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Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM

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then it was received with errors. was invented as a method to improve the reliability of a digital transmission system without bandwidth expansion or reduction of data rate.lonestar. (m1 is not really a memory cell because it represents a current value). According to an input bit the encoder at the next turn can convert either to the "01" state or the "11" state. above) has '1' in the left memory cell (m0). high-speed modems achieved data rate up to 9600 bits/sec with M = 16 QAM signal constellation. The result is that a given Symbol has more invalid than valid bit combinations.Trellis coded modulation (TCM) is a modulation scheme which allows highly efficient transmission of information over band-limited channels such as telephone lines. This diagram gives us an idea about decoding: if a received sequence doesn't fit this graph.1.” Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) is used widely in high-speed voice-band modems. An actual encoded sequence can be represented as a path on this graph. Trellis Coded Modulation is suitable for band-limited channels. All possible transitions can be shown as below: A path through the trellis is shown as a red line.6 kb/sec. Normal channel codes such as block and convolutional codes improve the performances of the communication system by expanding the bandwidth. Trellis diagram A convolutional encoder is a finite state machine. The real decoding algorithms exploit this idea.g. One valid path is shown in red as an example. Therefore. We will designate such a state as "10". and we must choose the nearest correct (fitting the graph) sequence. An encoder with n binary cells will have 2n states.Imagine that the encoder (shown on Img.34 family TCM modem recommendations supports data bit rate as high as 33. and this means that bit errors have a higher probability of being detected at the transmission level. In TCM.org] “Trellis Coded Modulation is an enhancement of QAM. Trellis modulation was invented by Gottfried Ungerboeck working for IBM in the 1970s. One can see that not all transitions are possible (e. a technique known as Forward Correction. but at the price of increasing the bandwidth. the ITU V. but it went largely unnoticed until he published a new detailed exposition in 1982 which achieved sudden widespread recognition. The solid lines indicate transitions where a "0" is input and the dashed lines where a "1" is input. Concept of Trellis Coded Modulation Trellis Code Modulation is one of the coded modulation techniques used in digital communications. Without coding. and '0' in the right one (m-1). or TCM. Trellis Coded Modulation. For example. . and first described in a conference paper in 1976. [nemesis. The added coding gain provided by Trellis Coded Modulation has made it possible to increase the speed of the transmission by at least a factor of 2. Trellis coded modulation is a coded modulation scheme that can increase the noise immunity and simultaneously do not increase the bandwidth. The Euclidean distance between the transmitted coded waveforms would be increased by the use of coding. It combines the choice of a modulation scheme with that of a convolutional code together for the purpose of gaining noise immunity over uncoded transmission without expanding the signal bandwidth or increasing the transmitted power. the receiver uses the extra data from the revious Symbol to check the accuracy of the current Symbol. which adds a large number of redundant bits to each Symbol.. a decoder can't convert from "10" state to "00" or even stay in "10" state).

processing instead a continuous bitstream. The popular solution for this problem is to interleave data before convolutional encoding. .Free distance and error distribution The free distance (d) is the minimal Hamming distance between different encoded sequences. the value of t applies to a quantity of errors located relatively near to each other. so that the outer block (usually Reed-Solomon) code can correct most of the errors. Free distance can be interpreted as the minimal length of an erroneous "burst" at the output of a convolutional decoder. That is. The fact that errors appear as "bursts" should be accounted for when designing a concatenated code with an inner convolutional code. multiple groups of t errors can usually be fixed when they are relatively far apart. The correcting capability(t) of a convolutional code is the number of errors that can be corrected by the code. It can be calculated as Since a convolutional code doesn't use blocks.

the value of t applies to a quantity of errors located relatively near to each other. The fact that errors appear as "bursts" should be accounted for when designing a concatenated code with an inner convolutional code. . multiple groups of t errors can usually be fixed when they are relatively far apart. That is.Free distance and error distribution The free distance (d) is the minimal Hamming distance between different encoded sequences. It can be calculated as Since a convolutional code doesn't use blocks. Free distance can be interpreted as the minimal length of an erroneous "burst" at the output of a convolutional decoder. processing instead a continuous bitstream. The popular solution for this problem is to interleave data before convolutional encoding. The correcting capability(t) of a convolutional code is the number of errors that can be corrected by the code. so that the outer block (usually Reed-Solomon) code can correct most of the errors.