable Ship Motions.....2 Fleet Mooring Systems ..... 1-5 Organizational Roles and Responsibilities....... 3-7 Facility Design Considerations.......................5 Serviceability............... 3-2.............................................4 Global Coordinate System ................................................... 3-2............. 1-3 Definition........1 Ship Design/Construction Coordinates ..................................3 Storms ............................ 2-2 Types of Mooring Systems .......... 3-2 General Design Criteria ................................. 3-8........2 Facility Design Criteria for Mooring Service Types ....................... 3-5........................................

...........4 Static Current Yaw Moment ........................................................................................................................................ 5-3 Driven-Plate Anchor Design ....... 4-4 Static Wind Forces/Moments ..................................................................................................................8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 Water Levels............................................... 6-2 Key Mooring Components .............. 4-6 Wind and Current Forces and Moments on Multiple Ships .......................... 4-4.................................................................................................................................................................................. Waves......................... Operational Considerations .......................................... 4-3 Principal Coordinate Directions... 6-6 Sinkers.................................... 6-4 Chain and Fittings............. 4-5. 63 63 64 65 65 75 79 82 82 89 94 95 96 97 105 110 115 115 115 115 115 120 124 124 124 124 131 131 iii ........................... 6-7............... 4-4................................................................. General Mooring Guidelines ........ 6-2............................................................................................................................1 Static Transverse Current Force......................................... 6-3 Anchors .................................... Maintenance .........6 3-8............ 6-2.................................................................................. 4-2 Engineering Properties of Water and Air ..........................3 Static Longitudinal Current Force for Blunt Vessels..... CHAPTER 6 FACILITY MOORING EQUIPMENT GUIDELINES Paragraph 6-1 Introduction . Environmental Design Information............................ 6-5 Buoys........................................... 53 53 54 54 57 58 59 59 CHAPTER 4 STATIC ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES AND MOMENTS ON VESSELS Paragraph 4-1 Scope .............................................................................................2 Compression Members.............................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 3-8...................1 Static Transverse Wind Force..............1 Tension Members ...............2 Static Longitudinal Current Force for Ships ................................................................................................. 5-2 Drag-Embedment Anchor Specification...............2 Static Longitudinal Wind Force ..... CHAPTER 5 ANCHOR SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES Paragraph 5-1 General Anchor Design Procedure ..... 4-5 Static Current Forces/Moments ............................ 4-5.. 4-5..............................5 3-8................................................ 6-7................................. 4-4................................ Inspection .............................................................................................................................................................................7 3-8............................2 Wire Ropes .................................................3 Static Wind Yaw Moment................................................................................................................ 4-5.......1 Synthetic Fiber Ropes .......... 6-7 Mooring Lines .......................... Water Depths........... 6-8 Fenders .........

............6 Definitions ...................2 Ship ...................................... 8-2...5 Mooring Hawser Break ....... CHAPTER 8 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS Paragraph 8-1 Introduction ......................................................3 Ship .......... 7-3 Equipment Specification .........................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 6-9 6-10 6-11 Pier Fittings... 8-3................................................... 8-2................1 Background for Example ...................................................................... 8-4......... 8-3....................... 7-4 Fixed Bitts .............................................................. 8-5 Mooring LPD-17..... 8-4..................... 7-6 Exterior Shell Bitts .....2 Goal .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-2.........9 Dynamic Analysis ... 8-4.................................................................................................................................................................... 8-3.................. 8-4............................................................................................................................................................................. 8-3.....5 Anchor Locations ................................ Catenary Behavior ............ 8-3....................................4 Spread Mooring ................................. Sources of Information.................................................................................................. 8-3............................................................................................................................................................... 7-8 Allowable Hull Pressures ..........................................7 Number of Mooring Legs .................... 7-9 Sources of Information for Ships’ Mooring Equipment............................................................................. 8-3............................................................................................................2 Goal .Basic Approach............ 8-2.....................................................................8 Static Analysis ......................... 134 136 139 CHAPTER 7 VESSEL MOORING EQUIPMENT GUIDELINES Paragraph 7-1 Introduction ............. 8-4.... 8-4.Basic Approach ................Basic Approach .................................... LHD-1 and LHA-1 ... 8-2............ 8-2 Single Point Mooring ............3 Fixed Mooring ...................................4 Forces/Moments .............1 Background....................7 Wharf Mooring Concept .....................................................................6 Preliminary Analysis ............................................ 141 141 141 142 142 142 142 142 142 149 149 151 151 152 152 152 155 155 155 155 156 156 156 161 166 166 166 166 168 169 170 171 173 174 177 181 iv ................................. 8................1 Background for Example ............................................................................................................................................3 Ship ..................3 Forces/Moments ......4 Quasi-Static Design ........... 7-5 Recessed Shell Bitts........ 7-2 Types of Mooring Equipment ...................................10 Anchor Design ...... 8-4......... 8-4.................................................................................................. 8............................5 Definitions ..... 7-7 Chocks........... 8-4...................................................................... 8-4..4 Forces/Moments ........................................................

............................................................... Ships on Both Sides of a Pier (plan view) . 11-4..... v .........................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 8-5.1 Planning.....................3 Maintenance ................................. 11-4 Action........................................................ 11-2 Discussion ............... Spread Mooring ................ 10-2 Ship Waves.......................... 181 CHAPTER 9 PASSING SHIP EFFECTS ON MOORED SHIPS Paragraph 9-1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 11-4................. 9-2 Passing Ship Effects on Moored Ships .................................... Two Inactive Ships Moored at a Wharf .............................. Floating Drydock Spud Moored ....... Single Point Mooring With a Plate Anchor and a Sinker .................................... CHAPTER 11 HEAVY WEATHER MOORING GUIDELINES Paragraph 11-1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Analysis and Design ............................................... Ship at a T-Pier (plan view) ... CHAPTER 10 SHIP WAVES Paragraph 10-1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................4 Operations . Bow-Stern Mooring Shown in Plan View ...................... 11-5 Environmental Design Criteria for Selected Sites ................................................................................................................. 11-4. 190 190 193 193 197 197 198 203 203 203 203 203 203 APPENDIX A REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................1 Mooring LPD-17. Single Point Mooring With Drag Anchors............................... 11-4........................................................................ Spread Mooring ....................................................................... 11-3 Heavy Weather Mooring Guidelines .................................................................................... Two Ships on One Side of a Pier (plan view) .... FIGURES A-1 Figure 1-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 Title Page 2 5 5 6 6 7 11 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 DOD Organizations Involved With Ship Moorings ................................................................................................................... Offset From a Pier With Camels ............................................................................................................................................. Single Ship... Med-Mooring .................................................................................................. Ship at Anchor .

......................................................................................................... Sample Ship Profiles ...................... Pier and Wharf Mooring Fittings Shown in Profile and Plan Views ................................................................................................................................................................................. Local Coordinate System for a Ship . Ship Design and Hydrostatic Coordinates ............... Shape Function for Transverse Wind Force ........ Ratio of Wind Speeds for Various Gusts.............. Sample Wind Gust Fronts on Guam ............. Example of a Drag-Embedment Anchor (NAVMOOR Anchor) .................... Idealized Models of Chain Wear ........................................................................ Examples of Ratios of Ship Draft (T) to Water Depth (d) ...................................................... Recessed Shell Bitt (minimum strength requirements) ................................ Initial Versus Maximum Wind Speeds for Wind Gust Fronts............................................................... Example of Transverse Current Drag Coefficients.......... Wind Gust Front Maxima on Guam 1982-1986 ........................................................... Local Mooring Coordinate System for a Ship................. Local Mooring Coordinate System for a Ship............................................ Broadside Current Drag Coefficient ............................................. Fixed and Recessed Shell Bitts .......................................................... Anchor System Holding Capacity in Cohesionless Soil (Sand) ................ 99 100 101 108 109 113 123 127 132 133 135 137 138 144 146 150 vi ........................... Typhoon OMAR Wind Chart Recording ..................... Distribution of Guam Wind Gust Front Wind Angle Changes.................................................... Major Steps of Driven-Plate Anchor Installation..................................................... Chain Fittings.................................................................................................... Some Types of Behavior of Ships at Single Point Moorings .. Load/Deflection Curve for the Example Mooring Leg ............................................. Synthetic Line Stretch ........................................ Definition of Terms...................................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 FIGURES (continued) Figure 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 7-1 7-2 8-1 Title Page 35 37 38 39 43 44 46 47 48 49 60 66 67 70 71 73 74 81 83 84 88 Risk Diagram ................. Sample Catenary ............................................................................ SEA-CUSHON Fender Performance ............................................ Blockage Effect for an Impermeable Structure Next to a Moored Ship Sample Yaw Normalized Moment Coefficient........ Example of a Drag-Embedment Anchor (Stabilized Stockless Anchor) ............ SEA-GUARD Fender Information ......................................... Anchor System Holding Capacity in Cohesive Soil (Mud) ...................................................................................................................... Driven-Plate Anchor.......................... Example .........

.............................................. Approximate Safe Mooring Limits for LPD-17 with 28 Parts of Mooring Line ..................... Ship Waves ...................................................................... Definitions ................................................................................................................................ Plate Anchor Holding Capacity ... Sample LPD-17 Storm Mooring .......................... Sample LPD-17 Mooring at a Double-Deck Pier... Maximum Wave Height One Wavelength Away From the Sailing Line for a SERIES 60 Hull.......................... Wind Forces and Moments on a Single Loaded CVN-68 for a 75-mph (33.......................................................... Wind Forces and Moments on a Nest of Four DD 963 Class Vessels for a Wind Speed of 78 mph (35 m/s) ........................... Ship Hull-Forms Tested ... LPD-17 USS SAN ANTONIO..................................................... Component Analysis of Mooring Working Capacity .........5-m/s) Wind ............................... 11-1 11-2 202 204 vii .............................................................................................................................................................. Example of a Standard LPD 17 Mooring and Heavy Weather Mooring ........................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 FIGURES (continued) Figure 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-12 8-13 8-14 8-15 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-19 8-20 8-21 8-22 9-1 9-2 10-1 10-2 10-3 Title Page 153 154 157 158 159 160 162 163 164 165 167 170 172 175 180 182 184 186 187 188 189 192 193 196 197 198 Example Single Point Mooring................................................................................................... Required Mooring Capacity Using the Optimum Ideal Mooring .. Spread Mooring Arrangement for a Nest of Four Destroyers................. Sample Passing Ship Situation................. Securing Two Parts of Heavy Weather Mooring Line ................ Optimum Ideal Mooring................................. Efficiency of Ship Moorings Using Synthetic Lines at Piers and Wharves .............................................................................................................................................. Sample LPD-17 Heavy Weather Mooring .........................5 m/s) Winds (‘Model 2’) .............................. Aircraft Carrier Mooring Concept .......................... Example Mooring Failure Due to a Wind Gust Front ........................................................................................................................................................... Example of Passing Ship Predictions .......... Sample LPD-17 Standard Mooring ........ End View of DD 963 Mooring Nest ...................................................................... Mooring Line Tensions for a CVN-68 Moored at a Wharf with 75 mph (33................................................................................................................... CVN-68 Wharf Mooring Concept (‘Model 2’) .................

..................................................................................... Design Recommendations........... viii .........................5 m/s (2..................................................... Mooring Service Types .......................... Mooring Operational Design Considerations ....... Drag Anchor Holding Parameters SI Units.................................... Storm Parameters....................... Recommended Values of θx .................. Inspection Guidelines............. Sample Distribution of Wind Gust Fronts on Guam (Agana NAS) from 1982 to 1986....................... Customary....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Design Considerations – Ship.......... Drag Anchor Holding Parameters U....... Engineering Properties of Air and Water.................... Minimum Quasi-Static Factors of Safety.......................................................... Current Moment Eccentricity Ratio Variables ................ Basic Mooring Design Approach With Known Facility for a Specific Site and a Specific Ship ...................................................................................................................................................S.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Major Steps in Driven-Plate Anchor Installation....................... Conditions Requiring Special Analysis . Some Sources of Environmental Design Information ............ Area Ratio for Major Vessel Groups ...... Anchor Specification Considerations ............9 knots) ................................................................................................................................. Quasi-Static Design Notes.............................................................. Example Destroyer ............................................................................................................................... Recommended Ship Longitudinal Wind Force Drag Coefficients ............................ Design Issues ........................................ Sample Wind Coefficients for Ships.............. Examples of Fleet Moorings ................................................ Predicted Transverse Current Forces on FFG-7 for a Current Speed of 1................................... Facility Design Criteria for Mooring Service Types ....................................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 TABLES Table 2-1 2-2 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 Title Page 4 8 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 31 34 40 41 47 50 55 58 59 61 63 69 76 76 80 87 92 93 93 96 98 102 106 107 111 112 Examples of Fixed Moorings.................... Driven-Plate Anchor Components ......................................................................... Ship Mooring Hardware Design Criteria................................................. Recommended Practical Motion Criteria for Moored Vessels......... Example Longitudinal Current Forces on a Destroyer ......... Parameters in a Mooring Project .................................... Anchor Characteristics....................... Normalized Wind Yaw Moment Variables......................... Design Considerations – Facility......................

......................S. Closed Chocks (minimum strength requirements) .......................... Sources of Information for Ships’ Mooring Equipment . Some Factors to Consider When Specifying Synthetic Line or Wire Rope ............................................... Sources of Information for Facility Mooring Equipment........................ LPD-17 Characteristics .................. Navy Fleet Mooring Inventory........................................ NAVMOOR Anchors in the U........... Types of Ship Based Mooring Equipment.......................... Commonly Used U....................................................... Environmental Forces ............................................................................. Navy Fleet Mooring Inventory .. Stockless Anchors in the U........................................................................................................................................ DD 963 Criteria (1/3 Stores) ............. Navy Pier Mooring Fittings ............................... Fixed Ship’s Bitts (minimum strength requirements) .............................................UFC 4-159-03 February 2005 TABLES (continued) Table 5-7 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 GLOSSARY APPENDIX A Title Typical Driven-Plate Anchors....................... DD 963 Nest Motions for Surge............................................................ 2nd LT JOHN P BOBO Parameters (Fully Loaded) ............ REFERENCES ..................................................................... Page 114 116 118 119 121 122 125 126 128 129 130 134 139 143 145 147 148 151 155 168 169 173 176 179 183 204 A-1 ix ..................... . FM3 Mooring Chain Characteristics.............. Sway....... Double Braided Nylon Line ................................................................................................. Quasi-Static Leg Tensions for the Spread Mooring at Various Wind Directions With a Flood Tidal Current ......... and Yaw at Various Wind Directions With a Flood Tidal Current ........................... Properties of FM3 Chain Anodes.......................................................................................................S............ Stretch of Synthetic Lines .......................................................................................................... Foam-Filled Polyurethane Coated Buoys ......................................................... Peak Dynamic Chain Tensions for DD 963 Nest for Various Wind Directions and a Flood Tidal Current .......... Double Braided Polyester Lines..................................... Practical Experience With Anchors.................................................... CVN-68 Criteria (Fully Loaded) .........S..

etc. Safe use of moorings is of particular importance for the end users (the ship's personnel and facility operators). 1-5 ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES. is defined as a compliant structure that restrains a vessel against the action of wind. in general terms. 1-4 CANCELLATION.). This UFC cancels and supersedes MIL-HDBK-1026/4 Mooring Design.) used to secure vessels (surface ships. and to be able to meet mission requirements. and/or serious accidents. Department of Defense (DOD) vessels. Over the design life of a mooring facility. wave. consistency.S. who set the initial mission requirements for vessels and facilities. and mooring facilities throughout the world. yard craft. etc. For example. Figure 1 illustrates the DOD organizations that must understand the various aspects of moorings. the emphasis is on moorings composed of tension members (chain. all these groups must maintain open communications to ensure safe and effective moorings. For the purposes of this UFC. Other criteria should not be used without specific authorization. 1-3 DEFINITION. A mooring. The term mooring in this UFC includes anchoring of ships. if the customer setting the overall mission requirement states "We need a ship class and associated facilities to meet mission X.) and compression members (fenders. to deck personnel securing lines. Personnel involved range from policy makers. many organizations are involved with the various aspects of a facility. line. the ship and facility operators can be faced with a lifetime of problems. camels. They must understand the safe limits of a mooring to properly respond to significant events. This UFC provides design policy and procedures for design of moorings for U. July 1999. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. wire rope. In addition. It is equally important for all organizations and personnel shown in Figure 1-1 to understand moorings. floating drydocks. etc. submarines. and safety of DOD vessels.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE. mishaps. and specification Y will be used to obtain these assets" and there is a mismatch between X and Y. and current forces. The purpose of this UFC is to ensure quality. such as a sudden storm. mooring hardware. 1-2 PURPOSE OF CRITERIA. 1 .

NAVFAC MISSION DEFINITION/ PLANNING NAVFAC NAVSEA. DOD Organizations Involved With Ship Moorings PENTAGON. MSC. NAVSEA. NSWCCD-SSES. USACOE SHIP DESIGN SHIPYARD SUPSHIP FACILITY CONSTRUCTION SHIP FABRICATION PORT OPS. MSC FACILITY DESIGN NAVFAC ROICC.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 1-1. MSC Organization Primary Users Examples 2 . PWC FACILITY OPERATION/ MAINTENANCE SHIP OPERATION/ MAINTENANCE FLEET.

The DOD uses several types of mooring systems to moor ships. Ship moorings are provided for: a) Loading/Unloading . etc.2 Fleet Mooring Systems. Mooring in harbors also allows improved access to various services and other forms of transportation. b) Fleet Moorings . fuel.1 PURPOSE OF MOORING.Moorings are used to support special mission requirements.Loading and unloading items such as stores.Fixed moorings are defined as systems that include tension and compression members. etc. 2-1. Most DOD moorings are provided in harbors to reduce exposure to waves.Fleet moorings are defined as systems that include primarily tension members. Typical fixed mooring systems include moorings at piers and wharves. b) Ship Storage . A key need is to safely hold the vessel to protect the ship. and reduce dynamic mooring loads. c) Maintenance/Repairs . and to preserve the capabilities of the vessel and surrounding facilities. Ships in an inactive or reserve status are stored at moorings. 2-2 TYPES OF MOORING SYSTEMS. tracking.1 Fixed Mooring Systems. d) Mission . 3 . Examples of typical fixed moorings are given in Table 2-1 and illustrated in Figures 2-1 through 2-5. These systems can be summarized into two broad categories of moorings: a) Fixed Moorings . Examples of typical fleet moorings are given in Table 2-2 and illustrated in Figures 2-6 through 2-13. Examples of typical moorings systems are given in this chapter. personnel. ammunition. life. reduce ship motions. training. cargo. such as surveillance. The more common types of moorings are discussed in this chapter. Examples of fleet moorings include fleet mooring buoys and ship’s anchor systems. the public interest.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 2 MOORING SYSTEMS 2-1 INTRODUCTION.Making a variety of repairs or conducting maintenance on the ship is often performed with a ship moored. 2-2. The purpose of a mooring is to safely hold a ship in a certain position to accomplish a specific mission. Mooring loads are transferred into the earth via anchors. 2-2.Storing the ship in a mooring reduces fuel consumption and personnel costs.

such as a floating drydock. Multiple Vessel Moorings FIGURE DESCRIPTION NUMBER 2-4 Vessels can be placed adjacent to one another on opposite sides of a pier to provide some blockage of the environmental forces/moments on the downstream vessel. fender piles and/or camels keep the vessel offset from the structure. 2-5 Vessels can be placed adjacent to one another to provide significant blockage of the environmental forces/ moments on the downstream vessel(s). A T-pier may be used to keep the ship parallel to the current. MOORING TYPE Pier/Wharf Spud Mooring MOORING TYPE Opposite Sides of a Pier Multiple Vessels Next to One Another 4 . Compliant fenders. where the current speed is high. 2-3 Multiple vertical structural steel beams are used to secure the vessel. Single Vessel Secured at Multiple Points FIGURE DESCRIPTION NUMBER 2-1 Multiple tension lines are used to secure a vessel 2-2 next to a pier/wharf. Spud moorings can be especially susceptible to dynamic processes. b. This type of mooring is especially effective for construction barges temporarily working in shallow water. such as harbor seiches and earthquakes. Examples of Fixed Moorings a.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 2-1.

Offset From a Pier With Camels STORM BOLLARDS MOORING LINE CAMELS LPD-17 Figure 2-2. Single Ship. Ship at a T-Pier (plan view) CURRENT 5 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-1.

Floating Drydock Spud Moored (spuds are secured to a pier. which is not shown. Ships on Both Sides of a Pier (plan view) CAMELS LINES PIER 6 . and the floating drydock rides up and down on the spuds. profile view is shown) Figure 2-4.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-3.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-5. Two Ships on One Side of a Pier (plan view) 7 .

may be a problem. 2-7 A single point mooring (SPM) buoy is secured to 2-8 the seafloor typically with 1 to 12 ground legs and either drag or plate anchors. The ship moors to the buoy using an anchor chain or hawser. MOORING TYPE At Anchor Single Mooring Buoy 8 . A vessel at a mooring buoy is much less prone to fishtailing than a ship at anchor. This is usually a temporary mooring used as a last resort in benign conditions. Putting out a second anchor in what is known as a Hammerlock mooring may be required in storm anchoring. Navy facilities around the world are provided under the U.S. which helps to reduce the mooring load. Navy’s Fleet Mooring Program.S. A large amount of harbor room is required for the ship swing watch circle. Many of the mooring buoys at U. The vessel weathervanes under the action of forcing. Vessel Secured at a Single Point FIGURE NUMBER DESCRIPTION 2-6 Typical configuration includes the ship deploying a single drag anchor off the bow. even under steady winds and currents. This type of mooring requires much less room than a ship at anchor because the pivot point is much closer to the vessel. If the wind changes direction dramatically then the anchor will have to reset. Examples of Fleet Moorings a. Dynamic fishtailing.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 2-2.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 2-2. However. two moorings share the load. This type of mooring is commonly used for tenders or in cases where available harbor space is limited. Vessel Secured at Two Points FIGURE NUMBER DESCRIPTION 2-9 A vessel is moored with one buoy to the bow and another to the stern. This arrangement of moorings is especially useful for securing permanently or semi-permanently moored vessels. The ship(s) are usually oriented parallel to the current. such as floating drydocks and inactive ships. currents. Vessel Secured at Multiple Points FIGURE NUMBER DESCRIPTION 2-10 The vessel bow is secured to two mooring buoys and the stern is moored to the end of a pier or wharf. Hence. Also. 2-11 Multiple mooring legs are used to secure a vessel. the mooring tension can be much higher if the winds. or waves have a large broadside component to the ship. This system has a much smaller watch circle than a vessel at a single mooring buoy. c. the term “Med” Mooring. (continued) Examples of Fleet Moorings b. MOORING TYPE Bow-Stern Mooring MOORING TYPE Med-Mooring Spread Mooring 9 . Commonly used in the Mediterranean Sea.

Nests of vessels are commonly put into spread moorings. Nested vessels may be of similar size (as for inactive ships) or much different size (as a submarine alongside a tender). Multiple Vessel Moorings FIGURE DESCRIPTION NUMBER Multiple tension members are used to secure 2-12 several vessels together. MOORING TYPE Nest 10 . (continued) Examples of Fleet Moorings d.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 2-2. Advantages of nesting are: a nest takes up relatively little harbor space and forces/moments on a nest may be less than if the ships were moored individually. Separators are used to 2-13 keep the vessels from contacting one another.

Ship at Anchor 11 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-6.

Single Point Mooring With Drag Anchors 12 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-7.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-8. Single Point Mooring With a Plate Anchor and a Sinker 13 .

Med-Mooring 14 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-9. Bow-Stern Mooring Shown in Plan View Figure 2-10.

Spread Mooring 15 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-11.

Two inactive ships moored at a wharf (separators between ships not shown) Figure 2-13. Spread Mooring 16 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 2-12.

Facility Configuration 4. dimensions. fenders. draft. Mooring Configuration 6.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 3 BASIC DESIGN PROCEDURE 3-1 DESIGN APPROACH. Environmental Parameters 5. Table 3-1. locations/type/capacity of mooring fittings/fenders. current speed and direction. water depth. wind areas. Ship Configuration EXAMPLES Required ship position. The basic approach to performing mooring design with the facility and ship known is given in Table 3-2. facility condition. facility overall capacity Wind speed. mooring fitting locations. displacement. amount of motion allowed Basic ship parameters. camels. Begin the design with specified parameters and use engineering principles to complete the design. wind/current force. Stretch/strain characteristics of the mooring tension and compression members 3. Operational Parameters 2. and moment coefficients Facility location. Types of parameters associated with mooring projects are summarized in Table 3-1. wave conditions and possibility of ice Number/size/type/location of tension members. Parameters in a Mooring Project PARAMETER 1. water levels. Material Properties 17 . width. etc. such as length.

fender design. design water levels. etc Prepare Notice to Mariners for the case of in-water construction work and notify charting authorities concerning updating charts for the area. establish how the mooring is to be used. maintenance. and other important aspects. Prepare any required studies and paperwork. moments.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-2. Determine the water depth(s). allowable hull pressures. and other parameters. impact on the site. design winds. review the budget and schedule. Perform static and/or dynamic analyses (if required) for mooring performance. and evaluate access. and other key behaviors of the ship(s). drafts. compatibility. Determine the forces. the maximum allowable ship motions. and situations under which the ship will leave. design waves. displacements. engineering soil parameters. watch circle. availability of hardware. Basic Mooring Design Approach With Known Facility for a Specific Site and a Specific Ship STEP Define customer(s) requirements Determine planning requirements NOTES Define the ship(s) to be moored. design currents. constructability. determine permit requirements. the type of service required. evaluate explosive arcs. anchor design. Define the impact/interaction with other facilities and operations. Find the characteristics of the ship(s) including sail areas. ship mooring fittings. risk. Environmental Impact Assessments Define site and environmental parameters Ship characteristics Ship forces/moments Evaluate mooring alternatives Design Calculations Notifications 18 . Evaluate the alternatives in terms of safety. cost. inspectability.

including safety and environmental protection plans. Prepare instructions for installation. and cost estimates. General design issues shown in Table 33 should be addressed during design to help ensure projects meet customers’ needs. (continued) Basic Mooring Design Approach With Known Facility for a Specific Site and a Specific Ship STEP Plans/Specs Permits Installation planning Installation monitoring Testing Documentation Instructions Inspection NOTE Prepare plans. specifications. Document the design and as-built conditions with drawings and reports. Provide diagrams and instructions to show the customer how to use and inspect the mooring. Perform engineering monitoring of the installation process.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-2. Prepare any required environmental studies and obtain required permits. Perform periodic inspection/testing of the mooring to assure it continues to meet the customer(s) requirements. Maintenance 3-2 GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA. 19 . Perform maintenance as required and document on as-built drawings. Perform pull tests of all anchors in mooring facilities to ensure that they hold the required load.

and determine operational limitations. tolerances.1 Mooring Service Types. ship loading and unloading operations. Facility and ship mooring hardware should accommodate the service types shown in Table 3-4.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-3. utilities. Design Issues CRITERIA Vessel operating conditions Allowable motions NOTES Under what conditions will the vessel(s) exit? What are the operating mission requirements for the ship? What is the maximum allowable hull pressure? How much ship motion in the six degrees-of-freedom will be allowable for the moored ship? This is related to brow positions and use. Is the user trained and experienced in using the proposed system? What is the risk that the mooring would be improperly used? Can a design be formulated for easy and reliable use? How flexible is the design? Can it provide for new mission requirements not yet envisioned? Can it be used with existing facilities/ships? Does the design specify readily available commercial products and is it able to be installed and/or constructed using standard techniques. 20 . Note that most ships have a very high buoyancy force and moorings should be designed to allow for water level changes at a site.g.? Are initial and life cycle costs minimized? Can the mooring system be readily inspected to ensure continued good working condition? Can the system be maintained in a cost-effective manner? What special requirements does the customer have? Are there any portions of the ship that cannot come in contact with mooring elements (e. and other requirements. submarine hulls)? User skills Flexibility Constructability Cost Inspection Maintenance Special requirements 3-2.. Four Mooring Service Types are defined to help identify minimum design requirements associated with DoD ships and piers. etc.

repair. TYPE IIA Standard MST IIA covers mooring in winds of 50 knots or less in Mooring broadside currents of 1-1/2 knots or less. etc. Vessel will normally leave prior to an approaching hurricane. a ship may be moored in relatively high broadside 21 . surge or other extreme event. for 1 year of service life. It is encouraged for general home porting because sudden storms can produce high winds on short notice. deperming facilities. P. Mooring facilities are designed conforming to the site specific environmental criteria given in Table 3-5. Naval ships intend to go to sea if 50 knot winds are expected. R.3 Ship Hardware Design Criteria for Mooring Service Types. 3-2. ship museums. This is the intended Navy ship mooring design requirement. Use of these moorings is normally selected in concert with forecasted weather. 3-2. N=1. Pier operations may be impacted for MST IIB if lines must be run across a pier. Table 3-5 gives design criteria in terms of environmental design return intervals. storm and nested configurations. TYPE IIB Storm MST IIB covers mooring in winds of 64 knot or less in Mooring broadside currents of a 2 knots or less. The practice is to provide for full pier operation for MST IIA. The ship usually has the responsibility for providing mooring lines for Mooring Service Types I and II. but storms may come up quickly. TYPE II This category covers moorings that are used through storm conditions. fueling facilities.2 Facility Design Criteria for Mooring Service Types. drydocking. TYPE IV This category covers moorings that are used to Permanent Mooring permanently moor a vessel that will not leave in case of a hurricane. Moorings include fitting-out. floating drydocks. and ports of call. Moorings include standard. Mooring Service Types MOORING SERVICE DESCRIPTION TYPE TYPE I This category covers moorings for mild weather Mild Weather Mooring (sustained winds of less than 35 knots. training berthing facilities. and overhaul berthing facilities. Moorings include inactive ships. so higher design winds are recommended. TYPE III This category covers moorings of vessels that cannot or Heavy Weather may not get underway prior to an approaching hurricane Mooring or typhoon. Mooring situations include ammunition facilities.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-4. and in terms of probability of exceedence. typhoon. During Type II operation. Ship mooring hardware needs to be designed to accommodate various modes of ship operation. typhoon. below gale force) and currents less than 1 knot. while the facility usually provides mooring lines for Mooring Service Types III and IV. or surge.

.5 Serviceability. Moorings should be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections. VA has some of the most extreme design criteria.4 Strength. no reduction factors should be used. reduce peak dynamic loads and allow for events. such as tidal changes. or any other deformations that adversely affect the intended use and performance of the mooring.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 current and get caught by a sudden storm. The area near Norfolk/Portsmouth. shipyards where DOD ships can undergo major repairs. because the ship is moored for a significant time and cannot get underway. There are several U. 3-2. etc. so special provisions can be made for long-term storage. Type III mooring during repair may provide the greatest potential of risk. Moorings should be designed and constructed to safely resist the nominal loads in load combinations defined herein without exceeding the appropriate allowable stresses for the mooring components. During Type IV mooring.S. extra padeyes can be welded to the ship hull for mooring. such as a thunderstorm. Normal wear of materials and inspection methods and frequency need to be considered. Ship mooring hardware environmental design criteria are given in Table 3-6. 22 . vibration. 3-2. the ship is usually aligned with the current. Due to the probability of simultaneous maximum occurrences of variable loads. At the same time moorings need to be flexible enough to provide for load sharing. so ship’s hardware design should be based on conditions derived from this site.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-5. unobstructed area exposed to wind flowing over open water for a distance of at least 1 mile or 1. Note that min. use T/d=0.) TYPE III P=0. take the ship draft. **To define the design water depth for ship mooring systems.01 or R=100 yr TYPE IV *Use exposure D (UFC 1-200-01 Design: General Building Requirements. that have sonar domes or other projections. as the mean depth of the keel and determine the water depth. TYPE IIA Vw=50 knots (max. T.61 km) for determining design wind speeds. 2. P=0. max.A.02 or R=50 yr P=0. by adding 0.) 1.61 meter (2 feet) to the maximum navigation draft of the ship (note. = maximum wind speed used for design.02 or R=50 yr P=0. = minimum return interval or probability of exceedence used for design.5-knot max.0-knot max.01 or R=100 yr P=1 or R=1 yr P=1 or R=1 yr P=0.9 for flat keeled ships. d. flat.02 or R=50 yr P=0. may vary depending on sonar dome size) 23 . for ships with non-flat hulls.01 or R=100 yr TYPE IIB Vw=64 knots (max. Facility Design Criteria for Mooring Service Types MOORING SERVICE TYPE TYPE I WIND* Less than 35 knots CURRENT** 1 knot or less WATER LEVEL mean lower low to mean higher high extreme low to mean higher high extreme low to mean higher high extreme low to mean higher high extreme water levels WAVES N.

d. use T/d=0.06 m/s Ships Submarines b.9 for flat keeled ships. as the mean depth of the keel and determine the water depth.03 m/s *Quasi-static design assuming wind and current are co-linear for ship and submarine anchor systems (after NAVSEASYSCOM DDS-581). by adding 0.54 m/s 4 knots 2. for ships with nonflat hulls. Ship Mooring Hardware Design Criteria a.9 m/s MINIMUM CURRENT SPEED 1 knot 0.0 m/s 64 knots 33.6 m 70 knots 32.03 m/s 2 knots 1.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-6.0 m/s VESSEL TYPE MINIMUM CURRENT SPEED 4 knots 1. take the ship draft. that have sonar domes or other projections. ***Ships need to carry lines suitable for MST IIB. Ship Anchor Systems* MINIMUM MINIMUM WATER WIND DEPTH SPEED 240 ft 73 m 120 ft 36.51 m/s 2 knots 1. 24 . Ship Mooring Systems** MOORING SERVICE TYPE MINIMUM WIND SPEED Type I Type II*** Type III 35 knots 18.0 m/s 95 knots 48. may vary depending on sonar dome size).9 m/s 70 knots 36. **To define the design water depth.61 meter (2 feet) to the maximum navigation draft of the ship (note. T.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-2.6 Design Methods. All moorings should be designed by skilled/knowledgeable professional personnel. Methods must be used that assure that ships are safely moored. Below are some guidelines. Mooring Service Type I and II moorings can often be designed using quasi-static tools with 3 degrees-of-freedom (surge, sway and yaw). Examples of tools include FIXMOOR (Note: FIXMOOR is available from NAVFAC Atlantic CIENG WATERS TOOLBOX; hereinafter referred to as WATERS TOOLBOX), OPTIMOOR, AQWA LIBRIUM, etc. Specialized tools need to be considered for cases of high currents, high tidal ranges, passing ship effects, ship waves, multiple/nested ships, situations that are likely to be dynamic and other specialized cases. It is valuable to ships’ and port operations personnel to provide generalized mooring designs for Mooring Service Types I and II. Mooring Service Types III and IV must be designed on a case-by-case basis using dynamic methods because of the extremely high loading that occurs during extreme storms. It is recommended that NFESC be contacted concerning the design of these types of moorings. 3-2.7 General Mooring Integrity. For multiple-member moorings, such as for a ship secured to a pier by a number of lines, the mooring system strongly relies on load sharing among several members. If one member is lost, the ship should remain moored. Therefore, design multiple member mooring to ensure that remaining members maintain a factor of safety at least 75 percent of the intact mooring factors of safety shown in Table 3-7 with any one member missing. 3-2.8 Quasi-Static Safety Factors. Table 3-7 gives recommended minimum factors of safety for “quasi-static” design based on material reliability. 3-2.9 Allowable Ship Motions. Table 3-8 gives recommended operational ship motion criteria for moored vessels. Table 3-8(a) gives maximum wave conditions for manned and moored small craft (Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC), Criteria for Movements of Moored Ships in Harbors; A Practical Guide, 1995). These criteria are based on comfort of personnel on board a small boat, and are given as a function of boat length and locally generated. Table 3-8(b) gives recommended motion criteria for safe working conditions for various types of vessels (PIANC, 1995). Table 3-8(c) gives recommended velocity criteria and Table 3-8(d) and (e) give special criteria.

25

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-7. Minimum Quasi-Static Factors of Safety COMPONENT MINIMUM NOTES FACTOR OF SAFETY Stockless & balanced 1.5 For ultimate anchoring system holding capacity; fluke anchors use 1.0 for ship's anchoring* High efficiency drag 2.0 For ultimate anchoring system holding capacity anchors use 1.0 for ship's anchoring* Fixed anchors (piles & 3.0 For ultimate anchoring system holding capacity* plates) Deadweight anchors Use carefully (see Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL) Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering, 1985) 3.0 For relatively straight lengths. Chain 4.0 For chain around bends. These factors of safety are for the new chain break strength. Wire rope 3.0 For the new wire rope break strength. Synthetic line** 3.0 For new line break strength. Ship bitts *** Use American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code. Pier bollards *** Use AISC & other applicable codes. *It is recommended that anchors be pull tested. **Reduce effective strength of wet nylon line by 15 percent. *** For mooring fittings take 3 parts of the largest size of line used on the fitting; apply a load of: 3.0*(minimum line break strength)*1.3 to determine actual stresses, σact.; design fittings so (σact./ σallow.)<1.0, where σallow. is the allowable stress from AISC and other applicable codes.

26

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-8. Recommended Practical Motion Criteria for Moored Vessels (a) Safe Wave Height Limits for Moored Manned Small Craft (after PIANC, 1995)

Vessel Length (m)

4 to 10 “ “ 10-16 “ “ 20 “ “

Beam/Quartering Seas Wave Maximum Period (sec) Sign Wave Height, Hs (m) <2.0 0.20 2.0-4.0 0.10 >4.0 0.15 <3.0 0.25 3.0-5.0 0.15 >5.0 0.20 <4.0 0.30 4.0-6.0 0.15 >6.0 0.25

Head Seas Wave Period (sec)

<2.5 2.5-4.0 >4.0 <3.5 3.5-5.5 >5.5 <4.5 4.5-7.0 >7.0

Maximum Sign Wave Height, Hs (m) 0.20 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.30

27

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-8. (continued) Recommended Practical Motion Criteria for Moored Vessels (b) Recommended Motion Criteria for Safe Working Conditions1 (after PIANC, 1995) Vessel Cargo Handling Surge Sway Heave Yaw Pitch Roll Type Equipment (m) (m) (m) ( o) ( o) ( o) Fishing Elevator crane 0.15 0.15 vessels Lift-on/off 1.0 1.0 0.4 3 3 3 10-3000 Suction pump 2.0 1.0 GRT2 Freighters& Ship’s gear 1.0 1.2 0.6 1 1 2 coasters Quarry cranes 1.0 1.2 0.8 2 1 3 <10000 DWT3 Ferries, Roll- Side ramp4 0.6 0.6 0.6 1 1 2 On/ Roll-Off Dew/storm ramp 0.8 0.6 0.8 1 1 4 (RO/RO) Linkspan 0.4 0.6 0.8 3 2 4 Rail ramp 0.1 0.1 0.4 1 1 General cargo 50002.0 1.5 1.0 3 2 5 10000 DWT Container 100% efficient 1.0 0.6 0.8 1 1 3 vessels 50% efficient 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.5 2 6 Bulk carriers Cranes Elevator/ 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2 2 2 6 2 30000bucket-wheel 1.0 0.5 2 150000 Conveyor belt 5.0 2.5 3 DWT Oil tankers Loading arms 3.05 3.0 Gas tankers Loading arms 2.0 2.0 2 2 2 Notes for Table 3-8(b): 1 Motions refer to peak-to-peak values (except for sway, which is zero-to-peak) 2 GRT = Gross Registered Tons expressed as internal volume of ship in units of 100 ft3 (2.83 m3) 3 DWT = Dead Weight Tons, which is the total weight of the vessel and cargo expressed in long tons (1016 kg) or metric tons (1000 kg) 4 Ramps equipped with rollers. 5 For exposed locations, loading arms usually allow for 5.0meter motion.

28

5 m/s2 29 . 1995) Parameter Vertical velocity Vertical acceleration Maximum Value 0.0 1.3 Heave (m/s) Yaw (o/s) 2.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 Pitch (o/s) Roll (o/s) 2. Freighters.6 0.6 0.2 m/s 0. 1995) Ship Size(DWT) 1000 2000 8000 Surge (m/s) 0.3 Sway (m/s) 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-8. Coasters.0 (d) Special Criteria for Walkways and Rail Ramps (after PIANC. Ferries and Ro/Ro Vessels (after PIANC. (continued) Recommended Practical Motion Criteria for Moored Vessels (c) Recommended Velocity Criteria for Safe Mooring Conditions for Fishing Vessels.4 0.4 0.

6 m (2 feet) Ships will move vertically with any long period water level change (tide. together with static tools. The use of the 30-second duration wind speed with static tools and the approach shown in Table 3-9 is called “quasi-static” design. can be used to reliably determine mooring designs in harbors. Winds can be highly dynamic in heavy weather conditions.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-8.). However. flood. static analysis tools. 30 . Maximum ramp motion during loading/unloading moving wheeled vehicles. such as FIXMOOR (WATERS TOOLBOX). practical experience has shown that for typical DOD ships. (Continued) Recommended Practical Motion Criteria for Moored Vessels (e) Special Criteria CONDITION MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE VALUES NOTES Heave Loading/unloading preposition ships Weapons loading/unloading 3-3 0. storm surge. etc.1 Quasi-Static Design.6 m (2 feet) 0. Practical experience has shown that in many situations such as for Mooring Service Types I and II. Maximum motion between the crane and the object being loaded/unloaded. Winds are a key forcing factor in mooring harbors. to develop safe mooring designs. OPTIMOOR and AQWA LIBRIUM. DESIGN METHODS 3-3. a wind speed with a duration of 30 seconds can be used. The resulting buoyancy forces may be high. so the mooring must be designed to provide for these motions due to long period water level changes.

If waves are believed to be important. For typical ships use the wind that has a duration of 30 seconds at an elevation of 10 m. then dynamic analyses are recommended. R.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-9. and design to assure that all criteria are met. Quasi-Static Design Notes CRITERIA Wind speed NOTES Determine for the selected return interval. Use the range for the site. minimum factors of safety in Table 3-7. Wind direction Current speed Water levels Waves Factors of safety 31 . Perform the design using quasi-static forces and moments (see Chapter 4). Assume the wind can come from any direction except in cases where wind data show extreme winds occur in a window of directions. Use conditions for the site (speed and direction). Neglected.

Or. on the average.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-3. (1989). 3-4 RISK. Unfortunately. the specified 100-year wind speed might not occur at all in any 100-year period. Risk is used to ensure that systems are reliable. SPD-0936-01. once every 100 years. Kizakkevariath (1989). storm surge. since wind speeds are probabilistic. so dynamics cannot be fully documented in this UFC. and economical. etc. Low Frequency Second Order Wave Exciting Forces on Floating Structures. the dynamic behavior of a moored ship in shallow water can be highly complex. waves. A common way to describe risk is the concept of ‘return interval’. Houston. TX) are examples of software tools that can be used to simulate highly dynamic mooring situations. practical. 32 . Pinkster (1982).2 Dynamic Mooring Analysis. in any 100-year period the wind speed may be equal to or exceed the specified wind speed multiple times. Wichers (1988). David Taylor Research Center (DTRC). However. Information on dynamics is found in: Dynamic Analysis of Moored Floating Drydocks. Hydrodynamic Analysis and Computer Simulation Applied to Ship Interaction During Maneuvering in Shallow Channels. Seelig and Headland (1998). earthquakes. Hooft (1982).) is strongly site dependent. al. tides. An introduction to dynamics is provided in Chapter 8. Mooring Dynamics Due to Wind Gust Fronts. Conditions during Mooring Service Types III and IV. Advanced Dynamics of Marine Structures. Headland et. SMP81. The programs AQWA DRIFT and AQWA NAUT (Century Dynamics. if the wind speed with a return interval of R = 100 years is given for a site. For example. because the probability of occurrence of extreme events (currents. User’s Manual for the Standard Ship Motion Program. and A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker. this wind speed would be expected to occur. Risk is a concept that is often used to design facilities. which is the mean length of time between events. and during extreme events can be highly dynamic. Some conditions when mooring dynamics may be important to design or when specialized considerations need to be made are given in Table 3-10.

take a ship that is on station at a site for 20 years (N = 20).2 percent probability that an event with a return interval of R = 100 years or greater will occur one or more times at a site in a 20-year interval.1/ R) N ) (1) probability. in percent. There is a P = 18. of an event being equaled or exceeded one or more times in a specified interval R = return interval (years) N = service life (years) Figure 3-1 shows risk versus years on station for various selected values of return interval. 33 . For example.(1.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 The probability or risk that an event will be equaled or exceeded one or more times during any given interval is determined from: EQUATION: where P = P = 100%* (1.

SPM) Forcing period near a natural period of the mooring system Note: SPM = single point mooring 34 . 1984 & 1986) Yes Yes (see MIL-HDBK-1025/1) May be static or dynamic Yes (if directed) Yes Yes (if directed) Yes Yes (if directed) Yes (if a factor) Yes (dynamic behavior of ships at SPMs can be especially complex) Yes. impact Tornado (reference NUREG 1974) Flood.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-10. landslide. sudden water level rise Ice forcing Ship/mooring system dynamically unstable (e. Occasion. if the forcing period is from 80% to 120% of a system natural period Long waves (seiches and tidal waves or tsunamis) Berthing and using mooring as a break Parting tension member Ship impact or other sudden force on the ship Earthquakes (spud moored or stiff systems) Explosion.g. 1996.5 ft for small craft > 4 ft for larger vessels Yes for SPMs > 3 knots Yes for special cases (see Kizakkevariath. 1989. Weggel and Sorensen.. Conditions Requiring Special Analysis FACTOR Wind Wind waves Wind gust fronts Current Ship waves and passing ship effects SPECIAL ANALYSIS REQUIRED > 45 mph for small craft > 75 mph for larger vessels > 1.

Risk Diagram UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 35 .Figure 3-1.

4 Global Coordinate System. the local “right-hand-rule” coordinate system. A forward perpendicular point (FP). The vertical datum is most often taken as relative to some water level. 36 . Also. 3-5. Loading conditions are defined in NAVSEA NSTM 096. Figure 3-2 illustrates ship design coordinates. aft perpendicular point (AP). The various coordinate systems used for ships and mooring design are described below. and regular spaced frames along the longitudinal axes of the ship are used to define stations.2 Ship Hydrostatics/Hydrodynamics Coordinates. 3-5. 3-5. There are three common conditions or displacements that a ship has at various stages including: • • • “Light Condition” – This is the ship condition after first launching. Figure 3-2 illustrates ship hydrostatic conventions. Therefore. “One-Third Stores Condition” – This is the typical ship condition during ship repair. and various cross-sections of the ship hull (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the ship) are used to describe the shape of the ship hull. shown in Figure 3-3.3 Local Mooring Coordinate System. is used in this UFC. such as mean lower low water (MLLW). the aft perpendicular is taken as Station 20. “Fully Loaded Condition” – This is the ship condition during operations.5 Ship Conditions. The forward perpendicular is taken as Station 0. The midship’s point is shown as a convenient reference point in Figures 3-3 and 3-4. as indicated in SUPSHIP docking/undocking records. a ship tends to move about its center of gravity.1 Ship Design/Construction Coordinates.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-5 COORDINATE SYSTEMS. 3-5. Plane state grids or other systems are often used to describe x and y coordinates. 3-5. Environmental forces on ships are a function of angle relative to the vessel’s longitudinal centerline. The bottom of the ship keel is usually used as the reference point or “baseline” for vertical distances.

Ship Design and Hydrostatic Coordinates 37 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-2.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-3. Local Mooring Coordinate System for a Ship

38

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-4. Local Mooring Coordinate System for a Ship

39

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-6 VESSEL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. Some important vessel mooring design considerations are summarized in Table 3-11. General information on ships can be found in the Ships Characteristics Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) and in the NAVSEA Hitchhikers Guide to Navy Surface Ships. Table 3-11. Design Considerations - Ship PARAMETER Ship fittings NOTES The type, capacity, location, and number of mooring fittings on the ship are critical in designing moorings. The type, capacity, location, and number of other mooring hardware (chain, anchors, winches, etc.) on the ship are critical. The ship’s buoyancy supports the ship up in the heave, pitch, and roll directions. Therefore, it is usually undesirable to have much mooring capacity in these directions. A large ship, for example, may have over a million pounds of buoyancy for a foot of water level rise. If an unusually large water level rise occurs for a mooring with a large component of the mooring force in the vertical direction, this could result in mooring failure. Ships are designed so that only a certain allowable pressure can be safely resisted. Allowable hull pressures and fender design are discussed in NFESC TR-6015-OCN, Foam-Filled Fender Design to Prevent Hull Damage. Personnel access must be provided. Ramps/sideport locations Provision must be made for utilities and other hotel services. Ships are typically in the “Light”, “One-Third Stores” or “Fully-Loaded” condition or displacement.

Ship hardware

Buoyancy

Hull pressures

Personnel access Cargo Loading Hotel services Ship condition

3-7 FACILITY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. Some important facility mooring design considerations are summarized in Table 3-12.

40

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-12. Design Considerations - Facility

PARAMETER Access

Mooring fittings

Fenders

Water depth Shoaling

Permits

NOTES Adequate ship access in terms of channels, turning basins, bridge clearance, etc. needs to be provided. Also, tugs and pilots must be available. The number, type, location and capacity of mooring fittings or attachment point have to meet the needs of all vessels using the facility. The number, type, location, and properties of marine fenders must be specified to protect the ship(s) and facility. The water depth at the mooring site must be adequate to meet the customer’s needs. Many harbor sites experience shoaling. The shoaling and possible need for dredging needs to be considered. Permits (Federal, state, environmental, historical, etc.) are often required for facilities and they need to be considered.

41

The eye of this storm went over the recording site. and waves are especially important for many designs. Vessels with shorter natural periods can respond to shorter duration gusts. a 30-second wind duration at a 10-meter (33-foot) elevation is recommended for the design for “stationary” winds. hurricane or tornado. For the purposes of this UFC. such as in a wind gust front. shows a recording from typhoon OMAR in 1992 at Guam. Time on the chart recorder proceeds from right to left. A change in pressure from one point on the earth to another causes the wind to blow. Winds. Environmental forces acting on a moored ship(s) can be complex. As the eye passes there is also a large-scale change in wind speed and direction. for example. Figure 3-6. water levels. 42 .1 Winds. The relationship of the 30-second wind to other wind durations is shown in Figure 3-5. the winds are referred to as “stationary. If wind speed and/or direction changes rapidly. then winds are “non-stationary”.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-8 ENVIRONMENTAL FORCING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. currents. Turbulence is carried along with the overall wind flow to produce wind gusts.” Practical experience has shown that wind gusts with a duration of approximately 30 seconds or longer have a significant influence on typical moored ships with displacements of about 1000 tons or larger. Specific environmental design criteria for selected sites of interest can be found in the Climatalogical Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) 3-8. This hurricane had rapid changes in wind speed and direction. The upper portion of this figure shows the wind speed and the lower portion of the figure is the wind direction. If the mean wind speed and direction do not change very rapidly with time.

70 1 10 100 GUST DURATION.10 1.932 0.706 43 .000 0.977 0.05 Vt/V30 1.75 0.85 0.80 0.822 0.95 0.034 1.917 0.221 1.25 1. t (sec) 1000 10000 HURRICANE NON-HURRICANE t (sec) 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 100 200 400 1000 3600 Vt/V30 Non-Hurricane 1.938 0.753 Vt/V30 Hurricane 1.080 1.879 0.924 0.145 1.950 0.783 0.147 1.815 0.00 0.20 1.196 1. Ratio of Wind Speeds for Various Gusts (after ASCE 7-95) 1.30 1.90 0.030 1.175 1.955 0.000 0.739 0.097 1.15 1.780 0.846 0.971 0.891 0.160 1.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-5.182 1.124 1.

Typhoon OMAR Wind Chart Recording 3 October 2005 WIND SPEED ‘EYE’ TIME 1 hour WIND DIRECTION 44 .UFC 4-159-03 Figure 3-6.

Effects of winds and wind gusts are shown in the examples in Chapter 8 of this UFC. 1987). which were associated with a shift in wind direction. since wind force is proportional to wind speed squared. Figure 3-7 shows sudden changes in wind speed and direction that occurred over a 2-1/2 day period in October 1982. 1987).5-year sample from Guam (NCDC. Failure Analysis of Hawsers on BOBO Class MSC Ships at Tinian on 7 December 1986).” It can be seen that the majority of the higher gust front maximums were associated with typhoons. These wind gust fronts seemed to be associated with a nearby typhoon. Figure 3-10 provides a sample of the maximum wind gust front distribution for a relatively short period at one site. the initial wind speed was 48 percent of the maximum in the 4.5-year sample from 1982 through 1986 on Guam. Approximately 60 percent of the wind gust fronts from 1982 through 1986 had wind direction changes in the 30degree range.2 Wind Gust Fronts. as shown in Figure 3-8. This is a sudden change in wind speed that is usually associated with a change in wind direction (Wind Effects on Structures.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-8. Seelig and Headland.. 45 . This figure shows the probability of exceedence on the x-axis in a logarithmic format. the initial wind speed in a wind gust front ranges from 0 to 75 percent of the maximum wind speed. Those wind gust fronts that occurred when a typhoon was nearby are identified with an “H. Simiu and Scanlan (1996) report wind gust front increases in wind speed ranging from 3 m/sec to 30 m/sec (i. Letter Report E/CC31:MJC. 1998 and CHESNAVFACENGCOM. and (4) no design criteria for these events have been established. the typhoon gust front wind speed maxima seem to follow a different distribution that the gust front maxima associated with rain and thunderstorms (see Figure 3-10). Also. On the average. The square of the wind gust front speed maximums was plotted on the y-axis. The 4.e. A study of Guam Agana National Air Station (NAS) wind records was performed to obtain some statistics of wind gust fronts (National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Figure 3-10 shows the distribution of gust front winds from the 4. 1996). A particularly dangerous wind condition that has caused a number of mooring accidents is the wind gust front (Mooring Dynamics Due to Wind Gust Fronts. The key problems with this phenomena are: (1) high mooring dynamic loads can be produced in a wind gust front.5 years of records analyzed from 1982 through 1986 showed approximately 500 cases of sudden wind speed change. as shown in Figure 3-9. 6 to 60 knots). (3) little is known about wind gust fronts. These wind shifts predominately occurred in 1 minute or less and never took longer than 2 minutes to reach maximum wind speed. FPO-187(1). Based on the Guam observations. Simiu and Scanlan. Table 3-13 gives the joint distribution of wind shifts in terms of the amount the increase in wind speed and the wind direction change. (2) there is often little warning.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-7. Sample Wind Gust Fronts on Guam. Shift (deg)= 40 40 15 . 2-4 October 1982 45 40 40 40 40 30 20 40 35 WIND SPEED (knots) 30 30 20 25 20 50 10 15 10 5 5 0 0 12 24 36 48 60 0 TIME. Start 02 Oct 82) 46 WIND SPEED (m/s) Wind Dir. (Hours.

4 3 1 1 Figure 3-8.7 8. MAX. Sample Distribution of Wind Gust Fronts on Guam (Agana NAS) from 1982 to 1986 NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS WIND DIRECTION CHANGE WIND SPEED CHANGE (knots) (m/s) MIN.4 5. Distribution of Guam Wind Gust Front Wind Angle Changes 60 % OF SHIFTS 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 30 40 Percent of Observations CLOCKWISE 62% COUNTERCLOCKWISE 38% 50 60 70 80 90 WIND ANGLE CHANGE (deg) 47 .8 13.1 5.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-13.7 10. MAX.1 7.3 12. 20 deg 28 8 6 30 deg 241 42 7 3 40 deg 66 18 3 2 1 50 deg 30 13 2 60 deg 4 5 2 1 70 deg 80 deg 2 90 deg 6 11 16 21 26 10 15 20 25 30 3. MIN.2 10.9 15.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-9. Initial Versus Maximum Wind Speeds for Wind Gust Fronts 25 20 INITIAL WIND SPEED (m/s) 48% 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 MAX WIND SPEED (m/s) 48 .

0 10.0 PROBABILITY OF EXCEEDENCE 49 . Wind Gust Front Maxima on Guam 1982-1986 600 500 MAX WIND SPEED SQUARED (m/s) 2 H H H H H 400 300 200 100 0 0.0 100.1 1.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 3-10.

5 37 32 32.6 73 63 - Storm TROPICAL DEPRESSION TROPICAL STORM HURRICANE (b) Saffier-Simpson Hurricane Scale CATEGORY 1 2 3 4 5 WIND SPEED RANGE OPEN COAST STORM SURGE RANGE LOWER UPPER LOWER UPPER (m/s) (mph) (m/s) (mph) (m) (ft) (m) (ft) 33.1 69.49 5 8 12 18 - 50 . Table 3-14.79 4 6 9 13 19 1. Table 3-14 gives environmental parameters for standard storms. Storm Parameters (a) Tropical Storms LOWER WIND SPEED (m/s) (mph) (knts) 9.0 33.66 5.2 58.8 22 19 17.22 1.1 38 74 33 64 UPPER WIND SPEED (m/s) (mph) (knts) 16.7 74 96 111 131 156 42.1 42.96 5.6 69.83 2.44 3.52 2.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 3-8.3 95 110 130 155 1.5 49.74 3.3 Storms.6 58.9 49.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-14. Myers et al.0 0 0 0.5 39 34 20. 1 3 6 10 16 21 27 33 40 47 55 63 71 51 .9 31 7 MODERATE GALE 14.1 12 4 MODERATE 5.0 38 8 FRESH GALE 17.5 4 2 LIGHT BREEZE 2.8 24 6 STRONG BREEZE 11. because design conditions for a specific site could vary from the values shown.4 73 12 HURRICANE 32. The above table should be used with caution.1 7 3 GENTLE GREEZE 3.2 18 BREEZE 5 FRESH BREEZE 8. (1969).1 47 41 24.6 8 7 5.8 65 56 32.5 1 1 1.9 74 64 36.5 1 1 LIGHT AIRS 0.2 54 10 WHOLE GALE 24. (continued) Storm Parameters (c) Beaufort Wind Force* LOWER WIND SPEED (m/s) (mph) (knts) UPPER WIND SPEED (m/s) (mph) (knts) BEAUFORT WIND FORCE/ DESCRIPTION 0 CALM 0.8 20 17 10.4 32 28 17.3 63 11 STORM 28.3 25 22 13.6 82 *After Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineers.7 13 11 8.1 5 4 3.7 55 48 28.6 46 9 STRONG GALE 21.

5 [>13.6 [0.9] 28-47 [14.5] 8.9] >45.2] 4.1 [0.3] 56-63 [28. (continued) Storm Parameters (d) World Meteorological Organization Sea State Scale SEA STATE Sign.0-6.1-0.7 [4.1] 11-16 [5.7-8.8] 22-27 [11.5 [6.5-4.6-5.3-1.0] 29.7-28.4-24.2-2.2] 17-21 [8.5 6-16 7-16.2 [1.7-29.2-13.5-45.0] 13.1-19.2] 48-55 [24.7-10.6-4.1 [2.1] 0.5 9-17 10-18 13-19 18-24 52 .5-1.8-32.5] 1.4] >63 [>32.9] NONE 0-6 [0-3] 7-10 [3.0] 19.3-13.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-14.0-13.0-9.1-8. Wave Height (ft) [m] Sustained Wind Speed (knts) [m/s] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CALM/GLASSY RIPPLED SMOOTH SLIGHT MODERATE ROUGH VERY ROUGH HIGH VERY HIGH PHENOMENAL NONE 0-0.5[9.4] Modal Wave Period Range (sec) 3-15 3-15.3 [0-0.

and other factors can influence currents. seiches. Wind-driven currents generally attain a mean velocity of approximately 3 to 5 percent of the mean wind speed at 10 meters (33 feet) above the sea surface. The magnitude and direction of currents in harbors and 3-8. river discharges. storm surges. The design range in water levels at the site must be considered in the design process.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Currents. harbor seiching. These can be due to surf beat. Most DOD moorings are wisely located in harbors to help 3-8. Small vessels are especially susceptible to wind waves.5 water (MLW) or mean lower low water (MLLW). Water levels are then referenced to this datum. However. The two primary wave categories of interest are: a) Wind waves. b) Long waves.6 minimize wave effects. winds. so it is recommended that currents be measured at the design site and combined with other information available to define the design current conditions. For example. Factors influencing water levels include astronomical tides. Water Levels.4 nearshore areas are in most cases a function of location and time. such as mean low 3-8. The water level in most harbors is then a function of time. is established by formal methods. river discharges. Wind waves can be locally generated or can be wind waves or swell entering the harbor entrance(s). wind-driven currents. waves can be important to mooring designs in some cases. Currents can be very site specific. Astronomical tides. The magnitude of this current strongly decreases with depth. Waves. wind-driven currents are surface currents that result from the stress exerted by the wind on the sea surface. 53 . or other effects. and other factors. At most sites some standard datum.

Water depths are highly site specific. If any of these effects are important to a given mooring design. The response of a moored vessel to wave forcing includes: a) A steady mean force. The bathymetry of a site may be complex. is forced by the group or other nature of the waves.7 the geology and history of dredging.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Ship waves may be important in some cases. Some guidance on safe wave limits for moored manned small craft is given in Table 38(a). Some sources of environmental 3-8. then a sixdegree-of-freedom dynamic of the system generally needs to be considered in design. so hydrographic surveys of the project site are recommended. 54 . which usually has little damping. Environmental Design Information. depending on 3-8. Water depth may also be a function of time. if there is shoaling or scouring. b) First order response.8 design information of interest to mooring designers are summarized in Table 3-15. where the vessel responds to each wave. and c) Second order response. Water Depths. where some natural long period mode of ship/mooring motion.

Currents Climatalogical Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) National Ocean Survey records Nautical Software. 1979 U. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. NRL (1996) and NEPRF (1982) NUREG/CR-4801. Series 124. Climatology of Extreme Winds in Southern California. Hurricane Wind Speeds in the United States.S. 1995 U. Tides and Currents for Windows. Ver 1.0 b. 1982 Hurricane and Typhoon Havens Handbooks. 1987 NBS Series 118. 1980 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG). Winds Climatalogical Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) UFC 1-200-01 Design: General Building Requirements National Bureau of Standards (NBS). NUREG/CR-2639. Army Corps of Engineers records 55 . Extreme Wind Speeds at 129 Stations in the Contiguous United States. Some Sources of Environmental Design Information a. Historical Extreme Winds for the United States – Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coastlines.S.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-15.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-15.S. 1981 National Ocean Survey records Hurricane and Typhoon Havens Handbooks. Army Corps of Engineers. Coastal Engineering Manual (current version) gives prediction methods e.S. Bathymetry From other projects in the area National Ocean Survey charts and surveys U. NRL (1996) and NEPRF (1982) U. Waves Hurricane and Typhoon Havens Handbooks. (continued) Some Sources of Environmental Design Information c.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredging records 56 . Special Report No. Army Corps of Engineers.S. Tides and Tidal Datums in the United States. Army Corps of Engineers records d. 7. Water Levels Climatalogical Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) Federal Emergency Management Agency records U. NRL (1996) and NEPRF (1982) Nautical Software (1995) U.

Some important operational design 3-9 considerations are summarized in Table 3-16. Mooring Operational Design Considerations PARAMETER Personnel experience/ training Failure NOTES What is the skill of the people using the mooring? What are the consequences of failure? Are there any design features that can be incorporated that can reduce the impact? How easy is the mooring to use and are there factors that can make it easier to use? Can features be incorporated to make the mooring safer for the ship and personnel? Extreme events can occur unexpectedly. Are there things that can be done to make a mooring facility more universal? Ease of use Safety Act-of-God events Future use 57 . Table 3-16.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS. Can features be incorporated to accommodate them? Future customer requirements may vary from present needs.

If the actual capacity/condition of mooring fittings on a pier/wharf is unknown. Inspection Guidelines MOORING SYSTEM OR COMPONENT Piers and wharves MAXIMUM INSPECTION INTERVAL 1 year 3 years 6 years NOTES Fleet Moorings 3 years Synthetic line 6 months Surface inspection Complete inspection . Mooring systems and components should be inspected 3-10 periodically to ensure they are in good working order and are safe. if required. Fleet Mooring Underwater Inspection Guidelines. Table 3-17 gives inspection guidelines. Specialized Underwater Waterfront Facilities Inspections.2.wood structures Complete inspection .concrete and steel structures See NAVFAC MO-104. Table 3-17. Also inspect and replace anodes. FPO-184(6). then pull tests are recommended to proof the fittings.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 INSPECTION. More frequent inspection may be required for moorings at exposed sites or for critical facilities. See CHESNAVFACENGCOM. Per manufacturer’s recommendations 58 .

These ideas apply to both ship mooring hardware and mooring facilities. Experience and practical 3-12 considerations show that the recommendations given in Table 3-18 will help ensure safe mooring. then it must be maintained. If a chain diameter reaches a bar diameter of 80 percent of the original diameter. is allowed to wear to a diameter of 90 percent of the original steel bar diameter. and Constructing Tension Leg Platforms) 0-2 years of service 3-5 years of service >5 years of service (API RP 2T) MAINTENANCE. 59 . As measured diameters approach 90 percent.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-17. Recommended Practice for Planning. (Continued) Inspection Guidelines MOORING SYSTEM OR COMPONENT Ship’s chain MAXIMUM INSPECTION INTERVAL 36 months 24 months 18 months NOTES Wire rope 18 months 12 months 9 months 0-3 years of service 4-10 years of service >10 years of service (American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 2T. Designing. Fleet mooring chain. then maintenance is scheduled. Moorings with 80 to 90 percent of the original chain diameter are restricted to limited use. If excessive wear or damage occurs to a mooring 3-11 system. for example. then the mooring is condemned. Figure 3-11 illustrates some idealized models of chain wear GENERAL MOORING GUIDELINES.

Figure 3-11. Idealized Models of Chain Wear UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 60 .

‘Shock absorbers’ including marine fenders. waves. passing ships. Wind gusts. synthetic lines with stretch. Mooring lines should not have a break strength greater than the capacity of the fittings they use. 61 . A system is only as strong as its weakest segment. timber piles. because one member may take the full load as the vessel swings.. will produce transient forces on a moored ship. In some moorings. etc.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-18. a system with components of similar strength can be the most economical. sinkers. many lines are involved. Design Recommendations IDEA Allow ship to move with rising and falling water levels Ensure mooring system components have similar strength Ensure load sharing Bridle design Provide shock absorbing in mooring systems NOTES The weight and buoyancy forces of ships can be very high. and similar systems are recommended to allow a moored ship to move in a controlled manner. so it is most practical to design moorings to allow ships to move in the vertical direction with changing water levels. such as at a pier. Allowing some motion of the ship will reduce the dynamic loads. The design range of water levels for a specific site should be determined in the design process. ensure that each leg of the bridle can withstand the full mooring load. Ensuring that members will share the load results in the most economical system. chain catenaries. In cases where a ship is moored to a single point mooring buoy with a bridle.

so that the anchor will drag before the chain breaks. 62 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 3-18. Pull test anchors whenever possible to the full design load Drag anchors work on the principle of ‘plowing’ into the soils. Pull testing anchors is recommended to ensure that all facilities with anchors provide the required holding capacity. Have at least one shot of chain on the seafloor to help ensure the anchor will hold. Keeping the mooring catenary angle small at the seafloor will aid in anchor holding. Design mooring system that uses drag anchor. (continued) Design Recommendations IDEA Limit the vertical angles of lines from ship to pier Select drag anchors to have a lower ultimate holding capacity than the breaking strength of chain and fittings Limit the loading on drag anchors to horizontal tension NOTES Designing ships and piers to keep small vertical line angles has the advantages of improving line efficiency and reducing the possibility of lines pulling off pier fittings.

The engineering properties of both are given in Table 4-1.0171 m3/LT 1.9384 slug/ft3 62. Engineering Properties of Air and Water Standard Salt Water at Sea Level at 15oC (59oF) PROPERTY SI SYSTEM 1026 kg/m3 Mass density.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 4 STATIC ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES AND MOMENTS ON VESSELS SCOPE.366 lbf/ft3 35. Examples show calculation methods. ν 999.0 kg/m3 9797 newton/m3 1.917 ft3/LT 35.977 ft3/LT 1.9905 slug/ft3 64. The effects of 4-2 water and air at the surface of the earth are of primary interest in this chapter.3497 ft3/ton 1.191E-6 m2/sec Kinematic viscosity.2817E-5 ft2/sec ENGLISH OR INCH-POUND SYSTEM 1.043 lbf/ft3 34. ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF WATER AND AIR.2285E-5 ft2/sec 63 . γw Volume per long ton (LT) Volume per metric ton (ton or 1000 kg or 1 Mg) Kinematic viscosity. ρw 10060 newton/m3 Weight density.9904 m3/LT 1. γw Volume per long ton (LT) 0.001 m3/ton 1. ν Standard Fresh Water at Sea Level at 15oC (59oF) PROPERTY SI SYSTEM Mass density.141E-6 m2/sec ENGLISH SYSTEM 1. ρw Weight density. Table 4-1. In this chapter design methods are presented for calculating 4-1 static forces and moments on single and multiple moored vessels.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 4-1.615E-4 ft2/sec X . ρa 11.In the “X”-direction Sway . ν * Note that humidity and even heavy rain has relatively little effect on the engineering properties of air (personal communication with the National Weather Service.07625 lbf/ft3 1. γa 1.In the “Y”-direction Heave . (continued) Engineering Properties of Air and Water Air at Sea Level at 20oC (68oF)* PROPERTY SI SYSTEM 1.Direction parallel with the ships Longitudinal axis Y . 1996) 4-3 for a ship: PRINCIPAL COORDINATE DIRECTIONS. There are three primary axes ENGLISH OR INCH-POUND SYSTEM 0.978 newton/m3 Weight density.50E-5 m2/sec Kinematic viscosity.Direction perpendicular to a vertical plane through the ship’s longitudinal axis Z .Angular about the “Z”-axis Of primary interest are: (1) forces in the surge and sway directions in the “X-Y” plane.00237 slug/ft3 0. and (2) moment in the yaw direction about the “Z”-axis.Angular about the “Y”-axis Yaw .221 kg/m3 Mass density. Ship motions occur about the center of gravity of the ship.In the “Z”-direction Roll .Angular about the “X”-axis Pitch .Direction perpendicular to a plane formed by the “X” and “Y” axes There are six principal coordinate directions for a ship: Surge . 64 .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 STATIC WIND FORCES/MOMENTS. Figure 4-1 shows the definition of some of the terms used in this chapter. Static Transverse Wind Force. In the local ship coordinate system. Transverse wind force is determined from the equation: EQUATION: where Fyw = Fyw = 0.1 defined as that component of force perpendicular to the vessel centerline.5 ρa Vw 2 A y C yw f yw {θw } (2) transverse wind force (newtons) mass density of air (from Table 4-1) wind speed (m/s) longitudinal projected area of the ship (m2) transverse wind force drag coefficient shape function for transverse force ρa = Vw = Ay = C yw = f yw {θ w } = θ w = wind angle (degrees) 65 . The static transverse wind force is 4-4. Figure 4-2 shows the local coordinate system. this is the force in the “Y” or sway direction. Static wind forces and moments on 4-4 stationary moored vessels are computed in this chapter.

Definition of Terms 66 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-1.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-2. Local Coordinate System for a Ship 67 .

Table 4-2 gives typical values of C for ships and Figure 4-3 illustrates some ship types.5* h H / h R ) 2 / 7 A H / A Y where [ ] (3) C yw = C = transverse wind force drag coefficient empirical coefficient. TN-1628).8 ft) h H = A H / L wL = average height of the hull. see Table 4-2 h R = 10 m = reference height (32. Wind-Induced Steady Loads on Ships. adapted from Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL).92 +/-0. defined as the longitudinal wind hull area divided by the ship length at the waterline (m) AH = longitudinal wind area of the hull (m2) L wL = ship length at the waterline (m) hS = height of the superstructure above the waterline(m) AS = longitudinal wind area of the superstructure (m2) A recommended value for the empirical coefficient is C = 0. EQUATION: C yw = C * ((0. TN-1628.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 The transverse wind force drag coefficient depends upon the hull and superstructure of the vessel and is calculated using the following equation. 68 .5(hS + h H )) / h R ) 2 / 7 A S + (0.1 based on scale model wind tunnel tests (NCEL.

95 (4) θw = wind angle (degrees) Equation 4 is positive for wind angles 0 < θw < 180 degrees and negative for wind angles 180 < θw < 360 degrees. Figure 4-4 shows the shape and typical values for Equation 4. drydocks ships with moderate superstructure Destroyers. TN-1628) is given by: EQUATION: where f yw {θ w } = transverse wind coefficient shape function f yw {θ w }= + (sinθ w .02 NOTES Aircraft carriers. cruisers The shape function for the transverse wind force (NCEL.82 0.92 1.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 4-2. Sample Wind Coefficients for Ships SHIP Hull dominated Typical Extensive superstructure C 0. The following example illustrates calculations of the transverse wind force drag coefficient.05* sin{5θ w }) / 0. These two components were derived by integrating wind over the hull and superstructure areas to obtain effective wind speeds (NCEL. 69 .0. TN-1628).

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-3. Sample Ship Profiles 70 .

3 0.2 0.000 1.782 θw (deg) 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 fwy{θw} 0.5 0.915 0. Shape Function for Transverse Wind Force θw (deg) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 fwy{θw} 0.4 0.003 1.222 0.142 0.003 1.402 0.782 0.069 0.599 0.9 0.6 0.856 0.7 fyw{θw} 0.8 0.998 1.957 0.500 0.000 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 W IND ANGLE (deg) 71 .1 1 0.984 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-4.001 1.695 0.308 0.

Figure 4-6 shows an example of a ship next to a wharf. there is no blockage in the transverse wind force and elevations of the hull and superstructure are measured from the water surface.940 * C . For Case (A). Note that for cases where an impermeable structure. wind from land. 4.6. wind from the water. SOLUTION: For this example the transverse wind force drag coefficient from Equation 3 is: C yw = C * ((0.43m))/10m)2/71203m 2 + (0. the longitudinal wind area of the hull can be reduced by the blocked amount and elevations of hull and superstructure can be measured from the wharf elevation.1m 2 /2239m 2 [ ] C yw = 0. Cases of multiple ships are covered in par.5 * 6.958.02 is used to give a transverse wind force drag coefficient of Cyw = 0.5(23. 72 .9m + 6. the exposed longitudinal wind area and resulting transverse wind force can be reduced.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 EXAMPLE: Find the transverse wind force drag coefficient on the destroyer shown in Figure 4-5. Destroyers have extensive superstructure. so a recommended value of C = 1.940*1.02 = 0.43m/10m)2/71036. such as a wharf. For Case (B). is immediately next to the moored ship.

4 ft 2 2 2 73 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-5.9 m 2 2 2 VALUE (ENGLISH) 529 ft 24100 ft 11152 ft 12948 ft 21.23 m 2239 m 1036 m 1203 m 6.1 ft 78.43 m 23. Example AH hH=AH/LwL hS AS T LwL PARAMETER Lw L AY AH AS hH = A H/Lw L hS VALUE (SI UNITS) 161.

Blockage Effect for an Impermeable Structure Next to a Moored Ship CASE (B) WIND FROM LAND CASE (A) WIND FROM WATER Elevation Elevation WHARF END VIEW 74 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-6.

Types of vessels are given in three classes: hull dominated. The static longitudinal wind force on a vessel is defined as that component of wind force parallel to the centerline of the vessel. depends on specific characteristics of the vessel.5 ρa Vw 2 A x C xw f xw (θw ) (5) Fxw = ρa = Vw = Ax = C xw = fxw (θw ) = θw = longitudinal wind force (newtons) mass density of air (from Table 4-1) wind speed (m/s) transverse wind area of the ship (m2) longitudinal wind force drag coefficient shape function for longitudinal force wind angle (degrees) The longitudinal wind force drag coefficient.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 4-4. normal. The longitudinal force is determined from NCEL. and excessive superstructure. TN-1628 using the equation: EQUATION: where Fxw = 0. Figure 4-1 shows the definition of winds areas. the wind force drag coefficient varies depending on bow ( CxwB ) or stern ( CxwS ) wind loading. Recommended values of longitudinal wind force drag coefficients are given in Table 4-3.2 Static Longitudinal Wind Force. This is the force in the “X” or surge direction in Figure 4-2. Additionally. Cxw . 75 .

This is defined as θx and is dependent on the location of the superstructure relative to midships. Recommended values of this angle are given in Table 4-4.40 0. cruisers) 0. submarines. Table 4-4. there is an angle at which the force changes sign.80 Hull Dominated (aircraft carriers. Recommended Ship Longitudinal Wind Force Drag Coefficients VESSEL TYPE CxwB CxwS 0.60 0.60 0. Recommended Values of θx LOCATION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE Just forward of midships On midships Aft of midships (tankers) Warships Hull dominated θx (deg) 100 90 80 70 60 Shape functions are given for general vessel categories below: 76 .70 *An adjustment of up to +0. As the wind direction varies from headwind to tailwind.70 Center-Island Tankers* 0.80 Significant Superstructure (destroyers.40 Normal* 0. The longitudinal shape function also varies over bow and stern wind loading regions.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 4-3. passenger liners) 0.10 to CxwB and CxwS should be made to account for significant cargo or cluttered decks.

So when θ w > 1 8 0 ° . use 3 6 0 ° − θ w as θ w in determining the shape function. and cargo vessels): f xw (θ w ) = cos (φ ) EQUATION: (6) where φ− =   90°   θ for θ w  θx  w < θx > (6a) φ+ =   90°   (θ − θ ) + 90° for θ w  180°−θx  w x θx (6b) θ x = incident wind angle that produces no net longitudinal force (Table 4-4) θ w = wind angle Values of f xw (θ w ) are symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the vessel. distinct superstructures and hull-dominated ships is given below (examples include aircraft carriers.9 EQUATION: f xw (θ w ) = (7) where γ  90°  =  θ + 90° for θ w < θ x −  θx  w (7a) (7b) γ   90°θx    90°  =   for θ w > θ x  (θW ) +  180°−  +  180°−θx   180°−θx    77 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CASE I SINGLE DISTINCT SUPERSTRUCTURE The shape function for longitudinal wind load for ships with single. CASE II DISTRIBUTED SUPERSTRUCTURE sin(5γ )    sin ( γ )   10  0. EC-2.

72 At the wind angle of 40 degrees.57 78 .4 o )  10   0.8 * 0. f xw (θ w ) =  sin(5 * 141. So when θ w > 1 8 0 ° .72 = 0.4 o )   sin (141.70 from Table 4-3 CxwS = 0.9 = 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Values of f xw (θ w ) are symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the vessel. EXAMPLE: Find the longitudinal wind drag coefficient for a wind angle of 40 degrees for the destroyer shown in Figure 4-5. the following values are selected: θx = 70o from Table 4-4 CxwB = 0.80 from Table 4-3 This ship has a distributed superstructure and the wind angle is less than the crossing value. Therefore. use 3 6 0 ° − θ w as θ w in determining the shape function. SOLUTION: For this destroyer. the wind has a longitudinal component on the stern. so Equation 7a is used to determine the shape function: γ − = ( 90o / ( 70o ) )40o + 90o = 1414 o . the wind longitudinal drag coefficient for this example is: C xw f xw (θw ) = 0. Note that the maximum longitudinal wind force for these vessels occurs for wind directions slightly off the ship’s longitudinal axis.

5 ρa Vw 2 A y LC xyw {θw } (8) M xyw = wind yaw moment (newton*m) mass density of air (from Table 4-1) wind speed (m/s) longitudinal projected area of the ship (m2) ρa = Vw = Ay = L = length of ship (m) C xyw {θw } = normalized yaw moment coefficient θw = = moment arm divided by ship length wind angle (degrees) The normalized yaw moment coefficient depends upon the vessel type.θz ) ] (dimensionless) (9b) 79 . Equation 9 gives equations for computing the value of the yaw moment coefficient and Table 4-5 gives empirical parameter values for selected vessel types. In the local ship coordinate system. this is the moment about the “Z” axis. The static wind yaw moment is defined as the product of the associated transverse wind force and its distance from the vessel’s center of gravity. where (9a) Cxyw {θw } = a1 = a2 = θw = θz = normalized wind yaw moment coefficient negative peak value (from Table 4-5) positive peak value (from Table 4-5) wind angle (degrees) zero moment angle (degrees) (from Table 4-5) λ = [ 180 * deg (180 * deg .3 Static Wind Yaw Moment. The normalized yaw moment variables is found from: EQUATION: C xyw {θw } = . Wind yaw moment is determined from the equation: EQUATION: where M xyw = 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 4-4.a1 * sin( θw * 180 ) θz 0<θw<θz (9) C xyw {θw } = a2 * sin[(θw − θz ) * λ )] θz≤θw<180 deg and symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the vessel.

07 0.05 0.077 0.072 0.025 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 4-5.064 0.096 0.068 0. 80 .05 0.029 0.1 0.14 0.18 Positive Peak (a2) 0.13 0.085 0. Normalized Wind Yaw Moment Variables SHIP TYPE Liner Carrier Tanker Tanker Cruiser Destroyer Others: Zero Moment Angle (θz) 80 90 95 100 90 68 130 102 90 75 105 Negative Peak (a1) 0.02 0.1 0.12 0.04 0.075 0.03 0.12 NOTES Center island w/ cluttered deck Center island w/ trim deck stern superstructure aft midships superstructure midships superstructure forward midships superstructure bow superstructure A plot of the yaw normalized moment coefficient for the example shown in Figure 4-5 is given as Figure 4-7.

05 0. Sample Yaw Normalized Moment Coefficient 0.125 a2 0.025 -a1 -0.15 0.05 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 WIND ANGLE (deg) 81 .025 0 θz -0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-7.075 Cxyw 0.1 0.

Seelig et al. These effects are considered and the transverse current force is determined from the equation: EQUATION: where Fyc = 0. These planar directions are of primary importance in many mooring designs.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 4-5 STATIC CURRENT FORCES/MOMENTS. If the underkeel clearance is small. and the transverse current force on the ship increases. then water can freely flow under the keel. then the ship more effectively blocks current flow. (1992) is shown in Figure 4-9. as shown in Figure 4-8(b).5 ρ w Vc 2 LwL T C yc sinθ c (10) Fyc = transverse current force (newtons) = mass density of water (from Table 4-1) = current velocity (m/s) = vessel waterline length (m) = average vessel draft (m) = transverse current force drag coefficient = current angle (degrees) ρw Vc L wL T C yc θc The transverse current force drag coefficient as formulated in Broadside Current Forces on Moored Ships. This drag coefficient can be determined from: 82 . If a ship has a large underkeel clearance. Static Transverse Current Force. Methods to determine static current forces and moments on stationary moored vessels in the surge and sway directions and yaw moment are presented in this section.1 defined as that component of force perpendicular to the vessel centerline. as shown in Figure 4-8(a). The transverse current force is 4-5.

Examples of Ratios of Ship Draft (T) to Water Depth (d) (a) T/d = 0.25 SHIP End View (b) T/d = 0.8 T T d d Current Flow seafloor 83 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-8.

Broadside Current Drag Coefficient 3.50 2 0.20 0.50 This figure is for current speeds of 1.80 0.90 1. 3.70 0.60 0.5 m/s or less and for ships moored in relatively large harbors or channels w here the moored ship does not significantly restrict the flow . This figure uses: C1 = 3.00 Cyc 1.2 and K = 2 as discussed in the text.00 8 4 0.00 84 .50 χ= 32 16 1.50 2.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-9.00 0.40 0.00 2.10 0.50 T/d 0.00 0.30 0.

K=3 From a small number of tests on a fixed cargo ship and for a small number of tests on an old aircraft carrier.0. C1 = shallow water current force drag coefficient where T/d = 1. laboratory data from ship models shows: K=2 Wide range of ship and barge tests. C1 = 3.2 is recommended T = average vessel draft (m) d = water depth (m) K = dimensionless exponent.9 knots or 4. (m3) (which can be found by taking the displacement of the vessel divided by the unit weight of water. and V = is the submerged volume of the ship. this deepwater drag coefficient is estimated from: C 0 =0.C 0 ) * (T / d) K (11) = deepwater current force drag coefficient for T/d ≈ 0. most all of the physical model data available can be fit with this coefficient. given in Table 4-1).9 ft/sec) or less. SS-212 85 .22 * χ EQUATION: (12) where χ is a dimensionless ship parameter calculated as: EQUATION: where χ = LwL 2 * Am / ( B *V ) (13) LwL = is the vessel length at waterline (m) Am = is the immersed cross-sectional area of the ship at midsection (m2) B = is the beam (maximum ship width at the waterline) (m).UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 EQUATION: where CO Cyc = C 0 + (C1 .0. CVE-55 K=3 From a small number of tests on an old submarine hull. including submarines.5 m/s (2. for currents of 1.

Transverse current drag coefficients predicted using Equation 11 are shown on this figure as a solid bold line. LwL * T . if possible. This is because the vessel decreases the effective flow area of a restricted channel.9 knots or 4. are provided in the Ships Characteristics Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) for DOD ships. Physical scale model data 86 . SOLUTION: Dimensions and characteristics of this vessel are summarized in the lower right portion of Figure 4-10. then scale model laboratory data show that there can be significant vessel heel/roll. Am . Recent full-scale measurements with a floating drydock show the transverse current force equations should also be used to compute the longitudinal drag forces for blocky vessels.5 m/s (3 knots or 5 ft/sec) or more.. In some model tests in shallow water and at high current speeds this effect was so pronounced that the model ship capsized. The above methods for determining the transverse current force are recommended for normal design conditions with moderate current speeds of 1.5 m/s (2.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 The immersed cross-sectional area of the ship at midships. and/or for vessels moored in restricted channels (2) then the designer should contact NFESC.9 ft/sec) or less and in relatively wide channels and harbors (see Seelig et al. the harbor has a cross-sectional area much larger than the submerged ship longitudinal area. Cm . At the mooring location.9 knots or 4.9 ft/sec). Scale physical model tests show that a vessel moored broadside in a restricted channel has increased current forces. If the vessel is moored broadside in currents greater than 1. EXAMPLE: Find the current force on an FFG-7 vessel produced by a current of θc=90 degrees to the ship centerline with a speed of 1.5 m/s (2. 1992). which effectively increases the drag force on the vessel. which causes the current speed and current force to increase. For specialized cases where: (1) vessels are moored in current of 1. Mooring a vessel broadside in a high current should be avoided.5 m/s (2.9 ft/sec) in salt water for a given ship draft. can be determined from: EQUATION: Am = Cm * B * T (14) Values of the midship coefficient.9 knots or 4.

5 m/s (2.096 45.7 150 0.03 1. EW-9-90.96 4.288 15. Naval Academy (USNA).72 6.576 7. Table 4-6.90 Fyc (kips)** 123 148 231 293 427 This example shows that in shallow water the transverse current force can be three times or larger than in deep water for an FFG-7. showing that Equation 11 provides a reasonable estimate of drag coefficients.572 15 * MN = one million newtons **kip = one thousand pounds force Fyc (MN)* 0.2 50 0. 87 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 (U.9 knots) d d T/d (m) (ft) 0.62 25 0. Evaluation of Viscous Damping Models for Single Point Mooring Simulation) are shown as symbols in the drawing.096 20 0.66 1. Predicted current forces for this example are given in Table 4-6.55 0.30 1.S. Predicted Transverse Current Forces on FFG-7 for a Current Speed of 1.

40 0.75 and 1/80.80 2.00 0. Some data taken at 5 and 6 knots is not included.60 0.389 m = 3590 long ton (LT) = 3590 LT * 0.50 T/d 0.40 0.58 m = 4.60 2.10 0.78 = 124.89 C0 = 0.80 Cyc 1.20 0. Example of Transverse Current Drag Coefficients 3. (Kreibel.7 m 2 3 2 3 Data taken from tests conducted at the US Naval Academy at scales 1/24.40 2.40 1.60 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.80 0.36 m = 11.00 2.2 K =2 88 . 1992) χ = 14.30 0.9904 m /LT = 3555.8489 C1 = 3.20 2.89 Am = 0.78 *B *T = 39.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 4-10.20 1.00 Model data points Cm LwL B T D V FFG-7 = 0.90 1.70 0.00 1.64 m χ = LwL *Am/(B*V) = 14.80 0.60 1.20 3.

from Table 4-1 Vc = current speed (m/s) B = maximum vessel width at the waterline(m) T = average vessel draft (m) C xcb = longitudinal current form drag coefficient = 0. FxFRICTION . The longitudinal current force is defined as that component of force parallel to the centerline of the vessel. STATMOOR – A Single-Point Mooring Static Analysis Program): EQUATION: where Fxc = Fx FORM + Fx FRICTION + Fx PROP (15) Fxc = FxFORM = FxFRICTION = FxPROP = total longitudinal current load (newtons) longitudinal current load due to form drag (newtons) longitudinal current load due to skin friction (newtons) longitudinal current load due to propeller drag (newtons) The three elements of the general longitudinal current load equation.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 4-5. TN-1634. This force is determined for streamlined ship-shaped vessels from the following equation (Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL). and FxPROP are described below: FxFORM = EQUATION: where longitudinal current load due to form drag FxFORM = 1 ρw Vc 2 B T Cxcb cos(θc ) 2 (16) mass density of water.1 θc = current angle (degrees) = ρw FxFRICTION = longitudinal current load due to skin friction 89 .2 Static Longitudinal Current Force for Ships. FxFORM .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 EQUATION: where FxFRICTION = 1 ρw Vc 2 S C xca cos(θc ) 2 (17) ρw = mass density of water. from Table 4-1 longitudinal current load due to fixed propeller drag FxPROP = 1 ρ V 2 A C cos(θC ) 2 w c p PROP (21) 90 . estimated using    +  wL   EQUATION: S = 1. from Table 4-1 longitudinal skin friction coefficient. from Table 4-1 Vc = current speed (m/s) S = wetted surface area (m2).075 log R 10    N−    2 2 (19) R N = Reynolds Number EQUATION: RN = Vc LwL cos(θc ) ν (20) θ c = current angle (degrees) FxPROP = EQUATION: where ν = kinematic viscosity of water.7 T L Tγ D w       (18) T = L wL = D = γ = w C xca = average vessel draft (m) waterline length of vessel (m) ship displacement (newtons) weight density of water. estimated using:   /   EQUATION: C xca = 0.

0.838 Ap = (22) A Tpp = total projected propeller area (m2) for an assumed propeller pitch ratio of p / d = 1.067 . from Table 4-1 Vc = current speed (m/s) A p = propeller expanded blade area (m2) θC EQUATION: C PROP = = propeller drag coefficient = 1. Typical values of this parameter for major vessel groups are given in Table 4-7.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 ρw = mass density of water.229 (p / d) = A Tpp 0.0 current angle (degrees) A Tpp 1. 91 .0 EQUATION: A Tpp = L wL B AR (23) A R is a dimensionless area ratio for propellers.

SOLUTION: Table 4-9 shows the predicted current forces. AR for Major Vessel Groups SHIP Destroyer Cruiser Carrier Cargo Tanker Submarine AREA RATIO. 92 . Note that these forces are negative. the user must be careful to keep units consistent. the force on the propeller is approximately two-thirds of the total longitudinal current force.544 m/sec (3 knots) on a destroyer in salt water with the characteristics shown in Table 4-8. For commercial ships. A R 100 160 125 240 270 125 Note that in these and all other engineering calculations discussed in this UFC. with relatively smaller propellers. EXAMPLE: Find the longitudinal current force with a bow-on current of θc=180 degrees with a current speed of 1. For this destroyer. form and friction drag produce a larger percentage of the current force.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 4-7. since the bow-on current is in a negative “X” direction.

4 kN ENGLISH OR INCH-POUND SYSTEM -2.87 kip -13.1 kN* -6. Eq 16 FxPROP.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 4-8.00188 32. Example Destroyer PARAMETER SI SYSTEM LwL T B D.00188 347.95 kip** -1. from Eq 22 161.93E6 kg 0.09E8 0.8 kN -39. Example Longitudinal Current Forces on a Destroyer FORCE SI SYSTEM FxFORM. from Eq 19 Ap. from Table 4-7 RN. est. est.2 m 6. estimated S.53 kip -8. est.4 m 16.256 m2 ENGLISH OR INCH-POUND SYSTEM 529 ft 21 ft 55 ft 7810 long tons 0. from Eq 20 Cxca.83 2963 m2 100 2. Eq 15 FxFRICTION.83 31 897 ft2 100 2. Eq 17 Total Fxc = -13.4 kip PERCENT OF TOTAL FORCE 22% 12% 66% 100% * kN = one thousand newtons **kip = one thousand pounds force 93 .76 m 7.09E8 0.4 kN -59. from Eq 18 AR. ship displacement Cm.2 ft2 Table 4-9.

take the case of a floating drydock 180 feet wide with a draft of 67 feet moored in a water depth of 70 feet.1 Static Transverse Current Force for the longitudinal current force on the hull. In this case use the appropriate parameters as input. For example.2 are inappropriate for very blunt-bow vessels. Full-scale measurements were made on the actual drydock for this case and the measured longitudinal force was 143 kips. For blunt-bow vessels use the methods and equations in Chapter 4-5. A current of 1. 94 . In this example the predicted force is approximately 1% higher than measured. The methods in Chapter 4-5. such as floating drydocks.1) to produce a longitudinal current force of 144.2 knots is predicted (using methods in Chapter 4-5.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 4-5.9 kips on this floating drydock.3 Static Longitudinal Current Force for Blunt Vessels.

The current yaw moment is defined as that component of moment acting about the vessel’s vertical “Z”-axis.4 Static Current Yaw Moment. The dimensionless moment arm is dependent upon the current angle to the vessel.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 4-5. This moment is determined from the equation: EQUATION: where M xyc = Fyc ( ec )L LwL wL (24) M xyc Fyc ec LwL ec LwL = current yaw moment (newton*m) = transverse current force (newton) = ratio of eccentricity to vessel waterline length = eccentricity of Fyc (m) = vessel waterline length (m) The dimensionless moment arm ec is calculated by choosing the slope and y-intercept LwL variables from Table 4-10 which are a function of the vessel hull. as shown in Equation 25: EQUATION: e = a + b * θc LwL θc=0° to 180° (25) e = a + (b * (360 deg − θ c )) θc=180° to 360° LwL where (25a) ec LwL a b = ratio of eccentricity to vessel waterline length = y-intercept (refer to Table 4-10) (dimensionless) = slope per degree (refer to Table 4-10) = current angle (degrees) θc 95 .

Current Moment Eccentricity Ratio Variables SHIP SERIES 60 FFG CVE-55 SS-212 a Y-INTERCEPT -0. NFESC Report TR-6003-OCN provides scale model test results of wind and current forces and moments for multiple identical ships. cargo ships. If ships are moored in close proximity to one another then the nearby ship(s) can influence the forces/moments on a given ship. Cases included in NFESC Report TR-6003-OCN include: individual ships. Table 4-10. ships in nests and ships moored on either sides of piers.00353 0. because the physical processes involved are highly complex. destroyers.201 -0.291 -0. The best information available on the effects of nearby ships is results from physical model tests. Values provided in Table 4-10 are based upon least squares fit of scale model data taken for the case of ships with level keels.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 The above methods for determining the eccentricity ratio are recommended for normal design conditions with moderate current speeds of less than 1.00221 0. Data are not adequately available for evaluating the effect of trim on the current moment.168 -0.00255 NOTES Full hull form typical of cargo ships “Rounded” hull typical of surface warships Old attack aircraft carrier Old submarine WIND AND CURRENT FORCES AND MOMENTS ON MULTIPLE 4-6 SHIPS.244 b SLOPE PER DEGREE 0. Results are provided for the effects of winds and currents in both tabular and graphical form. Data are provided for aircraft carriers. 96 .00189 0. From two to six identical ships were tested and the test results were compared with test results from a single ship.5 m/s (3 knots or 5 ft/sec). and submarines.

Anchors are used on both ships and in mooring facilities. rock bolts. Some characteristics of these two categories of anchors are given in Table 5-2. 97 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 5 ANCHOR SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES GENERAL ANCHOR DESIGN PROCEDURE. The type and size of anchor specified depends upon certain parameters. propellant-embedment anchors.) are discussed in the NCEL Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering. Other types of specialized anchors (shallow foundations. so they will be discussed here. pile anchors. The most commonly used anchors in DOD moorings are drag-embedment anchors and driven-plate anchors. such as those shown in Table 5-1. so selection and design of anchors are included in this section. etc. Figures 5-1 and 5-2 illustrate typical drag-embedment anchors. Figure 5-3 illustrates a driven-plate anchor. Anchor systems ultimately 5-1 hold the mooring loads in fleet mooring systems.

The amount of weight that can be handled or carried may control anchor specification. as well as the amount of room available for anchors systems. will influence anchor specification. then drag anchors are most commonly used. 98 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-1. Engineering properties and sediment layer thickness influence anchor design. Anchor Specification Considerations PARAMETER Holding capacity Soils Use Weight Equipment Directionality Performance DESCRIPTION The size/type of anchor will depend on the amount of anchor holding required. If anchors will be relocated. The size and characteristics of installation equipment are important in anchor specification. driven plate anchors provide high omni directional capacity. Whether anchor will be allowed to drag or not. Drag anchors may provide little uplift capacity and primarily hold in one direction.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 5-1. Example of a Drag-Embedment Anchor (Stabilized Stockless Anchor) 99 .

Example of a Drag-Embedment Anchor (NAVMOOR Anchor) 100 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 5-2.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 5-3. Driven-Plate Anchor 101 .

or rock seafloors. May not work in all seafloor types. May not work well for sloping If the seafloor has a slope of more than seafloors. May be unreliable in very hard clay. which can pull the anchor out. and in highly layered seafloors. Fixing the maximum angle of the fluke will help ensure optimum performance.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-2. gravel. several degrees. Adequate sediment required. coral. Anchor performance depends strongly on the soil type. Sand layer thickness needs to be approximately one fluke length and mud needs to be 3 to 5 fluke lengths thick. For mooring installations the flukes should be fixed open and stabilizers added for stockless anchors to help prevent overturning. 30 kips are stocked by NFESC. Flukes should be set for the soil type. then the anchor may drag and reset. 102 . then the anchor may not hold reliably in the down-slope direction. Works primarily in one horizontal Enough scope of chain and/or wire rope direction. If a load is applied to a drag anchor at a horizontal axis off the centerline of the anchor. needs to be provided to minimize uplift forces. Anchor Characteristics (a) Drag-Embedment Anchors CHARACTERISTICS NOTES Many basic designs and sizes are NAVMOOR-10 & -15 and stockless of 20 to available from manufacturers.

Drag-embedment anchors can be recovered and reused. If adequate room is available then anchor drag can help prevent failure of other mooring components. If the anchor is overloaded at a slow enough rate.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-2. Pulling the anchor at the design load in the design direction will help set the anchor and assure that the soil/anchor interaction provides adequate holding. then the anchor can drag. (continued) Anchor Characteristics (a) Drag-Embedment Anchors (Continued) Anchor can drag. Anchors can be reused. Anchor dragging can be a problem if the room for mooring is restricted. Proof loading recommended. 103 . which reduces the peak load.

Can be used on short scope. (continued) Anchor Characteristics (b) Driven-Plate Anchors CHARACTERISTICS NOTES Size and design of anchor are These anchors have been used in a variety of selected to provide adequate holding. The anchor will not drag. Anchor is fixed. so this type of anchor is well suited to locations with limited mooring area available. A driving to allow driving. Design Guide for Pile-Driven Plate Anchors). because adequate structural capacity. Mobilization can be expensive. since the anchors are multi-directional. and to provide analysis is recommended for hard soil. Anchors designed for the soil type. the anchor must be able to be driven in order to work. Anchors designed for the soil engineering characteristics at the site. Adequate sediment required. One plate anchor may be used to replace several drag anchor legs. Multi-directional. A minimum of several fluke lengths of sediment is required to provide for keying and allow the anchor to hold (NFESC TR-2039-OCN. Pulling the anchor at the design load in the design direction will help key the anchor and assure that the soil/anchor interaction provides adequate holding. soils from soft mud to hard coral. Installation equipment. since the anchor resists uplift forces. so installing a number of anchors at a time reduces the unit installation cost.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-2. Proof loading recommended. The anchors cannot be recovered or inspected. 104 .

availability. units use 10000 lbf) exponent Values of HR and b depend on the anchor and soil types.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 5-2 DRAG-EMBEDMENT ANCHOR SPECIFICATION. while in U. and installation assets. cost. for U.S. Values of these parameters are given in U. customary units in Table 5-3 and for SI units in Table 5-4.S. TDS 83-08R. Drag-embedment anchor holding capacities have been measured in fullscale tests. anchor stowage. Note that in SI units the anchor mass is used to characterize anchor size. for U. Drag Embedment Anchors for Navy Moorings). customary units the anchor weight as a force is used. modeled in the laboratory.S. anchoring holding capacity. Drag-embedment anchors are carried on ships and used in many fleet-mooring facilities. and derived from soil analyses. Figures 5-4 and 5-5 give holding capacities of selected anchors for mud and sand seafloors. Empirical anchor holding curves were developed from this information (Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL). anchor weight. units use anchor weight in pounds force) reference anchor weight in air (for SI units use 4536 kg. Key considerations in selecting an anchor are: soil type.S. Predicted static ultimate anchor holding is given by: EQUATION: where HM = HR (WA / WR ) b (26) HM = HR = WA = WR = b = ultimate anchor system static holding capacity (kips or kN) reference static holding capacity weight of the anchor in air (for SI units use anchor weight in kilograms. 105 .

For dense sand conditions (near shore).8 0.92 (i) 0.94 0.92 0.8 0.94 0.8 (c) 0.8 0.92 0.S.8 0.92 0.94 0.94 0. No data available.92 0.92 210 70 44 70 44 in hard soils. Anchor not used in this seafloor condition.94 0.8 (c) HARD SOILS (Sands and stiff clays) b Fluke angles set for 50 deg in soft soils and according to manufacturer' s specifications 106 .92 0. Drag Anchor Holding Parameters U.94 0. For 48-deg fluke angle. AC-14 Hook LWT (Lightw eight) Moorfast NAVMOOR Offdrill II STATO STEVDIG STEVFIX STEVIN STEVMUD STEVPRIS (straight shank) Stockless (fixed fluke) Stockless (movable fluke) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) 210 32 250 189 87 139 87 189 87 117 210 117 210 139 189 139 250 189 46 24 0.8 (g) b HR (kips) 270 250 (c) 0.92 0.8 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.94 0.92 0.92 0. For 20-deg fluke angle (from API 2SK effective March 1.8 0.94 0. except w hen otherw ise noted. (h) (h) 126 100 126 60 100 270 60 100 250 190 290 290 165 (g) 0.8 0.94 0.8 0. 1997).UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-3.8 0.92 (i) 0. For 28-deg fluke angle. Customary SOFT SOILS Anchor Type (a ) (Soft clays and silts) HR (kips) Boss BRUCE Cast BRUCE Flat Fluke Tw in Shank BRUCE Tw in Shank Danforth Flipper Delta G.S. For 30-deg fluke angle.8 0.92 0. " b" is an exponent constant.92 0.8 0.8 (d) (e) (f) (d) 210 126 (c) 0.8 0.

94 0.8 0. No data available.8 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-4.8 0. (h) (h) 560 445 560 267 445 1201 267 445 1112 845 1290 1290 734 (g) 0.8 0.94 0.8 0.8 0. For dense sand conditions (near shore).94 0. Anchor not used in this seafloor condition.8 (c) HARD SOILS (Sands and stiff clays) b Fluke angles set for 50 deg in soft soils and according to manufacturer' s specifications 107 .94 0.92 (i) 0.92 0.94 0.92 0.8 0.94 0.92 0.8 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.94 0.8 0.8 0.8 (g) b HR (kN) 1201 1112 (c) 0.S.92 0.92 0.8 (d) (e) (f) (d) 934 560 (c) 0.92 0. AC-14 Hook LWT (Lightw eight) Moorfast NAVMOOR Offdrill II STATO STEVDIG STEVFIX STEVIN STEVMUD STEVPRIS (straight shank) Stockless (fixed fluke) Stockless (movable fluke) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) 934 142 1112 841 387 618 387 841 387 520 934 520 934 618 841 618 1112 841 205 107 0. 1997).92 0.92 (i) 0.92 0. For 30-deg fluke angle. except w hen otherw ise noted. For 28-deg fluke angle.92 0. For 48-deg fluke angle. Drag Anchor Holding Parameters SI Units SOFT SOILS Anchor Type (a ) (Soft clays and silts) HR (kN) Boss BRUCE Cast BRUCE Flat Fluke Tw in Shank BRUCE Tw in Shank Danforth Flipper Delta G. " b" is an exponent constant.92 934 311 196 311 196 in hard soils. For 20-deg fluke angle (from API 2SK effective March 1.8 (c) 0.94 0.92 0.8 0.94 0.8 0.

th or nf Da T* 40 s les ck o St d ixe (F ) ke Flu 20 (M ss kle oc St le ab ov ) ke Flu 10 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 Anchor Air Weight (kips) 108 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 5-4.L GS .Anchor System Holding Capacity in Cohesive Soil (Mud) 1000 800 600 500 400 300 R OO Anchor System Holding Capacity (kips) 200 NA VM 100 80 60 W .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 5-5 Anchor System Holding Capacity in Cohesionless Soil (Sand) 1000 800 600 500 400 Anchor System Holding Capacity (kips) 300 R OO Fluke angles set for sand as per manuf acturers specif icat ions. .G th or nf Da A ke Flu T le ng 100 80 60 St oc -3 ss kle 5 o o 40 St -4 ss kle oc 8 A ke Flu le ng 20 *Anchors require special handling to ensure fluke tripping (possibly fixed open flukes). 1 10 01 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 Anchor Air Weight (kips) 109 . 200 N M AV LW S.

110 . Detailed design procedures for these anchors are given in NFESC TR-2039OCN. NFESC has found that various types of plate anchors are an efficient and cost effective method of providing permanent moorings. Additional information is given in NCEL Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 5-3 DRIVEN-PLATE ANCHOR DESIGN. A driven-plate anchor consists of the components shown in Figure 5-3 and discussed in Table 5-5. Design Guide for Pile-Driven Plate Anchors. An overview of plate anchor design is given here.

Size the beam to provide: a driving member. Installation consists of three key steps. 111 . Driven-Plate Anchor Components COMPONENT Plate I-Beam Padeye Follower Hammer Template NOTES Size the area and thickness of the plate to hold the required working load in the given soils.5 to 2 is shown by practical experience to give optimum performance. A structure is added to the side of the driving platform to keep the follower in position during setup and driving. A plate length-to-width ratio of L/B = 1. A vibratory hammer may be used in cohesionless soils or very soft mud. Sized to drive the anchor safely. A vibratory hammer may also be useful during follower extraction. Length and size specified so assembly can safely be picked up. and removed. In most cases it is preferable to use an impact hammer.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-5. stiffness and strength to the anchor. as outlined in Table 5-6. Size this structure as the point where the chain or wire rope is shackled onto the anchor prior to driving. driven. and to separate the padeye from the plate to provide a moment that helps the anchor key during proof testing. Installation of a plate anchor is illustrated in Figure 5-6.

place anchor in follower. and removes slack from the chain.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 5-6. This keys the anchor. Proof load the anchor. shackle anchor to chain. 112 . Major Steps in Driven-Plate Anchor Installation STEP 1 2 3 DESCRIPTION Moor installation platform. Remove follower with a crane and/or extractor. place the follower/anchor assembly at the specified anchor location and drive the anchor to the required depth in the sediment (record driving blow count). proves that the anchor holds the design load.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 5-6. Major Steps of Driven-Plate Anchor Installation 113 .

22 m (2 ft x 4 ft) San Diego.61 m x 1. HI Hard Clay DRIVING DISTANCE INTO COMPOTENT SEDIMENT 9 m (30 ft) PROOF LOAD Sand (Medium) Coral Limestone Mud 8 m (27 ft) 12 m (40 ft) 21 m (70 ft) 670 kN (150 kips) Vertical 890 kN (200 kips) Vertical 1000 kN (225 kips) Vertical 890 kN (200 kips) Horizontal The recommended minimum plate anchor spacing is five times the anchor width for mud or clay and 10 times the anchor width for sand. 114 . Typical Driven-Plate Anchors SIZE/LOCATION SEAFLOOR TYPE 0.22 m (3 ft x 4 ft) Philadelphia.91 m x 1. Table 5-7.83 m (5 ft x 6 ft) Guam m x 3.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Examples of plate anchors that have been used at various sites are summarized in Table 5-7.35 m (6 ft x 11 ft) Pearl Harbor. CA m x 1. PA 0.

1 moorings are: Chain Synthetic line Wire rope Tension bar buoys Compression Members. Tension Members. Design and illustration of some of the common anchor types routinely used are discussed in Chapter 5 of this UFC. Anchors operate on the basis of soil structure interaction.S. and in NCEL Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering. Fortunately. due to the complex nature of structure/soil interaction.2 members in moorings are: Marine fenders Fender Piles Camels Mooring dolphins Piers Wharves ANCHORS. so their behavior can be complex. Equipment most often used in mooring facilities is 6-1 discussed in this section.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 6 FACILITY MOORING EQUIPMENT GUIDELINES INTRODUCTION. This experience provides a strong basis for design. A brief summary of some anchor experience is given in Table 6-1. Navy has extensive experience with full-scale testing of a number of different anchor types in a wide variety of soils and conditions (NCEL Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering). such as pier piles or a wharf structure. KEY MOORING COMPONENTS. The most commonly used tension members in 6-2. The most commonly used compression 6-2. The resulting mooring loads are transferred to the earth via anchors or some other members. it is strongly recommended that anchors always be pull tested to their design load during installation. However. 115 . A mooring is a structure that holds a 6-2 ship in a position using tension and compression members. Anchors are structures used to transmit mooring loads to the 6-3 earth. the U.

Stockless) High Efficiency Drag Embedment Anchors (i.. Navy Fleet Mooring inventory. Vertical angle of tension member should be approximately zero at the seafloor.S. Excellent in a wide variety of soil conditions. Practical Experience With Anchors ANCHOR TYPE Low Efficiency Drag Embedment Anchors (i.e.e. NAVMOOR) DESCRIPTION Reliable if stabilizers are added (see Figure 5-1). Should be set and proof tested during installation. 116 . Very efficient. Should be set and proof tested during installation. A large number available in the U. Can be used in tandem in various configurations (NCEL TDS 83-05. but reliable through ‘brute force’. Not very efficient. Single and Tandem Anchor Performance of the New Navy Mooring Anchor). highly reliable and especially designed so it can easily be used in tandem (NCEL TN-1774. Vertical angle of tension member should be approximately zero at the seafloor in most cases. Navy Fleet Mooring inventory.S.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-1. Multiple STOCKLESS Anchors for Navy Fleet Moorings). Extensive experience. Efficiency increased by fixing the flukes for the type of soil at the site. These are available in the U..

117 . As a result. Most cost effective if a number are to be installed at one site at one time. Extensive experience. Fleet Mooring Test Program – Pearl Harbor) show anchor-holding capacity dramatically decreases after anchor starts dragging. NFESC TR-6037-OCN provides an Improved Pearl Harbor Anchor design. Requires a follower and driving equipment. Design Guide for Pile-Driven Plate Anchors). Navy Fleet Mooring inventory is given in Table 6-2. Full-scale tests (NCEL. Can take loads at any angle.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-1.S. NAVMOOR anchors in inventory are described in Table 6-3. can be designed to hold extremely high loads and will work in a wide variety of soils from mud to limestone (NFESC TR-2039. so short scope moorings can be used. Should be keyed and proof tested during installation. A summary sheet describing the stockless anchors in the U. just when the anchor capacity required may be most needed. NCEL Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering gives extensive technical and practical information on a wide variety of anchors and soil/structure interaction. (Continued) Practical Experience With Anchors ANCHOR TYPE Driven-Plate Anchors Deadweight Anchors Other anchor types DESCRIPTION Extremely efficient. Deadweight anchors should be used with caution. Very low efficiency. use of this type of anchor can be dangerous.

Stockless Anchors in the U. Navy Fleet Mooring Inventory 118 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-2.S.

S. Navy Fleet Mooring Inventory 119 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-3. NAVMOOR Anchors in the U.

which was made by pressing together male and female parts to form each link. Mooring Design Physical and Empirical Data and NFESC FPO-189(PD1) for additional information on chain and fittings. Purchase Description for Fleet Mooring Chain and Accessories). Refer to NFESC TR-6014-OCN. Chain routinely comes in 90-foot (27. shots of chain are connected together with chain joining links. Ground rings provide an attachment point for multiple chains. 120 . Die-Lock is not recommended for long-term in-water use. Chain used in fleet moorings is Grade 3 stud link chain specifically designed for long-term in-water use (Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC). Older ships may use Die-Lock chain (not shown). Note that oversized anodes may be used to extend the anode life and increase the time interval required for anode replacement. with each chain link formed by bending and butt-welding a single bar of steel. The resulting corrosion is difficult to inspect. Anchor joining links are used to connect chain to anchors. Properties of FM3 carried in stock are shown in Table 6-4. Anodes for use on each link of FM3 chain. For example.4-meter) lengths called ‘shots’. FPO-1-89(PD1). A number of other accessories are used with chain. Chain is often used in fleet moorings because Is easy to terminate Can easily be lengthened or shortened Is durable Is easy to inspect Is easy to provide cathodic protection Has extensive experience Is available Is cost effective Provides catenary effects DOD commonly uses stud link chain. are described in Table 6-5. as shown in Figure 6-1. designed for diver replacement. because water may seep in between the male and female parts. This chain is designated as FM3.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 6-4 chain: CHAIN AND FITTINGS. Buoy swivels are used to connect chain to buoys.

4 133.7 63.25 119 2.2 189.3 10258 13358 16.2 5138 16.8 48 64.2 199.8 230.3 24.1 135.2 3276 13.4 275.9 543.5 77 4 67 10.6 2525 12.8 104.6 52.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-4.75 97 3.5 107 2.4 26.7 6250 21.75 153 2 133 2.9 42. (lbs/ft) BREAKING STRENGTH (thousands lbf) WORKING STRENGTH (FS=3) (thousands lbf) 1.2 151.5 121 . FM3 Mooring Chain Characteristics NOMINAL SIZE (inches) NUMBER OF LINKS PER SHOT LINK LENGTH(inches) WEIGHT PER SHOT IN AIR (lbf) WEIGHT PER LINK IN AIR (lbf) WEIGHT PER FOOT SUB.7 4143 15.1 427.2 33.6 34.2 352 454 570 692 826 1285 1632 117.5 24.

41 2.75 2.24 550 993 2. 4.80 1. HEX CAP 2.06 5.75 4.75 2.5 3.5 1. Properties of FM3 Chain Anodes NOMINAL SIZE (inches) ANODE WEIGHT (lbs) SCREW LENGTH (inches) ANODE WIDTH (inches) LINK GAP (lbf) ANODES PER FULL DRUM WEIGHT PER FULL DRUM (approx. GRADE 5.00 3. ALL SCREWS ARE .25 1.74 400 869 2.38 1.70 1.38 7.74 615 917 1.00 INCH ANODES FIT ALL CHAIN SIZES 3.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-5.25 1.375-16UNC-2A.75 2.94 5.25 2 1.58 2.69 8.48 122 550 1.48 158 602 2.25 4 4. lbf) NOTE: 1.24 822 979 1.50 2.62 4. ALL SCREW HEADS ARE 9/16 INCH 122 .75 0.04 2.10 1.50 3.74 1106 976 1.

Figure 6-1. Chain Fittings UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 123 .

cost. 124 . durability. due to their relatively high maintenance cost. Lines are made of different types of fiber and various constructions. are filled with foam. Key sinker parameters that can be specified in design include: Mass Weight Location Number Size Design Special care needs to be taken in the design and inspection of lifting eyes and attachment points on sinkers to ensure that they are safe.S. Wire rope has the advantage of durability. disposal and similar factors. Some of the key features of these buoys are that they require little maintenance and they are selffendering. Sinkers are placed on fleet moorings to tune the static and 6-6 dynamic behavior of a mooring. There are two buoys commonly used on U. These buoys have a polyurethane shell. The most common tension member lines used are 6-7 synthetic fiber ropes and wire rope.1 of strands together to form a composite tension member. maintenance. and have a tension bar to transmit mooring loads to the chain. Sinkers are usually made of concrete or low cost metal. Mooring Design Physical and Empirical Data.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 BUOYS. size. SINKERS. A discussion of the use of various mooring line types is given in Appendix A. Stretch/strain properties of selected lines are shown in Table 6-7 and Figure 6-2. MOORING LINES. The size and type of synthetic line specified in a given design will depend upon parameters such as those shown in Table 6-10. Mooring lines are formed by weaving a number 6-7. which can be used to fine tune static and dynamic mooring behavior and aid in load sharing between tension members. Engineering characteristics of some double braided nylon and polyester lines are given in Tables 6-8 and 6-9. Properties of these buoys are given in Table 6-6. Synthetic lines have the advantage of easy handling and some types have stretch. Synthetic Fiber Ropes. inspection. Some of the factors to consider in selecting the type of mooring buoy to use are: availability. Navy Fleet 6-5 moorings: an 8-foot diameter buoy and a 12-foot diameter buoy. Additional information is provided in NFESC TR-6014-OCN. A variety of older steel buoys in use are being phased out.

5 in Top Padeye ID (top/bottom) 3.3Fy) 150 kips 300 kips Diameter Overall (w/fenders) 8 ft 6 in 12 ft Diameter of Hull 8 ft 11 ft 6 in Length of Hull Overall 7 ft 9 in 8 ft 9 in Length of Tension Bar 11 ft 4 In 13 ft I in Height of Cylindrical Portion 4 ft 4 in 5 ft 7 in Height of Conical Portion 3 ft 5 in 3 ft 2 in Bar Thickness (top/bottom) 4.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-6.6 Fy) 300 kips 600 kips Working Load of Bar (0.183 ft-lbs Max Riser Wt 648 ft-lbs 2.000 lbs Working Buoyancy (24” FB) 6.850 lbs 18.5/3. Recommended Riser Wt 1.320 lbs Proof Load on Bar (0.000 lbs 39.680 lbs Max. Foam-Filled Polyurethane Coated Buoys PARAMETERS 8-FOOT BUOY 12-FOOT BUOY Weight in Air 4. Recommended Riser Wt 7.068 lbs 7.5 in 4.5/5 in Shackle on Top 3 inch 4 inch Maximum Chain Size 2.5/3 in 5/3.500 lbs 10.910 ft-lbs 125 .400 lbs Net Buoyancy 15.264 lbs Moment to Heel 1 deg: Min Riser Wt 108 ft-lbs 1.75 inch 4 inch Min.500 lbs 21.500 lbs Riser Wt for 24” freeboard 8.150 lbs 20.

from Tension Technology.012 12.850 2.353 7.890 9.126 2. cir.434 1. Sampson Ropes.126 2.793 15. Stretch of Synthetic Lines % Break Strength (T/Tb) 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 WIRE ROPE & 12-STRAND KEVLAR STEEL HMWPE 4CORE STRAND % Stretch % Stretch % Stretch (1) (2) (3) 0.054 16. “2-in-2 Super Strong” 126 .275 2.338 13. Whitehill Mfg. Data “2-in-1 Stable Braid” (5) Broken in line.610 13.745 14.197 DOUBLE NYLON BRAIDED 8NYLON STRAND % Stretch % Stretch (5) (6) 0.084 0. (2) High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. (4) Double Braided.000 1.697 0.756 1.528 11.863 5.656 0. Inc.000 0.000 0.210 11.000 1.395 1.999 15. (6) Double Braided.025 0.076 0.776 7.987 13. Data.821 10.000 0.798 7. Mean of 10 & 11 in.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-7.356 DOUBLE BRAIDED POLYESTER % Stretch (4) 0.915 0.058 1.691 2.950 11.250 1.907 1.922 3. Mean of 7.886 9.453 0. 10 & 12 in cir. Sampson Ropes. Sampson Ropes (3) VETS 198 Rope.250 5.151 0.000 0.605 0. Inc.335 4.472 (1) From Tension Technology.302 0.495 0.593 1.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 6-2. Data. 10 & 12 in cir. from Tension Technology. (4) Double Braided. Inc. Sampson Ropes. Data “2-in-1 Stable Braid” (5) Broken in line. “2-in-2 Super Strong” 127 . Sampson Ropes (3) VETS 198 Rope. (6) Double Braided. Sampson Ropes. (2) High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. Synthetic Line Stretch 100 90 (2) 80 (1) 70 % OF LINE BREAK STRENGTH (4) 60 (3) 50 (6) 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 % LINE STRETCH (5) (1) From Tension Technology. Mean of 7. cir. Whitehill Mfg. Mean of 10 & 11 in. Inc.

46 1152 51.87 261.4 1168.65 121.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-8.96 814.88 72. Av Fb (in) (kips) 3 33.09 135 6.5 110 6 131 6.96 42.3 7.75 52 4 59 4.0 31. = circumference.56 27.081 20.3 82.6 2145.7 40.5 785.323 17.01 1353 60.2 3026.6 24.0 6361.62 715.79 2120.5 4.09 459 20.05 282.24 1596.827 6.1 1.94 208.5 2.47 771 34.5 153 7 177 7.5 202 8 230 8.231 11.26 24. AE = cross-sectional area times modulus of elasticity (this does not include the highly nonlinear properties of nylon.48 159. cyclic loading.0 1.99 51.22 *After Sampson.07 2040 90.2 AE (E5 N) 15.81 606 26.8 4.48 541.4 5554.8 1.313 2.645 30.14 417.30 1008.5 257 9 285 10 322 11 384 12 451 13 523 14 599 15 680 Av Fb (E5 N) 1.29 177 7.1 1391.7 2.5 4077.624 3.1 2442.4 2.5 3419.8 477.88 322.2 3.2 1624.806 7.4 94.432 12.1 7221.9 552.3 60.95 321.061 23.8 4.87 21.5 3.5 27.19 156 6.1 107.32 330 14.3 1.63 393 17. Cir.65 222 9.9 11.69 909.7 20.61 95.74 AE (kips) 356.6 3.8 SINGLE LINE CIR.6 1.9 3.002 2.9 2.35 1569 69.8 966.9 5.40 134.8 44. dry.88 855 38.87 531 23.248 THREE PARTS LINE AE AE Av Fb Av Fb (kips) (E5 N) (kips) (E5 N) 118.39 213.32 1797 79.1 2. (in) 1.87 34. Av Fb = average break strength.495 2.0 17. reduce nylon lines by 15% for wet conditions Note: Dia.97 1359.8 50.048 4.677 14.264 26. shown in Figure 6-2) 128 .2 36.03 1139.2 2.27 83.68 463.5 74 5 91 5.18 1851.70 966 42.5 45 3.1 8.8 9.33 273 12.96 61.985 10.63 152.873 8.5 2729.4 1.8 1879.01 184.42 626.2 626.1 4.893 5.292 4. Double Braided Nylon Line* DIA.11 181.29 100.1 14.93 2407.22 690 30. = diameter.04 247.5 71.2 1.9 4789.42 108.

3 3.516 1055.655 316.2 4.01 39.4 7.366 2366.5 71.02 163.4 389.3 792.0 3 37.24 1410 62.73 Note: Dia.5 8 212 9.1 13 533 23.0 140. = circumference.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-9.60 2094 93.59 105.409 1991.907 4000.79 636 28.9 315.28 26.0 4.24 THREE PARTS LINE Av Fb Av Fb AE AE (kips) (E5 N) (kips) (E5 N) 111.77 8757.8 240.29 5412.94 54.9 9.98 261.0 2.257 2919.8 12 470 20.55 3166.26 1388.8 2.24 129.1 6.8 1.72 12000.4 1.4 *After Sampson.9 61.9 9 278 12.384 1412.8 5.5 2.64 2226.85 154.73 1029 45.1 3.21 1570.2 10 343 15.5 8.3 118.4 2.430 1804.4 80.104 3463. = diameter.1 3.68 498 22.23 5974.5 11 407 18.736 523.5 2.5 462.7 8. Av Fb Av Fb AE (in) (in) (kips) (E5 N) (kips) 1.6 5 87.78 233.84 71.20 15727.8 2.0 1.08 17.037 389.59 23.8 3.2 3.93 80.11 1169.5 45.34 20.0 3.450 1234. dry.88 2655.1 164.1 215.75 54.20 264.93 201.049 5940.37 46.55 1221 54.89 62.9 6 124 5.34 1848 82.2 7.15 17821.35 3702.2 7 166 7.03 312 13.3 4 61.6 1.709 4536.6 4.8 1.26 88.6 11.10 7097.401 5242.172 606.0 2.25 137. AE = cross-sectional area times modulus of elasticity 129 .5 104 4.78 184.85 213.79 1599 71.4 52.0 533. cyclic loading AE (E5 N) 14.53 570 25.420 463.8 42. Cir.08 177.3 188.1 1.4 4.2 1.5 190 8.452 1617.5 234 10. Double Braided Polyester Lines* SINGLE LINE DIA.7 699.3 2.83 435 19.11 372 16. Av Fb = average break strength.626 885.5 14 616 27.35 4851. CIR.76 834 37.31 10391.5 145 6.5 605.4 6.3 2.77 702 31.2 3.879 742.13 13608.1 1.51 1820.8 15 698 31.4 99.2 69.15 4238.5 265.99 33.6 4.96 949.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 6-10. Some Factors to Consider When Specifying Synthetic Line or Wire Rope PARAMETER Safety Break strength Diameter Weight Buoyancy and hydrodynamic properties Ease of handling Equipment to be used Stretch/strain properties Load sharing between lines Dynamic behavior Reliability Durability Fatigue Exposure Chaffing/abrasion Wet vs. dry condition Experience Ability to splice Ability to provide terminations Inspection Cost Availability 130 .

Allowable hull pressures on ships are discussed in NFESC TR-6015-OCN.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 6-7. to offset a ship from a pier or wharf. and a core. The basic unit is the wire. Fendering is used between ships and compression structures. 6-8 such as piers and wharves. Behaviors of some common types of cylindrical marine fenders are shown in Figures 6-3 and 6-4. Fenders. Some of the features to consider when specifying wire rope are listed in Table 6-10. Fenders act to distribute forces on ship hull(s) and minimize the potential for damage. Foam-Filled Fender Design to Prevent Hull Damage. The pressure exerted on ship hulls is a key factor to consider when specifying fenders. Refer to MIL-HDBK-1025/1 and NAVSEA NSTM 611 for detailed information on fenders. A predetermined number of wires of the proper size are fabricated in a uniform geometric arrangement of definite pitch or lay to form a strand of the required diameter. Refer to NAVSEA NSTM 613 for additional information. 131 . strands. Fendering is also used between moored ships. for example. A wide variety of types of fenders are used including: Wooden piles Cylindrical marine fenders Hard rubber fenders Mooring dolphins Specially designed structures Composite fender piles Plastic fender piles Pre-stressed concrete fender piles Camels are wider compression structures used. in fixed moorings.2 Wire Ropes. The required number of strands are then laid together symmetrically around a core to form the rope. Wire rope is composed of three parts: wires.

SEA-GUARD Fender Information 132 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 6-3.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 6-4. SEA-CUSHON Fender Performance 133 .

Nominal = 40 30-INCH CLEAT Height=13 in. Nominal = 20 Base 16x16 in. BITT WITH LIP Base 57.5 in.25-in. @45 deg = 216 BOLLARD “B” Nominal = 200 LARGE BOLLARD Height=44.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 6-9 PIER FITTINGS. because they are low capacity. 10 x 1.25 in. Horz. = 104 WITH HORN Base 39x39 in.bretzke@navy.75-in. Navy piers are summarized in Table 6-11.mil orJason. 6 x 1. dia. dia. Navy waterfront facilities.5 in.S. *Working capacity per barrel. = 270 MOORING Base 39x39 in. as shown in Figure 6-5. Navy waterfront facilities. @45 deg = 66 Nominal = 70 LARGE DOUBLE Height=26 in.125-in. Also. Contact NFESC 55 (alex.5 4 x 1. unless absolutely necessary.mil) for inspection results and reports for specific U. dia. dia. dia. Guidance for placing pier fittings in pier/wharf design is given in MIL-HDBK1025/1.75-in. Table 6-11. dia. 1404464 It is recommended that all mooring fittings be clearly marked with their safe working capacities on a plate bolted or welded to the base of the mooring device. BITT WITH LIP Base 73. = 660 MOORING Base 48x48 in.75-in. 10 x 1. 8 x 2. Horz. dia. Nominal = 75* LOW DOUBLE Height=18 in.S.viana@navy. Standard pier and wharf mooring fittings. @45 deg = 430 BOLLARD “A” Nominal = 450 SPECIAL Height=44.625-in. include: Bollards Bitts Cleats Cleats are not recommended for ships. Mooring Design Physical and Empirical Data and in MIL-HDBK-1025/1.S. 4 x 1. after NAVFAC Drawing No. Base 26x14.125-in. Navy Pier Mooring Fittings DESCRIPTION SIZE BOLTS WORKING CAPACITY (kips) SPECIAL Height=48 in. Additional information concerning the sizes and working capacities of pier and wharf mooring fittings is found in NFESC TR-6014-OCN. Some of the fittings commonly used on U. Horz. Nominal = 60* 42-INCH CLEAT Height=13 in.S. 134 . 12 x 2. Commonly Used U. NFESC assesses the condition of all mooring fittings during its routine pier/wharf inspections U.5x21.5x28 in.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 135 .

Pier and Wharf Mooring Fittings Shown in Profile and Plan Views 136 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 6-5.

a ship can have a large amount of buoyancy. Anchor Mooring Line Computer Program Final Report. which are not shown. The segment next to the anchor. amount the anchor penetrates the soil. which may cause dynamic problems. Another problem with holding a ship too rigidly is that some of the natural periods of the ship/mooring system can become short. A ship can be considered a mass and the mooring system as springs. The computed load/deflection curve for the design water level for this mooring leg. consists of wire rope. For example. Segment 1. It is not desirable or practical to moor a ship rigidly. User’s Manual for Program CSAP2).5 meters) above the seafloor. after proofing.8 meters) into mud below the seafloor. is shown in Figure 6-7. as well as the behavior of the catenary in the water column and above the water surface. This mooring leg consists of four sections. The chain attachment point to the ship is 64 feet (19. The mooring leg is loaded to its design horizontal load of H = 195 kips (8. As an example. followed by three segments of chain. take the catenary shown in Figure 6-6. so it usually must be allowed to move with changing water levels.7 E5 newtons) to key and proof load the anchor soon after the anchor is installed. 137 . and other parameters. scope of chain. will strongly influence the static and dynamic behavior of the ship/mooring system during forcing. the behavior of the mooring ‘springs’ can be controlled to fine tune the ship/mooring system behavior to achieve a specified performance. During mooring design. This can be controlled by the weight of chain or other tension member. a plate anchor is driven 55 feet (16. Figure 6-6 shows the shape of the chain catenary predicted by CSAP2 for the design load. The keying and proofing corresponds to a tension in the top of the chain of approximately 210 kips. placement of sinkers. Sinkers with the shown in-water weight are located at the ends of Segments 2 and 3. The shape of this and the other mooring legs in this mooring. In this example. The static behavior of catenaries can be modeled using the computer program CSAP2 (NFESC CR-6108-OCN.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 6-10 CATENARY BEHAVIOR. This program includes the effects of chain and wire rope interaction with soils.

15 30 62.25 156 62.75 4 C 2.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 6-6.75 WEIGHT LENGT H (lbf/ft) (ft) 13. Sample Catenary SEGMEN TYPE DIA T (inches) 1 W 3.00 2 C 2.25 SINKER (kips) 0 13.25 15 113 62.75 3 C 2.8 0 138 .35 17.

Load/Deflection Curve for the Example Mooring Leg 139 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 6-7.

is available in the National Institute of Building Sciences.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 6-11 SOURCES OF INFORMATION. C46 “Standard Attack Submarine Mooring Camel” NAVFAC Drawings SD-1404667 to 70 and NAVFAC Standard Spec. Table 6-12. Untreated” “Standard Aircraft Carrier Mooring Camel” NAVFAC Drawings SD-1404045A to 52 and NAVFAC Standard Spec. 1985 and drawing package of July 1990. NFESC purchase description of June 1990. Wood. A list of sources for information on facility mooring equipment is provided in Table 6-12. Camels Mooring lines Foam buoys Stud link chain and fittings NAVMOOR anchors Stud link chain anodes 140 . “Construction Criteria Base. including drawings. NFESC purchase description of Mar. 1989 and May 1990. and manuals.” Further information can be obtained from the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Criteria Office and the NFESC Moorings Center of Expertise. Sources of Information for Facility Mooring Equipment ITEM Standard fittings for waterfront structures Marine fenders SOURCE NAVFAC Drawing No. 1995. Single Log Configuration. Dec. Detailed NAVFAC information. Marine. specifications. C39 “Standard Submarine Mooring Camel” NAVFAC Drawings SD-1404943 to 47 and NAVFAC Spec. 1404464 UFGS 02395 “Prestressed Concrete Fender Piling” UFGS 02396 “Resilient Foam-Filled Marine Fenders” UFGS 02397 “Arch-Type Rubber Marine Fenders” MIL-C-28628C(YD) “Camel. C49 Cordage Institute Technical Manual NFESC purchase descriptions of Mar. NFESC purchase description of Nov. 1988.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 This page intentionally left blank 141 .

(1993). size. and Fatigue of SPM Mooring Hawsers. Cordage Institute. 611 and 613. (1988). Guidelines for Deepwater Port Single Point Mooring Design. from Naval Sea Systems Command drawings and publications. Modeling the Long-Term Fatigue Performance of Fibre Ropes.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 7 VESSEL MOORING EQUIPMENT GUIDELINES INTRODUCTION. (1992b). Flory et al. wharfs. number. maintenance. Flory et al. TYPES OF MOORING EQUIPMENT. interaction with other systems. OCIMF Recommendations for Equipment Employed in the Mooring of Ships at Single Point Moorings (1993). Flory et al. as discussed in Chapter 3-1. Some of the many factors that need to be considered in equipment specification are weight. In addition. EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION. Cordage Institute Technical Manual. power requirements. Equipment on board the ship must be designed for Mooring Service Types I. The specification. and location of the equipment is selected to safely moor the ship. and lines. Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF). standard equipment 7-3 is used on board ships as mooring equipment. and cost. the ship can moor to various piers. mooring chains. A Method of Predicting Rope Life and Residual Strength. Hearle et al. The Choice Between Nylon and Polyester for Large Marine Ropes. wire ropes. OCIMF Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs (1994). (1977). This equipment enables the ship to anchor in a typical soil under design environmental conditions. 142 . Mooring Equipment Guidelines (1992). Failure Probability Analysis Techniques for Long Mooring Lines. OCIMF Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide (1995). room required. Fiber Ropes for Ocean Engineering in the 21st Century. II and III. Additional mooring hardware. 582. such as specialized padeyes. Flory et al. inspection. Parsey (1982). reliability. Whenever possible. fleet moorings. (1989). can be added for Mooring Service Type IV situations. A vessel must be provided with adequate mooring 7-1 equipment to meet its operational and design requirements. (1992a). and other facilities. Flory et al. Basic shipboard mooring 7-2 equipment is summarized in Table 7-1. Additional information is provided in NAVSEA NSTM Chapters 581.

Capacities of the bitts are based on their nominal diameter. The NAVSEA shell bitt has a total working capacity of 92 kips (4. so that the ship can moor to port or starboard. such as fenders. Military Sealift Command (MSC).UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 7-4 FIXED BITTS. They also assist in mooring at facilities. and mooring rings. Figure 7-1. 143 . such as closed chocks.2 E5 newtons). Chocks and Mooring Rings. This testing is described in the Newport News Shipbuilding testing report for USS HARRY S TRUMAN Bitts. and dolphins. Closed clocks are often used and characteristics of these fittings are shown in Table 7-3. CHOCKS. are inset 7-5 into ships’ hulls well above the waterline. This proof load is applied 11 inches (280 mm) above the base. Aircraft carriers have exterior shell bitts. forces may be exerted by structures. EXTERIOR SHELL BITTS. The basic philosophy for bitts use is that mooring lines should part well below the structural yield of the double bits in Mooring Service Types I and II to minimize the chance that ship’s mooring fittings need to be repaired. on the ship hull. are typically placed in pairs within a short distance forward or aft of a chock location. 7-7 Panama chocks.S. so the working capacities of the mooring lines can approximately equal the working capacities of the ship’s double bitts. roller chocks. and the U. Coast Guard (USCG).27 E5 newtons) with two lines of 46 kips maximum tension each. SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR SHIPS’ MOORING EQUIPMENT. ALLOWABLE HULL PRESSURES. that are statically proof loaded to 184 kips (8. NSWCCD-SSES. These bitts are used to moor lighterage or harbor craft alongside. 7-6 Drawing No. Table 7-4 provides a list of selected referenced materials. NFESC TR-6015-OCN. NFESC TR-6047-OCN “The Capacity and Use of Surface Ships’ Double Bitts” (in preparation) provides additional information on ship’s bitts. Bitts provide a termination for tension members. As a ship berths or when it is 7-8 moored. 600-6601101. camels. Foam-Filled Fender Design to Prevent Hull Damage provides a rational design criteria to prevent yielding of vessel hull plating. Fixed bitts. In Mooring Service Type III ‘Heavy Weather Mooring’ is to keep the ship moored as safely as possible. 7-9 Additional information is available from the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA 03P). RECESSED SHELL BITTS. There are many types of chocks. Recessed shell bitts. They are often placed symmetrically on both the port and starboard sides. Figure 7-2. Table 7-2 provides fixed bitt sizes with their associated capacities.

and other equipment. Winches Winches of various types can support mooring operations. Mooring lines Synthetic lines for mooring at piers. including the windlass(s).1 for design criteria. as discussed in Chapter 6. 144 . See Chapter 7 for anchor information. See Chapter 6. Equipment for deploying and recovering the anchor(s). Types of Ship Based Mooring Equipment* EQUIPMENT Drag embedment anchors DESCRIPTION One or more anchors required. Capstans Mechanical winches used to aid in handling mooring lines. Fittings through which mooring lines are passed. hawse pipe(s). chain stoppers. Fixed-length synthetic spring lines are used in pier/wharf moorings that employ constant tension winches to keep the ship from ‘walking’ down the pier.8.4) is used. Wire ropes Wire rope is sometimes used for mooring tension members. Some ships use constant tension winches with wire rope automatically paid out/pulled in to adjust to water level changes and varying environmental conditions.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 7-1. mooring rings and fairleads Padeyes Padeyes are provided for specialized mooring requirements and towing. are sometimes carried on board. wharfs. Other Various specialized equipment is carried to meet needs (such as submarines). Bitts for securing mooring lines. chain locker. Fenders Marine fenders. Stud link grade 3 chain (see Chapter 6. Anchor chain Anchor windlass/wildcat and associated equipment Bitts Chocks. *See NAVSEASYSCOM Naval Ships’ Technical Manual for additional information and Chapter 3. and other structures.7 for information.

Ship’s Fixed Double Bitts 145 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 7-1.

The way the bitts are used may also influence their working capacity.5 1901 181 44.47 933 273 432 438 12 8 2.1 1046 123.BASE LENGTH (inches) B .BARREL HT.5 28.BARREL HT. (mm) MAX.75 17 17.6 475 10 6.63 76 1. LINE DIA.05 1124 324 533 514 14 10 3.8 73.25 12.BARREL DIA.75 21 20. (inches) D .1 36. LINE CIR.19 419 114 254 191 127 3. Fixed Ships’ Bitts (minimum strength requirements)* NAVSEA FIXED BITTS (after 804-1843362 REV B OF 1987) NOMINAL SIZE (inches) MAX.25 165 5.5 13.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 7-2.2 3601 277 52. (inches) C . (inches) D . MOMENT (lbf-in x 1000) MAX.63 4.25 727 219 330 346 *Note that the design of these bitts has changed over the years.32 1334 356 660 572 18 12 3.25 203 8.BASE LENGTH (inches) B .0 134 8 5 1. so different classes of ships may have different designs.55 1626 457 813 711 26.BASE WIDTH (inches) MAX. CAPACITY (lbf x 1000)* A . LINE CIR.5 8.5 14 26 22. CAPACITY (newton x 100000)* A .BASE WIDTH (inches) * force applied at half the barrel height 4 3 1.08 16. 146 . (inches) C .BARREL DIA. (inches) MAX.75 10.5 2.8 6672 417 64 18 32 28 305 18.625 10 13 7. (inches) MAX. Contact NAVSEASYSCOM for additional information.5 254 12.

Recessed Shell Bitt (minimum strength requirements) 147 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 7-2.

HOLE HEIGHT (mm) C .BASE THICKNESS (mm) E .5 13.8 6 3 5.55 610 305 641 343 1016 8.47 330 165 352 191 584 16 8 181 16 8 16.75 254 12.25 254 127 286 165 483 13 6.88 7. (inches) LINE BREAK (lbf x 1000) A . LINE CIR.5 11.25 148 .19 152 76 216 133 330 10 5 73 10 5 6.HEIGHT (inches) D .HOLE WIDTH (mm) B . LINE CIR.HOLE WIDTH (inches) B .LENGTH (inches) MAX.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 7-3.5 23 165 5.05 406 203 425 229 711 20 10 277 20 10 25.25 13 76 1.5 40 305 18.75 9 28 203 8.32 508 254 654 406 984 24 12 417 24 12 25.75 16 38.HEIGHT (mm) D .HOLE HEIGHT (inches) C . Closed Chocks (minimum strength requirements) NAVSEA CLOSED CHOCKS (from Drawing 804-1843363) CHOCK SIZE (inches) MAX.5 19 127 3.5 123 13 6.BASE THICKNESS (inches) E .25 13.LENGTH (mm) 6 3 26. (mm) LINE BREAK (newton x 100000) A .

804-1843363 & S1201-921623 (Roller Chock) NAVSEA Drawing No. S260-860303 & MIL-C-17944 NAVSEA Drawing No. 804-2276338 NAVSEA Drawing No. Sources of Information for Ships’ Mooring Equipment ITEM Information on existing U.navy. 805-1841948 Newport News Shipbuilding Drawing No. 600-6601101 NAVSEA Drawing No. 804-1843363 NAVSEA Drawing No. S2604-921841 & 42 Cordage Institute Technical Manual *Contact NSWCCD-SSES Code 9732 at FriesJl@nswccd. 804-1843362 NAVSEA Drawing No. and mooring hardware General ship information Chocks Panama chocks Fixed bitts Recessed shell bitts Exterior shell bitts Cleats Capstans/gypsy heads Hawser reels Mooring lines SOURCE Ships Characteristics Database (WATERS TOOLBOX) NAVSEA Hitchhikers Guide to Navy Surface Ships NAVSEA Drawing No. 149 . drawings.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 7-4.mil for drawings and additional information on ship’s mooring equipment. Navy ships.S.

so static results are shown. so dynamic effects are illustrated in the examples. sway. the tension in the attachment from the ship to mooring will remain approximately constant.BASIC APPROACH. even though the wind and current are constant. Let us first assume that the wind is coming from a specified direction and has stationary statistical properties. The emphasis of this UFC is on statics. Quasi-static analyses can be used for design in this case. For quasi-static behavior. The design of mooring systems is illustrated through the use of several examples in this section. b) Fishtailing. and yaw with the ship center of gravity following a butterfly-shaped pattern.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 8 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS 8-1 INTRODUCTION. In this case the ship undergoes significant surge. In this case there are three common types of ship behavior. 150 . c) Horsing. However. shown in Figure 8-1. Design of single point fleet moorings (SPMs) is illustrated here. The mooring can experience high dynamic loads. The mooring can experience high dynamic loads. the marine environment can be dynamic. that a vessel at a single point mooring can have: a) Quasi-static. In this case the ship remains in approximately a fixed position with the forces and moments acting on the ship in balance. The current speed and direction are constant. In this case the ship undergoes significant surge and sway with the ship center of gravity following a U-shaped pattern. 8-2 SINGLE POINT MOORING .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-1. Some Types of Behavior of Ships at Single Point Moorings 151 .

3 m 187.76 ft 614. 1988) at the early stages of single point mooring design. Ships moored to these buoys broke their mooring hawsers when a wind gust front struck the ships. In this example. The original designs were based on quasi-static methods. Table 8-1 gives basic characteristics of the ship. These methods are complex and beyond the scope of this UFC. It is recommended that a dynamic stability analysis first be conducted (Wichers. even though the wind and current are steady. 8-2.1 Background for Example.58 ft 614. Behavior of single point moorings is illustrated by example. 2nd LT JOHN P BOBO Parameters (Fully Loaded) PARAMETER Length Overall At Waterline Between Perpendiculars Beam @ Waterline Draft Displacement Line Size (2 nylon hawsers) DESIGN BASIS (SI units) 193. The results from this analysis will suggest what type of method should be used to design a single point mooring. A single 2nd LT JOHN P. 8-2. the design and hawser failures are reviewed. Then the type of analysis required can be determined.75 m 4. BOBO (T-AK 3008) class ship was moored at each of two fleet mooring buoys. Table 8-1.3 m 9.2 Ship.15 ft 32 ft 46111 long tons 12 inches 152 . In this example two moorings were designed and installed.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 These cases show that the type of behavior of a given ship at a given single point mooring in a given environment can be very complex (Wichers.58 ft 32. The effects of wind dynamics on a single point mooring are illustrated.2 m 187.69E7 kg DESIGN BASIS (English units) 633. 1988).80 9.

the mooring hawsers broke and the predicted factor of safety dropped to less than 1. This example shows that single point moorings can be susceptible to dynamics effects. due to two nearby typhoons. as shown in Figure 8-2 .8 E6 newtons). so the ships had their engines in idle. because in this position the forces and moments on the ship are balanced out.8.0 E5 newtons) for 45-knot (23-m/s) winds. (Seelig and Headland.7m/s) winds. 1998). to account for poor load sharing between the two hawsers. The bow-on ship wind drag coefficient is taken as the value given for normal ships of 0.6 kips (3.7. plus 0.07 E6 newtons). Methods in Section 4 are used to compute the forces and moments on the ship. waves. Two mooring hawsers were specified for this design. and tidal effects are neglected for these ‘fair weather’ moorings. The predicted peak dynamic tension on the mooring hawsers was 1140 kips (5. As the wind speed increased. so the higher wind speed hit the ships broadside. Extra factor of safety was specified for the two 12-inch nylon mooring hawsers. which had a new wet breaking strength of 406 kips (1. the peak dynamic tension on the mooring hawser is predicted to be 13.1 is added for a clutter deck to give a drag coefficient of 0. In this event. In this case. In this case the design wind speed is 45 knots (23 m/s).5 Mooring Hawser Break. A wind gust front struck very quickly with a wind speed increase from 15 to 50 knots.5 times the bow-on wind force for 50-knot (25. Figure 8-3 is a simulation predicting the dynamic behavior of the moored ship and hawser tension. The computed bow-on wind force is 68. Currents.4 Quasi-Static Design.3 Forces/Moments. such as those caused by wind gust fronts or other effects. 8-2. 153 . The weather was unsettled. The ships were moored and faced into 15-knot winds.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 8-2. the wind direction changed 90 degrees. Quasi-static design procedures place the ship parallel to the wind for this example. 8-2.

Example Single Point Mooring 154 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-2.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-3. Example Mooring Failure Due to a Wind Gust Front 155 .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 8-3 FIXED MOORING - BASIC APPROACH. Development of a design concept for a fixed mooring, a mooring that includes both tension and compression members, is illustrated here. 8-3.1 Background. Several new aircraft carrier berthing wharf facilities are being programmed. Users expressed concerns regarding the possibility of excessive ship movement. Wind is the major environmental parameter of concern. Assume the proposed sites have small tidal ranges and tidal currents. 8-3.2 Goal. Develop a concept to moor USS NIMITZ (CVN-68) class ships at newly constructed wharves. Assume the Mooring Service Type is II and the design wind speed is 75 mph (33.5 m/s). 8-3.3 Ship. Fully loaded USS NIMITZ (CVN-68) class ships are used in this example. Table 8-2 gives some ship parameters. Additional information is found in the Ships Characteristics Database (WATERS TOOLBOX). Table 8-2. CVN-68 Criteria (Fully Loaded) PARAMETER DESIGN BASIS (SI units) 332.8 m 317.0 m 40.8 11.55 m 9.317 kg DESIGN BASIS (English units)

Length Overall At Waterline Beam @ Waterline Draft Displacement Bitt Size Line Size (nylon)

1092 ft 1040 ft 134 ft 37.91 ft 91,700 long tons 12 inches 8 and 9 inches

156

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 8-3.4 Forces/Moments. Methods in Section 4 are used to compute the forces and moments on the ship. These values are summarized in Figure 8-4. 8-3.5 Definitions. In this example we define a global coordinate system with “X” parallel to the wharf, as shown in Figure 8-5. Then “Y” is a distance perpendicular to the wharf in a seaward direction and “Z” is a vertical distance. Let “Pt 2” be the ship chock coordinate and “Pt 1” be the pier fitting. A spring line is defined as a line whose angle in the horizontal plane is less than 45 degrees and a breasting line whose angle in the horizontal plane is greater than or equal to 45 degrees, as shown in Figure 8-5. 8-3.6 Preliminary Analysis. The first step for fixed mooring design is to analyze the mooring requirements for the optimum ideal mooring shown in Figure 8-6. Analyzing the optimum ideal arrangement is recommended because: (1) calculations can be performed by hand and; (2) this simple arrangement can be used as a standard to evaluate other fixed mooring configurations (NFESC TR-6005-OCN, EMOOR - A Quick and Easy Method for Evaluating Ship Mooring at Piers and Wharves. The optimum ideal mooring shown in Figure 8-6 consists of two spring lines, Lines 1 and 4, which are assumed to resist longitudinal forces. There are two breast lines, Lines 2 and 3, which are assumed to resist lateral forces and moments for winds with directions from 0 to 180 degrees. Fenders are not shown. All lines are assumed to be parallel to the water surface in the ideal mooring. A free body diagram is made of the optimum ideal mooring for a loaded CVN-68 in 75-mph (33.5-m/s) winds. It is found that the sum of the working mooring capacity required for Lines 1 and 4 is 174 kips (7.7 E5 newtons) and the sum of the working mooring capacity required for Lines 2 and 3 is 1069 kips (4.76 E5 newtons), as shown in Figure 8-7. Note that no working line capacity is required in the ‘Z’ direction, because the ship’s buoyancy supports the ship. The sum of all the mooring line working capacities for the optimum ideal mooring is 1243 kips (5.53 E6 newtons).

157

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-4. Wind Forces and Moments on a Single Loaded CVN-68 for a 75-mph (33.5-m/s) Wind

158

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-5. Definitions

159

Optimum Ideal Mooring (Lines are parallel to the water surface and breasting lines are spaced one-half ship’s length from midships) 160 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-6.

Required Mooring Capacity Using the Optimum Ideal Mooring 161 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-7.

as shown in Figure 8-11.. Also. AQWA Reference Manual). A single part of line is taken as having a break strength of 215 kips (9.33). The estimated total required working mooring line capacity is the working line capacity of the optimum ideal mooring divided by the efficiency. suggests that this mooring concept has adequate mooring line capacity in the surge and sway directions.67 or approximately 1855 kips. These lines are selected to provide extra safety. as shown in Figure 8-9. Figure 8-8. the wharf breasting line bollards are set back from the face of the wharf. the estimated working line capacity required is 1243 kips/0.e.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 8-3. from a study of a number of ship moorings at piers and wharves (NFESC TR-6005-OCN) is used to estimate that a mooring system using synthetic lines will have an efficiency of approximately 0. Quasi-static analyses are performed by computer using a fixed mooring software program (W.5-m/s) design winds. In this case. Results show that the mooring line factors of safety are larger than the required minimum of 3 (i. line tensions divided by the new line break strength is less than 0. Camels and fenders are located between the wharf and ship to offset the ship in this design.7 Wharf Mooring Concept.2 E5 newtons). These lines have a combined working strength of 11*3*215/3 = 2365 kips with a factor of safety of 3. Analyses are performed for various wind directions around the wind rose. Atkins Engineering Sciences. the selected concept ‘Model 2’ is given 11 mooring lines of three parts each of aramid mooring line. For extra safety.S.3 meter) under the action of the 75-mph (33. 162 . so that the vertical angles of the breasting lines are approximately 10 degrees. Figure 8-10.67 for the case of breasting lines with a 10-degree vertical angle. These analyses show ship motions of approximately 1 foot (0. In this concept the spring lines are especially safe with a factor of safety of about 10. A component analysis.

Efficiency of Ship Moorings Using Synthetic Lines at Piers and Wharves (after NFESC TR-6005-OCN) 163 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-8.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-9. CVN-68 Wharf Mooring Concept (‘Model 2’) 164 .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-10. Component Analysis of Mooring Working Capacity 165 .

Mooring Line Tensions for a CVN-68 Moored at a Wharf With 75 mph (33.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-11.5 m/s) Winds (‘Model 2’) 166 .

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Further quasi-static analyses show this concept is safe in up to 87-mph (38.9-m/s) winds with a factor of safety of 3 or more on all the mooring lines. The computed mooring efficiency for ‘Model 2’ at this limiting safe wind speed is 0.705, which is slightly higher than the estimated value of 0.67, as shown in Figure 8-5. These preliminary calculations show that this fixed mooring concept could safely secure the ship. Figure 8-12 illustrates the mooring concept in perspective view. Further information on this example is provided in NFESC TR-6004-OCN, Wind Effects on Moored Aircraft Carriers. 8-4 SPREAD MOORING - BASIC APPROACH. Design of a spread mooring for a nest of ships is illustrated in this section. 8-4.1 Background for Example. SPRUANCE class (DD 963) destroyers are scheduled for inactivation and a mooring is required to secure four of these vessels (NFESC SSR-6119-OCN, D-8 Mooring Upgrade Design Report). These ships are inactive and cannot go out to sea, so the mooring must safely secure the vessels in a hurricane using Mooring Service Type IV design criteria. At this location, wind is the predominant environmental factor of concern. At this site the tidal range and tidal current are small. Soil conditions at the site consist of an upper soft silty layer between 50 to 80 feet in depth (15 to 24 meters) over a stiff clay underneath. Water depth at the site ranges between 31 to 35 feet (9.4 to 10.7 meters) MLLW. 8-4.2 Goal. Develop a concept to moor four DD 963 class destroyers in a spread mooring. Use Mooring Service Type IV criteria and a design wind speed of 78.3 mph (68 knots or 35 m/s). 8-4.3 Ship. The ships are assumed to be at one-third stores/cargo/ballast condition, since DD-963 vessels are unstable in the light condition. Table 8-3 gives some ship parameters. Additional information is found in the NAVFAC Ships Characteristics Database.

167

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-12. Aircraft Carrier Mooring Concept (perspective view)

168

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 8-3. DD 963 Criteria (1/3 Stores) PARAMETER Length Overall At Waterline Beam @ Waterline Average Draft Draft at Sonar Dome Displacement Chock Height From Baseline DESIGN BASIS (SI units) 171.9 m 161.2 m 16.8 m 6.5 m 8.8 m 9.07E6 kg 10.7m stern 15.9m bow DESIGN BASIS (English units) 564 ft 529 ft 55 ft 21.2 ft 29 ft 8928 long tons 35 ft 52 ft

8-4.4 Forces/Moments. Methods in Chapter 4, as well as data in NFESC Report TR-6003-OCN, are used to compute the forces and moments on the ships. These values are summarized in Figure 8-13. Wind angles are based on the local coordinate system for a ship shown in Figure 4-2. Note that wind tunnel model tests show that there is significant sheltering in the transverse direction of downwind ships in this nest of identical ships, as shown in NFESC Report TR-6003-OCN. However, there is little wind sheltering in the longitudinal direction. Table 8-4 summarizes the environmental force calculations used for this example.

169

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 8-4. Environmental Forces Condition Single DD 963 Load (Metric) 1663.8 kN 257 kN 35972 m-kN 104.2 kN 2.5 kN 1216 m-kN 1989.9 kN 1028.7 kN 64595 m-kN 190.6 kN 9.8 kN 3342 m-kN Load (US) 374 kips 57.82 kips 26531 ft-kips 23.4 kips 0.56 kips 863.1 ft-kips 447.4 kips 231.3 kips 47643 ft-kips 42.8 kips 2.2 kips 2372.7 ft-kips Comments Transverse Wind Longitudinal Wind Wind-Yaw Moment Transverse Current Longitudinal Current Current Yaw Moment Transverse Wind Longitudinal Wind Wind-Yaw Moment Transverse Current Longitudinal Current Current Yaw Moment

4 ea DD 963

8-4.5 Anchor Locations. Driven-plate anchors are selected as a cost-effective method to safely moor the nest of ships. The soils at the site are soft harbor mud of depths between 50 to 80 feet (15 to 24 meters), so a chain catenary will form below the seafloor (in the mud) as well as in the water column, as illustrated in Figure 6-6 (Section 6-10). A horizontal distance of 100 feet (30 meters) between the anchor location and the chain daylight location (point where the anchor leg chain exits the seafloor) is estimated based on Chain Soil Analysis Program (CSAP) modeling of the chain catenary in the soil and in the water column.

170

8-4. with the origin of 171 . VALUE 447. Therefore.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-13. anchor locations are established at a horizontal distance of 270 feet (82 meters) away from the vessel.4 kips 231. The local ship coordinate system is used to determine environmental loads at the various wind and current attack angles.3 kips 47643 kip-ft To ensure the mooring legs are efficient in resisting the imposed environmental horizontal forces. as shown in Figure 4-2. Wind Forces and Moments on a Nest of Four DD 963 Class Vessels for a Wind Speed of 78 mph (35 m/s) CURVE (1) (2) (3) Transverse Wind Force Longitudinal Wind Force Yaw Moment GRAPH LIMITS E5 N E5 N E6 N MAX.6 Definitions. a target horizontal distance of 170 feet (52 meters) is chosen between the predicted daylight location (where the chain exits the soil) and the attachment point on the ship for each of the mooring legs. In this example. a local ship and a global coordinate system are defined.

0) defined to be at a specific location. A schematic of the planned spread mooring arrangement is shown in Figure 8-14. This global coordinate system is used by the various analysis programs to define the “chain daylight” locations and the location of the vessel center of gravity within the spread mooring footprint. Four legs are situated on both sides of the nest and each mooring leg is angled to be effective in resisting the longitudinal wind forces. based on the safe working load of the chain (289 kips or 1.29 E6 newtons) and the applied environmental forces and moments on the nest of ships. For this example.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 the “Z” direction at the vessel keel. two 20-kip (9000-kg) sinkers are placed on each mooring leg approximately midway between the vessel attachment point and the predicted chain daylight location.75-inch chain mooring legs are required. 8-4. It is estimated that eight 2. the origin is selected to be in the middle of the vessel nest and 164 feet (50 meters) aft of the stern of the vessels. A global coordinate system for the entire spread mooring design is selected with the point (0. The origin for the “Z” direction in the global coordinate system is at the waterline. 172 . Legs are also placed toward the ends of the nest to be effective in resisting the yaw moment.7 Number of Mooring Legs. as well as lateral wind forces and moments. To help control ship motions.0. from winds approaching at angles other than broadside.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-14. Spread Mooring Arrangement for a Nest of Four Destroyers 173 .

69 208.49 136.26 3 155.25 49.60 220.62 128.33 10.91 2 14.52 6 563. Table 8-5.00 64.79 174 .02 588.99 45. other approved mooring analysis programs could have been used).00 808.65 137.05 769.57 102.02 3 693.55 189.02 212.02 2 62. Each mooring leg is initially pretensioned to a tension of 4.88 125.Indicates that the leg does not get loaded 1200 945.31 m/s) are shown in Table 8-5.99 309.37 21.50 347.49 214.03 343.4 77.94 126. Quasi-static results for various wind directions in conjunction with a 60degree flood tidal current of 0.05 78.04 844.33 - 1500 866.72 7 8 Kips 1 11.79 211.45 172. AQWA Reference Manual.55 7 8 .74 132.99 486.02 387.00 571.8 Static Analysis. Quasi-Static Leg Tensions for the Spread Mooring at Various Wind Directions With a Flood Tidal Current Wind Direction LEG 0 300 600 900 kN 1 52.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 8-4.02 100.01 564.33 100.01 609.17 181.36 87 5 139.03 84. A quasi-static analysis is performed on the mooring system using a mooring analysis program (W.50 449.06 14.01 490.04 927.8 48.00 121.16 19 6 126.47 1800 541.19 4 150.6 knots (0.00 255.03 560.S. Quasi-static analysis is performed for various combinations of wind and current directions.99 447.03 93.83 110.04 611.23 109.00 5 622.89 57.00 941.02 454.4 kilo-newtons (10 kips).02 4 668.02 194. Atkins Engineering Sciences.68 69.

2 meters (length of each ship at the waterline).9 Dynamic Analysis. Atkins Engineering Sciences. Therefore. the nest of moored ships was modeled as a rectangular box having a single mass with the dimensions of 161. 175 . This simulation is performed for a 60-minute duration at the peak of the design storm. An Ochi-Shin wind spectrum is used to simulate the design storm (Wind Turbulent Spectra for Design Consideration of Offshore Structures. 71. This provides a quasi-static factor of safety of approximately 4 to the breaking strength of 2. A dynamic analysis is performed on the mooring system to evaluate peak mooring loads and vessel motions using a mooring analysis program (W.5 meters deep (average vessel draft). Atkins Engineering Sciences. and 6. Damping as a function of frequency was estimated from a diffraction analysis (W.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 A maximum load of 943 kilo-newtons (212 kips) occurs on Leg 1 at a wind direction of 120 degrees. Ochi-Shin.S. Figure 8-14 shows that the four vessels in the nest are close together and Figure 8-15 shows that the ships have a large ratio of ship draft to water depth.S. 8-4. Added mass for sway and surge was computed as if the nest was cylindrical in shape with a diameter equal to the average draft. 1988).6 knots (0. AQWA Reference Manual). Dynamic analyses were performed for various combinations of wind and current directions using a wind speed time history that simulated the design storm. The initial location of the vessel nest is based on the equilibrium location of the vessel nest determined in the quasi-static analysis.62 meters wide (four ship beams + 5 feet spacing between ships).31 m/s) are shown on Table 8-6. In this case it is estimated that the ships will capture the water between them as the ships move.75-inch FM3 chain. AQWA Reference Manual). Results showing the instantaneous peak tensions for various wind directions in conjunction with a flood tidal current of 0.

End View of DD 963 Mooring Nest 176 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-15.

12 217.62 54.50 161.08 84.38 3 270.69 6 210.03 430.31 995.43 415.91 307.58 1625 1651.98 653.61 187.90 146. Peak Dynamic Chain Tensions for DD 963 Nest for Various Wind Directions and a Flood Tidal Current Wind Direction LEG 0 KN 1 167.68 545.2 6 938.089 3 1202.34 1500 1848.26 48.00 145.23 5 288.74 - 600 634.62 514.26 834.31 304.82 186.88 7 8 - 300 288.56 374.53 96.25 365.5 4 1362.27 818.54 210.87 64.98 47.04 142.13 1800 731.06 7 8 Kips 1 37.58 184.91 485.7 1356.2 5 1284.98 49.37 38.81 480.2 1370 486.4 901.28 109.55 259.07 108.2 1067.019 170.95 39.33 4 306.9 174.5 1152.29 122.82 219.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 8-6.61 177 .73 720.95 239.98 109.55 2 12.79 - 900 828.92 202.05 2 55.54 504.1 647.77 55.35 115.74 223.31 371.78 240.43 12.54 164.09 - 1200 2246.

Nest motions for surge. (2) angle of the mooring leg from the horizontal at the anchor. anchor capacity and loads on the embedded plate anchor are calculated using procedures outlined in NFESC TR-2039-OCN. Input requirements of CSAP include: (1) mooring leg configuration between the anchor and the buoy or chock. A design keyed depth of 55 feet is selected for the plate anchor. Using the quasi-static design mooring leg tension. Due to the lower shear strengths of the soft silty upper layers at the site. (4) predicted daylight location for the mooring leg. This table shows that the maximum surge of the vessel nest is approximately 7.2 meters (10. (3) soil profiles and strength parameters. 178 . User's Manual for Program CSAP2. Design Guide for Pile-Driven Plate Anchors and NFESC CR-6108-OCN. CSAP is used to predict the mooring leg tension at the anchor. the peak dynamic chain tension during the 1 hour at the peak of the design storm is 2.59 degrees clockwise. sway.7 feet) in surge (for a wind direction coming from the stern). For this example. 1. (3) tension of the mooring leg at the anchor. and at the buoy or chock.3 feet) from its equilibrium condition at no loading. nest motions oscillated up to 5.5 feet) and 1.2 feet) in sway (for a wind direction 30 degrees aft of broadside). a 6-foot by 11-foot mud plate anchor is specified (this anchor is summarized in the lower line of Table 5-7). and (7) anchor depth. and (5) length of mooring leg required or horizontal distance between anchor and buoy or chock. Maximum sway and yaw of the vessel nest is 3. respectively.5 on the breaking strength of the selected chain size. (5) horizontal tension component of the mooring leg at the buoy or chock. (4) location and size of sinkers.9 meters (6. (2) water depth or height of chock above the seafloor.4 times the quasi-static tension in the mooring leg with the highest tension.10 Anchor Design. During a dynamic analysis simulation. seafloor. This will provide an estimated static holding capacity of 1913 kN (430 kips).4 meters (24. Output provided by CSAP includes: (1) chain catenary profile from the anchor to the buoy or chock attachment point. the seafloor. and yaw are provided in Table 8-7. Anchor Mooring Line Computer Program Final Report. 8-4. Leg 1.4 meters (17. and 2.1 degrees in yaw (for a wind direction 30 degrees off the stern). and the buoy or chock. (6) horizontal distance or total length of the mooring leg between anchor and buoy or chock.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Modeling shows that the instantaneous peak chain tension of 2246 knots (505 kips) is predicted on Leg 1 as the moored vessel nest responds to wind gusts. This provides a peak instantaneous factor of safety of 1.

66 0.6 Max 106.17 98.39 2.27 0.4 0.32 Yaw (degrees) Origin 0.11 0.5 88.76 Max 0.2 0.9 102.59 0.7 95.52 Diff 0.05 1200 98.09 1.83 0.9 Min 102.6 103.29 179 .4 0.38 Diff 0.4 89.3 4.0 Start 0.22 1.5 0.76 1.1 93.03 1800 98.5 0.78 0. DD 963 Nest Motions for Surge.0 Start 0.96 1500 98.27 1.17 93.43 1.0 -0.89 -1.91 600 98.8 98.0 -0.0 1.17 103.65 0.0 -0.7 0.84 Min 0.7 1.72 0.16 900 98.45 1.13 1.38 300 98.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 8-7.25 1.8 102.4 106.07 0.83 0.0 1.17 Start 105.54 2.49 1.17 88.1 0.0 2.74 -1.0 1.18 0.80 -0.1 93.22 0.0 1.35 1.50 1.4 1.2 93.43 1.12 -0.0 2.17 105.0 0.84 Max 0.17 89.49 0.02 2.27 3. Sway.93 1.49 0.0 1.76 Min 0.14 1.2 4.3 Diff 4.64 0. and Yaw at Various Wind Directions with a Flood Tidal Current Wind Direction Motion 00 Surge (meters) Origin 98.97 3.6 Sway (meters) Origin 0.34 0.0 2.1 5.43 1.1 98.08 -1.93 0.

6. Further information concerning this design is provided in NFESC SSR6119-OCN. Based on predicted keying distances required for this anchor. Input data included: (1) configuration of the mooring leg (30 feet of 3-inch wire attached to 2+ shots of 2. a keyed anchor depth of 55 feet was selected. and (7) depth of anchor (55 feet). 180 .8 meters). Figure 8-16 provides a comparison between tip depth. Note that the interaction between the chain and the soil accounts for a 25 percent reduction in tension on the mooring leg at the anchor. Design Guide for Pile-Driven Plate Anchors. the anchors should be installed to a tip depth of 70 feet (21 meters) below the mudline to ensure that the anchor is keyed at a minimum depth of 55 feet (16. as outlined in NFESC TR2039-OCN. CSAP results for this design leg at this anchor depth indicate that the predicted daylight location of the mooring leg is approximately 99 feet (30 meters) from the anchor location and the leg tension at the anchor is 166 kips.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 For this example. (6) horizontal distance between anchor and chock (280 feet) from the quasi-static results. (3) soil profile and strength for the site (shear strength increases linearly at 10 pounds per ft2 per foot of depth). keyed depth and ultimate capacity for this size anchor. Based on the CSAP results. (2) height of seafloor to vessel chock (46 feet stern and 64 feet bow). (5) horizontal tension component of the mooring leg from the quasi-static results (195 kips). (4) information on the sinkers (2 each 20-kip sinkers placed a horizontal distance of 170 feet away from the anchor.75-inch chain). This gives a predicted quasi-static anchor holding factor of safety of 2. A profile of this leg is shown in Figure 6-6. 6-foot by 11-foot plate anchors are specified.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-16. Plate Anchor Holding Capacity (6-foot x 11-foot anchor with keying flaps in soft mud) 181 .

The X-axis on each diagram is the mean vertical angle of the breasting lines.5 knots.9).e. Work to date includes: Reference NFESC TR-6020-OCN NFESC TR-6028-OCN NFESC TR-6045-OCN Title Mooring USS WASP (LHD 1) Class Ships Mooring USS TARAWA (LHA 1) Class Ships LPD-17 USS SAN ANTONIO Class Berthing. The dashed horizontal lines are for the cases of 50-knot and 64-knot winds. take the case of the ship moored at a berth with a water depth of 25 feet and a broadside current of 1. The diagonal lines on the graph correspond to various broadside current speeds.S. 182 . T/d = 0.5) and Figure 8-18 (lower) is for a water depth of 25.e. Vc. The Y-axis is the estimated maximum safe wind speed. 8-5.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 8-5 MOORING LPD-17. Figure 8-18 (upper) is for a water depth of 45 feet (i. the maximum estimated safe wind speed from Figure 8-18 (lower) is 53 knots. As funding and time permit we are preparing general guidelines and recommendations for mooring and/or anchoring various classes of U. Figure 8-18 is a summary of the estimated safe mooring limits for LPD-17 based on the EMOOR planning tool for the ship moored with 28 parts of ship’s lines. T/d = 0. LHD-1 AND LHA-1. Navy ships. For example.2 feet (i. For a mean vertical breasting line angle of 30 degrees. Examples of mooring LPD-17 (Figure 8-17 and Table 8-8) are illustrated in this section.1 Mooring LPD-17. Mooring and Anchoring Detailed information on mooring these three classes of ships is provided in the reports listed above.

Lower – profile view) 183 . LPD-17 USS SAN ANTONIO (Upper – hull form and mooring fitting locations.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-17.

46 X 105 N 280 kips 3 with length of 600 feet. Amidships at DWL 29. break = 12.46 m Lowest Projection above DWL 6.550 lbs.5 ft 13.5 m Length at Design Waterline 201.64 ft 684 ft 661 ft 19.641 Wetted Surface Area 6.800 kg** Chain (ABS Grade 3 stud link)*** 85 mm Ship’s Mooring Lines: 8.880 longtons 22.601 0.32 m Anchors (two-fluke. one port and one starboard.937 0.830 ft2 36.37 sec 40. LPD-17 Characteristics Parameter Displacement (Full Load) Metric 2.67 ft 96.641 68.37 sec Vertical Center of Pressure **** 12. min.340 m2 Waterplane Area 4.13 m Natural Period in Roll 13. specified 27.5 m Bow Overhang from DWL Perpendicular 6m Stern Overhang from DWL Perpendicular 2 m Breadth.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Table 8-8.68 ft 6.425 lbs** 3-3/8 inch Draft (Full Load) 6.9 m Length Overall 208. ** delivered weight.00 X 105 N 180 kips 18 with length of 600 feet.9 m Breadth. break = Main Double Bitt Size 305 mm 12 inches Secondary Double Bitt Size 356 mm 14 inches 2 Maximum allowable hull pressure 145 kN/m 21 psi * nominal size.937 Cb Block Coefficient 0.33 ft 0.81 m Highest Projection above DWL 48.67 ft 22.43 X 107 kg English 26. Molded Maximum 31. balanced fluke type) 13.16 m Deck Elevation (01 Level) above DWL 12 m Cm = Cx Midships Coefficient 0.4 ft 30.601 Cp Prismatic Coefficient 0.722 m2 Vertical Center of Gravity**** 11.750 US tons 23.33 ft 158 ft 39.246 ft2 50.52 ft 104. *** 11 shots port and 13 shots starboard. **** above baseline 184 .

Approximate Safe Mooring Limits for LPD-17 with 28 Parts of Mooring Line 100 90 80 MAXIMUM SAFE WIND SPEED (knots) LPD-17 Fully Loaded Water Depth = 45 ft (13.5 knots 2 knots NO LINE TENDING 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 MEAN VERTICAL BREASTING LINE ANGLE (deg) 185 .7 m) . FS=3.2 ft (7.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-18.000 lbs 70 60 50 50-KNOT WINDS 40 MST II 30 20 10 EMOOR LPD-17. FS=3. T/d = 0.5 14 Mooring Lines x 2 Parts Each 28 Parts of Line.9 14 Mooring Lines x 2 Parts Each 28 Parts of Line.0 Line Break Strength = 180.8 m) .0 Line Break Strength = 180.5 knots 2 knots 10 EMOOR LPD-17.xls NO LINE TENDING 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 MEAN VERTICAL BREASTING LINE ANGLE (deg) 100 90 80 MAXIMUM SAFE WIND SPEED (knots) LPD-17 Fully Loaded Water Depth = 25.xls 64-KNOT WINDS Vc = 0 1 knot 1. T/d = 0.000 lbs 70 60 64-KNOT WINDS 50 50-KNOT WINDS 40 MST II 30 20 Vc = 0 1 knot 1.

186 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Six degree-of-freedom quasi-static analyses using the program AQWA LIBRIUM are performed on various LPD-17 mooring configurations to determine safe mooring limits as follows: Figure 8-19 shows a sample Standard Mooring (Mooring Service Type IIa) for the ship broadside to a current pushing the ship off the pier. Figure 8-22 illustrates LPD-17 mooring at a double-deck pier. The maximum safe wind speed for various current speeds is illustrated with a factor of safety of 2. The maximum safe wind speed for various current speeds is illustrated with a factor of safety of 3. double braided polyester lines are used because they have excellent fatigue resistance and some stretch to help improve load sharing.75.0 or higher on all mooring lines.3 feet for a ship draft to water depth ratio of T/d = 0. Ship’s lines are not adequate for heavy weather mooring. Figure 8-21 shows a sample Heavy Weather Mooring (Mooring Service Type III) for the ship broadside to a current pushing the ship off the pier. In this example the water depth is 40 feet for a ship draft to water depth ratio of T/d = 0. Figure 8-20 shows a sample Storm Mooring (Mooring Service Type IIb) for the ship broadside to a current pushing the ship off the pier.5. The maximum safe wind speed for various current speeds is illustrated with a factor of safety of 3.5 or higher on all mooring lines. In this example the water depth is 45. Therefore. For the case of a major approaching storm the lines are run across the pier to the bollards on the opposite side to significantly improve mooring efficiency. For the case of a major approaching storm or hurricane the lines are run across the pier to the bollards on the opposite side to significantly improve mooring efficiency.0 or higher on all mooring lines.57. These dynamic analyses were performed with the six-degree-of-freedom AQWA DRIFT.2 feet for a ship draft to water depth ratio of T/d = 0. In this example the water depth is 30.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-19. 187 .5-knots 44 knots 2-knots 37 knots a Factor of safety on new lines with all lines intact. the factors of safety will likely be reduced. With the most heavily loaded line broken.3 feet (T/d = 0.0a Water Depth = 45.5) Maximum Safe Wind Speed for: Broadside Current Speed Maximum Safe Wind Speed 0-knots 55 knots 1-knot 48 knots 1. Sample LPD-17 Standard Mooring (Mooring Service Type IIa) Ship’s Mooring Lines 9 Lines of 2 Parts Each = 18 parts of line 1-Foot Slack Added to Lines 2. 7 & 8 Factor of Safety = 3.

2 feet (T/d = 0.75) Maximum Safe Wind Speed for: Broadside Current Speed Maximum Safe Wind Speed 0 Knots 85 knots 1 knot 81 knots 1. Sample LPD-17 Storm Mooring (Mooring Service Type IIb) Ship’s Mooring Lines 10 Lines of 3 Parts Each = 30 parts of line Factor of Safety = 3.5 knots 76 knots 2 knots 68 knots 188 . 8-19) Water Depth = 30.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-20.0 (see note on Fig.

8-19) Water Depth = 40 feet (T/d = 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-21.5 (see note on Fig.5 knots 115 knots 2 knots 113 knots 189 . Sample LPD-17 Heavy Weather Mooring (Mooring Service Type III) Double Braided Polyester Lines Fb=180 kips 14 Lines of 3 Parts Each = 42 parts of line Factor of Safety = 2.57) Maximum Safe Wind Speed for: Broadside Current Speed Maximum Safe Wind Speed 0 knots 118 knots 1 knot 117 knots 1.

Sample LPD-17 Mooring at a Double-Deck Pier 190 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 8-22.

this long wave (together with Bernoulli effects) may have a major influence on moored ships. structures. such as AQWA DRIFT (Century Dynamics. An associated spreadsheet PASS-MOOR.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 9 PASSING SHIP EFFECTS ON MOORED SHIPS 9-1 INTRODUCTION. A ship navigating in a harbor or channel can produce major forces/moments on a nearby moored ship. The moored ship is forced through a combination of wave. etc. as well as passing ship speed and separation from the moored ship. relative size of the two ships. Naval Academy to further refine predictions of forces and moments on moored ships due to passing ships. One type of wave generated is a long-period pressure wave that may be very small. Figure 9-1 shows an example passing ship case for parallel ships. Therefore. in addition to total loss of the pier and tanker. Parallel passing ships are discussed in detail in NFESC TR-6027-OCN. Figure 9-2 illustrates example predictions. The forces and moments acting on the moored ship depend upon a great number of parameters including. are used to determine the response of the moored ship to the passing ship.XLS is available that aids in predicting passing ship forces and moments. 191 . discusses a case where a nearby passing ship caused a moored tanker to break its mooring and fuel lines. A ship moving through the water generates several types of waves that may have an effect on moored ships. Houston. NSTB/MAR91/04. These examples show that peak forces and moments applied to the moored ship in various degrees of freedom occur at different times and highly dynamic. long-wave and Bernoulli effects (NFESC TR-6027-OCN).S. water depth. NSTB Marine Accident Report. 9-2 PASSING SHIP EFFECTS ON MOORED SHIPS. for example. However. A study is now underway (2004) at the U. The resulting fire caused loss of life. TX). PB91-916404. dynamic programs. This figure shows that the forces and moments acting on the moored ship are highly time-dependant. shoreline erosion.

Figure 9-1. Sample Passing Ship Situation UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 F X+ M+ Pier or Wharf FY+ L1 V x Ship 1 Moored Ship 2 Moving L2 eta 192 .

Example of Passing Ship Predictions 600 60000 M 400 40000 Fx FORCE (thousands pounds) 200 Fy 20000 MOMENT (thousands foot-pounds) 0 0 -200 -20000 -400 -40000 -600 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 TIME (SEC) -60000 180 193 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 9-2.

In shallow water the wave height contours are much closer together at higher speeds. The x-axis of this figure is water depth. structures. Contours are for selected maximum wave heights. The spreadsheet SHIP-WAVE. Figure 10-3.XLS and NFESC report TR-6022-OCN provides additional information on waves generated by surface ships. such as those illustrated in Figure 10-2.XLS is available for making ship wave predictions. etc. Characteristics of the shipgenerated waves is a complex function of ship shape. shows the minimum ship speed required to generate a given maximum wave height one wave length away from the ship sailing line. 10-2 SHIP WAVES. For deep water (the right side of this figure). The y-axis of this figure is ship speed. etc. A ship moving through the water generates several types of waves that may have an effect on moored ships. ship speed. NFESC TR-6022-OCN summarizes measurements and recent findings on ship waves for ship hull-forms. A spreadsheet SHIP-WAVE. for example. shoreline erosion. This shows that in shallow water a small increase in ship speed produces a dramatic increase in wave height. Two of the most noticeable waves generated by moving ships are the diverging (or bow wave) and transverse wave (Figure 10-1). These waves intersect to form a cusp line and then the size of the highest generated wave tends to decrease as the distance from the sailing line increases. 194 . This spread sheet takes the measurements from a wide range of physical ship wave measurements and uses one type of Froude scaling to predict maximum wave height one wave length away from the ship sailing line for a ship of interest.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 10 SHIP WAVES 10-1 INTRODUCTION. the wave height generally increases as the ship speed increases for the range of conditions shown. water depth.

0168 Elevation (cm) Hmax 195 .47 o V SAILING LINE TRANSVERSE WAVE 0 Cd DIVERGING WAVE 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 10 11 12 Time (sec) 13 14 15 SHIP SPEED = 4.524 M (5 FT) T/d = 0.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 10-1. 1997) CUSP LOCUS LINE y 19. Ship Waves (after Sorenson.38 KNOTS (8.6 USNA (2000) SHIP LENGTH = 1.5 FPS) DIST FROM SAILING LINE=1.848 M (6 FT) SERIES 60 Cb = 0.

51 CAPE BRETON MINER 49 CAPE BRETON MINER TRIM.50. 32 SERIES 60 Cb=0. 16 MOORE DRYDOCK TANKER 47. SQUAT AND RESISTANCE ONLY 32 DDG-51 39 FFG-7 45 BB-61 46 CVN-68 38 USCG HAMILTON WHEC 715 196 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 10-2.6 7.48. 1997) 19 HAY TUG 18 HAY BARGE 17 HAY AUX 2. 22 MARINER 15. 28 to 31. Ship Hull-Forms Tested (after Sorenson. 58 USCG 40-FT CUTTER 8 to 12 CHEESE 13 WEINBLUM 14.

6 & MARINER (SHIP NOS.0 m Hr1=2.25 m 0.5 m 1.5 m 25 Hr1=1.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 10-3.0 m 5 WSHIP2-OT2n.5 m =3.0 m Hr1=2. Maximum Wave Height One Wavelength Away From the Sailing Line For a SERIES 60 Hull 30 SERIES 60 Cb=0. 30) Hr1=3.5 m 20 Hr1=3. 14. 15. 28. 22.5 m Vr (knots) 15 10 Hr1=0.XLS 0 1 10 dr (m) 100 1000 197 . 29.

Texas Heavy Weather Mooring of Ships Under Repair in the Hampton Roads Area in 1997 Heavy Weather Mooring Analyses of Selected Ships Under Repair.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 CHAPTER 11 HEAVY WEATHER MOORING GUIDELINES 11-1 INTRODUCTION.S. It includes state of the art technology in vital facility areas such as mooring and risk assessment. 1998 Heavy Weather Mooring of USS INCHON (MCS-12) at U. Naval Station. FL Heavy Weather Mooring of USS Inchon (MCS-12) at U. U. Texas Heavy Weather Mooring Design Report of Avenger and Osprey Class Vessels. A great deal or work has been performed to ensure that ships are safely moored in Heavy Weather conditions. This criteria has been extensively coordinated with COMNAVSEASYSCOM and internally within NAVFACENGCOM. NFESC. 11-2 DISCUSSION. and maintenance personnel of minimum facility planning and design criteria necessary to ensure safe mooring of naval vessels during Mooring Service Type III (Heavy Weather). The purpose of this guidance is to advise facility engineers. N46. Existing facilities and moorings should not be used for heavy weather if they do not meet all criteria noted herein unless provisions are made according to COMNAVSEASYSCOM msg R 130351Z Jul 95 YZB . For example. the need to formalize this criteria.S. Ingleside. below is a list of some of the NFESC reports on Heavy Weather mooring. Upgrades to existing facilities likewise require documentation of new “code” requirements. this UFC provides the relevant safety requirements and criteria for facility aspects of ship mooring. and COMNAVSEASYSCOM. TX SURFLANT Heavy Weather Mooring Program. Ingleside. CINCLANTFLT N37.hence. Phase I Completion Report 198 .S. Congressional support for all new construction is dependent on specific planning and design criteria applied consistently throughout the Navy . N46. Use this UFC to validate existing sites for heavy weather use and to design new or modified facilities and moorings for heavy weather. COMNAVSURFLANT. This criteria is a compilation of lessons learned from Heavy Weather mooring studies for COMNAVSURFLANT by COMNAVFACENGCOM. Naval Station. and CINCPACFLT N37. Ingleside. NFESC REPORT SSR-6078-OCN SSR-6107-OCN SSR-6112-OCN SSR-6137-OCN SSR-6145-OCN SSR-6148-OCN SSR-6150-OCN TITLE A Preliminary Assessment of Hurricane/Severe Storm Mooring At Naval Station Mayport/Jacksonville. planners. Naval Station. Since no Building Code or non-government standard exists for Mooring Service Type III design.

Therefore. COMNAVSEASYSCOM msg R 130351Z Jul 95 YZB provides operational recommendations to mitigate many effects of Heavy Weather. wind gusts. Therefore. storm surges. currents. Navy Heavy Weather Mooring Safety Requirements Mooring USS WASP (LHD-1) Class Ships Dynamic Analyses of a CVN-68 in a Heavy Weather Mooring Mooring USS TARAWA (LHA 1) Class Ships LPD-17 USS SAN ANTONIO Class Berthing. Mayport. It is common practice for U. FL Plate Anchor Concept for Heavy Weather Mooring of CVN. Mooring and Anchoring 11-3 HEAVY WEATHER MOORING GUIDELINES. Ga Concept Study – Mooring Service Type III For a CVN-68 at Navsta Mayport. these ships must be moored safely during heavy weather or be moved to nearby safe facilities before storm arrival. Fla Hurricane Mooring of Ships and Craft at Naval Coastal Systems Center. ships at piers and wharves may be subjected to high winds. etc. since only a portion of the ships 199 . This practice is normally executed when destructive winds (sustained wind speed above 50 knots) are expected in the local area.S. Ships under repair in graving docks may be relatively safe. only a portion of all berthing facilities must be capable of heavy weather mooring. However. FL Heavy Weather Mooring and BerthingFindings/Recommendations for Selected Berths Risk Analysis for Ships Moored at Piers – Generalized Evaluation of USS Tarawa (LHA-1) Mooring DD(X) Mooring Concepts Wind Effects on Moored Aircraft Carriers U. facilities are often relied upon to resist the loads. Berth 42/42 Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Portsmouth.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 SSR-6176-OCN SSR-6183-OCN SSR-6260-OCN SSR-6266-OCN SSR-6282-OCN SSR-6342-OCN SSR-6368-OCN TM-6001OCN TM-6015-OCN TR-6004-OCN TR-6012-OCN Rev B TR-6020-OCN TR-6023-OCN TR-6028-OCN TR-6045-OCN Heavy Weather Mooring of FFG-7 and DDG-51 Ships at Subase Kings Bay. NAVSTA Pascagoula. since the ships are relatively protected from the potentially high wind forces and are out of current and waves effects. Panama City. LHD and LHA. Navy ships to exit port prior to arrival of hurricanes and other forecasted extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness of these mitigation measures is difficult to quantify. under repair) may not be able to go to sea. MS Heavy Weather Mooring of USS JOHN F KENNEDY (CV 67) Naval Station.S. In each home porting region. wind gust fronts. VA Heavy Weather Mooring. However. waves.e. ships in availability (i.

Identify alternative piers or wharves that the ship could be towed to that may be safer and work out ahead of time all the logistics necessary to ensure that the needed berth would be available and that the ship could arrive and be safely moored in adequate time. Mooring Service Type III) if storms. UFC 4-151-10 General Criteria for Waterfront Construction. Ships carry enough lines to moor in Mooring Service Type II as defined below. because the lines have excellent fatigue resistance. for example.). These types of moorings are used since the mooring lines can be secured to mooring fittings near the ship. In Heavy Weather mooring. mooring fittings and fenders are adequate (see UFC 4-150-07 Maintenance of Waterfront Facilities. hurricanes or other threatening conditions are expected (Figure 11-1 lower). UFC 4-150-08 Inspection of Mooring Hardware. The facility needs to provide heavy weather mooring lines. see the publications listed above. Also. It is then standard practice to put the ship in a Heavy Weather mooring (i. but not for Type III. For additional information.e. For safe Heavy Weather mooring: Ensure that the facility. MILHDBK-1025/1 Piers and Wharves. Double braided polyester lines are recommended for Heavy Weather mooring.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 cannot go to sea. These lines also have some stretch which aids in load sharing between lines and helps accommodate water level changes. Mooring Service Type Iia or Iib) when a ship comes to a facility for repair (Figure 11-1 upper). mooring lines may be run 200 . This section provides some general guidelines on Heavy Weather mooring. so the mooring lines have minimum interference with repair work. facilities are generally designed for Type II and not Type III.e. since ship’s lines are generally inadequate. It is standard practice to first put the ship in a Standard of Storm Mooring (i. etc.

Example of a Standard LPD 17 Mooring (Upper) and Heavy Weather Mooring (Lower) 201 .UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 11-1.

Repeat for the second barrel. Equal numbers of spring lines should be run towards the bow and stern. Then tie off the end of the line to the second barrel of the ship’s double bitts.5 or higher on all components. Detailed Heavy Weather mooring designs need to be prepared for each ship at each berth. It is recommended that preliminary designs be developed with quasi-static designs and factors of safety of 2. The various references cited in this section provide examples of Heavy Weather mooring designs. be of similar length (to help improve load sharing) and should all have low vertical angles (to improve mooring efficiency and help account for water level changes). Carefully tend the lines so both parts of line have the same pretension. Put an eye over the barrel of a set of bitts and run to the shore fitting. Run the line around a sheave. As a general rule-of-thumb: Provide adequate numbers of breasting lines to safely secure the ship. Breasting lines should be approximately perpendicular to the ship’s centerline (to resist loads and moments). These lines should have rather low vertical angles to account for water level changes. These designs need to consider the site-specific design criteria and special circumstances. equalizer or tie down the loop of line going around the shore fitting. This can be accomplished by various methods: Using two parts of mooring line.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 across the pier to improve mooring efficiency and increase the number of mooring lines that are used. Dynamic methods can then be used to refine and verify the designs. Detailed structural analyses show that ship’s double bitts have the maximum safe working capacity when equal load is applied to each of the two barrels of the bitts. Chapter 8 of this UFC also provides Heavy Weather mooring examples. Using one line in two parts (Figure 11-2). 202 . It is recommended that methods be used to provide for equal loading to the barrels in Heavy Weather mooring. Place the lines towards the bow and towards the stern so they resist both lateral loads and moments. Put an eye over one barrel and run to the shore fitting. Provide adequate numbers of spring lines. which are approximately parallel to the ship’s centerline.

UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Figure 11-2. Securing Two Parts of Heavy Weather Mooring Line 203 .

NAVFAC Field Components. Mooring Service Type should be identified during the planning phase of waterfront structures. Navy Heavy Weather Mooring Safety Requirements. and critical ship class requirement for moorings used locally during Mooring Service Type III. Engineers at NAVFAC Field Components should analyze moorings according to climatological criteria stated in TR-6012-OCN Rev B U. NFESC has capability of providing this type of analysis on a reimbursable basis. Moorings used for Type III service are subjected to significant dynamic wind loads and should be analyzed accordingly.S.) associated each berth are used to help ensure that all ships are safely moored. and Shipyards to determine the number.5.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 11-4 ACTION 11-4. Navy Heavy Weather Mooring Safety Requirements. 11-5 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SELECTED SITES.4 Operations.1 Planning. water levels.2 Analysis and Design. etc. Lines should provide a factor of safety against breaking of 2. 11-4.S. 11-4. Regional Commanders. 204 . Dynamic analysis indicated that in order to moor a CVN in heavy weather a ship alt is required as well as facility upgrades at NNSY and NAVSTA Mayport. location. waves. Maintenance personnel should inspect moorings to ensure acceptable performance during heavy weather. These criteria are contained in TR-6012-OCN Rev B U.3 Maintenance. A riskbased approach is used in Heavy Weather mooring design to help ensure that ships are safe no matter where they are moored. Activities should provide additional mooring lines to supplement ship mooring lines for use during Mooring Service Type III. Design pier and wharf fittings for a working load equal to the break strength of the largest lines expected to use the fitting.S. 11-4. if required. Recommendations are provided in TR-6012-OCN Rev B U. Site-specific design criteria (i. UFC 4-150-07 Maintenance of Waterfront Facilities and UFC 4-150-08 Inspection of Mooring Hardware.e. provide inspection guidance. should be coordinated with NAVSEA. Ship alts. Commercial enterprises providing mooring for US Navy ships should likewise conform to the criteria contained herein. Aramid and nylon lines also respond differently to dynamic loads and should be properly modeled in the analysis. and Activities should assist Claimants. winds. Navy Heavy Weather Mooring Safety Requirements. Engineers should also verify the capacity of ship fittings for Type III Moorings.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NFESC. NUREG. National Climatic Data Center. NCDC.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 GLOSSARY AISC. Naval Sea Systems Command. National Bureau of Standards. NAVSEA. OCIMF. American Petroleum Institute. MSC. DDS. Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses. Mean low water. DM. MLW. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Oil Companies International Marine Forum. API. NAVFAC. 205 . American Institute of Steel Construction. Military Sealift Command. Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center. MLLW. PIANC. Design Data Sheet DOD. NBS. Design manual. Department of Defense. Mean lower low water.

17.navy. Unified Facilities Criteria http://65. O&M: Maintenance of Waterfront Facilities UFC 4-150-08. Navy. U. Anchor Mooring Line Computer Program Final Report.lantdiv.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 APPENDIX A REFERENCES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS 1.S.2 Specialized Underwater Waterfront Facilities Inspections 3. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations OPNAVINST 3140.html UFC 1-200-01. User’s Manual for Program CSAP2 . Design: General Building Requirements UFC 4-150-07. 21 December 1993 CHESNAVFAC FPO-1-84(6) Fleet Mooring Underwater Inspection Guidelines CHESNAVFAC FPO-1-87(1) Failure Analysis of Hawsers on BOBO Class MSC Ships at Tinian on 7 Dec 1986 MIL-HDBK 1025/1 Piers and Wharves MO-104. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center 1100 23rd Avenue 206 CR-6108-OCN. General Criteria for Waterfront Construction Mil-Hdbk 1025/1 Piers & Wharves 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) Engineering Innovation and Criteria Office 6506 Hampton Blvd Norfolk.24E. O&M: Inspection of Mooring Hardware UFC 4-151-10.mil 4. Va 23508-1278 http://www.navfac.188//report/doc_ufc.204. Warnings and Conditions of Readiness Concerning Hazardous or Destructive Weather Phenomena.

Heavy Weather Mooring of USS Inchon (MCS-12) at U. Heavy Weather Mooring Analyses of Selected Ships Under Repair. Ingleside. Ingleside. 1985) SSR-6078-OCN. Texas SSR-6148-OCN.nfesc. Alternative Heavy Weather Mooring of USS INCHON (MCS-12) at U. D-8 Mooring Upgrade Design Report SSR-6137-OCN.S. Heavy Weather Mooring of Ships Under Repair in the Hampton Roads Area in 1987 SSR-6119-OCN.S. Ca 93043 http://www. Added Mass and Damping Characteristics for Multiple Moored Ships FPO-1-89(PD1).S.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Port Hueneme. TX 207 . Naval Station.mil CR-6129-OCN. Heavy Weather Mooring Design Report of Avenger and Osprey Class Vessels. Naval Station. Naval Station. 1998 SSR-6145-OCN. Ingleside. U. Purchase Description for Fleet Mooring Chain and Accessories Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering (NCEL. A Preliminary Assessment of Hurricane/Severe Storm Mooring At Naval Station Mayport/Jacksonville. FL SSR-6107-OCN.navy. Texas SSR-6112-OCN.

MS SSR-6342-OCN. Panama City. Concept Study – Mooring Service Type III For a CVN-68 at Navsta Mayport. SURFLANT Heavy Weather Mooring Program. Risk Analysis for Ships Moored at Piers – Generalized Evaluation of USS Tarawa (LHA-1) Mooring TDS 83-08R. Heavy Weather Mooring. Drag Embedment Anchors for Navy Moorings (NCEL) TM-6010-OCN.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 SSR-6150-OCN. VA SSR-6282-OCN. Portsmouth. Heavy Weather Mooring of USS JOHN F KENNEDY (CV 67) Naval Station. Ga SSR-6183-OCN. Some LHA(R ) 208 . LHD and LHA. Hurricane Mooring of Ships and Craft at Naval Coastal Systems Center. Fla SSR-6260-OCN. Berth 42/42 Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Phase I Completion Report SSR-6176-OCN. Heavy Weather Mooring of FFG-7 and DDG-51 Ships at Kings Bay. Plate Anchor Concept for Heavy Weather Mooring of CVN. Heavy Weather Mooring and BerthingFindings/Recommendations for Selected Berths TDS 83-05. Mayport. Multiple STOCKLESS Anchors for Navy Fleet Moorings (NCEL) TM-6001-OCN. NAVSTA Pascagoula. FL SSR-6368-OCN. FL SSR-6266-OCN.

Wind-Induced Steady Loads on Ships (NCEL) TN-1634. Navy Heavy Weather Mooring Safety Requirements TR-6014-OCN. EMOOR – A Quick and Easy Method of Evaluating Ship Mooring at Piers and Wharves TR-6012-OCN Rev B.S. Wind and Current Forces/Moments on Multiple Ships TR-6004-OCN. Foam-Filled Fender Design to Prevent Hull Damage TR-6020-OCN. STATMOOR – A Single Point Mooring Static Analysis Program (NCEL) TN-1774 Single and Tandem Anchor Performance of the New Navy Mooring Anchor (NCEL) TR-2018-OCN. Mooring Design Physical and Empirical Data TR-6015-OCN.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Mooring Concepts TN-1628. Assessment of Present Navy Methods for Determining Loads at Single Point Moorings TR-2039-OCN. Design Guide for Pile Driven Plate Anchors TR-6003-OCN. U. Mooring USS WASP (LHD-1) Class Ships 209 . Wind Effects on Moored Aircraft Carriers TR-6005-OCN (Rev B).

Kriebel. Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Ave Washington. User’s Manual for the Standard Ship Motion Program. 581. United States Naval Academy Annapolis. DDS-581. Mooring USS TARAWA (LHA 1) Class Ships TR-6037-OCN. Evaluation of Viscous Damping Models for Single Point Mooring Simulation Viscous Drag Forces on Moored Ships in Shallow Water (D. MD 21402-5018 EW-9-90. DC . Mooring and Anchoring 5. Ship-Generated Waves TR-6023-OCN. “Calculations for Mooring Systems” 210 9.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 TR-6022-OCN. 611. DC 20375 NRL/PU/7543-96-0025 Typhoon Havens Handbook for the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans Naval Ships Technical Manual NSTM Chapers: 096. SMP81 TR-82-03 Hurricane Havens Handbook 7. Dynamic Analyses of a CVN-68 in a Heavy Weather Mooring TR-6027-OCN. 1992) 6. and 613 Design Data Sheet. Naval Sea Systems Command Washington. LPD-17 USS SAN ANTONIO Class Berthing. David Taylor Research Center Annapolis. Passing Ship Effects on Moored Ships TR-6028-OCN. MD 21402-5087 DTNSRDC/SPD-0936-01. Improved Pearl Harbor and Kings Bay Anchor Designs TR-6045-OCN. 582. Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility Monterey. CA 8.

1984 Coastal Engineering Manual (CEM) 211 . NSTB/MAR-91/04 Marine Accident Report Explosion and Fire Aboard the U. DC NUREG/CR-2639 Historical Extreme Winds for the United States – Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coastlines NUREG/CR-4801 Climatology of Extreme Winds in Southern California NUREG-0800 Tornado Resistant Design of Nuclear Power Plant Structures. Volume 15.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Hitchhikers Guide to Navy Surface Ships. 1990 E/CC31:MJC Letter Report of 8 Dec 87 12. No. Michigan September 16. 4. 1980 11. Army Corps of Engineers Special Report No. 1997 10. Tides and Tidal Datums in the United States. Nuclear Safety. Regulatory Guide.S. 1979 Series 124. National Bureau of Standards Series 118. Extreme Wind Speeds at 129 Stations in the Contiguous United States. 1981 Shore Protection Manual. 7. National Climatic Data Center 151 Patton Avenue Asheville. National Transportation Safety Board Washington. U. July 1974 14. NC 28801-5001 13.S. Tankship Jupiter Bay City. Hurricane Wind Speeds in the United States. DC PB91-916404. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington.

W. McKenna. Flory. Leech. Nov 1992a. McKenna. and Y..R. DC 20005 3. Parsey.A.. J. Failure Probability Analysis Techniques for Long Mooring Lines. and C. Flory.UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 NON-GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS 1. Stonor. TX.R. H. C. in the Oceans. Houston. Cordage Institute 350 Lincoln Street Hingham. 24th Offshore Technology Conference Proceedings. MA 02043 2. Fiber Ropes for Ocean Engineering in the 21st Century. 212 .. The Choice Between Nylon and Polyester for Large Marine Ropes. J. ASME 7th Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Sep 1989. American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street NW Washington. American Institute of Steel Construction 2. J. Parsey. Parsey.S.F.A. 1995 AUTHORED PUBLICATIONS Flory. J. and H. ASCE.S.F. Flory.R. Harle.. Luo. and M. Offshore Technology Conference. R. Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) Manual of Steel Construction API RP 2T Cordage Institute Technical Manual Mooring Equipment Guidelines (1992) Recommendations for Equipment Employed in the Mooring of Ships at Single Point Moorings (1993) Prediction of Wind and Current Loads On VLCCs (1994) Single Point Mooring and Maintenance Guide (1995) 5. J. TX. Feb 1988.F. Houston. MTS Oceans’ 89.E. Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC) Criteria for Movement of Moored Ships in Harbors: A Practical Guide.F. M. 1992b. A Method of Predicting Rope Life and Residual Strength. M.

Broadside Current Forces on Ships. 1969.S. Publication No. J. Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering. and Sorensen. 1992. A Simulation Model for a Single Point Moored Tanker. 1998. Headland. Seelig. R.R. Hooft. J. J. Hydrodynamic Analysis and Computer Simulation Applied to Ship Interaction During Maneuvering in Shallow Channels. Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineers.. Overington.S.. ASCE. ASCE Proceedings Ports 89. Wind Turbulent Spectra for Design Consideration of Offshore Structures. W. R. Seelig. New York. 1993. and Kreibel. New York. Parsey. W. NY. M. John Wiley & Sons. M. The Analysis of Passing Vessel Effects on Moored Tankers. 1996 Weggel. J. J. ASCE. Development of Ship Wave Design Information. and S... Seelig.. December 1996. L.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. UCLA Report PTE-490x. Third Edition. et al. Dynamic Analysis of Moored Floating Drydocks. May 1989. D.R. Netherlands.. PhD Thesis.. Mooring Dynamics Due to Wind Gust Fronts. W. 1982..UFC 4-159-03 3 October 2005 Headland.. and Scanlan. Wind Effects on Structures.K. Fatigue of SPM Mooring Hawsers. 1988 Parsey. Proceedings Civil Engineering in the Oceans V.. 1988. Proceedings of the 3rd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Ochi-Shin. 213 . Kizakkevariath. and C.J. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1989. Modeling the LongTerm Fatigue Performance of Fibre Ropes. J. E. 1982 Simiu.. John J. Hearle. Occasion. J. New York.P. M..W. 1984 Wichers. Chern. Maritime Research Institute. 797. S. Banfield. Headland. Myers. John Wiley & Sons. Advanced Dynamics of Marine Structures.