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COMPUTER NETWORKS
1)DEFINE PROTOCAL: A protocol defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities, as well as actions taken on the transmission and/or receipt of a message or other event. 2)DEFINE END SYSTEMS: The computers connected on the internet are often referred to as end systems. They are referred to as end systems because they sit at the edge of the internet. End systems are referred to as hosts because they host application programs such as a web browser program, a web server program, e-mail reader program etc. 3)DEFINE CLIENT PROGRAM AND SERVER PROGRAM: A client program is a program running on one end system that requests and receives a service from server program running on another end system. 4)WHY THE TERMINOLOGY CONNECTION-ORIENTED SERVICE AND NOT JUST CONNECTION SERVICE? Its due to the fact that the end systems are connected in a very loose manner. In particular only the end systems themselves are aware of this connection; the packet switches within the internet are completely oblivious to the connection. So its called connection-oriented service and not connection service.

5)WHAT IS STORE-AND-FORWARD TRANSMISSION ? Store-and-forward transmission means that the switch must receive the entire packet before it can begin to transmit the first bit of the packet onto the outbound link.they thus introduce a store and forward delay.

6)WHAT IS ACCESS NETWORKS? The access networks are defined as the physical link(s) that connect an end system to its edge router,which is the first router on a path from the end system to any other distant end system. 7) WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF ACCESS NETWORKS? Theyare classified into 3 categories: Residential access: connecting home end systems into the network. Company access: connecting end systems in a business or educational institution into the network. Wireless access: network. connecting end systems(that are often mobile) into the

8)WHAT IS A PHYSICAL MEDIA? The physical medium can take many shapes and forms and does not have to be of the same type for each transmitter-receiver pair along the path. Examples of physical media include twisted-pair copper wire,coaxial cable,multimode fiber-optic cable etc. 9)WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF PHYSICAL MEDIA? The physical media is classified into 2 types,they are Guided media: fiber-optic cable,twisted-pair copper wire,coaxial cable. Unguided media:wireless LAN,digital satellite channel.

10)WHAT IS POP? They are expanded as Points of Presence.It is simply a group of one or more routers in the ISP’s network at which routers in the other ISPs or in the networksbeloging to the ISP’s customers can connect.Tier1 typically has many POPs. 11)WHAT IS NAPs? The NAPs is expanded as Network Access Points,each of which can be owned and operated by either some third-party telecommunications company or by an internet backbone provider.They exchange huge quantities of traffic among many ISPs. 12)WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DELAYS? Processing delay Queuing delay Transmission delay Propagation delay 13)WHAT IS THE CAUSE FOR PROCESSING DELAY? The time required to examine the packet’s header and determine where to direct the packet is a part of processing delay.It also includes the time required to check for bit-level errors in the packet that occurred during transmission. 14)QUEUING DELAY: At the queue,the packet experiences a queuing delay as it waits to be transmitted onto the link.The length of the queuing delay of a specific packet will depend on the number of earlier-arriving packets that are queued and waiting for transmission across the link. 15)WHAT IS TRANSMISSION DELAY?

The transmission delay is the amount of time required for the router to push out the packet;it is a function of packet’s length and the transmission rate of the link.

16)WHAT IS PROPAGATION DELAY? The propagation delay is defined as the time it takes a bit to propagate from one router to the next;it is a function of the distance between the two routers . 17)List the FUNCTIONS OF APPLICATION LAYER? It is a layer where network applications and their application layer protocols reside.The protocols they include are HTTP protocol(web document request and transfer),SMTP(transfer of e-mail messages) and FTP(transfer of files between two end systems). 18)TRANSPORT LAYER? This layer transports application-layer messages between the client and server sides of an application.The two important transport layer protocols are TCP(connection oriented protocol,reliable data transfer) UDP(connectionless protocol,unreliable data transfer).Packet is referred as segment in this layer. 19)FUNCTIONS OF NETWORK LAYER? The network layer is responsible for moving network layer packets known as datagrams from one host to another.the transport layer protocol in a source host passes a transport-layer segment and a destination address to the network layer.The network layer then provides the service of delivering the segment to the transport layer in te destination host. 20)FUNCTIONS OF LINK LAYER?

the network layer relies on the services of the link layer. 23)WHAT IS MULTIPLEXING? The job of gathering data chunks at the source host from different sockets.encapsulating each data chunk with header information to create segments. the function of the physical layer is to move the individual bits within the frame from one node to the next.At each node the network layer passes the datagram down to the link layer. and passing the segments to the network layer is called multiplexing. 21)FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL LAYER? The function of the link layer is to move entire frame from one network element to an adjacent network element.At this next node the link layer passes the datagram up to the network layer. 22)WHAT IS DEMULTIPLEXING? The job of delivering the data in a transport layer segment to a correct socket is called demultiplexing. 24)WHY UDP IS BETTER THAN TCP? UDP is better than TCP because of finer application –level control over what data is sent and when no connection establishment no connection state small packet header overhead 25)WHAT IS UDP CHECKSUM? .which delivers the datagram to the next node along the route.To move a packet from one node to the next node in the route.

27)WHAT ARE TE EVENTS THAT GBN RESPONDS TO? Invocation from above Receipt of an ACK A timeout event 28)WHAT IS SR PROTOCAL? It is expanded as Selective Repeat Protocal. This is used to replace GBN because in GBN if an error occurs in a single packet then large number of packets are to be re-transmitted.It is used to find if any bits within the segment has been altered as it moved from source to destination.Here the sender is allowed to transmit multiple packets without waiting for an acknowledgement.But it is constrained to have no more than some maximum allowable number N.if no error is detected in the receiver side then the sum wil be 1111111111111111.of unacknowledged packets in the pipeline.At the sender side 1’s complement of all the 16 bit sum is done and stored in the UDO checksum segment.The UDPchecksum provides for error detection. then the server responds with another special TCP segment(both these segments do not carry any payload). 29)DEFINE THREE-WAY-HANDSHAKE: First a TCP connection is established between the TCP client and server and a special TCP segment is passed from client.but in SR only the packet with error is retransmitted.if not then error has occurred during transmission.then finally the client responds with another TCP segment which may . 26)WHAT IS GBN? It is called Go-Back-N protocol.

34)WHEN DOES AN ACKNOLEDGEMENT IS SAID TO BE PIGGYBACKED? The acknowledgement for client-to-server data is carried in a segment carrying server-to-client data. ACK: to indicate that the valued carried in the acknowledgement field is valid.this acknowledgement is said to de piggybacked on the server-to-client data segment.then should pass the data to upper layer immediately.FIN : used for connection setup and teardown. 33)WHAT IS ACKNOLEDGEMENT NUMBER? The acknowledgement number the host A puts in its segment is the sequence number of the next byte host A puts is expecting from host B. Since three segments are established between two hosts its called three-way handshake.carry payload. URG:there is a data in this segment that has been marked urgent. 30)WHAT IS MSS? It is expanded as Maximum Segment Size. PSH: if set. 32)WHWT IS SEQUENCE NUMBER OF A SEGMENT? The sequence number of a segment is defined as the byte stream number of the first byte in the segment.SYN. 35)WHAT IS RTT? .The maximum amount of data that can be grabbed and placed in a segment is limited by MSS. RST. 31)WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT BITS FO FLAG FIELD? It has 6bits.

40) WHAT IS TCP CONGESTION CONTROL ALGORITHM? This algorithm is used to detect and treat congestion. Setting NI bit is used to indicate mild congestion and setting CI bit indicates severe congestion. 39)WHAT ARE RM CELLS? These cells are called Resource-Management cells.It is expanded as Round Trip Time.RM cells can be used to provide both direct network feedback and network-feedback-via-the-receiver. they are Additive.Then after some time out connection is removed. A congested network switch can set the EFCI bit in a data cell to 1 to signal congestion to the destination host. but there is a little difference in the function of both the bits. Reaction to timeout events.multiplicative-decrease.increase. This algorithm has three major components. They are used to convey congestion related informations.First FIN is passed by client which is acknowledged by the server. . 38) PURPOSE OF NI AND CI BIT? Both these bits are used to indicate congestion to the destination. 37)WHAT IS EFCI ? EFCI is a bit expanded as Explicit Forward Congestion Indication bit. Slow start.RTT for a segment is defined as the amount of time between when the segment is sent and when an acknowledgement for that segment is received. 36)WHAT IS THE USAGE OF FIN? FIN is used for connection removal between the client and server.then FIN is passed by the server which is then acknowledged by the client.

VC teardown: after the flow of packets they decide to terminate the VC. 44) WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT PARTS OF THE ROUTER ARCHITECTURE? There are four main parts in the router architecture. 45) FUNCTIONS OF INPUT PORTS? Physical layer functions-terminating incoming physical link to a router. they are. Input port. Switch fabric.41)WHAT IS CBR ATM NETWORK SERVICE? This is called constant bit rate ATM network service.its goal is to provide flow of packets with a virtual pipe. Output port. 42) WHAT IS ABR ATM NETWORK SERVICE? It is called as Available Bit rate network service.This is little better than the best-effort service. Routing processor.the cells that are lost are less than the specified amount.Minimum transmission rate is ordered for ABR and if additional resourses are available then transmission rate can be more than the specified MCR. 46)FUNCTIONS OF SWITCHING FABRIC: .this was the first ATM service model to be standardized. 43) WHAT ARE THE THREE PHASES OF A VIRTUAL CIRCUIT? VC setup: a path is set between the sender and receiver. Datalink layer functions-at te remote side of the incoming link. Data transfer: packets begin to flow along the VC.

49)WHAT ARE THE SWITCHING TECHNIQUES USED IN SWITCHING FABRIC? Switching technique using memory. .The switching fabric is present between the input ports and the output ports. 47)FUNCTIONS OF OUTPUT PORTS: They store the packets that have been forwarded to it through the switching fabric and then transmits the packets on the outgoing link.Thus they perform reverse datalindk and physical layer functions of the input port. Switching technique using bus.The function of this routing processor is to execute the routing protocols within the router. 48)FUNCTIONS OF ROUTING PROCESSOR? The routing processor is connected to the switching fabric.This is used to connect the input ports to the corresponding output ports. 51) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS TO ASSIGN IP ADDRESS TO THE HOST? Manual configuration: A system administrator manually configures the IP address into the host. Switching technique using crossbar.If the TTL field reaches 0(zero)the datagram must be dropped.This field is decremented by one each time the datagram is processed by a router. 50)PURPOSE OF TIME -TO-LIVE? TTL is used inorder to ensure that datagrams do not circulate forever in the network.

handling.If the op limit count reaches zero the datagram is discarded.the address of its first-hop router and the address of its local DNS server.whichis unaware that it actually carries the complete IPv6 datagram.such as its subnet mask.but between them there are two IPv4 datagrams.The IPv6 node on the sending side completely takes the IPv6 datagram and puts it in the datafield of IPv4 node. Flow labeling and priority:labeling of packets particularflows for which the sender requests specia.these two IPv4 datagrams present between IPv6 nodes is reffered as tunnel.This process is called tunneling. 53)WHAT IS TE PURPOSE OF HOP LIMIT? The contents of this field are decremented by one by each router that forwards the datagram.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocal(DHCP): It allows a host to obtain an IP address automatically. Tunneling.as well as to learnadditional information. 54)WHAT ARE THE METHODS SUGGESTED FOR TRANSITIONING FROM IPv4 to IPv6? Dual stack approach.at the receiver side data is given to IPv6 node. 52)WHAT ARE THE CHANGES INTRODUCED IN IPv6 COMPARED TO IPv4? Expanded addressing capabilities: IP address is expanded from 32 to 128 bits. 55)WHAT IS TUNNELING? Consider two IPv6 nodes that wants to interpolate. A streamlined 40-byte header: 40 byte fixed length header allows for faster processing of the IP datagram. belonging to .

Instead each node begins with only the knowledge of the costs of all network links.distributed manner. 57)DEFINE GLOBAL ROUTING ALGORITHM: This computes the least-cost path between a source and destination using complete global knowledge about the network. One way in which we can classify routing algorithms is according to whether they are global or decentralized. Second way to classify routing algorithms is according to whether they are static or dynamic.the algorithm takes the connectivity between all nodes and all link costs as inputs.That is. 58)DEFINE DECENTRALIZED ROUTING ALGORITHM: In a decentralized routing algorithm the calculation of the least-cost path is carried out in an iterative.56)WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF ROUTING ALGORITHMS? They are broadly classified into two ways. often as a result of human intervention.No node has complete information about the costs of all network links.This is also called as link-state (LS) algorithm. In dynamic routing algorithms they change the routing paths as the network traffic loads or topology change. 60)DEFINE STATIC AND DYNAMIC ROUTING ALGORITHMS? In ststic routing algorithms routes change very slowly over time. 61)WHAT IS INTR-AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM ROUTING PROTOCAL? .

An object is simply a file-such as HTML file.each addressable by a URL.talk to each oter by exchanging HTTP messages.in the context of the web.we will use the words browser and client interchangeably.a JPEG image.is at the heart of the web.and so on.HTTP is implemented in two programs:a client program and a server program. 67)WHAT IS CALLED REQUEST LINE. 64)WHAT IS A BROWSER? A browser is a user agent for the web.the web’s application-layer protocol. 66)WHICH PROTOCAL IS CALLED STATELESS PROTOCAL? HTTP protocol is called stateless protocol.Popular web servers include Apache and Microsoft Internet Information Server. 65)WHAT IS A WEB SERVER? A web server houses web objects.HEADER LINES? .The client and server program executing on different end systems. It consists of objects.Because web browsers also implement the client side of HTTP. 63)WHAT IS A WEB PAGE? A web page is also called as document.The routing algorithm that runs within an autonomous system is called an intra-autonomous system routing protocol.Because an HTTP protocol does not maintain any information about the clients.Web servers also implement the server side of HTTP.a GIF image.it displays the requested web page to the user and provides numerous navigational and configuration features. 62)WHAT IS HYPER TEXT TRANSFER PROTOCAL? The HTTP.

the subsequent lines are called the header lines.A single identifier is used for group of receivers. 71)WHAT IS A MULTICAST GROUP? The group of receivers associated with class D is called multicast group.between a host and an attached router. 70)WHAT IS A STREAM? A stream is a sequence of characters that flow into or out of a process.the URL field and the HTTP field. The request line has three fields: the method field.Despite its name IGMP is not a protocol that operates among all the hosts that have joined a multicast group.The first line of an HTTP request message is called the request line. 72)WHAT IS IGMP? This is expanded as Internet Group Management Protocal.A multicast packet is addressed using address indirection.Each stream is either an input stream for the process or an output stream. \ 68)WHY HTTP IS CALLED A PULL PROTOCAL? HTTP is mainly a pull protocol because someone loads information on a web server and users use HTTP to pull the information from the server at their convenience. 73)WHAT IS AN ADAPTER? .This is because the sending mail server pushes the file to the receiving mail server.IGMP operates locally. 69)WHY AND WHICH PROTOCAL IS CALLED PUSH PROTOCAL? SMTP is primarily a push protocol.

A wireless host might be a laptop.phone.palmtop.hosts are end-system devices that run applications.The hosts themselves may or may not be mobile.since it is possible to view the bit string to be sent as a polynomial whose co efficient are the 0 and 1 values in the bit string.The UMTS network architecture borrows heavily from the established GSM network architecture.that is. 76)WHAT IS EDGE? This is expandeded as Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution.implemented in an adapter.The main goal of EDGE is to increase the data rate capabilities of a GSM/GPRS network.For a given communication link.DSP chips.PDA.They are also called as network interface cards.or destop computer. 78)DEFINE WIRELESS HOSTS: As in case of wired networks.This is an evolution of GSM to support 3G capabilities.the link-layer protocol is.to better exploit the 200KHz GSM channel with its eight-slot TDMA frames.The unit of data handled by the AAL is reffered to by the rather generic name of AAL protocol data unit(PDU).An adapter is a board that typically contains RAM.for the most part. 75)WHAT IS AAL? AAL is expanded as ATM adaption layer is roughly analoguos to the internet’s transport layer and is present only at the ATM devices at the edge of the ATM network.This is also called as polynomial codes. 74)WHAT IS CRC? This is expanded as cyclic redundancy check codes. . 77)WHAT IS UMTS? UMTS is expanded as Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service.a host bus interface and a link interface.

84)HOW IS REGISTRATION WITH HOME AGENT IS DONE IN MOBILE IP? Mobile IP defines the protocols used by the mobile node and/or foreign agent to register and deregister COAs with a mobile node’s home agent. 80)DEFINE BASE STATION: The base station is a key part of the wireless network infrastructure.A base station is responsible for sending and receiving data to and from a wireless host that is associated with that base station. 82)WHAT IS BSS? The fundamental building block of the 802.a base station has no obvious counterpart in a wired network.Unlike the wireless host and wireless link. known as an access point(AP). 81)WHAT IS INFRA-STRUCTURE MODE? Hosts associated with a base station are often reffered to as operating in infra-structure mode.Different wireless link technologies have different transmission rates and can transmit over different distances.79)DEFINE WIRELESS LINKS: A host connects to base station or to another wireless host through a wireless communication link.A BSS contains one or more wireless stations and a central base station. and protocols for mobile nodes to solicit the services of a foreign or home agent.since all traditional network services are provided by the network to which a host is connected via the base station. 85)WHAT IS INDIRECT ROUTING OF DATAGRAMS IN MOBILE IP? .11 architecture is the basic service set. 83)WHAT IS AGENT DISCOVERY? Mobile IP defines the protocols used by a home or foreign agent to advertise its services to mobile nodes.

Speech encoding often uses PCM.the time from when a packet is generated at the source until it is received at the receiver can fluctuate from packet to packet. delayind playout of chunks at the receiver.This phenomenon is called jitter.The standard also defines the manner in which datagrams are forwarded to mobile nodes by a home agent.including rules for forwarding datagrams. 88)WHAT IS END-TO-END DELAY? End-to-end delay is accumulation of transmission. 90)WHAT ARE THE METHODS TO REMOVE JITTER? prefacing each chunk with a sequence number. 87)WHAT IS PCM? This is the basic encoding technique called as pulse code modulation.processing and queuing delays in routers.rules for handling error conditions. 86)WHAT IS VLR? The visited network maintains a database known as visitor location register.Because of these varying delays within the network. and several forms of encapsulation. prefacing each chunk with a timestamp. .propagation delays in the links. 89)WHAT IS A JITTER? A crucial component of end-to-end delay is the random queuing delays in the routers.it contains an entry for each mobile user that is currently in the portion of the network served by the VLR.with a sampling rate of 8000 samples per second and 8 bits per sample giving a rate of 64 kbps. end system processing delays.

Miscellaneous fields.It is 32 bits long.It reflects the sampling instant of the first byte in the RTP data packet.and may be used by the receiver to detect packet loss and to restore packet sequence. Synchronization source identifier. 92)WHAT IS SSRC? This is expanded as synchronization source identifier.The sequence number increments by one for each RTP packet sent. 93)WHAT IS THE USE OF SEQUENCE NUMBER FIELD IN RPT? It is 16 bits long. Sequence number field. Timestamp field. 94)WHAT IS THE USE OF TIMESTAMP FIELD? This is 32 bits long.They are Payload type.It identifies the source of the RTP stream.91)WHAT ARE THE RTP HEADER FIELDS? RTP has five important header fields.each stream in an RTP session has a distinct SSRC.It is also used to remove packet jitter. 95)WHAT IS DNS? .

it is nearly always used to associate a name with an IP address to allow lookups of the IP address and return the name of the corresponding machine. something unthinkable in a huge international network due to the load and latency. PTR is a regular DNS datatype whose interpretation depends on the context in which it is found. These are called reverse lookups. However. an application program calls a library procedure called the resolver. which is really just a macro definition. When a resolver gives a domain name to DNS. whether it is a single host or a top-level domain. the most common resource record is just its IP address. PTR points to another name. In practice. Thus. unlike CNAME. the primary function of DNS is to map domain names onto resource records. 96)WHAT IS RESOLVER? To map a name onto an IP address. DNS (the Domain Name System) was invented. 97)WHAT IS CALLED RESOURCE RECORDS? Every domain. can have a set of resource records associated with it. Authoritative records are in contrast to cached records. passing it the name as a parameter. which may be out of date. 99)WHAT IS AUTHORITATIVE RECORD? An authoritative record is one that comes from the authority that manages the record and is thus always correct. 98)WHAT IS REVERSE LOKUPS? CNAME. since each server that does not have the requested . For a single host.Host name conflicts would occur constantly unless names were centrally managed. To solve these problems. but many other kinds of resource records also exist. 100)WHAT IS RECURSIVE QUERY? It is worth mentioning that the query method described here is known as a recursive query. what it gets back are the resource records associated with that name.

another directory service has been defined. called LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol). resources. in contrast to Abramson's pure ALOHA. An alternative form is also possible. all it really does is map symbolic names for machines onto their IP addresses. 104)WHAT IS SLOTTED ALOHA? In Roberts' method. the continuous pure ALOHA is turned into a discrete one. Instead. All stations can detect collisions. then reports back. but the name of the next server along the line to try is returned. 103)WHAT IS CONTENTION SYSTEMS? Systems in which multiple users share a common channel in a way that can lead to conflicts are widely known as contention systems.information goes and finds it somewhere. when a query cannot be satisfied locally. A collided frame must be transmitted again later. This event is called a collision. a computer is not permitted to send whenever a carriage return is typed. Some servers do not implement recursive queries and always return the name of the next server to try. or objects in generalFor locating these things. 105)WHAT ARE CARRIER SENSE PROTOCALS? . it is required to wait for the beginning of the next slot. services. Thus. they overlap in time and the resulting signal is garbled. the probability of no other traffic during the same slot as our test frame is e-G. the query fails. Since the vulnerable period is now halved. 101)WHAT IS LDAP? While DNS is extremely important to the correct functioning of the Internet. 102)WHAT IS COLLISION? If two frames are transmitted simultaneously. which has come to be known as slotted ALOHA. In this form. It does not help locate people. There are no errors other than those generated by collisions.

The protocol is called 1-persistent because the station transmits with a probability of 1 when it finds the channel idle. the station begins doing so itself. Instead. this algorithm leads to better channel utilization but longer delays than 1-persistent CSMA. it transmits with a probability p. a station senses the channel. Kleinrock and Tobagi (1975) have analyzed several such protocols in detail. if the channel is already in use. If a collision occurs.e.p. it senses the channel. A number of them have been proposed. In the latter case. 108)WHAT IS P-PERSISTENT CSMA? When a station becomes ready to send. If no one else is sending.. it waits a random period of time and then repeats the algorithm. with probabilities p and q. it transmits a frame. Consequently. When the station detects an idle channel. the unlucky station acts as if there had been a collision 109)WHAT IS BIT MAP METHOD? .Protocols in which stations listen for a carrier (i. it first listens to the channel to see if anyone else is transmitting at that moment. the station waits a random amount of time and starts all over again. the station waits until it becomes idle. With a probability q = 1 . If that slot is also idle. 107)WHAT IS NON-PERSISTENT CSMA? Before sending. However. If the channel is busy. 106)WHAT IS 1-PERSISTENT CSMA? When a station has data to send. This process is repeated until either the frame has been transmitted or another station has begun transmitting. it defers until the next slot. a transmission) and act accordingly are called carrier sense protocols. If it is idle. it either transmits or defers again. the station does not continually sense it for the purpose of seizing it immediately upon detecting the end of the previous transmission.

If C does start transmitting. This is called the exposed station problem. when in fact such a transmission would cause bad reception only in the zone between B and C. Regardless of what station 0 does. . If C senses the medium. wiping out the frame from A. where neither of the intended receivers is located. each station has complete knowledge of which stations wish to transmit. No other station is allowed to transmit during this slot. 110)WHAT IS HIDDEN STSTION PROBLEM? First consider what happens when A is transmitting to B. it will hear an ongoing transmission and falsely conclude that it may not send to D. 111)WHAT IS EXPOSED STATION PROBLEM? Now consider that B transmitting to A. If C senses the medium.If station 0 has a frame to send. A binary 1 bit is sent by having the voltage set high during the first interval and low in the second one. it will interfere at B. station j may announce that it has a frame to send by inserting a 1 bit into slot j. making it easy for the receiver to synchronize with the sender. A binary 0 is just the reverse: first low and then high. it is possible to localize the origin of the echo. In general. and thus falsely conclude that it can transmit to B. After all N slots have passed by. 113)WHAT IS MANCHESTER ENCODING? In Manchester encoding. it will not hear A because A is out of range. station 1 gets the opportunity to transmit a 1 during slot 1. but only if it has a frame queued. The problem of a station not being able to detect a potential competitor for the medium because the competitor is too far away is called the hidden station problem. it transmits a 1 bit during the zeroth slot. 112)WHAT IS TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY? By carefully timing the interval between sending the pulse and receiving the echo. This technique is called time domain reflectometry. This scheme ensures that every bit period has a transition in the middle. each bit period is divided into two equal intervals.

An interconnected collection of piconets is called a scatternet. this scheme is highly efficient and preferred over carrier extension. 118)WHAT IS SCO? SCO(synchronous connected orientation) links are used for real-time data.000 bps PCM audio channel. Each SCO link can transmit one 64. 115)WHAT IS DIFFERENTIAL MANCHESTER ENCODING? Differential Manchester encoding. forward error correction can be used to provide high reliability. A slave may have up to three SCO links with its master. If the total burst is less than 512 bytes. such as telephone connections. the hardware pads it again. Instead. 116)WHAT IS FRAME BURSTING? Frame bursting allows a sender to transmit a concatenated sequence of multiple frames in a single transmission. is a variation of basic Manchester encoding.114)WHAT IS THE DISADVANTAGE OF MANCHESTER ENCODING? A disadvantage of Manchester encoding is that it requires twice as much bandwidth as straight binary encoding because the pulses are half the width. which consists of a master node and up to seven active slave nodes within a distance of 10 meters. If enough frames are waiting for transmission. Due to the time-critical nature of SCO links. . Multiple piconets can exist in the same (large) room and can even be connected via a bridge node. 117)WHAT IS PICONET? The basic unit of a Bluetooth system is a piconet. In it. A 0 bit is indicated by the presence of a transition at the start of the interval. a 1 bit is indicated by the absence of a transition at the start of the interval. This type of channel is allocated a fixed slot in each direction. frames sent over them are never retransmitted.

The toll. or narrow. sectional. Each end office has a number of outgoing lines to one or more nearby switching centers. This mode of operation is known as a bent pipe. . 122)WHAT IS CALLED AS INTERTOLL TRUNKS? Primary. tandem offices). called its footprint. and regional exchanges communicate with each other via high-bandwidth intertoll trunks (also called interoffice trunks). and regional offices form a network by which the toll offices are connected. covering a substantial fraction of the earth's surface. sectional. called toll offices (or if they are within the same local area. The downward beams can be broad. and then rebroadcasts it at another frequency to avoid interference with the incoming signal. a communication satellite can be thought of as a big microwave repeater in the sky.119)WHAT IS BENT PIPE? In its simplest form. primary. 121)WHAT IS TOLL CONNECTING TRUNKS? If the called telephone is attached to another end office. each of which listens to some portion of the spectrum. It contains several transponders. These lines are called toll connecting trunks. 120)WHAT IS FOOTPRINT? The first geostationary satellites had a single spatial beam that illuminated about 1/3 of the earth's surface. covering an area only hundreds of kilometers in diameter. amplifies the incoming signal. a different procedure has to be used.

the packets are frequently called datagrams (in analogy with telegrams) and the subnet is called a datagram subnet.CIRCUIT SUBNET? If connection-oriented service is used.123)WHAT IS DATAGRAM SUBNET? If connectionless service is offered. One can think of a router as having two . If the subnet uses datagrams internally. This connection is called a VC (virtual circuit). The latter case is sometimes called session routing because a route remains in force for an entire user session (e. routing decisions are made only when a new virtual circuit is being set up. 125)DEFINE THE USE OF ROUTING ALGORITHM? The routing algorithm is that part of the network layer software responsible for deciding which output line an incoming packet should be transmitted on. and the subnet is called a virtual-circuit subnet. data packets just follow the previously-established route. a path from the source router to the destination router must be established before any data packets can be sent. packets are injected into the subnet individually and routed independently of each other. this decision must be made anew for every arriving data packet since the best route may have changed since last time. which is what happens when a packet arrives. which is making the decision which routes to use. In this context. and forwarding.g. No advance setup is needed. 126)WHAT IS SESSION ROUTING? If the subnet uses virtual circuits internally. a login session at a terminal or a file transfer). 127)WHAT IS FORWARDING? It is sometimes useful to make a distinction between routing. in analogy with the physical circuits set up by the telephone system. 124)WHAT IS VIRTUAL.. Thereafter.

Multiple piconets can exist in the same (large) room and can even be .processes inside it. 130)WHAT IS LOAD SHEDDING? Load shedding is a fancy way of saying that when routers are being inundated by packets that they cannot handle. These tables are updated by exchanging information with the neighbors. 131)GIVE BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE? The basic unit of a Bluetooth system is a piconet. a vector) giving the best known distance to each destination and which line to use to get there. This process is forwarding. The term comes from the world of electrical power generation. The original packet is tagged (a header bit is turned on) so that it will not generate any more choke packets farther along the path and is then forwarded in the usual way.e. which consists of a master node and up to seven active slave nodes within a distance of 10 meters. giving it the destination found in the packet. where it refers to the practice of utilities intentionally blacking out certain areas to save the entire grid from collapsing on hot summer days when the demand for electricity greatly exceeds the supply. looking up the outgoing line to use for it in the routing tables. 129)WHAT IS CHOKE PACKET? The router sends a choke packet back to the source host. they just throw them away. 128)EXPLAIN DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING? Distance vector routing algorithms operate by having each router maintain a table (i. One of them handles each packet as it arrives.

An interconnected collection of piconets is called a scatternet. not just those addressed to it.As mentioned above. in which all frames are given to the computer. which is used for packet-switched data available at irregular intervals. By looking at the source address. No guarantees are given. 133)WHAT IS PROMISCUOUS MODE? Most LAN interfaces have a promiscuous mode.connected via a bridge node. the bridges operate in promiscuous mode. These data come from the L2CAP layer on the sending side and are delivered to the L2CAP layer on the receiving side. 135)WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF BROADCAST STORM? . Frames can be lost and may have to be retransmitted. By inserting bridges at various places and being careful not to forward sensitive traffic. 134)WHAT IS BACKWARD LEARNING? The algorithm used by the transparent bridges is backward learning. a system administrator can isolate parts of the network so that its traffic cannot escape and fall into the wrong hands. 132)WHAT IS ACL? The ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less) link. Spies and busybodies love this feature. they can tell which machine is accessible on which LAN. ACL traffic is delivered on a best-efforts basis. so they see every frame sent on any of their LANs. A slave may have only one ACL link to its master.

some. Let us now take a look at it. 3. Physical layer coding violations. It is now being deployed in many organizations. Character count. it is possible to determine which states are reachable and which are not. 137)GIVE THE FUNCTIONS OF DATALINK LAYER? The data link layer has a number of specific functions it can carry out. Dealing with transmission errors.g. Flag bytes with byte stuffing..The results of broadcast storm are that (1) the entire LAN capacity is occupied by these frames. network vendors began working on a way to rewire buildings entirely in software. For additional information about VLANs. These functions include 1. Regulating the flow of data so that slow receivers are not swamped by fast senders. of the other states can be reached by a sequence of transitions. Starting and ending flags. computing the transitive closure of a graph). 139)WHAT IS REACHABILITY ANALYSIS? From the initial state. 2. 138)WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF FRAMING? 1. with bit stuffing. 136)WHAT IS VLAN? In response to user requests for more flexibility. 140)WHAT IS DEADLOCK? . perhaps all. and (2) all the machines on all the interconnected LANs are crippled just processing and discarding all the frames being broadcast. 2. The resulting concept is called a VLAN (Virtual LAN) and has even been standardized by the 802 committee. 4. 3. Using well-known techniques from graph theory (e. This technique is called reachability analysis. Providing a well-defined service interface to the network layer.

There are no transitions in the subset that cause forward progress.A deadlock is a situation in which the protocol can make no more forward progress (i. . A framing method that unambiguously delineates the end of one frame and the start of the next one. In terms of the graph model. a deadlock is characterized by the existence of a subset of states that is reachable from the initial state. the protocol remains there forever. 143)WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF PPP PROTOCAL? PPP provides three features: 1. 142)WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FRAMES? There are three kinds of frames: Information.e. Unnumbered. The frame format also handles error detection.. Again. 141)WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF DEADLOCK? It has two properties: 1. deliver packets to the network layer) no matter what sequence of events happens. Supervisory. Once in the deadlock situation. 2. it is easy to see from the graph that protocol 3 does not suffer from deadlocks. There is no transition out of the subset.

all it really does is map symbolic names for machines onto their IP addresses. which then takes them to the page pointed to. in a library package bound into network applications. It does not help locate people. and bringing them down again gracefully when they are no longer needed. 148)WHAT IS CYPHER? . now called hypertext. or objects in general. This process can be repeated indefinitely. 145)WHAT IS LDAP? While DNS is extremely important to the correct functioning of the Internet. often just called pages for short. It supports synchronous and asynchronous circuits and byte-oriented and bit-oriented encodings. The idea of having one page point to another. or conceivably on the network interface card. in a separate user process. A link control protocol for bringing lines up. the Web consists of a vast. called LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol). This protocol is called LCP (Link Control Protocol). testing them. 146)WHAT IS CALLED PAGES? From the users' point of view. Each page may contain links to other pages anywhere in the world. Users can follow a link by clicking on it. For locating these things. 147)WHAT IS HYPERTEXT? Each page may contain links to other pages anywhere in the world. which then takes them to the page pointed to.2. negotiating options. worldwide collection of documents or Web pages. The transport entity can be located in the operating system kernel. resources. another directory service has been defined. services. 144)WHAT IS TRANSPORT ENTITY? The hardware and/or software within the transport layer that does the work is called the transport entity. Users can follow a link by clicking on it.

called cryptanalysis. in contrast. hears and accurately copies down the complete ciphertext. We assume that the enemy. 153)WHAT IS CALLED AS TRANSPOSITION CIPHERS? Transposition ciphers. is then transmitted. 152)WHAT IS CRYPTOLOGY? The art of breaking ciphers. The cipher is keyed by a word or phrase not containing any repeated letters. 149)WHAT IS CODE? A code replaces one word with another word or symbol. known as the plaintext. 154)WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS TO ASSIGN IP ADDRESS TO THE HOST? Manual configuration: A system administrator manually configures the IP address into the host. Codes are not used any more. without regard to the linguistic structure of the message. are transformed by a function that is parameterized by a key.A cipher is a character-for-character or bit-for-bit transformation. although they have a glorious history. known as the ciphertext. the columnar transposition. often by messenger or radio. or intruder. . It is a common transposition cipher. reorder the letters but do not disguise them. 150)DEFINE PLAIN TEXT AND KEY: The messages to be encrypted. and the art devising them (cryptography) is collectively known as cryptology. 151)WHAT IS CYPHER TEXT? The output of the encryption process.

because in a sufficiently large sample of ciphertext.as well as to learnadditional information.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocal(DHCP): It allows a host to obtain an IP address automatically. 156)WHAT IS ACCESS NETWORKS? The access networks are defined as the physical link(s) that connect an end system to its edge router. 155)WHAT IS ONE-TIME PAD? The ciphertext cannot be broken. 157)WHAT IS RECTILINEAR BASIS? Consider two sets. as will every digram. 158)WHAT IS DIAGONAL BASIS? The second set of filters is the same.which is the first router on a path from the end system to any other distant end system. is immune to all present and future attacks no matter how much computational power the intruder has. This method.the address of its first-hop router and the address of its local DNS server. This choice is called a diagonal basis. except rotated 45 degrees. and so on. every trigram. each letter will occur equally often. This choice is called a rectilinear basis. known as the one-time pad. so one filter runs from the lower left to the upper right and the other filter runs from the upper left to the lower right. Set one consists of a vertical filter and a horizontal filter. 159)WHAT ARE THE TWO PRINCIPLES OF CRYPTOGRAPHY? .such as its subnet mask.

Government adopted a product cipher developed by IBM as its official standard for unclassified information. 163)WHAT IS DES? In January 1977. but in a modified form it is still useful. Cryptographic principle 2: Some method is needed to foil replay attacks. 161)WHAT IS FRESHNESS? The second cryptographic principle is that some measures must be taken to ensure that each message received can be verified as being fresh. that is. It is no longer secure in its original form.S. was widely adopted by the industry for use in security products. the U.Web servers also implement the server side of HTTP.Popular web servers include Apache and Microsoft Internet Information Server. 160)WHAT IS REDUNDANCY? The first principle is that all encrypted messages must contain some redundancy. information not needed to understand the message. sent very recently. Freshness. that is.The two basic principles of cryptography are Redundancy. This cipher. . DES (Data Encryption Standard). 162)WHAT IS A WEB SERVER? A web server houses web objects.each addressable by a URL.According to cryptographic principle one:messages must contain some redundancy.

S. Here two keys and three stages are used. Dept. EEE (Encrypt Encrypt Encrypt). 167)WHY EDE IS USED INSTEAD OF EEE? The reason that two keys are used is that even the most paranoid cryptographers believe that 112 bits is adequate for routine commercial applications for the time being. 165)WHAT IS TRIPLE DES? As early as 1979. 169)WHAT ARE THE BACK-OFF RULES IN AES? .S. the agency of the U. It consists of XORing a random 64-bit key with each plaintext block before feeding it into DES and then XORing a second 64-bit key with the resulting ciphertext before transmitting it. 1979). another DES encryption is done with K1. using K2 as the key. In the first stage. decided that the government needed a new cryptographic standard for unclassified use. using triple encryption (Tuchman. IBM realized that the DES key length was too short and devised a way to effectively increase it. 168)WHAT IS NIST? NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Whitening can easily be removed by running the reverse operations. 166)GIVE EXPANSIONS FOR EEE AND EDE? EDE (Encrypt Decrypt Encrypt) . DES is run in decryption mode. Finally. In the second stage. the plaintext is encrypted using DES in the usual way with K1. of Commerce charged with approving standards for the U. Federal Government.164)DEFINE WHITENING? A technique that is sometimes used to make DES stronger is called whitening.

and 256 bits must be supported. the state of the encryption machine is shown after bytes 0 through 9 have been encrypted and sent. and the encryption is no longer a big monoalphabetic substitution cipher. using (triple) DES is used. This technique is known as ECB mode (Electronic Code Book mode). the same plaintext block no longer maps onto the same ciphertext block. The full design must be public. For AES the idea is exactly the same. The algorithm must be a symmetric block cipher. In this figure. each plaintext block is XORed with the previous ciphertext block before being encrypted. The last piece of plaintext is padded out to 64 bits. if need be. 173)WHAT IS MIDDLEWARE? . only a 128-bit shift register is used. 3. 172)WHAT IS CYPHER FEEDBACK MODE? For byte-by-byte encryption. 170)WHAT IS ECB MODE? The straightforward way to use DES to encrypt a long piece of plaintext is to break it up into consecutive 8-byte (64-bit) blocks and encrypt them one after another with the same key. Consequently. the DES algorithm operates on the 64-bit shift register to generate a 64-bit ciphertext. The algorithm must be public or licensed on nondiscriminatory terms. 192. 4.The bake-off rules were: 1. Key lengths of 128. Both software and hardware implementations must be possible. which is transmitted (in plaintext) along with the ciphertext. 171)WHAT IS CYPHER BLOCK CHAINING? In this method. cipher feedback mode. 5. The first block is XORed with a randomly chosen IV (Initialization Vector). When plaintext byte 10 arrives. 2.

something known as multicasting. Each machine can ''subscribe'' to any or all of the groups. is responsible for implementing this model. 176)WHAT IS POINT TO POINT NETWORK? The point-to-point networks consist of many connections between individual pairs of machines. called middleware. it is delivered to all machines subscribing to that group. 174)WHAT IS CLIENT SERVER MODEL? In a client server model any number of clients can get information from the server through the network. The remaining n . 179)DEFINE TRAP MESSAGE: Trap messages are used to notify a managing entity of an exceptional situation that has resulted in canges to MIB object values. 2. When a packet is sent to a certain group.Often a layer of software on top of the operating system. 177)WHAT IS UNICASTING? Point-to-point transmission with one sender and one receiver is sometimes called unicasting.1 address bits can hold a group number.Here the clients are connected to the server through the network. Broadcast links. 180)WHAT IS POLLING PROTOCAL? . One possible scheme is to reserve one bit to indicate multicasting. Point-to-point links. 175)WHAT ARE TE TWO TYPES OF TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY? 1. 178)WHAT IS MULTICASTING? Sometimes broadcast systems also support transmission to a subset of the machines.

It is 6bytes long.The master node polls each of the nodes in a round-robin fashion. 186)ADVANTAGES OF LAN? first widely deployed high-speed LAN.then the entire channel becomes inoperative.If a node accidentally neglects to release the token then some recovery procedure must be done to get back that token. 182)WHAT IS TOKEN PASSING PROTOCAL? Here a token is passed among the nodes.The polling protocol requires one of the nodes to be designated as the master node. 185)WHAT IS DHCP SERVER DISCOVERY? The first task of the host is to find a DHCP server to interact.It gives 2(to the power)48 possible MAC addresses.Another drawback is more serious. 184)WHAT IS MAC ADDRESS? The link layer address is called MAC address. 183)WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF TOKEN PASSING PROTOCAL? Failure of one node can crash the entire channel.ie if the master node fails. higher data rate.This contains a transaction ID that allows subsequent responses to be matched to the discovery request. comparitively cheaper.This is done using DHCP server discovery. .These MAC addresses are permanent. 181)WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF POLLING PROTOCAL? The protocol introduces a polling delay.The node can hold a token only if it has some data to transmit.

If a frame from another node is currently being transmitted into the channel. 193)WHAT IS COLLISION DETECTION? A transmitting node listens to the channel while transmitting.the last byte is 10101011.Each of the first 7bytes of the preamble has a value of 10101010 . 189)DEFINE FILTERING? Filtering is the ability of a switch to determine whether the frame should be forwarded to some interface or should just be dropped. 190)DEFINE FORWARDING: Forwarding is the ability to determine the interfaces to which a frame should be directed. 188)USE OF PREAMBLE BITS: It has 8 bytes.cyclic redundancy check. 191)WHAT IS PACKET FRAMING? The PPP protocol link-layer must be able to take a network-level packet and encapsulate it within the PPP link layer frame such that the receiver will be able to identify the start and the end.it waits for a random amount of time and then again senses the channel.destination address. 192)WHAT IS CARRIER SENSING? A node listens to the channel before transmitting.then directing the frames to those interfaces.The first 7bytes of the preamble serve to “wake up” the receiving adapters. Preamble.187)WHAT ARE THE FRAMES OF ETHERNET FRAME? This consists of 6 fields.type field.source address.If it detects that another node is transmitting then it stops transmitting and uses some protocol to find when it can start its next transmission. .

194)DEFINE WEIGHTED FAIR QUEUING? A generalized abstraction of round robin queing that has found considerable use in QoS architectures is te so-called weighted fair queuing.with the leaky bucket mechanism. 196)WHAT IS TRAFFIC PROFILE? The traffic profile might contain a limit on the peak rate. 195)WHAT IS PER-HOP BEHAVIOUR? When a DS marked packet arrives at a diffserv-capable router.as well as the burstiness of the packet flow. 197)WHAT IS THE ROLE OF METERING FUNCTION? The role of metering function is to compare the incoming packet flow with the negotiated traffic profile and to determine whether a packet is within the negotiated traffic profile.It defines the end-toend message formats used in simple request/response mode of interaction between the client and authentication server. 200)FILTERING DECISIONS ARE TYPICALLY BASED ON? IP source or destination address. TCP or UDP source and destination port. 198)WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RSVP? it provides reservation for bandwidth in multicast trees.the packet is forwarded onto its next hop according to the so-called per-hop behavior. 199)WHAT IS EAP? It is expanded as extensible authentication protocol. it is receiver oriented. .

.ICMP message type. connection-initialization datagrams using the TCP SYN or ACK bits.