D.E.

GASKIN
G.J.D. SMITH
,-"'."........
8.M.
W.G.

HALINA
..... =.--- B.VARI
A REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
STATUS OF RESIDENT AND TRANSIENT
SEA BIRDS
IN HEAD HARBOUR PASSAGE AND
VICINITY NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA
D.E.GASKIN
G.J.D.SMITH
B• M• B. RAUNE
W.G.HALINA
B.VARI
DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH
GUELPH ONTARIO CANADA
N1G 2W·1
SEPTEMBER 1979
@
DATA IN THIS REPORT MAY ONLY·BE CITED WITH THE
WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE SENIOR AUTHOR
2
CONTENTS
1.0 CURRICULUM VITAE OF SENIOR AUTHOR 4
2 • 0 I NT ROD UCTION . • • • • • . . . • • . • . . ~ • • • • • • • . • . • • • • . • • • • . • . • • • • • . . • . • 5
3.0 METHODS 8
4.0 INVENTORY OF MARINE BIRDS (EXCLUDING
SHORE BIRDS SUCH AS SANDPIPERS) 10
4.1. BALD EAGLE 11
4.1.1. BREEDING •.•••.••..••••••••••••.•.•••.•..••.••• 11
4.1.2. FEEDING .•••.•••.•.•••••••••.•••••••••••••••.•• 13
4.2. OSPREy ....•. '.••..••••.••••.••••..•.••••••••••.••••.•• 15
4.2.1. BREEDING ..•.....•.••.•••.••.•.•.•••..•..•••.•• 15
4.2.2. FEEDING
4.3. HERRING GULL •••••••.••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••. 19
4.3.1. BREEDING ..•...••.•.••••••••••••••.•••.••••••.• 19
4.3.2. FEEDING ••••••••••••••••••••••••. ·.•••••••••••.• 19
4.4. GREATER BLACK-BACKED GULL. •..•••.••.•••••••.•.••••••• 25
1
'"'.-4.\.4 ~ : 1 ' : 5 ~ BREEDIN G.••..•.••...••••••••••••••.•••.••••••• 25
.. ~ . " 0 •• :-. :.; ._:.- •• : , ' ~ ,
4.4.2. FEEDING •.••.•.••...•••••••.•.•••••••..•.••••.• 25
4.5. BONAPARTE'S GULL •.•••••••••••.•.•.•••••••••••••••••.. 29
4.5.1. BREEDING •..••••••••••••••••.••••••••••.•••••.• 29
4.5.2. FEEDING 30
4.5.2.1. POPULATION ESTIMATES AND
GENERAL DISTRIBUTIONS •.••••.••••••.•• 30
4.5.2.2. FEEDING BEHAVIOUR ..••..•...•.•••••.•. 30
4 • 5. 2. 3. PRE Y SPECI ES •.••...••••.••••..••.•.•• 35
4.5.2.4. DISTRIBUTION OF FEEDING BIRDS •••••..• 36
4.6. BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE. •.••.••.••.•••••....••••.••.•• 39
4.6.1. BREEDING •••.•.•.••••••••••••••••••••••••.•.•.•• 39
4.6.2. FEEDING •..••••••..••.•••••••••••••.•••.••••••. 39
4.7. COMMON AND ARCTIC TERNS 41
4.7.1. BREEDING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 41
4.7.2. FE E·D ING 4·1
4.7.2.1. PREY SPE CI ES ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 46
4.7.2.2. DISTRIBUTION OF FEEDING BIRDS •.•••••• 46
4.8. NORTHERN PHALAROPE ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 47
4.8.1. BREEDING 47
4.8.2. FEEDING ,. 47
17
4
1.0 CURRICULUM VITAE OF AUTHOR
Dr. D.E. Gaskin, born 21 June 1939, presently Associate Professor
_of Marine Biology at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
N1G 2Wl. He has held a position at the University of Guelph since
December 1968. Currently Dr. Gaskin is responsible for the Marine
Biology Option and :ts facilities at the University of Guelph, and oper­
ates a small research station at Lord1s Cove, Deer Island, New Brunswick
as a base for cetacean studies by the University.
Dr. Gaskin graduated vlith Speci al Honours in Zoology at the
University of Bristol, England, in early 1961. FollovJing this, he
joined the Institute of Oceanography of the United Kingdom and the
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, holding a joint appointment
during 1961 and 1962 \'/hile he served with the floating \'/haling factory
expedition "Southern Venturer", operating in the Southern Ocean in the
vicinity of the Falkland Islands Dependencies. After this appointment
he accepted a post with the Fisheries Research Division of the New
Zealand Government and, based in Wellington, studied the humpback and
sperm whale populations of the Western South Pacific and the Ross Sea
until early 1965. He returned to this region again in 196&-67 on appoint­
ment with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, to
work the season as a biologist on the Japanese whale research
vessel Chiyoda Maru #5 in the South Pacific.
With the cessation of whaling in New Zealand Dr. Gaskin accepted
a faculty appointment at r'1assey University, Nev.J Zealand, and lectured in
ecology, fisheries, population dynamics until December 1968, when he
moved to Canada. Dr. Gaskin received his Ph.D. after part-time study at
Massey, in 1968.
As well as the degree of Ph.D., Dr. Gaskin is M.I.Biol. (London)
and F.R.E.S.(London). He has published about 65 papers, most of them
concerning Cetacea, in refereed primary scientific literature, has
published t\'!o books on the Cetacea, and is currently \'!riting another for
Heinemann Educational Books International. Dr. Gaskin has worked in
various capacities with the International Whaling Commission since 1962,
including being New Zealand scientific representative until 1968, and an
advisor to the Small Whale Subcommittee of the Scientific Committee of
the IWC.
He is currently a member of the Population Biology Grants Committee
of the National Research Council of Canada.
' •• ' •••• 4
- 5 ­
2.0 INTRODUCT10N
The University of Guelph, Department of Zoology, has maintained a
research presence on the southern New Brunswick coast since 1968-69. The
cetacean research unit moved its summer base of operations to Lords Cove,
Deer Island in 1970-71. Since that time we have collected cetacean sight­
ing data, carried out species collections, and studied the environmental
characteristics of the Quoddy region and adjacent
In 1974 we began a pilot study of the seabird and cetacean concentra-­
tions off Long I and Brier I, on the Fundy coast of Nova Scotia in conjunction
with the Canadian Wildlife Service. In 1976, with funding from Fisheries
and Oceans Canada, we started a comparative study of the interrelationships
of upper trophic level animals and their prey species in three selected areas
of the Bay of Fundy, one of which was the Inner Quoddy region.
In 1977 we carried out an inventory of seabird species in the Inner
Quoddy region; coverage was limited to the area directly adjacent to Deer
Island and Campobello Island because of manpower and time restrictions.
Since then, more sporadic attention has been given to all speci€s, but
intensive studies of Bonaparte's Gull and Common and Arctic Terns were made
in 1978.
The Pittston Company has filed application to build a supertanker ter­
minal and oil refinery at Eastport, Me, at the lower end of Head Harbour
Passage, New Brunswick, Canada. The government agencies of both the United
States and Canada are seriously concerned about the possible deleterious
effects on the-physical marine environment and the wildlife of the region
which would result from such a development.
Since we have many new data on seabi rd di stri buti on and abundance in -- .- .
this area, and supporting environmental data related to feeding conditions,­
we have agreed to make these data available through the medium of the present
report, to the appropriate working groups of the United States Fish and
Wildlife Service.
The study area, demarcated by latitudes 44
0
54
1
45
11
- 45
0
04
1
25
11
N and
longitudes 66°50
1
40" - 67
0
00
1
20"W, is encompassed by the Western Isles
district of Deer Island off southwestern New Brunswick (Fig. 1). Deer Island
plus approximately 40 smaller islands and ledges straddles the mouth of
. Passamaquoddy Bay, funnelling the tidally driven waters through two main
passages, Letite Passage and Western Passage, respectively, northeast and
. of Deer Island. Campobello Island acts as an outer barrier to the
outflow from Western Passage deflecting tidal waters around both its extrem­
ities through Head Harbour Passage to the northwest and Lubec Narrows ­
Friar Roads to the west.
Anomalistic, semi-diurnal tides of between 5.6 m and 8.3 m, with an
average monthly range of 6.4 m, are characteristic of the area (Forrester,
1960; Macmillan, 1966). Strong currents generated by these large tides are
of the order of 4.8 knots in Letite Passage and 3.0 knots in Head Harbour
Passage and Cobscook Entrance (Forrester, 1960).
6 ­
Preliminary results of an intensive oceanographic study initiated in
the area during 1977 have been summarized by G.J.D. Smith (unpublished
data). Surface temperatures for June show the area of highest temperatures
during the flood tide being overrun by colder water on the ebb tide. The
large volume of colder water moving offshore creates a mearisurface temper­
ature 0.5
0
lower than during the flood tide mean of to
September conditions are more stable; no difference was recorded in the mean
surface temperature of 10.8
0
for flood and ebb tides, possibly suggesting
stratification of the water column. The area of relatively cold water,
though more restricted in extent than in June, still lies north of Campobello
Island and moves offshore during the ebb tide. Cold water is often
associated with vigorous upwellings, many of which are the result of topo­
graphic resistance to strong tidal flow (Fig. 3). Deep channels (> 210 m)
offshore and north of Campobello Island (Head Harbour Passage) shoal qUickly
towards Deer Island and many of the small outer islands.
Euphausiid surface swarms have been recorded for the Bay of Fundy (Smith,
1878-1882; Bigelow, 1924; Graham, 1936), and Gaskin (1973) has noted their
presence in the study area annually during the late summer months. These
concentrations attract herring schools, commercially important in the area
(Graham, 1936; Doucet, 1960; Mackenzie and Tibbo, 1960; Iles, 1975), which
feed on the euphausiids (Smith, 1878-1882; Lebour, 1922; Bigelow, 1924;
Graham, 1936; Gaskin, 1973; D.B. Yurick, personal communication). Conse­
quently, as local accumulations of plankton build up, preferential feeding
in these areas occurs (MacKay, 1973). Since feeding assemblages of upper
trophic animals including phalaropes (Lobipes lobatus, Phalaropus fulicarius) ,
terns (Sterna hirundo, S. paradisaea), gulls (Larus philadelphia, L. argen­
tatus, L. marinus), harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and finback whales
(Balaenoptera physalus) must establish themselves in only six hours (one tide
phase), feeding activity is intense and brief, causing aggregations of sea­
birds and marine animals in the study area to be discontinuous and mobile.
As the feeding zones expand and move, the animals tend to move with them.
The accessibility of the feeding zones for observation, combined with the
large numbers of migrating terns and gulls, creates a favourable situation
for the study of larid feeding ecology (Braune, 1979).
67·00'
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8
3.0 METHODS
The basic inventory study extended throughout the summer of 1977 and
1978, from 1 June to 10 October 1977 and the detailed study of Bonaparte's
Gull and Common and Arctic Terns from 12 June to 2 December 1978.
Observations were recorded during these periods by experienced observers
of the University of Guelph research team under the guidance of Dr. R.G.B.
'Brown of the Canadian Wildlife Service. during 1977 were
largely of a preliminary and inventory nature, but included surface plankton
tow sampling, and observations of flock size, composition, behaviour, and
distribution of several species of seabirds. In 1978, the number of species
under observation was narrowed to three: Bonaparte1s Gulls (Larus philadel­
phia), Common Terns (Sterna hirundo), and Arctic Terns (s. paradisaea).
Specimens of all three species were taken for stomach content samples during
1978 and 1979.
Most sightings were made at sea from a 6.5 m outboard cruiser. Major
shore observation sites included northeastern McMaster Island, and Hoyt
Island at the northern end of Letite Passage, the northeastern tip of East
Quoddy Head on Campobello Island and Deer Island Point on Deer Island (Fig.
1). Binoculars (10 x 50) aided in sightings and species identification.
The complete tidal cycle (flood tide plus ebb tide) was divided into
eight phases: slow flood 1 (SF}), fast flood (FF), slow flood 2 (SF
z
),
slack high water (SH), slow ebb 1 (SE
1
), fast ebb (FE), slow ebb 2 (SE
z
), _
and slack low water. (SL). Each phase is of approximately 90 minutes duration;
Attempts were made to record observations in each study sector during each
tidal phase. Observations within a study sector were rarely feasible for a
whole tidal cycle due to shifts in the loci of seabird activity and changes
in weather conditions. Therefore, data on distributions of feeding birds
relative to the tidal cycle were pooled for July - September. This treatment
of data can be justified by the stable oceanographic conditions during mid­
July - September.
Flock sizes and compositions were estimated and behaviour recorded so
that any activity levels could be related to flock characteristics. Forma­
tion of feeding assemblages of birds was also monitored for use in determining
key food-finding species, that is, those species which actually locate a
food source and by their feeding activity attract other avian species to the
area. This was done by noting the first species to commence feeding in an
area and record the subsequent arrival of other species, usually within one
tide phase (approximately 90 minutes).
Monthly population estimates were established by setting mlnlmum and
maximum limits to numbers. The minimum limit was taken as being the maximum
number of birds of a given species recorded during one sighting (Vermeer,
1977). The maximum limit was taken as being the sum of the maximum numbers
of birds of a given species recorded during one sighting per study division.
This method was used since many of the species under study do not breed in
the immediate area, thus usually eliminating the possibility of using nest
counts for breeding pairs to establish population size. Due to the uneven
of each species in the area, counts made in a sector
would give highly erroneous estimates. Counts on roosts and on open water
. were made visually, and by photography.
9
Whenever possible meteorological conditions were recorded in conjunc­
tion with observations of bird flocks .. Estimates of percent cloud cover
over the immediate area, wave height (cm) and wind speed (mph later
converted to knots) were recorded for both years. A hand-held anemometer
was used to measure wind speed during 1978 .. For comparative purposes,
light intensity (eV) was measured during 1978 using a light meter (Zeiss
Ikophot-S) directed sky'tJard. These parameters were used in determining
. meteorological effects on seabird feeding behavioL·-. Daily air temperatures
were recorded during 1978 on a maximum-minimum thermometer (C ) located in a
shaded area by the field station.
10
4.0 INVENTORY OF MARINE BIRDS (EXCLUDING SHORE BIRDS SUCH AS SANDPIPERS).
The most visible species of marine bird in the Inner Quoddy re9ion
(which includes some of the rarer species, numerically), are the following;
Bald Eagle, Osprey, Herring Gull, Greater Black-backed Gull, Bonaparte's
Gull, Kittiwake, Common Tern, Arctic Tern, Northern Phalarope, Black
Gui 11 emot, Daub 1 Cormorant, and Ei der Duck. Certain other ducks
are encountered but were not considered in our study. A number of other sea
birds occurred sporadically; some of these are much more abundant on the
Nova Scotia side of the Bay of Fundy (e.g. shearwaters), or in the vicinity
of Grand Manan, especially the southern region. These have been considered
together in section 4.12., under "occasional sightings".
The major species of interest, those listed above, are discussed in
sections 4.1 - 4.11. Some comments have been made on breeding, and feeding
under each heading. Many of the species which are numerically important
here, e.g. Bonaparte's Gull and Northern Phalarope, are in fact not residents
of the regi on ,it seemed therefore, appropri ate .to keep i nformati on separate
with respect to the breeding phase of life.
11
4.1 BALD EAGLE
4.1.1. BREEDING
By combining our own data with those kindly supplied by Mrs. T. Barto
of Clam Cove, Deer Island, who has observed these cirds over many years,
we think we have an inventory of all nesting sites in the general vicinity
of the Passamaquoddy region.
One pair has nested on White Island in recent years (see Fig. 2).
Eagles were first seen off the east coast of Deer Island by the University
of Guelph group in 1971, and again in 1973, on a regular basis. In 1974
.two birds were seen in the specific vicinity of White Island, and again in
1975. There was no evidence that they were nesting in these years, as far .
as our own observations go. We believe, as does Mrs. Barto, that they nested
for the first time in 1976, but with unknown results. There is a possibil­
ity that one chick was reared. These birds nested again in 1977, and suc­
cessfully reared one young. In 1978 they reared two, and two more in 1979.
Another pair has nested for a number of years behind Cummings Cove,
Deer Island.
Mrs. Barto reports that one nest is said to be in use on Campobello
Island at the p r e s e ~ t time; we have no other information on this one.
One nest exists not far from the Bocabec bridge at the head of Passama­
quoddy Bay; this site was active in 1978, and young were reared.
One nest exists at Cooksons Island in the St. Croix river, and is appar­
ently active at the present time.
Five nests have been reported by Mrs. Barto along the Canadian side of
the St. Croix from St. Stephen northwards.
One nest for certain, and quite possibly two, occur near Lake Utopia.
Eagles have been seen in this area for many years by Mrs. Barto and her
associates.
Barnes Island, Simpsons Island, McMaster Island, and Sprague's Hill,
Deer Island are reported to us as sites at which eagles nested in past years,
but not in the latter part of the 1970·s.
Persistent reports of nesting eagles along the Mascarene shore of Passama­
quoddy Bay have. been carefully investigated by Mrs. Barto - she states cate­
gorically that these reports all proved to relate either to osprey sightings
or feeding eagles.
The known number of nests in the Canadian territory of the immediate
Quoddy region therefore, is either eleven or twelve, these being the ones
known to be active in 1978. Inactive nest sites are not included in this
count.
12
Fig.2. Known nest sites of bald eagles. Arrows indicate sites which are
off the map. We have not 'attempted to indicate Bocabec or St Croix
river sites on this map.
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on
...

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o
o
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o
o
.
'8
...
..,
13
4.1.2. FEEDING
The eagles of White Island have been observed by us, or by Mrs. Barto,
to range from Sandy Ledge, near Pope Island, up the Leonardville coast of
Deer Island as far perhaps as Stuarts Landing in the Irish Water. They are
not often seen feeding in the relatively deep water around White Island
itself. In 1978 the two adults were often seen foraging with one or both
-of the young eagles.
The eagles from Cummings Cove feed from the Oak Head area of Deer
Island to the G1easons area, and are most often seen in the latter locality.
The eagles reported breeding along the Mascarene shore are almost cer­
tainly feeding only, and are believed by Mrs. Barto to be birds from Lake
Utopia, or perhaps the pair at Bocabec.
Mr. A.A. MacKay of Lords Cove, reported that up to six eagles at one
time were observed feeding each winter between 1964 and 1971 in the Oak Bay
area of the St. Croix river.
We have not observed eagles feeding in the vicinity of Campobello Island,
but we rarely work the coastal belt of the east coast. We have observed
eagles feeding on the Pendleton Island coast of Passamaquoddy Bay, and in
the shallow waters on the northern side of Letite Passage. We do not know
from which nesting sites these birds came.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
14
Table 1. Sightings of bald eagles at sea, 1978, 1979, in the Inner
Quoddy region.
Month # days on Total Freq. index
which the sightings (sightings per
species sighting day)
was sishted Flood Ebb
1977
June 2 a 2 2 1.0
July 5 11 a 11 2.2
August 2 6 a 6 3.0
September a a 0 0 0
October 0 0 0 a 0
Novembe r 0 0 0 0 0
Totals/mean 9 17 2 19 2.1
1978
June 0 0 0 0 0
July 4 5 2 7 1. 75
August 4 4 0 4 0.36
September 0 0 0 0 0
October 0 0 0 0 0
Totals/mean 15 9 2 11 0.73
It is difficult to more accurately quantify these sighting data in
the time available. More sighting effort was put into some areas
than others in 1977, but generally not in areas where eagles might
be expected to be seen more frequently. We did get a subjective
impression that eagles were ranging more widely in 1978 and were
thus seen less often. This seems to be borne out by these figures.
We have no evidence of fewer eagles in 1978 than 1977. The 1977
figures are likely to be more complete, since this was a year in
which a conscious inventory was made.
15
4.2. OSPREY
4.2.1. BREEDING
One nest has been in use on Spruce Island since the University of
Guelph group first began to make observations in ~ 9 6 9 ; in fact Mrs. Barto
advised us that this nest has been used for at least 20 years. This nest
was not active in 1979; in fact several key nests in this area were inactive
in 1979, we are rather alarmed at this sudden change in -events. 1978
appeared to De a very successful year for osprey reproduction, judging by
the reports we have collected.
A nest at Gardner's Point, Deer Island, has been active for 17 years
according to Mrs. Barto; this nest, while producing 4 young in 1978, was
also inactive in 1979.
Two nests are known inland from Leonardville, on the eastern side of
Deer Island, one near the Beaver Dam, and the other near Leonard's Lake.
Both nests produced 4 or more young in 1978; but the latter was inactive in
1979.
A nest on Parker Island was reliably reported to be active in 1979.
One or two nests have been reported to exist on Barnes Island, one of
them active in 1979.
One active nest is believed to exist on Pope Islet, or rather, it appear­
ed to be active in 1978, but again, not in 1979 ..
Two nests previously occurred on St. Croix Island, but have not been
active for some years.
Two nests were active on Pain Island in 1978, perhaps not in 1979.
The tally of active list for 1978 is therefore ten, the active number of
1979 seems only to have been three: There may be other nests along the
Passamaquoddy shores, but we have not been able to verify these.
See Fig. 3 for sites.
I6'
Fig.3. Nest sites reported occupied by breeding ospreys during 1978
in the Inner Quoddy region. There may be other nests on
Campobello Island; we have no information.
'8
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.
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17
4.2.2. FEEDING
Sightings of ospreys in transit, or feeding were not uncommon during
1977 and 1978, during the period worked by the University of Guelph team
(see Table 2). Ospreys were usually seen working in relatively shallow
waters, and commonly frequented feeding sites including the Irish Water,
shallows near Letite, Lords Cove and Fish Harbour, the southern end of Beans
Island, waters near Bar Island, Leonardville, N o r t ~ w e s t Harbour, the waters
between Spruce and Sandy Island, Back Bay, and the approaches to Letang
Harbour.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
18
Table 2. Sightings of ospreys at sea, 1978,1979, in the Inner
Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. index
which the sightings (sightings per
species sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
1977
June 5 2 5 7 1.4
July 7 8 9 17 2.4
August 6 10 12 22 3.7
September 1 1 1 2 2.0
October 1 1 2 2.0
Totals/mean 20 22 28 50
1978
June 1 2 a 2 2.0
July 4 4 5 1.3
August 3 5 5 10 3.3
September a a a a a
October a a a a a
Totals/mean 8 11 6 17 2.1
Our opinion is that these figures represent reasonable support for
the hypothesis that osprey numbers did not change greatly in the
study area during these two years. It is still difficult to be sure
how accurate such quantification is in two different seasons.
Observers were the same in both years.
19
4.3. HERRING GULL
4.3.1. BREEDING
We identify six major herring gull nesting islands in the Inner Quoddy
region; Whitehorse Is., Spruce Is., Sandy, Is., Hospital Is., and North and
South Spectacle Is. There is another colony in the Wolves Islands, this has
not been examined by us. Our nest counts are only very approximate, since
we have not had the manpower to carry out a full census.
Our approximations for nesting pairs on these islands are as follows:
Whitehorse Island 500+ South Spectacle Is.: 250
Hospital Island : 400 Sandy Island 250
J,
North Spectacle Is.: 150 Spruce Island 150+?*
-.''{. TOTAL: 1,700 pairs (minimum?)
* The nesting population on Spruce Island is particularly difficult to
count, since the birds are nesting among the trees. These counts, which may
be on the high or low side by at least 50%, are, we believe, of the right
order of magnitude, and are certainly not incompatible with the "standing
population" estimate of slightly over 9,000 birds given in the next section.
Many of the gulls which feed in the Inner Quoddy region during the day may in
fact come from the Wolves; gulls are often seen flying towards the the Wolves
Islands about one hour before dusk.
4.3.2. FEEDING
This is a major feeding area for herring gulls, and the gross sightings
for 1977 and 1978 during operations at sea are given in Table 3. In Table 4
we have presented the results of counts of all the roosting islands and islets
in the Inner Quoddy region; our conservative estimate is that the herring gull
population which exploits this in the summer months is of at
thousand individuals. The larges,,'flocksalwaysoccur ln Head Harbour,Flg.6).
Herring gulls will take herring up to 25 cm in length in the Quoddy re­
gion, they follow fishing boats, as might be expected, and many hundreds use
the dumps on Deer Island and Campobello Island for supplementary, or in some
cases perhaps main feeding. Leonardis Lake, Big Pond, and Little Pond are
also roosting sites which may support a thousand birds or more - these were
not included in our minimum estimates, since some of these birds may come
from Passamaquoddy Bay.
During the summer months herring gulls will join Bonaparte's gulls in
frenzied feeding on euphausiid shrimp surface' swarms in the Head Harbour area,
and the River. This is a strictly opportunistic process.
Main feeding areas, and the major roosts, are shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
20
Table 3. Sightings of herring gulls at sea, 1978, 1979, in the Inner
Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. index
which sightings (sightings per
species sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
1977
July 4 850 282 1132 283.0
August 13 6021 12105 18126 1394.3
September 4 4845 3665 8510 2127 .5
October 5 285 840 1125 225.0
Total/mean 26 12001 16892 28893 1111.3
1978
June 2 280 150 430 215.0
July 11 663 1916 2579 234.4
August 11 131 1768 1899 172.6
September DATA
October DATA INCOMPLETE
November 3 1950 11700 13650 4550.0
Total/mean 27 3024 15534 ·18558 687.3
The data for 1977 are quite complete. Those for 1978 must be treated
with caution, since only those for November were made with comparable
recording effort. 1978 data in particular refer only to feeding
concentrations which were observed in areas worked by Bonaparte's
Gulls; otherwise they are understated by about 80%, except in November.
We recommend that only the 1977 data be used.
21
Table 4. Conservative counts of roosting herring gulls in the month of August
1977. This will include gulls have been nesting on Hospital
and Whitehorse and the two Spectacle Islands. All slack water counts.
...
Loca1ity #counts #present* #counts #present
.• _ 'C'!"
Thumb I., Letite 3 100 North Tinker 5 5
ledge
McMaster Ledge, 75 Tinker Islet 4 200
Letite S. Tinker Ledge 3 25
Crow I. 25 Sandy Ledge 6 150
Green PO"j nt
Beach 2 150 Green Islet 1 125
Mohawk Island 2 200 Casco Ledges 3 125
2 .
Dry Ledge 2 10 S. Casco Island 500
Chattys Point 1 100 E. Casco Is 1and 2 500
Hoyt I. 1 30 Sandy I. Beach 3 200
Back Bay Ledges 1 150 Sandy I. Ledges 3 550
Bliss Island 1 200 Spruce Island 3 800
Whitehorse 3· 900 Bl ack Rock 2 110
Little Letite 2 50 Indian Island 5 1100
Parker I. Ledges 4 150 Cherry Island 2 150
Haddock Ledge 5 25 East Quoddy 5 150
S. Bean I. Ledge 3 50 Wilsons Beach 2 150
Bar Island 1 50 Windmill Point 3 100
Simpson I. Ledge 2 25 Eastport Beach 7 600
1 .
Hospita1 Is 1and 3 500 Chocolate Cove 30
S. Spectacl e 1. 4 300 Lords Cove 10 50
N. Spectac1e 1. 2 200 NW Harbour 1 150
Mink 1. Ledges 7 75 Pope Islet 2 50
Conservative estimate of standing herring gull population in Head Harbour Passage,
Letite Passage and adjacent areas during August 1977: 9,185.
* Estimates based on all counts, corrected upwards or downwards if the resulting
means seem too low because of near-zero counts (gulls elsewhere), or too high'
(gulls from other areas clustered for a big run of small herring).
22
Fig.4. Major roosting sites of herring gulls and greater black-backed
gulls in Inner Quoddy region. Herring gull breeding sites +.
on
..
on
..
'",
'",
'" '"
'... "­

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o
o
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6'·00'
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o

KEY
Single
Single
small
small
0
u
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w
Q
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::::s 0
no
ro 0...
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n ......
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OVl
at·
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o
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., C)
:::l '--"
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Q
::r --'
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:::l Vl
Flocks of 100-999
(usually 500 or less)
:::l
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>:::l
a..
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C :3
.,
.,
II1I1I
Flocks of 1000-10000
(usually 1000-3000)
o (D
a.. a..
a.. -J.
,<c
:3
THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN THESE
DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS BETWEEN FLOOD AND EBB
;0 r
(D Vl
c..o -'.
-'·N
TIDE PHASES
o (D
:::la..
'000 0
IBAHHR
2000 ""
66°~ ~ /
25
4.4 GREATER BLACK-BACKED GULL
4.4.1. BREEDING
While there are major breeding colonies of the Greater Black-backed
gull around Grand Manan, we regret we have no data or counts of nesting
Black-backs in the Inner Quoddy region, except to note that they are greatly
outnumbered by herring gulls on all the islands. It would be a worthwhile
short-term project to accurately census nesting Black-backs in this region.
4.4.2. FEEDING
Greater gulls feed actively-in this region through the
summer months, and also appear to be present in the region throughout the rest
of the year.
The population is substantially smaller than that of the Herring Gull;
our conservative estimate based on counts made on roosting areas is about 3,175
individuals. This does not include animals roosting inland around fresh water
bodies on Deer Island. The distribution of the major roosts is shown in Fig.
together with herring gulls. The two species often share roosting ledges,
although careful observation will usually show that there is some degree of
segregation between the two species actually on the ledge, or beach.
Sightings of Greater Black-backed gulls at sea are given in Table 5; we
recommend that only 1977 data be used for population estimation. The relative
changes in numbers during that year are probably reasonably accurate, as the
same observers, using the same methods, worked throughout that season.
Counts of "standing population", made from observation of all roosting
points at slack water, are given in Table 6.
26
Table 5. Sightings of Great Black-backed gulls at sea, 1978,
1979, in the Inner Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase, Total Frq. index
which sightings (Sightings per
species sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
\July
August
September
October
Total/mean
June
July
August
September
October
November
Total/mean
2
;r'
11
7
5
25
2
10
12
DATA
DATA
2
26
50
1714
740
445
2949
31
474
371
INCOMPLETE
INCOMPLETE
1700
2581
1977
2
3407
440
645
4494
1978
1
267
1022
11450
12740
52
5121
1180
1090
7443
32
741
1393
13150
15321
26.0
465.5
168.6
218.0
297.7
16.0
74.1
116.1
6575.0
589.2
The crew working out of Deer Island during November 1978 remarked
on the extraordinary numbers of Black-backed gUlls seen on the
two cruise days. The actual numerical values could be too high
by 50%, because of the difficulty of making counts as the birds
were feeding. We do not know if this was part of a fall migration
phenomenon, but it would certainly merit more study.
27
Table 6. Conservative counts of roosting Greater Black-backed gulls in the month
of August 1977. This will include gulls which· have been nesting on
Hospital and Whitehorse and the two Spectacle Islands. All slack water
counts.
~ o c a l i t y #counts #present* Locality #counts #present
Thumb I., Letite
MacMaster Ledge,
Letite
3
1
80
50
North Tinker
Ledge
Tinker Islet
5
4
60
Nil
Oak I. 1 Nil S. Tinker Ledge 3 Nil
Green Point
Beach 2 Nil
Sandy Ledge
Green Islet
6
1
40
75
Mohawk Island
Dry Ledge
2
2
50
Nil
Casco Ledges
S. Casco Island
3
2
Nil
50
Chattys Point 1 25
E. Casco Island 2 50
Hoyt I.
Back Bay Ledges
Bliss Island
Whitehorse
Little Letite
Parker I. Ledges
Haddock Ledge
S. Bean I. Ledge
Bar Island
Simpson I. Ledge
Hospital Island
S. Spectacle I.
N. Spectacle I.
Mink I. Ledges
1
1
1
3
2
4
5
3
1
2
3
4
2
7
No
No
20
25
25
count
Nil
25
10
30
count
Nil
Nil
Nil
20
50
Sandy I. Beach
Sandy I. Ledges·
Spruce Island
Black Rock
Indian Island
Cherry Island
East Quoddy
Wilsons Beach
Windmill Point
Eastport Beach
Chocolate Cove
Lords Cove
NW Harbour
Pope Islet
3
3
3
2
5
2
5
2
3
7
1
10
1
2
500**
525**
250**
220
500
Nil
90
100
100
200
Nil
5
Nil
Nil
Conservative estimate of standing Greater Black-backed gull population in Head.
Harbour Passage, Letite Passage and adjacent areas during August 1977: 3,175.
* Estimates based on all counts, corrected upwards or downwards if the resulting
means seem too low because of near-zero counts (gulls elsewhere), or too high
(gulls from other areas clustered for a big run of small herring).
** On Spruce I., Black-backs were concentrated at the N.E. &S.W. tips. On Sandy
I. and the related ledges, Black-backs were concentrated at the southern end.
61·00­
o
.c#,
<)-
~ ' I I I I c ?
4 ~ O O '
C!:OO' ()
<It
. r!liJ'V
t? <5:$:;;:-': C>
~
KEY
·60
/I
o Single small flock-flood
a
• Single small flock-ebb
o
Flocks 100-1000
u
present on flood
Q
Flocks 1000+
present on flood
1/111
Flocks 100-lOOO
~
present on ebb
~
0: Flocks 1000+.
/ ~ present on ebb
~ D O D JOOOm o •
IAHARII 6645
-n
.....
I.CI
~
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roro
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VI .....
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29
4.5. BONAPARTE'S GULL
4.5.1. BREEDING
The Bonaparte's Gull (Larus philadelphia Ord.) is a widely distributed
American species. Little is known of this small gu:l on its breeding
grounds which are located in the northwestern regions of Canada (Bent, 1963).
However, a study of sea bird feeding assemblages including Bonaparte's Gulls
has been carried out on a wintering ground off California (Baltz and
Morejohn, 1977). On the Atlantic coast, the wintering grounds of Bonaparte's
Gulls range from South Carolina, with a few stragglers as far north as Maine,
southward to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico (Bent, 1963).
Bonaparte's Gulls pass through the Bay of Fundy during fall migration
to their respective southern wintering grounds. Their sojourn on the Bay
provides an opportunity to observe the feeding ecology of these birds, free
from the energetic stresses imposed by defense of territory, courtship and ­
rearing of chicks. Such observations complement information of feeding
ecology on the breeding grounds. The waters off southwestern New Brunswick,
Canada, in particular host particularly large numbers of these migrating
gulls.
30
4.5.2. FEEDING
4.5.2.1. POPULATION ESTIMATES AND GENERAL DISTRIBUTIONS
Bonaparte's Gulls were present in the study area from 12 July to at
least 8 December 1977 (field season ended 10 October) and from 21 June to
at least 2 December 1978 (field season ended 2 December). During 1978,
post-nuptial moult in Bonaparte's Gulls, as monitored by changes in head
feathers, appeared to last from mid-August to the end of September. Minimum
and maximum monthly population estimates for the study area (Table 7) indi­
cate that numbers of Bonaparte's Gulls peaked rather abruptly in August at
5,000 to 10,000 birds and stabilized between 2,000 to 5,000 birds during
the fall season. Proportions of immature and adult gulls estimated on a
monthly basis, for 1978, showed significant changes over the summer (Table
8). Immature Bonaparte's Gulls were the first to arrive in June, followed
closely by the adults which predominated until at least September. Monthly
distributions of Bonaparte's Gulls by zone, based on the sum of the maximum
number of birds recorded during one sighting per division, showed a signifi­
cant trend during both 1977 and 1978 (Table 9). The birds arrived in Zones
I and II but quickly concentrated in Zone III during the period July to
September, only to spread intermittently back into Zones I and II during the
fall.*
4.5.2.2. FEEDING BEHAVIOUR
A survey of flock sizes for Bonaparte's Gulls showed a significant
relationship to feeding, non-feeding and r o o ~ t i n g activities (Braune, 1979,
Table 6). Numbers per feeding flock commonly ranged from 3 to 500 birds.
Numbers in non-feeding flocks frequently ranged from 3 to 50 birds with
flocks up to 500 birds during 1977. Numbers of birds roosting together
usually ranged from 21 to 500 birds.
Bonaparte's Gulls were observed to utilize two main feeding methods:
surface seizing and diving. In Head Harbour Passage, Indian Passage and
Letete Passage, where tidal flow is strong, Bonaparte's and large gulls
(Larus argentatus, L. marinus) fed by surface seizing, drifting with the
tide to the edge of the food concentration, then flying back up the current
to the upstream edge of the concentration.
* The zones used by Braune (1979) are shown in outline in fig.8.
Table 7.. Mi nimum
a
and maximum
b
month'ly population estimates for Bonaparte I s Gul '1 sand
Comic Terns in the Inner Quoddy region,,1977 ,and 1978,. These data taken
directly from Table 7 of Braune (1979).
Bonaparte's Gulls Comic Terns
Minimum No.
Maximum No.
Minimum No. Maximum No.
1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978
June
-- 15 -- 17 2 --
2
,Jul:y
150 500 :154
,7,76 ,25
30 32
' 1 2 ~
,August '5000 '5000 10454 ,7920 300 :200 lT260 748
Septenitre r '2500 ;1000 4150 :22BO ;200 noo '250 :29'1
w
October 2000 75 4530 260 20 '12 20 20
......
'November
-- 3000 --
'5200
December 1500 2000
-'- '-­
,a :Max'imum number of birds 'recordea 'on any ·one 's:igl1ting 't!ur:tng ,a 'molith..
'b Sum of the maximum number of birds 'recorded 'on any 'onesigh'bing 'per
division during a month.
" J , I I
II
I I i
Table 8. Proportions of immature and adult Bonaparte's Gulls and Comic Terns in the
populations of the Inner Quoddy region during 1978. These data taken
directly from Table 2 of Braune (1979).
Bonaparte's Gulls
a
Comic Terns
b
NC
% Juveniles % Adults % Juveniles % Adults
June 17 100.0
July 617 7.3 92.7 124 21.0 79.0
August 1436 20.1 79.9 610 18.7 81.3
September 18 16.7 83.3 30 36.7 63.6
a
X
2
= 33.26; P < 0.001. Data pooled for June-July and August-September.
W
N
b
X
2
= 6.07; 0.05 > P > 0.01.
c Cumulative sightings of individual birds.
Table 9. Monthly distribution of Bonaparte's Gull and Comic Tern populations (%)a in the Inner Quoddy
region. These data taken directly from Table 3 of Braune (1979).
Bonaparte's Gulls
b
Comic Terns
c
Zone I Zone II Zone I II Zone I Zone II Zone II I
1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978
June -- 5.9 -- 94.1 -- -- -- -- -- --
100.0
July -- 4. 1 2.6 16.4 97.4 79.5 --
33.6 -- 42.4 100 .0 24.0
August 4.3 3.4 3.4 4.3 .92.3 92.3 55.6 54.8 10.3 11.6 34.; 1 33.6
September 1.2 7.9 10.8 19.7 88.0 72.4 -- 68.7 80.0 30.9 20.0 0.4
October 13.2 42.3 13.9 30.8 72 .9 26.9 -- 100.0 -- -- 100.0
w
November -- La
-- 39.4 -- 59.6 -- -- -- -- -- --
w
December -- 25.0 -- -- -- 75.0
a Based on maximum numbers given in Table
b 2
X 1977 = 1338.19; P < 0.001. X
2
1978 = 5302.27; P < 0.001. Data pooled for June-July 1978.
c X
2
1978 = 196.60; p < 0.001. Data pooled for September-October 1978.
34
Fig.8. Major roosting sites used' by Bonaparte1s gulls and Common and Arctic
Terns, and the zone division boundaries used by Braune (1979).
'..,
..
0..,
..,
'0
o
o
"­ ..,
°
..,
..
'..,
..
0..,
..,
E
o
~
35
Relationships of flock size to feeding method for Bonaparte's Gulls
were summarized by Braune (1979). Surface seizing appeared to be the
predominant feeding method in large flocks (100 - 1000+ birds) and among
scattered feeding birds (1 - 2 birds), whereas diving predominated in small€r
flocks (3 to 20 birds). There seemed to be an intermediate flock size
(21 to 500 birds) where both feeding methods were employed. A few flocks _
(3 to 50 birds) were observed feeding on intertidal mud flats along the
receding water line.
An analysis of feeding associations indicated that Bonaparte's Gulls
tended to feed either in a flock consisting of their own species only, or
with Comic Terns only, or with large gulls only, (Braune, 1979). The feeding
methods used by Bonaparte's Gulls also varied significantly with the feeding
association. Surface seizing predominated in most associations other than
those with terns, when diving appeared to predominate.
Bonaparte1s Gulls, alone or in association with large gulls, most fre­
quently functioned as the key food-finding species, even though Comic Terns
took on this role fairly frequently in the Letite- area (Braune, 1979). Key
species and attracted species were determined by analysis of a series of
case histories of flock formation by Braune (1979).
Roosting counts showed that Bonaparte's Gulls associated with their own
species on about half the occasions recorded, and with the terns and other
species (usually large gulls) on the other occasions (Braune, 1979).
4.5.2.3. PREY SPECIES
Euphausiid swarms were found predominantly in the Head Harbour Passage ­
River area (Zone III); most intermittent local concentrations of euphausiids
were also found in this area. Prey being eaten by the gulls and the terns
showed a significant disparate distribution by zone (Braune, 1979, Table 15).
Small fish were taken mainly in Zone I, and euphausiids plus some insects
in Zone III. Zone II was a transitional intermediate area.
Observed feeding behaviour changed with euphausiid concentration (deter­
mined from surface plankton samples) (8raune 1979). Very low euphausiid con­
centrations were exploited mainly by Comic Terns,* whereas heavy concentrations
were utilized by Bonaparte's and large gulls. As euphausiid concentrations
increased, Bonaparte's Gulls changed their feeding tactic from diving to
almost exclusively surface seizing. Feeding frenzies, initiated by very dense
36
euphausiid concentrations (approximately 2 to 4 euphausiids m-
3
), involved
both Bonaparte's and large gulls which drove the terns, still feeding by
diving, to the periphery of the main prey concentration.
4.5.2.4. DISTRIBUTION OF FEEDING BIRDS
Birds feeding on euphausiids occurred mainly in the Head Harbour and
River areas (Zone III) of the Quoddy region, where the densest concentrations
of euphausiids were formed (Battle et al., 1936; Graham, 1936; Kulka, 1977;
personal observations). Consequently, Bonaparte1s Gulls whose stomach
contents indicate that they fed predominantly on euphausiids, concentrated
in Zone III, the Head Harbour and River areas.
"T1
.....
to
\D
(50
00
'
o
aJ·
@"
. KEY
'"
r I
W
~
a
0 Single small
flock- flood
CJ
V'l
D
0
Flocks 100-1000 ::I
present on flood
'Q
ro
CT
CT
IIIIII
Flocks 1000+ OJ
present on flood
::I
0..
--+>
~
Flocks 100-1000
0
present on ebb
0
0..
rl­
%
-'.
Flocks 1000+
~
present on ebb
1000 0 2000'"
66°.. S'
rR'""'R""RAk I
67·00'
-'.
::I
~ r l -
::T
ro
-------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------
38
Table 10. Sightings of Bonaparte's Gulls at sea, 1978, 1979 in the
Inner Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. index
which the
sightings (sightings per
species
sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
1977
June 0 0 0 0 0
July
4 320 324 324.0
August 20 6900 16600 23500 1175.0
September 6 740 1760
"2500 416.7
October 5 3680 2700 6380 1276.0
Total/mean 32 11324 21380 32704 1022.0
1978
June 2
18 9.0
July 13 5645 6022 463.2
August 27 11532 26404 977.9
September 12 6198 7306 608.8
October 4 140 422 105.5
November 7 3850 6940 991.4
Total/mean 65 27366 47112 724.8
Bonaparte's gulls were intensively studied in both seasons, but
particularly in 1978. Both frequency indices are of the same order
of magnitude; we are reasonably confident that the relative numbers
from month to month within years, and between years, are quite
comparable.
39
4.6 KITTIWAKE
4.6.1. BREEDING
The nearest breeding site of Black-legged Kittiwakes to this region
is probably at Cape breton Island (Brown et al., 1975). While Kittiwakes
spend several months roosting on Whitehorse ISland, we have no evidence
that they are nesting in this area.
We have been unable to confirm the reports of Baird et al. (1973) and
Brown et al. (1975) of large numbers of Kittiwakes aggregating in the western
approacheS-to the Bay of Fundy, specifically in the Passamaquoddy region
during the fall and winter. Our own observations revealed only large num­
bers of immature Bonaparte's gulls in the area in October and November. We
are forced to suggest therefore, that the previous statement was based on a
misidentification, one which is easy to make at a distance.
Our sighting data collected during routine operations are shown below
in Table
4.6.2. FEEDING
We have few specific observations of feeding Kittiwakes, and those
mostly in the vicinity of Whitehorse, Barnes and vJhite Is. Their numbers
are so low, relative to the other species, that at any distance' they pass
notice among the herring gulls and Bonaparte's gulls. They are presumed
to feed largely on small herring, but we have no data.
--------------------------------------------------------------
40
Ta b1e 11. Sightings of Black-legged Kittiwakes at sea, 1978,
1979, in the Inner Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. index
wh i c h sightings (Sightings per
species sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
1977
July a a a a a
August 3 2 2 4 1 . 3
September 1 a 6 6 6.0
Total/mean 4 2 8 10 2.5
1978
July 1 2 0 2 2.0
August 3 100 31 131 43.7
September a a a a a
Total/mean 4 102 31 133 33.2
41
4.7. COMMON AND ARCTIC TERNS
4.7.1. BREEDING
The Common Tern breeds mainly from Cape Breton southwards
to North Carolina, and the Arctic Tern breeds from Massachusetts
northward to the Arctic (Bent 1963). The southern hemi­
sphere serves as the wintering ground for both species, with
the Common Tern ranging from the Straits of Magellan northwards;
some birds only going as far south as Florida. The Arctic
Tern winters primarily in the Antarctic to 74
0
S, and the
northern winter limit of its range is not known.
The nearest breeding colony of terns to the Quoddy R e ~ i o n
is at Machias Seal Island, to the south of Grand Manan.
4.7.2. FEEDING
Difficulties arise in distinguishing between Common and
Arctic Terns at a distance, or in flight (Wynne-Edwards 1935,- --­
Guiget 1971). Since close-range observation of feeding terns
was not always possible, Common and Arctic Terns are referred
to collectively as IIComic
ll
Terns, a name used for convenience
by Grant and Scott (1969).
Comic Terns were present from- 25 June to 9 October 1977
and from 19 July to 8 October 1978 in the Inner Quoddy region.
The numbers sighted at sea during ratine operations are given
in Table 12, together with the sighting frequency indices for
each month. Sighting data- for both seasons are bel ieved by us
to be very reliable, and represent a real measure of relative
abundance. In this case 1979 data have also been included;
special attention was paid to the birds in this season by the
senior author. Terns were far less abundant in the Inner
Quoddy region in 1979; we relate this to the very poor quality
of the euphausiid surface populations in this season. Only one
or two low-concentration surface swarms were recorded, compared
with many in 1977 and 1978 .. Terns were presumably dispefsed
and feeding over a much wider area in 1979.
During 1978 and 1979 some corrected population estimates
were made; these are shown in Table 7 with those for Bonaparte's
gull. The proportions of juveniles to adults through the
summer of 1978 are shown in Table 8, and the monthly distribution
of Comic Terns by Zones (following Braune,1979) is compared
with Bonaparte1s gulls in Table 9. Major roosting sites of
Comic Terns are shown in Fig.8; they were usually roosting with
Bonaparte's gulls, but not invariably.
Based on the samples in which Common and Arctic Terns
could be identified, we show the proportions of adults of the
two species in July-September 1978 in Table 13, and the monthly
distribution of the two species by zone, in table 14.
- - - - - - - - -
42
Table 12. Sightings at sea of Common and Arctic Terns (not
distinguished) in the Inner Quoddy region, 1977-79.
...:8<..
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. index
which sightings (Sightings per
species sighting day)
wa s sight ed Flood Ebb
1977
June 2 a 2 2 1.0
July 2 a 32 32 16.0
August 23 2476 3402 5878 255.6
September 4 303 250 553 138.2
October 1 o 2 2 2.0
Total/mean 32 2779 3688 6467 202.1
1978
June o o o o o
July 9 1119 132 1251 139.0
August 22 1305 2722 4027 183.1
September 8 292 527 819 102.4
October 2 15 8 23 11 . 5
November o o o o o
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total/mean 41 2731 3389 6120 149.3
1979
June o o 0 o o
July 6 61 126 187 . 31.2
August 12 155 128 283 23.6
September 1 a 1 1 1.0
- - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total/mean 19 216 255 471 24.8
43
Table
13.
Proportion of adult Common and Arctic Terns in the
tern population of the Inner Quoddy region during
1978
a
. These data taken directly from Table 4 of
Braun
A
(1979).
Nb
%Common %Arctic

Terns Terns
July 23 69.6 30.4
August 456 26.5 73.5
September 25 52.0 .48.0
a X
2
= 25.95; P < 0.001.
-
b Cumulative sightings of. individual birds.
Table 14. Monthly distribution of Common and Arctic Terns in the Inner Quoddy region
during 1978
a
. These data taken directly from Table 5 of Braune (1979).
Common Terns Arctic Terns
Zone I Zone II Zone II I Zone I Zone II Zone III
July 100.0 57.1 42.9
August 28.9 43.8 27.3 21.0 42.6 36.4
September 100.0 16.7 83.3
.j::>
.j::>
a expressed as percentages of Common
population, respectively, as shown
Tern population and Arctic Tern
in Table
45
Fig.lO. Feeding areas of Common & Arctic Terns on ebb and flood tide in
the Quoddy region. Areas of high and low concentration indicated.


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46
4.7.2.1. PREY SPECIES
The diet of Common and Arctic Terns was studied in this
region by Braune (1979). Visual, film, and direct stomach
content sampling methods were used.·
Common Terns feed almost exclusively on small fish, in
particular small herring, but also small smelt and pollack.
Arctic Terns take a mixture of fish'and euphausiid shrimp.
Comic Terns appeared to feed by diving, rather than
using surface feeding, as was commonly observed in Bonaparte's
gulls. Larger feeding flocks predominated in 1977 as compared
to 1978 and 1979. In the latter year, terns were present only
in small, scattered flocks of 5-10, or even solitary birds.
4.7.2.2. DISTRIBUTION OF FEEDING BIRDS
Comic Terns tended to feed in flocks composed only of
their own species, or in company with Bonaparte's gulls.
They were rarely seen in feeding with other species.
The distribution of feeding birds was dependent mainly
upon food distribution. Braune (1979) pointed out that
herring sizes reported by Battle et al. (1936)and Graham
(1936) decreased from the Head Harbour Region to Back Bay
and Letite. Herring of about IDem appear round about late
August in the area, and grow until Herring in the
stomachs of terns ranged from 8 - 12cm in length. Fish much
larger than this probably cannot be swallowed easily by the
smaller larid species. Bent (1963) maintained that a fish
of about IDem was the largest that a tern could consume.
Braune therefore did not find it surprising that most
terns feeding on fish were confined to the northern part of
the Inner Quoddy region. .
Numbers of feeding terns peaked rapidly in August at 200
to 1,000 birds. Number declined sl ightly in September, and then
very rapidly in October to zero as all birds left the area.
Common terns were the first to arrive, but Arctic terns
predominated in numbers during August. In 1977 Terns appeared
earliest in Zone III, shifted to Zone I in August, and dispersed
back into Zones II and III in the late summer and early fall.
During 1978 however, they arrived first in Zone II, and then
rapidly concentrated in Zone I. In August and September, when
feeding terns were most numerous, Arctic terns predominated in
Zones II and III (the euphausiid-rich areas), while Common
Terns predominated in Zone I.
47
4.8. NORTHERN PHALAROPE
4.8.1. BREEDING
Both Red Phalaropes and Northern Phalaropes occur in the
approaches to the Bay of Fundy; the former however, is usually
found in large numbers on the Nova Scotian side of the Bay. In
the Inner Quoddy region Northern Phalaropes are overwhelmingly
predominant. For this reason we have ignored the occasional
presence of Red Phalaropes in our counts.
The Northern Phalarope is a bird of the 18w A6ctic, with a
breeding extending from about 54 -65 N in Canada,
and up to about 71 N in western Greenland (Brown et a1. 1975).
Phalaropes move northwards into Arctic regions in May, and the
first migrants returning through the Atlantic reach the waters
off southern New Brunswick in late June (see Table 15).
4.8.2. FEEDING
Northern Phalaropes in the Quoddy region appear to be taking
copepods and the smaller size classes of euphausiids. Studies on
the feeding ecology of the two Phalarope populations in the Bay
of Fundy during the summer months are being actively pursued by
Dr R.G.B.Brown of the Canadian Wildlife Service, Dartmouth, N.S.,
at the present time, with the co-operation of the present authors.
These birds are intensely gregarious during feeding, and
the Head Harbour Passage and its appnBches and adjcent waters
surely form one of the most important feeding grounds for Northern
Phalaropes in the Atlantic Provinces. They are closely
ated with the upwelling zones of that part of the Inner Quoddy
region.
They feed in much more localized zones than the other species
considered in this report (fig.ll). Feeding flocks have never
been observed by us in Letite Passage. The reason for this is
not known, but the phenomenon is of great interest to us, and is
being investigated. The lee of White Island is a feeding ground
of importance on the flood only; the northern River area, southern
Head Harbour and the approaches to Eastport are important only on
the ebb tide. The area of Head Harbour Passage from Casco I to
southern Spruce I is a vital feeding area to this population on
all running of the tidal cycle (fig.ll).
-----------------------------------------------------------------

48
Table 15. Sightings of Northern Phalaropes at sea, 1977-79,
in the Inner Quoddy Region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq.index
which
sightings (Sightings per
species
sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb

' .
. :' ,;.. "-­
1977
June 3 o 95 95 31.7
July 6 20058 5049 25107 4184.5
August 17 44492 103496 147988 8705.2
September 7 1500 174 1674 239.1
October 1 o 12 12 12.0
Total/mean 34 66050 108826 174876 5143.4
1978
June 2 o 7 7 3.5
July 14 74000 108847 182847 13060.5
August 23 46110 82509 128619 5592.2
September 5 16548 3000 19548 3909.6
October o o o o o
November 1 o 20* 20 20.0

Total/mean 45 136658 194383 331041 7356.5
1979
June 0 0 0 0 0
July 8 915 354 1269 158.6
August 17 115142 71870 187012 11000.7
September 1 0 600 600 600.0
Total/mean 26 116057 72824 188881 7264.6
Sighting data collected during 1979 are for this species of
comparable quality to the previous years; an intensive effort
to collect "data species was maintained through all 3 years.
Counts are of course reflecting that small flocks were counted
accurately, large flocks were by density and area, both
Visually and by photographic methods.
*These stragglers were almost certainly Red Phalaropes.
49
Fig.ll. Feeding distributions of Northern Phalaropes in the Inner Quoddy
region, 1978, 1979. Only flocks of 1,000+ have been included in these plot
-.,- ~ ~
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E
....... + 'r­ +
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81
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010

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010
------------------------------------------------------------------
50
4.9. BLACK GUILLEMOT
4.9.1. BREEDING
It is quite possible that Black Gui11emots are breeding
within the Inner Quoddy region, but we have no positive data
ourselves to that effect. None of thefie1d teams recall ever
seeing the characteristic return behaviour of birds which have
been feeding and are returning to the nest with fish in their
beaks. If nests occur on the islands, they are scattered.
Baird et al. (1973) showed nesting sites at an unspecified
location between Campobello and Deer Islands. We have no
reason to doubt this information.
4.9.2. FEEDING
Black Guil1emots usually feed in small scattered groups
in the Inner Quoddy region, but not invariably so. We have a
number of records of quite large feeding concentrations, but
these are sporadic in occurrence. The total numbers sighted
by us during normal operations in 1977 only are presented
in Table 16. Our records of the feeding distributions of
black guillemots when presence in concentrations (10-200 birds
together), are displayed in fig.12.
Ta b1 e 16. Sightings at sea of B1ac k Guillemots dud ng 1977.io tbe
Inner Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. i nd ex
which sightings (Sightings per
species sighting day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
1977
June 11 115 125 240 21.8
July 6 73 143 216 36.0
August 12 348 73 421 35. 1
September 5 3 35 38 7.6
October 1 21 2 23 23.0
Total/mean 35 560 378 938 26.8
Data are available for 1978 but are·not presented here. We believe
these data to be very incomplete and misleading. Some observers
ceased to record gui11emots during that season on certain cruises,
because of pressure of other work.
51
Fig.12. of concentrations of Black Guillemots
in the Inner Quoddy region by flood and ebb tide phases, 1977.
'8

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.
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52
4.10 DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT
.4.10.1. BREEDING
Nesting sites of this species are probably scattered through
the region, but Whitehorse Island is the only substantial
colony with which we are fami1ar. In 1977-79 there appeared to
be (by photographic count), at least 400 pairs nesting on the
island. At least a similar number are to nest at the ­
Wolves Is.
This species, unfortunately, has not greatly occupied our
attention, except during the 1977 inventory. The roosting sites
of this species shown in fig.13 certainly include at least one,
and probably more nesting sites. Further detailed census work
is required. One of the problems is that this species is
regularly shot at by fishermen because of the prbblems it causes
in herring weirs. As a result, they are exceedingly wary of
boats, and a group will take flighteven:when a vessel is some
hundred of metres away.
4.10.2. FEEDING
The gross counts made during our 1977 inventory are given
in Table 16; the species was largely ignored by recorders in
1978 and 1979 because of concentration of effort on a few
species, and pressure of other Feeding concentrations
are displayed. in fig.14, representing groups of 10-500 birds.
The western fringe of Head Harbour Passage and the northern
part of the River area appear to be the most important feeding
areas.
Table 16. Sightings at sea of Double-crested Cormorants in 1977
in the Inner Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide pha se Total Freq. index
which sighted (Sightingsper
species sighting'day)
was sighted Flood Ebb
June 10 221 269 490 49.0
July 9 187 454 641 71.2
August 19 1088 556 1644 86.5
September 13 540 961 1501 115.5
October 5 120 220 340 68.0
Total/mean 56 2156 2460 4616 82.4
53
Fig.I3. Roosting and breeding sites of the Double-crested Cormorant
in the Inner Quoddy region.
'",
..
0",
'"
54
Fig.14. Feeding distribution ~ f double-crested cormorants in the
Inner Quoddy region, by flood and ebb tide, in 1977.
'8
' ~
'",
..
'",
'"
Ul Ul
-0 -0
s...-o s...
.'-­ 0 .r­
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r­ -0 0 0

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55
4.11. EIDER DUCK
4.11.1. BREEDING
Eider breed in a large number of scattered localities
right through the Inner Quoddy region, and females with a train·
of sometimes as many as fifteen or are a common
sight during the summer. Unfortunately this species has not
bee n gi ven. a hi 9h prio r i t y. i n 0 ur s tu die s, and we hav e n0 c0 un t
of nesting
4.11.2. FEEDING
We have made however, an inventory count of eiders
during 1977 and mapped the major feeding zones of this
gregarious species. It is always seen feeding close to small
spits of land or islands, presumably because the young cannot
cope with the strong current conditions which prevail in open
water. We have no data relating to diet for the species in
this area. The numbers noted during 1977 are given in Table
17, and the distribution of feeding birds in fig.15.
Table 17 . Sightings at sea of Eider Ducks during 1977 i n
the Inner Quoddy region.
Month # days on Tide phase Total Freq. index
which sightings (Sightings per
species sighting day)
\'1 a s sighted Flood Ebb
June 10 437 618 1055 105.5
July 9 683 371 1054 117 . 1
August 15 748 971 1719 114.6
September 12 70 309 379 31. 6
October 2 310 0 310 155.0
Total/mean 48 2248 2269 4517 94.1
o
oaj5.
l$°00'
~
iJ
a
KEY
c;;
,
()
"
o Single small flocks - flood
~ Single small flocks - ebb
,
Q
Flocks of 10-100 birds
present on the flood tide
• 0
Flocks of 10-100 birds
"
present on the ebb tide
,
111111
j',
I
, '000 0 2000'"
66°.. 5,'
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57
4.12. OCCASIONAL SIGHTINGS
Apart from shore we have recorded nine other marine
species in the Inner Quoddy region in 1977-79 (fig.16). All
s i ghtin9s were of no more than 4 i ndt-v i dua1s at o-n e time. No-t
shown since we have restricted oursel \'es to recent data are·
Greater a stream of perhaps 250 passed through
the area just
northeast.
to seaward of Whitehorse I in August 1971, flying
The species shown in fig.16 are:
D - Dovekie MS - Manx shearwater
G - Gannet* P - Puffin
J - Parasitic jaeger R - Razorbill
LP - Leach's Petrel S - Skua
M - Common Murre
* The Gannet .is an intefisting record. In 1977, 1978 and 1979·
a pair of Gannets have been nesting on Whitehorse Island; as
far as we know, the only pair in Canadian waters south of the
St Lawrence. Unfortunately we have no evidence that they have
been able to rear young successfully. We have not approached
the nest closely for fear of disturbing the sitting bird and
exposing the nest to marauding herring gulls, which were nesting
all round the gannets.
58
Fig. 16. Sighting localities of occasional visitors to the Inner Quoddy
region; specimens recorded 1977-79.
on
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.....

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l.J.I
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59
5.0 IMPACT OF OIL ON FEEDING AREAS BIRDS IN THE INNER QUODDY
REGION, WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO HEAD HARBOUR PASSAGE AND
ADJACENT AREAS
Two aspects of possible oil pollution must be addressed
if the Eastport refinery is constructed put into
firstly the chronic level of spillage and lts effect on marlne
birds, and secor<:lly, the consequences of a major spill.
The effect of the latter would be clearly catastrophic,
since this is functionally a semi-enclosed area with a" very large
tidal amplitude. Most of these data hme been summarized in
the Fisheries Research Board Technical report #428. The residency
time of water in Passamaquoddy Bay can be as long as 70 days.
Drift bottle work carried out in the 1950s showed that water
movement into the Bay ultimately was inshore on the western side
of Fundy. There is therefore every reason to suppose that the
residence time of spilled oil would be extensive in this region.
A major spill in this region will be spread at velocities
of up to 4 knots, or even more in some areas of Head H9rbour or
letite, depending on the time of tide, and the nature of the tide
at the time of the spillage. Current measurements (including
those made recently by our own research group in the island
channels adjacent to Head Harbour Passage et al. 1979,
A to the National Marine Fisheries Service:"Environmental
in Head Harbour Passage and vicinity New Brunswick,
Canada with s ecial reference to visibilit and some local water
movements" indicate that even in the "backwater" areas between
Campobello and Deer Island there is 1ittle or no hope of significant
oil retrieval or containment.
Such a spill, we can now say, will impact some nine
thousand herring gulls, three thousand black-backed gulls, ten
to fifty thousand northern phalaropes, ten thousand Bonaparte's
gulls, one or two thousand and arctic terns, some hundreds
of kittiwakes, and several thousands of doub1e-crested cormorants,
eiders, and black guillemots. Almost the whole balo eagle
population of southern New Brunswick, and up to a score of ospreys
are also likely to be involved. Altogether, perhaps some eighty
thousand birds will be immediately at risk AT THE ABSOLUTE MINIMUM
if such a spill took place in July or August, a period notorious
for unpre di ct a bl e fog (G ask i n eta1. 1979) .
It is necessary to stress that we know very 1ittle about
the passage of birds through this region; there is almost certainly
a substantial turnover of birds through this feeding region, and
those other prime feeding locations nearby, such as off Grand Manan
and Brier Island, N.S. The number of birds involved in a major
spill could well be three or four times the number cited above.
In a single day of observations in the late summer of 1977 we
estimated that in excess of 50,000 northern phalaropes were present
between Casco I nnd East Quoddy Head. We must also stress that
our counting methods are very conservative, and contain no correction
factors, except in the case of the herring gull and Bonaparte's
estimates. In these cases we had good information and
60
experience to guide those corrections. Even we present
in this report only minimum estimates.
It is if one reviews the data presented in the
figures in this that of all the marine birds
the only species which might not be immediately affected is the
Common Tern, which primarily feeds in the Letite Passage.
The problem of chronic spillage is more difficult to
assess. In their impact the Pittston Company have claimed
that bacterial action will take care of the minimal spillage
at the diffusor site. The EPA permit grants casual and
able spillage of 2 barrels per day - ie. 700-750 or
- gallons per year in and year out. In
the cold water temperatures that prevail in this region wesimply
do not believe that this will be readily taken care of by natural
bacterial without demonstrable which is not forth­
coming as yet. Nor do we from statistics on normal
refinery operations around the that casual spillage will
be limited to an average of only 2 barrels per day. This would
require a level of standards of operation that are simply beyond
belief in a cold temperate in winters which freeze
crack lines, and in a region that has such poor visibility for
nearly a third of the year that one can hardly see from one side
of a wharf to the other.
Apart from deterioration of the which
inevitable in any major port the major feeding zone for
almost all the marine species is Head Harbour Passage
and the closely adjacent River area. As the tide the
major feeding masses of especially Herring and Black­
backed gulls, Bonaparte's terns and move with
the moving down the Passage towards the Eastport area with
the flood and back towards the mouth again on the ebb.
The movement of Bonaparte's gulls and terns was accurately
mapped by Braune (1979); these movements are summarized in fig.
17.
The major feeding movements of the and the preferred
areas, all relate to the complex local oceanography of the
which has been hitheto very poorly known from a very few station
sites. In fig.18 we show the major anomalous areas of the Inner
Quoddy region. The areas of upwel and the adjacent slicks
which trap masses of are prime feeding areas for all the
birds, in the case of the latter especially the phalaropes.
These sl icks may be rotating at up to 2 knots or more at the
periphery; with no hope of oil even though oil like
the weed and debris, would accumulate within them. The
zones and suspected shear zones are believed to be areas of down­
welling which would take oil into the water column. More would
be mixed into the water column by displacement beside and around
the upwelling areas. The close association of the major feeding
areas with the Head Harbour and Letite upwelling zones is very
exact (see fig.IS and equivalent species distributions). The shear t
zone in the River is another margin of the main concentration zone.
61
Fig.I7. Tidally related movements of gulls and terns in feeding
aggregations, following prey movements in the Inner Quoddy region.
o
':i
E
o
o
o
N
~ .
62
Fig.18. DISTRIBUTION OF IMPORTANT RIPS, SHEARS, UPWELLINGS AND SLICKS.
"8

Cl
0:;1 V'l V'l V'l lLJ
lLJ 2: lLJQ...VlC:::
Z l-i ::> lLJ
OOCOUl-i
OC:::lLl­
N lLJl-i1-
N Zet:
-J et: u- 03:
V'l::E:
,1 .. -:. ex::
....... 0
.. ; .. ,'. . u­
"," ..
f/Jfi
C'-. (!)
I-
(1) 2: V'l l-i 0"
lLJ I •r- lLJ Vl lLJ -J:g
U S- c::: .a::: Z lL -J
c:ll/) ttl et: <r: 0 0 lLJ
l..L1.LJ -0 Q... lLJ N 3:

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...
.. : . "..
'
:
o
.... .,
: ....
.. ,
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'8
.....
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I
It has been suggested that the birds will avoid the area
of an oil slick; in the case of birds feed in an opportunistic
and often frenzied way, such as the in question here,
we believe this to be extremely unlikely. Food in such
situations is patchy. Birds search mainly iD the most profitable
areas, and less time in other areas. The zone of maximum
feeding - Head Harbour Passage - is one of the "re liable" food
zones (Braune,1979). It is also the region of maximum oil
Braune observed that numbers of Bonaparte
1
s gulls were often.
noted as peaking up to 90 minutes before the peak availability
of food, indicating probable habituation and anticipation.
At the right time of tide, birds will leaves their roosts
to move into Head Harbour Passage and the other usual feeding
areas. If there is oil there, then those birds will become oiled,
as their normal behaviour is to settle on the water and wait
for local food patches to come near the surface.
The conclusion of the authors is that we have here the
worst possible combination of circumstances for an ecological
disaster if a spill occurred, and occur it certainly will; even
the EPA recognized this when it first granted the permit.
Even in the case of birds which might be considered shore
birds, for example the bald eagles, the benaviour patterns are
essentially the same. The eagles and ospreys leave their roosts
some time before the peak. feeding period, and move into what are
favourable positions for feeding on an average day. These birds
are all shallow water feeders; these are the areas where oil. is
likely to be deposited in thick layers on the surface,in view
of the large tidal amplitudes here. The wide-ranging foraging
behaviour of the eagles would.mitigate against designating high
risk and low risk areas for impaction of eagles by a spill. If
there is any kind of a fish kill, with moribund fish struggling
at the surface, the eagles and ospreys will inevitable be drawn
to them, even into areas beyond their normal foraging range.
It is the belief of the authors that, taking all
aspects of this proposed development into account, we are not
talking of risks and probabilities, but of certain disaster sooner
or 1a ter. As the seni or author indicated in hi s report to the
Biological Station in 1973, the only factor that is unknown is
exactly when the disaster will occur, and what form it will take.
63
6.0 LITERATURE REVIEW AND LIST OF ALL PUBLICATIONS, AND
THESES, RELATING TO BIRDS AND FEEDING AREAS IN THE
INNER QUODDY REGION.
To avoid duplication, those articles directly relating
to this region's birds and their feeding, have been marked
clearly with asterisks in the references (section 8.0).
Suffice it to say that the relevant literature makes
up only a small body. Even basic data are lacking for many
species in this region, and the major mark left by successive
Canadian Governments on research into upper trophic level
species of animal in the Bay of fundy is one of almost total
neglect.
Too often, in such literature as exists, the same pioneer
works are cited over and over again for lack of any alternative
or fresh data, works which were published in far different
times. Most local residents of long standing will confirm
that the Quoddy region is not the productive region it was
fifty years ago. Nevertheless, by the standards of many other
parts of the Bay of Fundy, it is one of Canada's treasures.
64
7.0 THE UNIQUENESS OF THE QUODDY REGION AND APPROACHES TO
PASSAMAQUODDY BAY FOR FEEDING BIRDS, ITS VALUE TO THESE
SPECIES, AND THE ACCESSIBILITY OF SPECIES IN THIS REGION
FOR RESEARCH
Many workers have remarked, in both popular and technical
publications, on the very high seasonal concentrations of birds
that can be found in the western approar.hes to the Bay of
Such research as has been carried out has shown that this area
is one of the important staging zones in the western Atlantic
coastal fly-way to the Canadian Arctic.
Biologists on retainer for Pittston have remarked that the
Bay of Fundy actually appears to have relatively low primary
productivity, and no unique features. While it may have relatively
low primary productivity in most areas, it shows a most extra­
ordinary concentration of secondary productivity, and this
productivity presents itself in such a way as to provide a basis
to support one of Canada's most important fishing industries,
and very large populations of feeding migrating birds. The
very physiography of the Bay, its great tidal amplitudes, and
the diversity of marine temperate fauna concentrated in a rather
small area, attest to a degree of uniqueness that makes the
statements of Pittston almost incomprehensible.
The numbers of marine birds that pass through this region
are so large that the very fact that they are there forces one
to accept that this region must be vital to them
J
or they would
be somewhere else. The key, we think, is the remarkable
concentration of surface phenomena in a small compass. This is
one of the few areas in the world other than the coast of Japan
and the vicinity of the Antarctic Convergence, that reliable
surface swarming and concentration of euphausiid shrimp takes
place. The birds which arrive in this region have evolved the
present pattern of behaviour over a long period of time, perhaps
since the last major climatic warming period, about five to six
thousand years ago. Selection for the optimal pattern of ·migration
is severe. If an individual bird does not "balance its annual
energy budget", it does not survive the migration, and does not
pass on its particular gene pool fragment.
The approaches to Passamaquoddy, with their abundant small
herring shoals and large biomass of euphausiids and copepods,
concentrated by the interplay of water masses in the western
approaches to the Bay of Fundy, provide a valuable source of
protein and lipid to these bird populations, which, having suffered
substantial depletion of their reserves through the stress of
breeding in the Arctic, must make good these losses quickly, if
they are to survive in what are often food-poor wintering grJunds.
It may be that in such a feeding ground as this, they can
obtain certain types of nutrition which they cannot obtain in
other areas, at least at the same minimal energy expenditure
( 0r V. G. Tho mas. , per s . comm. ) .
65
The results of damage to these feeding grounds are likely
to go quite a way beyond the loss of a high percentage of several
year classes of a number of species of birds. We are not, we
must stress, talking about a few thousands of local birds in
the Bay of Fundy, but in some cases a substanjial fraction of
the ·total populations of the North American eastern seaboard·
which must feed in this area if the populations are to maintain
anything like their present numbers. Loss of these feeding
grounds would inevitably result in thousands of birds, even if
they survived the initial disaster, having to forage further
afield, at higher energy costs, in sUb-optimal feeding areas,
for diminishing returns. Population drop is q ~ i t e natural and
inevitable under these conditions. Pittston's biolpgists assure
us that the development will have no effect on this region.
Data from refinery areas allover the wonld clearly indicate
otherwise.
There is no other part of coastal Canada which really
resembles the ecological situation found in the Bay of Fundy;
from the Canadian point of view the combination of factors,
rather than the existence of any s i ~ l e factor or species of
animal, makes it completely unique. The University of Guelph
group has worked at about seven other localities in the Atlantic
Provinces, and has long since settled on this area as the one
which provides the optimum balance of favourable conditions
for the kind of ecological research which we wish to undertake
on upper trophic level marine animals. The presence of the
fisheries and Oceans Canada Biological Station in St Andrews,
and the closely related university-sponsored Huntsman Marine
Laboratory, provides a very strong and flexible investigatory
research structure in the area. The fact that the Bay of Fundy
is of relatively small size, has a high level of concentration
of secondary marine productivity that attracts and supports a
large fraction of the migratory seabirds of the eastern seaboard,
and also supports several major fisheries of great local economic
imp 0 r tan c e, ma kest his reg ion a 11 fie 1d 1abo rat 0 r y II 0 finest i ma b1e
value to the nation of Canada.
66
8.0 REFERENCES DIRECTLY CITED IN THE TEXT, AND OTHER
PUBLICATIONS RELEVANT TO SEA BIRDS IN THE QUODDY REGION
(THOSE OF SPECIAL RELEVANCE ARE MARKED WITH A *).
*
Baird, J.C., et al. 1972. Birds and Mammals, pp. 131-174 in:
Lorneville Environmental Impact Study, Environment Canada
and New Brunswick Department of the Environment, Vol.II.
Baltz, D.M., and G.V.Morejohn. 1977. Food habits and niche
overlap of seabirds wintering in Monterey Bay, California.
Auk 94:
*
Barker, S.P. 1976. Comparative feeding ecology of Puffinus
(Order Prcoellariformes) in the Bay of Fundy. M.Sc thesis,
University of Guelph.
Battle, H.I., et al. 1936. F-tness, digestion and food of
*
Passamaquoddy young herring. J.Fish.Res.Bd Canada 2:401-429.
Bent, A.C. 1963. Life histories of North American Gulls and Terns.
*
Ne\¥ York, Dover Publ. Inc., 337 pp.
*
Bigelow, H.B. 1924. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf
of Maine. Bull. U.S.Bur.Fish., 40(pt II); 1-509.
Braune, B.M. 1979. Dynamic feeding- ecology of migrating
*
populations of Bonaparte's gulls, common terns and
arctic terns. M.Sc*thesis, of Guelph.
*(With distinction).
*
Brown, R.G.B., et al. Atlas of Eastern Canadian Seabirds.
Canadian Wildlife Service, 1975, 220 pp.
*
Brown, R.G.B. etal. 1979 in press. Daytime surface-swarming
by Me an cti hanes norve ica(M.Sars) (Crustacea,
Euphausiacea off Brier Island, Bay of Fundy. Can. J.Zool.
Brown, R.G.B. et al. 1979 in prep. Th·e foods and feeding of
*
Great and Sooty shearwaters Puffinus gravis and P.griseus
in eastern Canadian waters.
*
Charlotte County Bird Sighting Records, New Brunswick Museum,
St.John, N.B.
Cooke, 1915. ITistribution and migration of North American
gulls and their allies. U.S.Dept.Agric.Bull 292, 70 pp.
*
Doucet, W.F. 1960. Economic study of the herring fishery of
Charlotte County, New 1956-1957.
Bd. Canada 17: 815-870.
67
..-..
* For res t e r, W.O. 1960 . Cur ten t .meas uremen t sin Pas samaquo ddy
Bay and the Bay of Fundy 1957-1958. J.Fish. Res.Bd.
Canada 17: 727-729.
* Gaskin, D.E. 1973. The marine mammals of the Grand Manan­
Passamaquoddy region, with special reference to the Head
Harbour Passage approaches, and the- probable impact of·a
proposed oil refinery at Me, on these
Report to Environmental Impact Committee, Fisheries
Research Board Biological Station, St.Andrews, N.B.
Gaskin, D.E., et al.1978. Organochlorine residues in shearwaters
*
from the approaches to the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Arch.
Environm.Contam.Toxicol.7: 505-513.
Graham, M. 1936. Investigations of the herring of Passamaquoddy
*
and adjacent regions. J.Fish.Res.Bd. Canada. 2: 95-140.
S.Corey. 1974. Aspects of the life history
*
(M.Sars) Crustacea
in Passamaquoddy Bay. Can.J.Zool.52: 495-505.
lles, T.D. 1975. The New Brunswick weir fisheries for juvenile
*
herring: a preliminary analysis of catch data for the
years 1957-1962. I.C.E.S. Pelagic Fish/Norther/Comll.,
C.M. 1975?Doc.H:54.
Kulka, D.\4. 1977. The life history of Thysanoessa inermis (Kroyer)
*
and the community structure of euphausiids in the Bay of
Fundy. M.Sc thesis, University of Guelph.
Lebour, M.V. 1922. The food of YOJlg clupeoids. J.Mar.Biol.Assoc.
*
U.K. 12: 458-467.
*
Lord, J.S. 1925. St Stephen, N.B. to Deer Is, N.B. and return.
Can.Field-Nat. 39: 24-25.
* MacMillan, D.H. 1966. Tides. Elsevier Publ.Co., New York, 240 pp.
McKenzie, R.A. & S.N.Tibbo. 1960. Herring fishery .in southern
*
New Brunswick. J.Fish.Res.Bd.Canada 17: 133-168.
Scott, D.M. 1959. Observations on marine birds off southwestern
*
Nova Scotia. Can Field-Nat. ,73: 15-20.
Seymour, N.R. 1972. Success of three gull species feeding on
*
swarming ants in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia.
Can. Field-Nat. 86: 391-392.
Smith, S.l. 1878-1882. The stalk-eyed crustaceans of the Atlantic
coast of North Ametica north of Cape Cod. Trans.Conn.
Acad. Art sSe i. 5: 27 - 138.
68
Snyder, L.L. 1957. Arctic Birds of Canada. University of Toronto
Press, Toronto, 310 pp.
* Townsend, C.W. 1923.Notes on the bint of Grand Manan, New
Brunswick, Can.Field-Nat., 37: 1 4 1 - ~ 4 4 .
Tuck, L.M. 1960. The Murres. Canadian Wildlife Series I.,
Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, 260 pp.
Verbeek, N.A.M. 1977. Comparative feeding behaviour of immature
and adult herring gulls. Wilson Bull. 89: 415-421.
Vermeer, K. 1973. Comparison of food habits and mercury residues
of Caspian and common terns. Can.Field-Nat.87: 305.
Wynne-Edwards, V.C. 1935. On thehabits and distribution of birds
on the North Atlantic. Proc.Boston Soc.Nat.Hist. 40:
233-246.

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