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(This work is a draft; it shall be completed and reviewed after my sabbatical)
click the cyan link and go to: I. Map of R1a II. Map of Pazyyrkia’s MtDNA V. Hungarian genetics VI. Linguistics VII. Africa VIII. Victor Mair IX. I am proud
III. Map of N1a MtDNA IV. Local peaks X. References XI. Credits.
FOREWORD FOR EUROPEAN INDO-EUROPEANS
If you are an “Indo-European speaker” you should know that:
Your Y Chromosome pool is essentially made of ΣR1a+I+R1b that in most cases is over 70% of your Y chromosome pie. None of the three above Palaeolithic Y chromosomes can be associated to the Indo-Europeans (even if somebody is trying hard to associate R1a1a to the Indo-Germans! See further on: nonsense!).
The rest of your pie is made of other non Indo-European components (E.g.: E3b (African) in Southern Europe, and N (Arctic) in Northern Europe). No genetic feature has so far indisputably been associated to the Indo-Europeans. If ever an Indo-European gene shall be indisputably associated to the Indo-Europeans, it shall only affect maybe the 0,0.. % of your pie. Thus, in genetics, the term Indo-European is pure nonsense: it assumes that the Indo-Europeans had their own DNA! The category “Indo-European” can only be associated to a language, not to a genome. If you are a scientist and not and IndoGermanist, you should replace the term “Indo-European” with “Indo-European speaker”. In this case you can be associated to a lot of populations: Hong Kong and Macau Chinese, Bantu and Bushmen, Amerindians, Indian Brahmins, Russians… in fact, most of them are “Indo-European speakers”… …or you can replace “Indo-European” with “White Race”, but it is not very politically correct… and in this case you would again be associated to the Hungarians (with the exception of Obrusánszki Borbála, who declares to be Mongoloid), to the Finns, the Khanty Mansi, the Ainu, the Yukaghirs… but, some of you don’t like this, do you? …these peoples were all matriarchal, peace loving, egalitarian, non stratified societies (they had no castes)… in other words, inferior peoples for the Indo-Germanists!
If you are unhappy with the term “Hungarian”, you can read it “Old European”, but do not forget that the Hungarians are the only cultural fossil remains of Old Europe. When this work was ready to be published, another Indo-Germanist, aware of the untenability of the equation R1a1a=IndoEuropean, has published a new equation: R1b=Celtic. This equation is based on speculations around a map (left, Eupedia), which is also founded on speculations: in fact, this map is probably wrong! The map says that R1b1b split in the Middle East into R1b1b1, which spread to Asia, and R1b1b2, which spread to Europe and which would be the marker of the Celtic east>west migration from the Middle East to Europe. The truth is different: R1b1b split in Europe: R1b1b1 originated from west Europe and was brought, together with R1b1b2 (now R1b1a2-M269), in a west>east migration, to Arsia and Pazyrykia. See the map on the right (www.familytreedna.com>R1b1b1), where red samples are R1b1b1 cluster A, green ones R1b1b1 cluster B1, and blue ones R1b1b1 cluster B2. Possible spread of R1b1b1, if you add data from YHRD and pertinent researches, left. Bashkortostan (RU, the Magna Hungaria of monk Julian) is the only region where isolated pockets of R1b1b1 (55% in Abzelilovsky, at the border with Kazakhstan) and R1b1b2 (R1b1b2-a1b4/R1b-U152, old R1b1c10, at 9% in Bashkortostan, right map) coexist at significant rates. Guess who brought R1b to central Asia! If there is enough R1a1a there, it could have been brought to central Asia by the same people that brought there also R1a1a: the Hungarians. (In the Tarim Basin there are both R1b1b1 and R1b1b2, at disputed rates). In fact, R1a and R1b appear to have migrated with the same carrier, to the same places, at the same times. Both the above maps need support of more data in order to be final, but the following statements help to better understand the situation. The highest rate of R1b is in the Basque territory, where in some areas it peaks up until 90%. According to the Indo-Germanist map, the Celts, who spoke an Indo-European language, arrived in Spain in around 2000 B.C.. After that time the R1b Celtic Indo-European speakers would have replaced their language with Euskara! The Basque language, is an isolate language, without any connection with any Indo-European language! Unbelievable! Even the Romans were unable to make they change their language. Furthermore: “We do not observe any particular link between Basques and Celtic populations beyond that provided by the Paleolithic ancestry common to European populations, nor we find evidence supporting Basques as the focus of major population expansions”. (“The place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome diversity landscape”, Santos Alonso et al.). Furthermore, in Euskara, mother and father are still ama and aita, as it was in most European pre-Indo-European languages (“Honfoglalás…” page 142). In Irish, notwithstanding the Celtic Indo-Europeanization, athair and aite have survived. Furthermore, Gimbutas found evidence of the Basques being a matriarchal society in antiquity: matriarchal IndoEuropeans? Or the only Indo-European society that ever converted to matriarchalism? Furthermore, Celtic archaeology does not appear in Spain before 1000 B.C. according to mainstream scholars (not before 500 B.C. according to me, when the Celts emerged from the Celto-Pannonici). There is little evidence of incineration in Spain and it is not in the Basque territory (it is in Catalonia) and not 4000 years old. Did the Celts learnt to incinerate (independently from the Indians) from the Europeans, who never incinerated? … and why they never incinerated in the Basque territory? Furthermore, the area of Europe where the Celts had settled for more than 2 millennia (blue line) and where Urnfields cemeteries have been found is the area with the smallest R1b rate in Western Europe. Instead, the highest rate of R1b (green line) is in the area in which the last remaining Celts, pushed by later migrations, found a refugium (the western part of the British isles), and in the Basque Country, where the Celts never settled. R1b was already there where it is now, before the Celts arrived. Why the “Indo-European R1b” is missing in Indo-European Asia (Persia, Pakistan, India)!? Eventually, this theory shall collapse soon, as all the other Indo-European theories of origin did, without I need waste more time on it!
Genetics is still far from being accurate, due to:
the fancy interpretations of data that are not acknowledged by history, archaeology, cultural anthropology, and… common sense, notwithstanding an unheeded paper of Bálint Csanád that “stresses the necessity of intensive collaboration between experts of genetics, historians and archaeologists in the research of the ethnogenesis of populations”). The images of archaeological artefacts that appear on this PDF are a small part of the thousands that are published on the page “Magyar Art…”.
the small number of tests performed on a 7 billion human population (+ 14 billion dead). the criteria used for the choice of samples to be researched, sometimes influenced by politics and chauvinism. the bad habit of researching a sample from a town and linking the result to the nation, or, even worse, to its linguistic majority. the manipulations that are made with conflicting lists and maps, often created by software that flattens peaks and pockets.
I. MAP OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF R1a1a IN EURASIA
You can find in the Net a number of different maps made to support that R1a1a is speaking Russian (they are usually limited to the distribution of R1a1a in Europe!). A very detailed map that shows the distribution of R1a1a in Europe, with the resolution of a county area, is the following one. This map (familytreedna.com) is very “political borders dependent”! The peak of R1a1a in Finland is correctly placed around Eura, where a cemetery of Pannonico Hungarians has been excavated (see G. The Finns).
The Underhill map (below) is the only one that I have found that shows the distribution of R1a1a in the entire Eurasian area, and which, to my knowledge, is congruent with more detailed maps of local regions, except maybe in some unclear or disputed situations, in particular in Europe (e.g.: the Underhill map does not show the peak of R1a1a that is instead stressed in the above map in the Tanaïs area, the western terminal of the Hungarian Silk Road. The Underhill map shows peaks of R1a1a in Moscow, and New Delhi; on the Kivisild one (right), the Indian peak is in Arsia. Some local peaks and pockets of R1a1a are not detectable from the Underhill map: I have listed them in the table “Local Peaks”.
“Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a” Underhill, Kivisild, et al., European Journal of Human Genetics (2009), 1–6. (R1a1a is also known as R-M17 (formerly Eu19) and R-M198). The research of Underhill, thanks to the use of the subclades R1a1a6-M434 (“typical of South Asia”) and R1a1a7-M458 (with a “significant frequency in Europe”), has come to some new unexpected (for the Indo-Germanists!) results: “The coalescent time estimates of R1a1a correlate with the timing of the recession of the Last Glacial Maximum [26,500 - 19,000 B.P.] and predate the upper bound of the age estimate of the Indo-European language tree”. R1a1a predates whichever linguistic, archaeological, cultural, and historical undisputed evidence of the arrival of Indo-Europeans in Europe! R1a1a cannot be associated to the migrations of the Indo-Europeans, because R1a1a was already in Europe when they arrived, whichever urheimat theory you choose. The highest diversity of R1a1a is in Southern Pakistan (right map, chronology of the spread). “In Europe, Poland has the highest R1a1a7-M458 diversity, corresponding to approximately an 11 KYA coalescent time”. “Among the R1a1a*(xM458) chromosomes the highest diversity is observed among populations of the Indus Valley yielding coalescent times above 14 KYA (thousands of years ago), whereas the R1a1a* diversity declines toward Europe where its maximum diversity and coalescent times of 11.2 KYA are observed”. The supposed migrations hypothesised by the Underhill research all occurred in late Palaeolithic-early Holocene. R1a1a likely originated from India and from there it spread to Europe: the Indians were right! See also:
X. References > India, 62., “Indian genetics and the Aryan debate”. “The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1 * substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system”. Swarkar Sharma et al. “Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages”, Kivisild at al. “Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs”, Malyarchuk B. at al..
“MtDNA haplogroups R1a, U4, U5, HV3 and HV4, which have been inferred to have pre-Neolithic spread in East Europe, occur at marginally low frequencies in India”. The Siberian R1a1a is not Indian. “R1a does not distinguish Indo-Iranian, Finno-Ugric, Dravidian or Turkic speakers from each other”. “R1a1a7-M458 frequency [in Europe] peaks among Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples” …because the R1a1a Finno-Ugric Chudes were obliged to learn Slavic languages! “The inevitably large error margins of our coalescent time estimates … do not allow us to exclude the association of the coalescent time of R1a1a with the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), that ﬂourished ca. 7.5À-6.5 KYA BP in the Middle Danube (Hungary) and was spread further along the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, Vistula river valleys and beyond the Carpathian Basin migratory and early agricultural zones” [Pannonia]. Unfortunately, the “11,000 samples from across Eurasia”, which have been used in the research, may suffice (notwithstanding the many caveat in the research) for estimating the age and direction of the spread of M17, but do not suffice to trace the relatively smaller migrations of the Hungarians. Nevertheless, if Hungary is a R1a1a7-M458 region, it would confirm the European origin of the Hungarians. In this case, the Hungarians should have left traces of M458 in Central Asia: if not in Arsia (because most came back home), in Pazyrykia (where most stayed), or at least in Siberian and Tarim basin ancient DNA. Furthemore, if in Hungary R1a1a6-M434 is found at a rate higher than in its neighbours, it would confirm the Hungarian migrations to Central Asia and back to Hungary. Further investigation is needed. As the Hungarians stayed for 2-3000 years out of Europe, they could have even developed a marker specific of their migrations.
CREDITS AND “DISCREDITS”
The above map is more accurate, but astonishingly similar to the map that I published in 2007, on “ Honfoglalás…”, page 166. See my map. In order to draw that map, I used the pies, related to a limited number of countries, published by J. Douglas McDonald (“World haplogroups”) on www.scs.uiuc.edu. See the McDonald’s maps. There is an area termed “Indo-European” in my map: McDonald thought that he had found there the urheimat, linked to the Y chromosome H maybe, or to R1a?! Another miserably failed attempt to locate the urheimat! Out of dozens! The Indo-Europeans are a DNA free population! I showed on that map the areas in which each Y haplogroup was the main component. That map was not “not new”; it was futuristic! Mainstream geneticists have needed 3 more years of researches to publish a map similar to mine! Nevertheless, both Varga Csaba and Obrusánszky Borbála commented my book with the same mantra: “Naddeo did not say anything new that the Hungarians had not known already since ages!”. “Two things only are infinite: the universe and human ignorance… and I'm not sure about the universe. ” Paraphrase of a sentence of Albert Einstein.
II. MAP OF THE “PAZYRYKIA’S” HUNGARIAN MtDNA
“Ancient MtDNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people”, Christine Keyser at al. (See X. References > 37.) The above map replies to the following question of the geneticists that made the above research on populations of Khakassia (Minusinsk Basin, Pazyrykia): where are today samples with the same MtDNA that we found in Pazyrykia? Their answer was the above map. By the similarity of its pattern to the pattern of the Y-R1a1a spread map, this map confirms my hypothesised migrations of Hungarians from Pazyrykia to the Ob-Ugrian area, to Yukaghiria, and, through the Amur Valley, to Sakhalin and Japan (the Ainu migration). These migrations are not clearly detected by the R1a1a spread. What should be further investigated is why the Hungarian MtDNA and no Y R1a1a reached Sakhalin, and why little Hungarian MtDNA reached the Tarim Basin from Pazyrykia. The little presence of this MtDNA in Arsia and on the Hungarian way back home could point to the fact that women were those who had more to loose from an Islamic conquest of the Tarim Basin: Global MtDNA they would have lost all the remaining privileges that they still had in a community that had been matriarchal for several millennia: all of them left! It would explain why the Madjars still take wives from out of their community: they could not find Hungarian women in central Asia. Several other hypotheses are possible, but waiting for more data is wiser. Other discrepancies between the MtDNA spread and the R1a1a spread are along the Lvov-Kiev-Moscow line, (high R1a1a and low MtDNA), and in Italy and Greece (Low R1a1a and high MtDNA). The separation of the western Finnics from those of the Volga-Kama region is more evident in the MtDNA map. In general, it could be said that this map confirms the presence of Hungarians also in areas where R1a1a has disappeared or is detected at low frequencies: Greece, Padania (IT), Germany, Sweden, Finland, Yukaghiria, Ainuland. Furthermore, all the northern regions of Eurasia, where a Finno-Ugric language is spoken, are covered by the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA. No Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found in Indo-Asia (Persia, Pakistan, India): it cannot be Indo-European. The black cross on the map indicates a MtDNA different from the rest of it, but whose spread also confirms a link between Hungary and Southern Siberia.
MtDNA Haplogroup U
“Barbujani and Bertorelle estimate the age of haplogroup U5 as about 52,000 years ago, but it could be as old as 60,500 years, being the oldest subclade of haplogroup U” (Wikipedia). Others estimate that U came from Africa where it was already present 70.000 B.P.. The Kostienki (RU) human, 30,000 years old, had U2 (also found in Arsia, Pazyrykia, and Khanty Mansi); the Cheddar man (U.K.), 9150 years old, had U5a; the Loschbour (Luxemburg) men, 8000 years old, had U5a and was “very dolichocephalic”: the skulls of all these guys had some Neanderthalian features. (See X. References > General > 4. “The Neanderthals are with us!”). The today spread of U5, similar to the one of H, is approximately the same as the Neanderthal spread and its peaks are centred on Hungary, Finland, the VolgaKama region, Belgium and the Caspian Sea. It reaches the Baikal lake, at the eastern borders of Pazyrykia. Was haplogroup U already in Europe in 50.000 B.C.? The case of U MtDNA could be similar to the one of the “Ginger gene” that would have made the Neanderthal red haired. (See “Honfoglalás…” page 247). The ginger gene and U5 are supposed to be as old as 50.000 years, thus predating by far the Indo-Europeans and also the Cro Magnons in Europe, as long as a 50.000 years old Cro Magnon is not discovered. U2, U3, and U7 link together the populations of Pazyrykia, of Arsia, of the Tarim basin, and of Hungary. (X. References > 38).
MtDNA N1a: A MARKER OF THE HUNGARIAN MIGRATIONS
“Mitochondrial haplogroup N1a phylogeography, with implication to the origin of European farmers”, Malliya Gounder et alii. “MtDNA sequences of subcluster N1a1a1 related to the farmer DEB3 and FLO1 lineages are widely distributed, accounting for nearly half (82 out of 166) of the total N1a data. Lineages from this subcluster were observed in populations of central/eastern Europe [East Pannonia], Volga-Ural region [Sarmatia or Volga-Kama?], central Asia [Arsia], South Siberia [Pazyrykia], […and Khanty Mansi, …and Tarim basin (see Sampula) …and Magyars (See X. References)], Egypt, Yemen, Iran, Turkey, and eastern/southern India). The cumulative frequency of N1a1a1 reaches a maximum in eastern Europe and central Asia, and decreases in the direction of central and northern Europe. The same occurs in the southern direction, towards Anatolia and the Caucasus”:
(The layer with the red circles and names of countries should be moved several hundred km westward!)
Unfortunately, the big circles labelled “Russian Federation” do not help us much: if somebody draws a map of the distribution in Russia (Volga-Kama/Volga Ural region? Khanty Mansi? Yukaghirs? Sakhalin? Pazyrykia?) of the above clades, we might get acquainted with the details of the Hungarian migrations. "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)", Csanád Bálint (10 2008): “About 85-90 % of the [Magyar] MtDNA [including N1a1] belonged to main European Haplogroups”. Dienekes Blog: “MtDNA N1a was a genuine signature of the Central European Neolithic. Leading Magyars of the St. Stephen's Hungary, came back home [from Arsia] with the same N1a they had left Europe with”. The subclade “N1a1a1a is restricted to Kazakhstan, Altai and Buryat Republic (Pazyrykia and Arsia), and the European part of Russian Federation. These areas were centres of expansion”. Furthermore, “a subcluster of N1a1a2 was observed in Denmark, Poland, Scotland, Norway, Switzerland, France, Portugal, Austria, Hungary, and Volga-Ural region”. The coalescence age of N1a1a2 (between 3,400 - 4,000 years) and its spread in Europe and to the Volga Ural regions, makes of the subcluster N1a1a2 the perfect candidate marker of the Hungarian diaspora to Magna Pannonia (1500-500 B.C.). Its coalescent age would not allow any earlier hypothesis of its migrations. However, it should also be checked if the N1a found in the Saint Stephen Magyars belonged to this subcluster, or it should be found in Pazyrykia and/or Arsia. The pattern of the spread of N1a could be very similar to the one of the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, but Asia should be investigated more accurately in order to confirm it. N1a has been found in the Han dynasty time Sampula cemetery, Tarim basin. The N1a Haplogroup is the best marker of the Hungarian migrations because it peaks in territories were the spoken languages were the Uralo-Altaic languages, because it is at very low rates in west Indo-Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, France and UK), and because it is almost absent in Indo-Asia (Pakistan, Iran, and India) except at the borders of India with Pakistan (Gujarat).
IV. LOCAL PEAKS AND POCKETS OF R1a1a IN EURASIA
The local peaks and pockets of R1a1a, (most are undetectable from the Underhill map) are listed in the following table, which is a selection of lines from this Wikipedia table. (Cyan sentences are my comments and additions) Population with archaeology congruent to: Kinship Continent Country Pannonico, Population Sarmato-Avar, Sample Magyar archaeology. Cultural kinship: R1a1 R1a1* R1a1a Source
Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Romania Romania Where? Where? Where? Where? Where? Dniester-Carpathian 53 36 45 215 45 NA 22.0% NA NA 20.0% NA 0.00% NA NA 1.40% NA NA 56.6% NA 60.0% 24.2% NA 20.4% Battaglia et al. (2008) Rosser et al. (2000) Semino et al. (2000) Völgyi et al. (2008) Rosser et al. (2000) Varzari (2006)
You can get whichever result you need, if you chose the right sample!
INDO-EUROPEAN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Europe Europe Europe Europe Scotland Scotland Italy Greece Greece Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Greece Greece Greece Greece Republic of Macedonia Russia Russia Russia Orkney islands (Gaelia) Orkney islands (Gaelia) Sicily Nea Nikomedeia Sesklo/Dimini Crete, Lasithi Plateau Crete, Lasithi Prefecture Macedonian Greeks Macedonia Macedonian Komi-Permians Perm Tver 121 26 236 57 57 41 23 57 79 20 42 37 38 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 23.8% 43.2% NA NA NA NA 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1.80% 0.00% NA NA NA 0.00% 7.0% 27.0% 5.5% 21.1% 10.5% 29.3% 17.4% 10.5% Capelli et al. (2003) Wells et al. (2001) Di Gaetano et al. (2008) King et al. (2008) King et al. (2008) Martinez et al. (2007) Martinez et al. (2007) Battaglia et al. (2008)
It should be quite improbable to get so different results from a population of only 20,000 people!)
13.92% Underhill et al. (2009) 35.0% NA NA 57.9% Semino et al. (2000) Malaspina et al. (2003) Malaspina et al. (2003) Mirabal et al. (2009)
The red-haired FINNO-UGRICS OF PERM are proud to be of Finno-Ugric descent (“We were here before them [the Russians!]!”). The red-haired FINNO-UGRICS OF TVER also are proud, but they complain that they are often not shown in the maps of Finno-Ugric language speakers.
Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus Georgia Abkhazians Karachays Kumyks Nogays Balkarians 12 69 126 76 87 38 136 141 89 42 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.71% 0.00% 0.00% 33.0% Nasidze et al. (2004) Karachays Cherkes, RU Cherkessians Dagestan RU 27.54% Underhill et al. (2009) 12.70% Underhill et al. (2009) 13.16% Underhill et al. (2009) 12.64% Underhill et al. (2009) 13.2% Battaglia et al. (2008) 25.74% Underhill et al. (2009) 13.48% Underhill et al. (2009) 19.10% Underhill et al. (2009) 2.38% Underhill et al. (2009)
Kabardino Balkars Balkaria, RU Kabardians Abazia RU Abazas Avars
The CAUCASIAN AVARS disputed that the Central European Avars were real Avars (and vice versa). Some Cerkessians are still red-haired. Several Caucasian cultures are equestrian cultures.
WESTERN SILK ROAD
Middle East Lebanon Middle East Syria Middle East Iran Lebanese Syrian Isfahan 31 20 50 NA NA NA NA NA NA 9.7% 10.0% 18.0% Semino et al. (2000) Semino et al. (2000) Nasidze et al. (2004)
Central Tajikistan Tajiks/Khojand 22 NA NA 64.0% Wells et al. (2001) Asia KHOJAND, FERGHANA, where the Hungarians bred the “heavenly horses”, was the third heart of the Silk Road after Bukhara and Samarkand. Obrusánszki Borbála, were this people your Huns, who sold the horses to the Emperor, who left 64% of R1a1a there? Isfahan: see the line of Istens on a mosque: line 165 of “The Mother Isten” abstract, and the Istens on Iranian tribal carpets.
CHINA, SILK ROAD
Centr/East Dongxiang (Mongolian descent) 49 NA 0?% 28.0% Wei Wang et al. (2003) Asia China Gansu Centr/East Salar (Central Asian Turkish 52 NA 0?% 17.0% Wei Wang et al. (2003) Asia China descent?) border Qinghai/Gansu Centr/East Bonan, Mongolian descent 47 NA 0?% 26.0% Wei Wang et al. (2003) Asia China border Qinghai/Gansu Is it not astonishing that the only 3 listed pockets of R1a1a in China are located at the borders of Gansu with the Tibetan plain? Could their inhabitants be mongolized descendents of those 150 (Hungarian) Yueh Chih families that the Chinese Chronicles reported having fled the Hsiung Nu by recovering in Tibet? …or rather, are they the descendents of the Little Yueh Chih, who had remained exactly in the area were R1a1a has been found now?
South Asia Pakistan South Asia Pakistan Kalash Pakistan Kashmiri 44 12 NA NA NA NA 18.0% 58.0% Qamar et al. (2002) Qamar et al. (2002) Chitwan, Nepal South Asia Nepal/India 26 NA 0.00% 69.2% Fornarino et al. (2009 Hindus (proxy for Indian ancestry) The Nepalese Burkha and Sherpa are said to be Pashtun from Afghanistan or even Hungarians: this genetic research makes that hypothesis more probable. Burkha and Sherpa are worldwide appreciated for their moral and physical features. Who better than a people that had lived at an elevation of 1000 metres for over a millennium and that was used to cross the Pamir passes (4/5000 metres high) carrying heavy rolls of silk, could fit the job profile of a Sherpa? South Asia India Dravidian Upper Caste 59 NA NA 28.8% Sengupta et al. (2005) South Asia India Indo-European Lower Caste 50 NA NA 26.0% Sengupta et al. (2005) South Asia India Bihar (Paswan) 27 NA 0.00% 40.74% Sharma et al. (2009) Bihar is supposed to have been reached by Heftalites (Timo Stickler), who left their Hungarian Mother Istens and other Hungarian artefacts in the region. Bihar was also the name of the today Oradea county in Érdely. Bihar South Asia India 38 NA 0.00% 60.53% Sharma et al. (2009) (Brahmins) Gujarat South Asia India 64 NA 0.00% 32.81% Sharma et al. (2009) (Brahmins) South Asia India Bombay, Konkanastha (Brahmins) 43 NA NA 41.9% Kivisild et al. (2003) Himachal Pradesh South Asia India 30 NA 0.00% 47.37% Sharma et al. (2009) (Brahmins) South Asia India West Bengal (Brahmins) 30 NA 0.00% 72.22% Sharma et al. (2009) Uttar Pradesh South Asia India 31 NA 0.00% 67.74% Sharma et al. (2009) (Brahmins) South Asia India Maharashtra (Brahmins) 32 NA 0.00% 43.33% Sharma et al. (2009) Madhya Pradesh South Asia India 42 NA 0.00% 38.1% Sharma et al. (2009) (Brahmins) See Brahmins. South Asia India Madhya Pradesh (Saharia) 57 NA 22.8% 28.07% Sharma et al. (2009)
Siberia Russia Kamchatka, Itelmen 18 NA NA 22.2% Lell et al. (2006) In Kamchatka, there is the easternmost and most isolate pocket of R1a1a. The Ainu did arrive there, before mixing with the Jomon. Their main business was sea trade and fishing; they arrived there from the Kuril islands, which are still part of Ainuland.
24 NA NA 4.0% Wells et al. (2001) Soldiers mainly from Khalkh Mongolia 402 NA 0.00% 2.5% Weale et al. (2001) (East Mongolia) “Many of the peoples of the Ordos region, were identified as belonging to the Xiongnu cultures. Ordos was occupied predominantly by peoples showing Mongoloid features, known from their skeletal remains and artefacts.” [Zhang et al. "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China", p. 176-225.]. Borbála, if the Huns came from Ordos, they were Mongols! If there were Caucasoids in Ordos, they were slaves of the Xiongnu… they were the Hungarians who made the bronze artefacts of the Xiungnu and the Sarmatian jewellery of the Huns. Mongolia
V. THE HUNGARIAN SPREAD ACCORDING TO GENETIC RESEARCH
The following map resumes the data gathered by the above researches in a single map of the spread of R1a1a, of the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, of N1a1a1, and of the spread of cultural, archaeological, linguistic, artistic, religious, and anthropologic markers of the Hungarians.
The above map defines the areas in which R1a, Pazyrukia’s MtDNA, and N1a coexist still today:
THE HUNGARIAN GENETICS
The Hungarian Y Chromosome pie (right, Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009 Mar;3(2):e27-8.) is a European pie (ΣR1a+I+R1b=72.8%) that shows the central and west Asian admixture of Sarmatians and Avars (ΣG+J+H=19.3%). The 19.3 frequency of the west Asian admixture is higher than in countries bordering Hungary and Transylvania, and it includes the admixture of the agriculturists that brought farming technologies to Europe from the Middle East. G is recognized to be the Sarmatian marker in Europe. Its “Britannic cluster” is at high rates in Székelyföld and in Britannia, where it was brought by the 5,500 Sarmatians (not Daco-Romans!) that Marcus Aurelius relocated in Britannia. (See “Erdely Dacia”). It is wide spread in north Caucasus, on the route the Sarmatians took to come back to Europe. J could rather be Avar. It is wide spread south of Caucasus, on the route the Avars took to come back to Europe. The J Y-chromosomal lineage is more frequent in Szeklers (J1-M267=10.3%, Semino et al., 2000a, 2004; Di Giacomo et al., 2004. J2e1-M102=7.2%) than in Hungarians: in fact the Sarmatians and the Avars settled mainly in Transylvania; instead, the Magyars, who had mainly come from the Tarim Basin (where the rate of these 2 haplogroups is lower) rather settled in Hungary (See “Erdely Dacia”). H is typical of India and of the Roma; it is at a frequency of 2-4% in Arsia, where it reaches 20% in the Kalash population, who live close to the urheimat of the Roma. The isolated peak of R1b in Arsia, together with R1a1a, is the evidence that these haplogroups were brought there from the Balkans, the only other place where these haplogroups still coexist. I Hg is found at low rates in Arsia and in pockets in Ferghana and Pakistan, Joseph Skulj. Underhill has found 1.5% I Hg in Central Asia, but he has not specified where exactly. E1b in Arsia points to a migration of Pannonici to Arsia (1000 B.C.) from east Pannonia (the region between the Tisza and the Dniester valleys), where these haplogroups are still at low rates today. This hypothesis would explain the lower rates of I, and E1b in today Hungary if compared to bordering countries: the Pannonici had not yet received that admixture and the Honfoglalás peoples did not bring it back home. Furthermore, the most ancient Turul has not been found in today Hungary, but in west Ukraine (beginning of first millennium B.C., Odessa Museum); the “deer stones” migrated (at that same time) to Pazyrykia from Moldova (See “Sacred Symbols”), and the hit and run technique was a Cimmerian innovation that spread from east Pannonia up until Japan (See “Pre-Indo-European Rites”). Semino found out that the Hungarians who live west of the Danube are more akin to the Finns than those who live east of the Danube: west Hungarians had not migrated to Central Asia and they have retained a higher kinship with the Finns. The rarity of I, R1b, and E1b in Pazyrykia points to a migration (2000 B.C.) to Southern Siberia that could have originated from even further east: from west Ukraine or rather from south west Urals, regions that had already been colonized by Pannonici at that time (Syntashta, Abashevo, Andronovo cultures). Actually, the spread of E1b1b1a1b to Europe came quite late: “Cruciani's latest study suggests that E1b1b1a1b (E-V13, formerly E3b1a) actually arrived in the Balkans [Albania] from Western Asia during the Palaeolithic, and then spread throughout Europe much later (circa 5300 years ago, 3300 B.C.)”. “Bird (2007) proposes a still more recent dispersal out of the Balkans, around the time of the Roman empire.” I hypothesise that most of the eastward spread of E1b1b1a1b (from the Albanian peak toward the Dnieper river) could be connected to the migrations of the Aromin Vlachs to Romania in the Middle Age. E1b1b1a1b is at only 4.2% in Hungary (much less than in Countries bordering Hungary, Eupedia), because the Pannonici that migrated to central Asia had not yet received that admixture, and the peoples of the Honfoglalás therefore did not brought it back. In Britannia, some very small but high rate pockets of E1b1b1a1b have also been found and have been associated to “Roman soldiers from the Balkans” (Bird, 2007): as the Sarmatians did not carry E1b1b1a1b, those pockets could be pockets of early Vlachs that had started migrating to Dacia and that were among the Sarmatians that had been sent to Britannia by Marcus Aurelius (See “Erdely Dacia”). At that time, the Sarmatians:Vlachs ratio in Székelyföld was much higher than the today Hungarians:Romanian Vlachs ratio. MtDNA gives further evidence of the migrations of the Hungarians from Central Europe to Central Asia and back to Europe (See above II. and III.). The high rate of I Hg in Hungarians (25%, all I1, not congruent with the below maps!) confirms their ancient European ancestry. If the Magyars had originated from Central Asia or if they were Huns, the Hungarians could have never had such a high rate of I Hg!
Haplogroup I1 distribution
Haplogroup I2 distribution
Turkish genetic pie
The above genetic pie of Turkey is in the research “Excavating Y-DNA strata in Anatolia”, Hum. Genet. (2004), Cinnioglu et al.: “ Current Anatolian genetic pool has received 13% - 30% genetic inflow from Central Asian Turkic speakers”. “The Anatolian Turks are overwhelmingly indigenous (William Z. Ripley and Carleton S. Coon). They are 64% Caucasoid” (Wikipedia). The R1a, R1b and I Y-DNA of the Turks is due to ancient natural geographical diffusion from Europe, as it clearly appears from the maps of this paragraph. Therefore, the Anatolian Turks could be connected to the Pannonici, but not to the Magyars: this connection is shown by archaeology. If 13% - 30% is the Turkish speakers contribution to the pie of the people living in Anatolia, then, the north east Asian Haplogroups N, Q, C, O (Σ=7.26%) could make from 24 to 55% of the invading Turkish speakers’ pie, and it would confirm the North East Asian origin of the Turkic speakers and their admixture from the Mongolic Rouran.
The Göktürks were descendents of the Ashina clan. The centre of the Ashina power was the Orkhon valley. The Orkhon valley was the border between Mongolia and Pazyrykia and genetics says that the Orkhon Valley is still inhabited by people that received a significant Hungarian and Mongolic admixture. It is very possible that the Orkhon Valley was the place where the Turks learned agriculture, learned the 300 Hungarian words, and they also learned the rovásírás. A tribe of the Göktürks, the Uyghurs, migrated southward and threatened the Chinese Empire. Later on, they invaded the Tarim basin. The hypothesis that some Turks had Hungarian ancestors would also explain why the genetic contribution of the Turkic Uyghurs did not affect the 2000 years genetic continuity of the Tarim basin, at least as far as MtDNA is concerned. (See X. > Arsia > 45.). The Turks could have not influenced the Sarmatian and Avar genetics, because, when the Turks appeared in east Asia, the Sarmatians and the Avars were already in Europe. The Magyars, who lived in central Asia at the time the Turks were there, have no east Asian genes in their pie: intermingling between Turks and Magyars is improbable. Furthermore, the 300 common words in Turkish and Hungarian (mainly related to agriculture) could well have been taught by the Magyars to the Turks, not viceversa, because the Turkish speakers, at the time of the meeting, were still nomads, and the Pazyryki and Arsi were agriculturalists since millennia. Furthermore, the Turkic Uyghurs invaded the Tarim Basin in 840 A.D., when the Arsi were already preparing their luggage. In any case, 300 hundred words is the same quantity of words that the Longobards left in Italy, but nobody has ever hypothesised that the Italians are Germanics! The Hungarians were not Turkish speakers and the only possible link between Hungarians and Turkish speakers may be found in Orkhon! (…but Turkey could have been inhabited by Hungarian Pannonici, as archaeology confirms!). The I, R1b and R1a1a admixture in Anatolia clearly arrived there due to natural spread and cannot be connected to the Magyars or the Turks, but to the Pannonici.
E1b1b1a1b (E-V13) N Y-DNA (left, Rootsi; right, annals of Human genetics 2004) and Tat C (almost absent in Mongolia and China) are very frequent in northern Eurasia including Finland and the Khanty-Mansi area. Therefore, they have been considered signatures of the Uralic speakers. However, they are missing in Hungary. How is it possible, since the Hungarians, according to the HAS, came from the Khanty
Mansi area, i.e. from Yugra? As simple as this: the Hungarians did not come from Yugra! The absence of N Y-DNA and of Tat C in Hungary (Rosser 2000) confirms my theory because, in my theory, the ancestors of the Hungarians never dwelled north of the 51 st parallel, which is the approximate southern limit of the presence of N Y-DNA and of Tat C. (See also the Note G below: “The Finns” > N1c1c. N1c was formerly N3). The absence of N Y-DNA and of Tat C in Hungary demolishes the linguistic theory of origin of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, because, if the Magyars had come from the Khanty-Mansi area (Yugra), they would have had a much, much higher rate of N and of Tat C! I know that for the linguists it is blasphemous to maintain that not the Khanty-Mansi, (who speak today the closest language to Hungarian) came back to Hungary, but the Arsi (who now speak Chinese or Turkic) did! The linguists are pseudo scientists, who believe that linguistics is the mother of all sciences and that archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and history should be bent to fit their linguistic fantasies. The linguists are pseudo-scientists that are unable to understand and accept a concept as simple as this: the Hungarians shall soon speak Chinese (left: Chinese military parade, Tien'anmen, CN), as all the Europeans will. (It will be after a bloody atomic war declared to China by another Indo-European Bush, in the last attempt to maintain global supremacy. Yesterday the U.S. debt, which is in Chinese hands, has been downgraded by S&P: the process has started). When it shall happen, the Hungarians shall replace their language within a couple of generations, but their archaeology shall forever remain Hungarian, their genome shall remain Hungarian for centuries, and their culture shall slowly start changing. Nevertheless, they shall never worship the Buddha, but rather His Mother, that they shall again name Nagyboldogasszony, as they named Nagyboldogasszony the Mother of Christ, as they called Nagyboldogasszony their ancestral Mother Goddess – the Mother Isten. You understand now why 4 years ago I published the following sentence on the “The Ugaritic Abjad…” page of this website: “If you quote my work, please do not label me as a linguist. I consider that title an offence.” N Y-DNA and Tat C are not the signature of the Uralic speakers, but they are the markers of the Arctic people! The Hungarians of Yugra are not those who speak a Ugric language, or those who carry N and Tat C: the Hungarians of Yugra are those who carry R1a1a (whichever language they speak!) and who worshipped a Mother Isten idol as tall as a human, entirely made of gold, still at the time the Russians showed up in Yugra, in the 17 th century. When I say “Hungarian”, I refer to a population that kept its genetic and cultural identity along 10 millennia, regardless of the language they spoke or shall speak! Language connections are irrelevant. Not the Khanty-Mansi migrated to Hungary, but the Altaic Pazyryki did migrate to the Khanty-Mansi area: “All the U7 sequences found in Khanty and Mansi are identical, and the same sequence is found in Uighur of Central Asia. This suggests a recent founder effect of U7 haplogroup in Khanty and Mansi with a probable Central Asian origin. Similarly, the Southeast Asian-derived Y chromosome N2 lineage, allegedly specific for Uralic speakers (!!), is also found among Altaic speakers….” (“Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers”, Forensic Biology, University of Helsinki) (See: X. References > Pazyryki and Khanty Mansi). The Pazyryki moved to Yugra after they were attacked by the Huns in about 200 B.C. (see the abstract “The Hsiung Nu/Huns”) and they brought there the Hungarian language, the Mother Isten, R1a1a, and the European Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, and they intermingled with local populations, and… they never came back home, to Hungary. In fact, the little archaeology of the Khanty-Mansi is congruent with the Siberian archaeology of the Pazyryki:
J.D.Kimball, А.И.Соловьёв (history.novosibdom.ru) (+Pleiades)
Magna Hungaria: Ust-Polui, Turbino, Seyma Rostovka
Furthermore, there is no archaeology in west Asia, in the middle Age, that can support the presence there of an advanced community that could have arrived in Europe and could have become, on arrival, the strongest military power of Europe, unless you hypothesise that the “hunter gatherer” Yugrans learnt all they had to learn overnight, on arrival in Hungary. In fact, the Magyars were not “hunter gatherers”, as somebody does define the Yugrans! Yugra: the linguistic theory of origin of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is woodoo science! ( Genetics and the HAS) The Hungarian pie does not show any Chinese or Mongolic (Hunnish) admixture. Mongolic genetic traces in Hungary? Of course, yes! But not coming from the Huns. Rather from the Magyars! In fact, the Arsi and the Chinese peacefully shared the Tarim Basin for as long as one millennium (Han to Tang dynasties). They shared the cemeteries (Astana), they shared religious rites (in the Buddhist caves), and they shared the same enemy: the Hsiung Nu/Huns. Even being both endogamic cultures, it is very possible that some intermingling between Chinese and Arsi did happen in such a long time. This intermingling is confirmed by genetic researches on the Magyars: when the Magyars arrived in Europe, there was still the evidence of some East Asian admixture. In fact, the 5% East Asian MtDNA (B and M, "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)" Csanád Bálint, 10 2008) found in Honfoglalás Magyar women, is not necessarily Mongolic, but it can rather be of autochthonous Chinese of the Tarim basin: B and M (widespread in Han populations) have been found in the DNA of ancient and modern people of the Tarim Basin, in cemeteries where West Eurasian and east Asians were buried. Additional East Asian genetic traces in Hungary may have also derived from the Cumanians and the Mongols of Genghis Khan, but not from the Huns! (See “The Huns”). Mongolic traces:
low rate of GM genetic markers on immunoglobulins (Hideo Matsumoto, who also found it in the Ainu). blue spot, which, being dominant, could have been at very low rates on arrival in Europe. phenotypes with infrequent Mongolic features. … other traces.
The Hungarians were not Mongols, not Hsiung Nu, not Huns! CONCLUSION: the genetic impact on Hungary of the peoples of the Honfoglalás (Sarmatians, Avars, and Magyars) was small because they found in Hungary other Hungarians (see X. > Hungarians > 20.). The genetics of the Magyars helped to keep the local rate of R1a1a and R1b high, to increase the rate of G and J, and to decrease the rate of E1b, I, and N in pre-Honfoglalás Hungarians of Carpathia that had received the admixture of E1b, I, and N in the 2 millennia the Honfoglalás people were not in Europe. The Hungarians were not Mongols, not Yugrans, not Turks, not Finns (The Finns were Hungarians!). They were Pannonici, who migrated to central Asia ( Arsi), who came back home as Sarmatians, Avars and Magyars, who mixed with the Szekely and Pannonici that had remained in the Carpathian Basin, and thus they made the modern Hungarian identity.
(See the letters on the Map at the beginning of V., from West to East) Wherever I found Hungarian cultural markers (“Honfoglalás…“) and archaeological markers (“The Magyar art…”), there R1a1a and/or Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found by genetics!
In this area, people descending from Palaeolithic inhabitants could still live, who had survived in Scotland and western Ireland thanks to the North Atlantic Drift, and who had been trapped there, after England and the Channel had been covered with ice. In 3000 B.C., Gaelia homed an advanced culture that erected some of the largest and most ancient Kurgans and megaliths, far before the “IndoEuropean Kurgans” appear in Europe. Spiraliform motifs were already there. In the Orkney islands R1a1a is still at a peak of 27%. It could be Norse in the islands, but not all over Scotland and the Belfast area. The Norse did not migrate only to the Orchad islands, why should they have left their R1a1a only in islands that were inhabited by a civilized people since the Neolithic? (Skara Brae).
The frequency of R1a1a is 5.5%, Di Gaetano et al., 2008: Siculi? Lombards? Alans from Tunis? In Italy, a higher frequency is only found in Friuli, where Cividale is. Cividale was the first capital city of the Avar Longobards. If 5.5% is the average for all of Sicily, how high can the frequency of R1a1a be in the pockets and in the refugia where the Siculo-AvarSzékely-Lombards live now? E.g: in San Fratello. Bettino Craxi (not an Italian surname!), Italian prime Minister, was a Siculo-Lombard. His father was from San Fratello. He is not loved by many Italians, but the other prime Ministers after De Gasperi were not better. He defended, the dignity of Italy as a sovereign state, against an intrusion of R. Reagan, in Sigonella, with Carabinieri ready to fire onto American Marines. (See “Archaeology of Sicily” on “Székely Varese”). There are pockets of R1a1a also in Calabria (Wapedia); some Avar/Lombards settled there too. A small town in Calabria holds the name of “Longobardi”. The walls of the presbytery of the S. Francesco church of Longobardi are decorated with yellow Delivering Mother Istens, on a red background, right. They claim that King Liutprand was there and a popular name in town is Lipranno, a distortion of Liutprand.
The only undisputed European Urheimat of the Germanics (Sweden) was introduced to the Bronze Age by “Hungarian adventurers” (Metropolitan Museum of Art) in the second half of the 2 nd millennium B.C.: the Metropolitan explains this peak of R1a1a. The swords, razors and other artefacts found in Sweden are congruent with Pannonico archaeology. There is Sarmatian archaeology in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, and Pannonico and Sarmatian archaeology in Pribaltika. Note that, in Aržan (Tuva, Siberia), amber has been found in graves C 14 dated 620 B.C.: Herodotus was right! “In the fifth century B.C., Herodotus mentioned transit trade occurring in Central Asia along a route that stretched from the Urals in the west to the Altai and the Minusinsk Basin [Pazyrykia] in the east” (Hemphill and Mallory 2004).
D. AMBER ROAD TERMINAL
MACEDONIA AND THESSALY.
See References > 64.: “Greece. R1a1a is not where the Greeks settled!” There is a peak of R1a1a in correspondence of what was the Macedonia of Alexander the Great. In ” Honfoglalás…” I had hypothesised that Alexander was not Greek but Hungarian! Demosthenes said it quite clearly in his Philippics: "Γένοιτ’ άν τι χαινότερον, ή Μαχεδών ανήρ Αθηναίους χαταπολεμών χαί τά τών Ελλήνων διοιχών" (Would a Macedonian [non Greek] rule the Greeks!?). The Underhill map strengthens my hypothesis with genetic evidence, after I have already proved, with archaeology, that Macedonia was a culturally Hungarian region:
Macedonia, Early Iron Age, Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. All the above artefacts are congruent with Bronze Age Pannonico archaeology (See the book “The gold of the world” G. CH. Chourmouziadis, and my images abstracts). The archaeology of ancient Macedonia is not Indo-European, and it can be seen in the Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. In Kavala, Macedonia, the Hungarian spiral bronze bracelets were in use until the 6 th century B.C.. At that time, north of Athens, the conical hat was also still in use (bronze figurines). In Dendra and Maraton, Bronze Age Horse burials have been found (right, 1550 B.C.). Hungarian Gold Idols have been found in Sesklo and in Aravissos Yannitsa (left, 4 millennium B.C.) Nea Nikomedeia: R1a1a=21.1%; Sesklo/Dimini, R1a1a=10.5%. All over Greece, the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found.
The Peloponnese, where Mycenae and Sparta were located, is almost R1a1a free. The Greek Mycenaeans and Spartans were the most Indo-European Indo-Europeans: they lived in a state of permanent war. Imagine that the Spartans, when there was no war against foreigners, declared war against the ilotes (their slaves) or celebrated the kripteia, which was another “ceremony” for murdering their ilotes. (Jorge Cano Cuenca, Carlos III University, Madrid, Spain. Read his “Sparta, the warring city”). In other words, the slaves were human targets for the Spartan war games. Why the Indo-Germanists do not tell you these things? If you are an Indo-Germanist, if you read the article of Jorge, you shall be ashamed of being termed “Indo-European”, and you shall ask for a Hungarian passport next day! The only genetic research I have found on Myceneans regards MtDNA (Circle B Grave, late 17 th century B.C., Abigail S. Bouwmana, Keri A. Brown, N. W. Prag A. John and Terence A. Brown): “[The Mycenaean] U5a1a lineage within haplogroup U5 arose in Europe approximately 30,000 years ago, [23,000 years before the Indo-Europeans start speaking their language!] and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe. In the context of its rather ancient origin, the modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1 suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe ”. (The other 3 samples carried Hg H2 and Uk). This research is hard to find, nobody comments it! That MtDNA was not Indo-European, but PreIndo-European! In fact, in Greece, including Peloponnese, also the Hungarian Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found! It was the MtDNA of Bronze Age Hungarians (Pannonici). I long for seeing a research looking for Y-DNA in Mycenae. Nevertheless, I would not be surprised if no R1a1a is found: the IndoEuropeans used to kill the men (or to use them as human targets for their war games!), but they did enslave the women for their “Bunga Bunga”. Before Indo-Europeanization, the Helladics buried their Horses, in Mycenae too, as they did in Dendra and Maraton. The Scythians and the Amazons were allied of Troy against Mycenae (Homer); the Scythians were allied of Athens against Sparta: Scythian mounted archers protected the walled corridor between Athens and Piraeus. Here is some of the archaeology of the Hungarians of Mycenae, before their Indo-Europeanization: exactly the same things that you can find in Carpathia even at an earlier time, including the Pleiades (Athens Archaeological Museum: you must go there to see them, as these artefacts are not published or commented in books!):
The earliest inhabitants of Mycenae, were not (not!) Indo-Europeans. The genetic legacy of the Hungarian female slaves (Pazyrykia’s MtDNA) of the Mycenaeans survives in Greece. In Greece, R1a1a has only survived in pockets because the Hungarians that had been enslaved there were used as “human targets” for the “war games” of the Mycenaeans and of the Spartans.
BLONDS IN GREECE.
Wilhelm Sieglin has found out that 170 out of the 362 (47%) ancient gods or prominent Greeks, described in ancient Greek literature, were blond or red haired, with gray, blue, or light green eyes: this is why democracy was born in Greece! No other Indo-European society has ever been democratic before modern time! (Wilhelm Sieglin, che si è preso la pena di andare a scovare tutti i passi delle fonti greche dove si parli del colore degli occhi e dei capelli, ha potuto dimostrare che dei 121 personaggi della storia greca di cui gli autori ci descrivono i caratteri fisici, 109 sono biondi, e solo 13 bruni. Lo stesso Sieglin ha raccolto le descrizioni dei personaggi della mitologia: delle divinità, 60 hanno capelli biondi, e solo 35 capelli scuri (di cui 29 numi del mare o degli inferi); degli eroi delle saghe, 140 sono biondi e 18 han capelli neri; dei personaggi poetici, 41 biondi e 8 neri). The higher prolificacy of the testosteronic Indo-Europeans and the African admixture in Greece have made the blonds disappear from the country. CRETE (Lasithi Plateau, R1a1a=29.3%: Lasithi Prefecture, R1a1a=17.4%). Left: Etruscan amphora ; attic black-figures, 540–530 BC: Poseidon fighting the Giant Polybotes during the Gigantomachy, Louvre. That succumbing Giant with his Mother Isten on his shield (left, complete with head and offspring), was a Pannonico pre-IndoEuropean God, who belonged to a community of Gods, in which two Goddesses – Gaia and Rhea – took all decisions. How many were the Titans? 6. And the Giants? 6. And the sisters of the Titans? 6. 6, the sacred number of the Hungarians. Was what I named 6 Ray Sun (right, Mycenae) the sacred representation of the divine sixes? “In the Cretan tradition, the Titans were portrayed as agrarian [not pastoralist!] Gods, who lived in the vicinity of Knossos in Crete, where they ruled over mankind during the Golden Age”. The Golden Age of Old Europe. Lasithi could be the refugium where the descendents of the matriarchal pre-Indo-European Gods still survive. The mythical wars between the new and the ancient Gods (Asir versus Vanir, in Nordia; Greek Gods vs. Titans and Giants, in Greece) represented the mythic, epic conquest war of the “nomadic, pastoralist, war faring” newcomers.
The Finns were “Hungarian adventurers” that started the Amber Road in very ancient time, and who “brought the Bronze Age to Scandinavia” (Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, USA, website, Scandinavia timeline) in the second half of the 2 nd millennium B.C.. They were pushed further northward first by the Slavs and later on by the Germans ( Deutschritterorden). They intermingled with the Saami. If you leave the relevant Saami admixture out of the Finnish genetic pie, you find out that, before the admixture, the Finns were Europeans and akin to the Hungarians. N1c1c: the Finns are Mongols, the Hungarians are not Finno-Ugric! Right, distribution of N1c, formerly N3a. The subclade N1c1c, very frequent in Finland, has been first connected to the Uralic languages, then used in order to prove that the Finns are Mongols, and finally, as it has not been found in Budapest, to prove that the Hungarians are not Finno-Ugrics! N1c1c has even been used to prove that the Slavic Slovenians “did not arrive 1500 years ago, but they were indigenous to the lands they still now inhabit”! “Y-Chromosome frequencies and the implications on the Theories relating to the Origin and settlement of Finno-Ugric, Proto-Hungarian and Slavic populations”, Hindu Institute of Learning, Toronto, Canada, by Joseph Skulj (clearly of “Slavic” Slovenian origins!). Unbelievable! Some people decide what they want to prove, first, and, later on, they start ruminating. Furthermore, as N1c1c has not been found in Budapest, but it has been found only in Őrség (Guglielmino 2000), the Őrség inhabitants would be the only Uralics in Hungary! N1c1c has nothing to do with the Finns, nothing to do with the Uralic languages, nothing to do with the Mongols. The geneticists say that N1 originated in Southern China (Sichuan, 14.000 B.C.) and N1c1c originated from south of the Baikal lake (6000 B.C.), from where it spread to the Arctic shores. N1c1c is the marker of the migrations of the Arctic populations. When the Uralics of Eurasia were pushed northward, they intermingled with the N1c1c peoples, whose languages were Uralicized. Finnicized in Europe and Ugricized in Asia. (Right: Uralic languages). The N1c1c Saami, were in Nordia since at least 5.000 B.C. and they had migrated there from the central shores of the Arctic Sea (Noel D. Broadbent, Smithsonian Institution). The russification policies made of the Saami language a forbidden language; Saami children were picked up from Saami families and were given back at the age of 15, after they had been Russified. (Note that slavery was abolished and in Indo-Russia, as in Indo-USA, in the second half of the 19 th century!). The Soviet Empire finally relocated the Saami in collective farms here and there in the south. I could bet that Stalin relocated them where russification was more needed: Pribaltika, Tatarstan, Volga-Kama. Stalin was diabolic: he did not oblige the Tatars, the Baltics, or the Finno-Ugrics, to learn Russian, but he mixed all these peoples together so that they freely decide to learn Russian as a lingua franca, so to be able to understand each other! Furthermore, Stalin obtained the result that, today, there are no minorities in Russia, but only mixed populations, who all speak Russian now and therefore they are “Russian” in Russian statistics. The Europeans are so busy blaming Hitler, that they have forgotten what Stalin did! The Saami are said to be about 100.000 in Nordia. In Russia, the Saami speakers left are only 1600 (BBC), but there are millions of genetic Saami in the territory of the former Communist Empire: N1c1c in Northern Russia: 41.3%; in Central Russia: 17%. These Saami have no right on the territory they live in now: it has never been their homeland. The recent Saami migrations were not voluntary migrations, but forced migrations, like the migrations of the Volga Germans (that Czarina Catherine had “imported” to implement Russian agriculture) and of the Russian Hebrews: Stalin relocated the Germans in Kazakhstan and the Hebrews in an autonomous Okrug of east Siberia. Beside Norway, Sweden, and Finland, N1c1c is at high frequencies, only in the areas where other ethnic minorities dwelled in the former Soviet Empire. In antiquity, maybe some Saami migrated southward looking for 12 hours daylight, maybe some of them preferred joining the FinnoUgrics so that together with them they could better defend themselves from the hordes of Slavics… but most of them were spread all over the empire and now they speak Russian only thanks to the Soviet relocations and to the russification policies. Why there is no N1c1c in Budapest? Because, when the Hungarians migrated to Central Asia, Stalin was not yet born and because the Tarim Basin did not ever belong to the Soviet empire, and because, at the time the Hungarians left Pannonia, N1c1c had not reached central Europe yet: this is why the Hungarians only have 0,6% N1c1c. Around Hungary, in Slavic Czekia, N1c1c is at 1.6%, in Slavic Ukraine at 6%, and in Slavic Serbia at 0-6.2%. In Romania N1c1c is 0%, because the Romanians came from Albania, where it still is 0%: N1c1c has never migrated as far as to Albania. In Pribaltika it is at 20-40%. The low rates of N1c1c and of Tat C in Hungary are also evidence of very little Slavic admixture in the Hungarians, as the low rates of E1b is evidence of little Aromin admixture. The Hungarians never lived close to the Arctic peoples, this is why they have only 0,6 % N1c1c. For the same reason, Tat C, which has also been mistakenly considered a Uralic marker, is at high rates in Finland (above 50%) and along the Arctic Sea, but it is almost absent in Hungary. The Finns are the last remnants of a migration of Pannonici that brought the Bronze Age to Nordia, that started the Amber Road, that were pushed northward by Germans and Slavs, that spread a Uralic language to Nordia, and that intermingled with an overwhelming N1c1c and Tat C local population, which was there since 5000 B.C. (Smithsonian Institution). Instead, the Saami MtDNA received a central European admixture (U5b1b, V, H1) that is absent in Siberian Arctic populations (“The western and eastern roots of the Saami, the story of genetic "outliers" told by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes”, Kristiina Tambets et al.). In Nordia, the Finns are NOT those who speak a Finnic language, or those who carry N1c1c or Tat C, but those who bear a Central European DNA made of a mix of R1a1a, I, and R1b. Other references:
“A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe”, Siiri Rootsi et al. “Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe”, Miroslava Derenko et al. “Dual Origins of Finns Revealed by Y Chromosome Haplotype Variation”, Derenko M. et al.
“Honfoglalás…” page 232, about the methods of the Slavic conquest of Russia. The following images reconstruct the final migration of the Hungarians from the amber road terminal to Finland:
II c. A.D. “The Balts”, Gimbutas. Crown of double spirals.
Sarmatian Aorsi (Ptolomaeus map), Lithuania, Horse burial.
800 A.D., Madona, Latvia Spiral bracelets, rattles, comb with dotted circles, 3 circles design pins.
X century A.D., Eura, Finland. Spiral bracelets in a grave.
Schosseinyi, Gunevsky, Kaliningrad, RU (East Prussia). Bronze. Dotted circles
The Pannonici that had remained in Prussia - the amber road terminal - in the 11 th-12th century, still decorated their animals with dotted circles, as they had done along several millennia and as the Avars of Cividale still did when they arrived in Italy with the Longobards! Later on, the custom of decorating horses with geometric designs shall move to Lithuania, right. The double spiral of Gimbutas is the same that the Hungarians wore on their neck since the Calcholitic (History Museum Budapest and Romanian figurines), and that, in the Bronze Age, they had on their forehead (left, Pannonia; right, Southern Sweden). I have hundreds of images of Hungarian sacred symbols unearthed in the area from Kaliningrad to Novgorod to Finland, in the Oka valley, in the Volga-Kama region (Hermitage, History Museum of Moscow, books) and images of jewellery of Rus (Hermitage and books) that prove the Hungarian cultural continuity in Northern Europe, from the Bronze Age to the beginning of the Russification of Russia, at the end of the Middle Age. For cultural markers, see “Holmgard and the origin of democracy” on “Honfoglalás…”. Note that the archaeology of the Finnics had not evolved since the Bronze Age, as it usually happens in isolated cultures. Only starting from the 6th century, the last variations of the Hungarian Sacred Symbols started reappearing among the Finnics of Russia:
The above objects prove that the Bronze Age Hungarian cultural DNA had survived in Finnic populations until the Middle Age. Similar artefacts were not brought back by Avars and Magyars, whose sacred symbols had evolved into new shapes.
The above objects show similarity with Sarmatian and maybe Cumanian objects (necklace), and in any case depict Sacred Symbols that the Hungarians worshipped along several millennia. Note the similarity of the first image above (Pleiades) with the logo of the MTA restaurant in Budapest (left. See the last line of the Sacred Symbols abstract and read my comments!) and with the Decebalus shield.
The objects of the above 2 lines (Middle Age, 900 A.D.- 1300 A.D.) show a clear influence of the Avar and Hungarian religious art in Rus. The rattle, the bracelet, and the Cross of Istens could have been made by Magyars. Hundreds of bracelets similar to the above one have been found in Transylvania, dated to the Honfoglalás time. The rhomboidal image of the last Cross of Hearts belongs to a Hungarian artefact, but identical deteriorated objects have been found in Kiev and Ladoga. Sources of the images of the four above lines: History Museums of Kiev and Moscow, Hermitage, Lithuanus. Locations: Pribaktika (including Novgorod) and western European part of Russia. Actually, all of Russia was a culturally Hungarian region until the Middle Age: if you visit the History Museum of Moscow you find out that the archaeology of European Russia was Hungarian from the third Millennium B.C. to the 13 th century A.D., regardless of the labels that the Soviet archaeologist have associated to the artefacts that they have found in former USSR: “western Slavic”, “southern Slavic”, “Eastern Slavic”, “Scythian, “Sarmatian”, “Novgorod”, “Pribaltika”… see “Is there Russian archaeology… in Russia?”: if it is not enough for you, look for the hundreds of images of Hungarian artefacts found in USSR and kept in the Hermitage, in the three main Kiev Museums, in Ufa, in Madona (LV)…. which are in the images Abstracts of “Magyar Art…”.
This isolate pocket of R1a1a is associated to an isolate pocket of Balkanic I2a1 (right) and of R1b (25%) and to a pocket of light eyes! Samarrans? Urartians? Kimmers? Medes? Parthians? Zazas? Kurds? Sabirs? An Avar Silk Road logistic base? Avars who had found a refugium in Armenia, before it was taken by the Sassanids? In this area, the population that is genetically (MtDNA) the nearest one to the Derenburg farmers (from a single grave, Germany, LBK, 5500–4500 B.C., left) lives today. “Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities”, W. Haack. Haack comes to the conclusion that the Derenburg farmers had came from this area: I would not be so sure about the direction of the
migration: A migration of light eyed peoples is more likely to be expected to go from Europe to the Near East.
It is more likely that a migration originated a far away pocket (in the Near East) than such a wide spread (in Europe).
If R1b and I could have arrived in this area due to natural spread; a pocket of R1a1a would have been too far from its area of natural spread. In fact, it could have been brought here by the historical migration of the Cimmers from west Ukraine to this area. In favour of Haack’s hypothesis:
The two most beautiful Sumerian statuettes depict a blue eyed man and a red-haired woman (Mesopotamia, E. Ascalone): maybe also the farmers that came to Europe were red haired and blue eyed? Nevertheless, the light eyes of this pocket could even come from a recent admixture: they could come from a tribe of blondish, light eyed people that now dwell in Iraq: the “Alani”!
The 6th millennium B.C. is the time in which Çatalhöyük was abandoned and the Çatalhöyükians moved their culture to Carpathia (see “Magyar Art…” > “The Mother Isten” Abstract > line 002). Maybe there were two or more migrations, in both directions, at different times. Similarity of burial positions of couples in love (face to face) in Çatalhöyük, Derenburg (DE, © Karol Schauer), and Niya (Tarim basin):
Etruscans couples also were buried face to face (right). An Indo-European man would have not allowed his wife in his grave: women belonged to an inferior “specie”! Note that, in Çatalhöyük, it is the woman that hosts the husband in her grave (only his plastered skull): a matrilocal society, even after death!
A Chinese research (“Analysis of genomic admixture in Uyghur and its implication in Mapping Strategy”, Shuhua Xu et al.) has found that “UIG was formed by two-way admixture, with 60% European ancestry and 40% East Asian ancestry”. Chinese statistics report a presence of Mongols in the Tarim basin as low as 2.58%: almost no Huns! The Tarim Basin appears from the Underhill map to be a negative peak of the frequency of R1a1a. The truth is that this map pictures today’s situation, after recent immigration of non Uyghurs to the Basin has made the non Uyghur population boost to around 50% of the total. If you go back to 1949, when the Chinese took control of Xinjiang, you find out that non Uyghurs were little more than 5%. (Official Chinese Statistic sources). It means that the percentage of Uyghurs in 1949 was almost double than today. If you could clean the genetic pie of the Tarim Basin from the Orkhon Turko-Mongolic-Uyghur admixture, you would find out that R1a1a was even higher than 50%, in 840 A.D.. If you could cut out from the Tarim Basin pie the data of the Northern area of the Basin (the area of Kucho, the capital of the Chinese protectorate, and the Turpan depression (Turpan was several times raided by the Hsiung Nu, Rouran, Turkics, Mongols… - as it was at reach of nomadic peoples), you would find out that at the beginning of the Han Dynasty, the basin’s population could have been predominantly R1a1a. “In the Tarim basin, the west:east matrilineal admixture ratio is the same as in extant and Iron Age populations: the MtDNA admixture of the Uyghurs appears to have been very low” (X. References > 45.). The Uyghur genetic impact on the basin population was irrelevant. “The admixture event of UIG occurred about 930 - 150 B.C.” (X. References > 46.). The most ancient archaeological evidence confirms the existence of an admixed population in the basin in about 2000 B.C.; history suggests that the last wave of Hungarians to the basin arrived in 600-200 B.C., at the time the Hsiung Nu started raiding the Hungarians in Arzhan and later on all of Central Asia (at the time of Mao Dun). The Uyghur Turkish speakers arrived in the Basin in about 840 A.D.: were they also Hungarians with the same ratio of east Asian admixture as the one of the Hungarians (60:40), who had lived in the Basin since 2000 B.C.? Did the Uyghurs receive the East Asian admixture in Orkhon (in this case a Hsiung Nu admixture, congruent with the timing hypothesized in X. References > 46) or in Inner Mongolia, at the time they were paid tributes from the Chinese (in this case Chinese), or did they collect East Asian admixed Hungarians during their migrations? The Uyghurs could have been a Hungarian population ruled by a Uyghur warring elite that, as usual, imposed its language, after the Magyars left the Basin. I have not found evidence of violence at the time of the Uyghur invasion of the Basin: it could have been a meeting between old friends! The genetic pie of the Uyghurs (right, UG, McDonald, confirmed by several researches) shows that R1a1a (yellow) is still the main component of the Uyghur pie and that R1b (red) is the second component. Furthermore, 50% of the R1b appears to be the European R1b1a2-M269. In the Tarim basin, there is a significant rate of E1b1b (up to 6.5% in Urumqi), "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times" Yali Xue et al.. Is E1b1b Balkan Afro-European E1b1b1a1b (E-V13)? Low rates of I have been found in Arsia, with peaks in Fergana and Pakistan. R1a1a, R1b, I, and E1b1b show isolated peaks in Arsia: somebody must have brought them from Europe to the Tarim Basin! (Part of the R1a1a could be autochthonous). The McDonald pies do confirm the high values of R1a1a (yellow) also in Altai (AL), Kirgizistan (KG), Uzbekistan (UZ), Selkup (SL), and Tatarstan (KT, Volga Kama merging). “The Iranians show low R1a1a levels, but males of eastern parts of Iran [Arsia] carry up to 35% R1a1a, which is also found in approximately 20% of Iranian males from the cities of Teheran and Isfahan” (Nasidze et al., 2004). The low rate of South Asian L in Uyghurs makes the origin of the Tarim basin R1a1a from India or Pakistan quite improbable. (X. References > 46.). In ancient times, the Tarim Basin was accessible from the north, not from the south: the L admixture in the basin is recent and it only materialized when the Southern route of the Silk Road (through the Pamir) was opened. The Indo-Germanists, led by Victor Mair, insist maintaining that the mummies of the Tarim Basin spoke an Indo-European language, because millennia after their death, in the Tarim Basin, in 2 monasteries, the Buddhist priests spoke the Gandhara/Hungarian pidgin “Tocharian” language! The Indo-Germanists tell you that father in Tocharian was pakar, but they hide that it was also apaka (apuka in Hungarian from apa, father in Basque and in all agglutinative languages of the world)! See “Honfoglalás…”, pages 139-150.
The yurts of the Madjars of Torgay (KZ) are protected by Crosses of Istens, Lines of Istens, Birth Symbols, Heart Mother Istens, and… “tulips”! Could they not be Hungarians?
All over East Kazakhstan the yurts are decorated like the above one: the Kazakhs that have lost their Hungarian DNA still keep a Hungarian cultural DNA.
Zutu-Garla,Pannonia Madjar Birth Symbol
Tarim Basin, A. Stein
Silk Road carpet
Székely Nat. Mus.
Please note the astonishing similarity of the Çatalhöyük and the Székely Birth Symbol; time distance: 8 millennia, no change! It is another clue in favour of the theory that the Székely did not migrate as their Sacred Symbols are still the same as the Pannonico ones. The Madjar Birth Symbol is instead very similar to the Tarim Basin and Silk Road symbols.
The same line of Heart Istens that decorates the Madjar yurt (above) is the logo of the Academy of Sciences of Kirgizstan (below).
Talas Valley, KZ, Benkő Mihai
All the above images, predominantly cyan and magenta, show the same Isten (right) around the central symbol (which, in Central Asia, is a Cross of Istens). The Cross of Istens of the Madjars is asymmetric as the Tarim basin one (below) and the Magyar Crosses shall be.
The above images are from the Tarim basin (except a Kazakh tubeteika that is decorated with the Kirgiz “tamga”), but they could well be Madjar! The white and orange Cross of Istens is asymmetric (See why in the “The Mother Isten” abstract, line 146).
The hat of the Madjar man is no longer pointed, but it is still decorated with a “tulip”, the same “tulip” that was on the forehead of Copper/Bronze Age idols, on the Magyar crowns, from Korea to Margit-sziget to London (Elizabeth II), on the head of the above Uyghur dancer, on the head of the lion of the Nagyszentmiklós treasure (right), and…. Left: emblem of Nagytoke, HU, with the same Heart Isten that also decorates the sceptre of the Hungarian regalia, the Kazakhstan flag, the emblem of the Academy of Sciences of Kirgizstan, and…. (About 50% of the emblems of Hungarian counties show naïve Hungarian Bronze Age Sacred Symbols; the other half of them has alien coat of bloody arms, copied from Indo-European designs). Astonishingly, the Madjars still keep the most exclusive Hungarian marker, the double design: the above lady, who wears a pointed hat, has a design on her headdress and gilè that can be read either as a Birth Symbol (2 nd image in the central box, black design, with Her symbolic rhomboidal uterus) or as a couple of Heart Istens (3 rd image). Source of the images of Madjars: HonLevel, July 2007 Archaeology is more accurate than genetics (“A Y-chromosomal comparison of the Madjars and the Magyars”, A. Z. Biro): genetics can say that the Madjars are more akin to the Hungarians than to their neighbours; archaeology says that they were Hungarians. None of the above designs and Sacred Symbols has ever been used by the Huns. The geneticists of the above research have also reconstructed in a map (right) a possible route back home of the Madjars. If you do not consider the step 3 (which has been added just to please the linguists of the MTA), that map perfectly reconstructs the migrations of the Sarmatians (Steps 1-2- -4-5-6). Instead, the very high rate of G Y-DNA suggests a migration of Sarmatian Madjars along steps 1-2-4-2: they could have left west Tien Shan and have settled in Northern Caucasus (as the Sarmatians did; there they would have acquired an overwhelming G admixture, otherwise inexplicable) and they could have come back to 2, where they are now, after centuries spent in Caucasus. A large region of North Caucasus was actually named “Alania” in the Middle Age. There lived also the Jas that somebody links to the Jasigs and the Ossetins. 18.000 Caucasus “Alan” knights were enrolled by Kublai Khan as his personal guard in China. The Madjars could be descendents of a very few defectors of that army: it would explain the so high rate of G of the Madjars (founder effect) and their exogamy (Knights did not move with women!).
The Kalash are among the several populations that have been convinced by Indo-Germanists to be descendents from soldiers of Alexander the Great! I have already stressed in “Honfoglalás…”, pages 128 and 130, the congruence of their culture with the old Hungarian culture, and in “Magyar Art…” their massive use of ancient Hungarian Sacred Symbols still today. The possible genetic Greek admixture in Central Asia has been investigated and some possible Greek links in the Pashtu have been found (E3b1, which could be Pannonico!), but links with the Kalash are “unclear” (“Investigation of the Greek ancestry of northern Pakistani ethnic groups using Y chromosomal DNA variation”, Q. Ayub et al.; “Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan”, Sadaf Firasat et al.). 18-30% of the Y-DNA of the Kalash is still made of R1a1a, absolutely not Greek! 20% is made of H, typical of India and of the Roma, whose urheimat is in the same region; 23% of L3a, which is autochthonous in south west Asia; a small percentage is made of J. A sizeable percentage of Kalash are blond or red haired, as the rest of the Arsi are, as Alexander was, as the invading Indo-Europeans were not (except Roman prostitutes, who used blond wigs as a “status symbol”).
The frequency of R1a1a in the Brahmin Hinduist priestly social caste is usually higher than in other castes of the same region. “R1a has a very high frequency in modern Brahmins, irrespective of linguistic and geographic affiliations, suggesting that it was the founder haplogroup for the population.” (Sharma et al., 2009). In antiquity, Brahmins were preferably to be blonds. The only blonds available in Asia, in ancient time, were the… Hungarians. I have doubts that the Kushans and the Heftalites alone could have been able to spread so much R1a1a to India: they were not as testosteronic as the Indo-Europeans were. Nor the Indo-Europeans could have done it: wherever they arrived they spread only their language not their genes: they were always small bands of warriors: they could become élites and be able to impose their language, but they could never replace a genome of any population. See also “Genetics and the Aryan debate” (References X. > 62.) where more evidence is given to the fact that the present genetic picture of India is as old as the Pleistocene and that “The supposed Aryan invasion of India 3,000–4,000 years before present [and I add the Hungarian migrations] therefore did not make a major splash in the Indian gene pool”. The Indo-Europeans, if they did not arrive with space ships, could only have arrived in India from North West (after the desertification of the Steppes where they lived, east of the Caspian Sea). On their way, they destroyed the Indus Valley civilization (beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C.) and they pushed its inhabitants eastward. The area where R1a1a is at its peak in India has the shape of an arrow head pointing to the East, the same shape that a cattle takes when you frighten it, shooting and heading to the centre of it. That cattle were the Indus Valley inhabitants, frightened by the fires of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. My opinion is that most of the Indian R1a1a comes from the Indus Valley civilization. In my maps, the Indus Valley and the BMAC (Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex) are part of Agglutinia, a large Eurasiatic area where the archaeology of the 3rd millennium B.C. was congruent with Central European archaeology. The R1a1a of India did not belong to the Indo-Europeans, but to the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, who were there since millennia, and who were enslaved by the Indo-Europeans. Some scholars are eventually hypothesising that the Indus valley people spoke an agglutinative language. Some others hypothesise that they were Elamites, who were fleeing from the Semitic invaders of Mesopotamia. The Elamites are supposed to have spoken an agglutinative language as the Sumers did. The Elamites were termed Scythians by scholars between the two world wars. The most of the Southern Pakistan and Central India R1a1a could belong to the legacy of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, where R1a1a could have arrived in very ancient time. This hypothesis is supported by Passarino G., Semino O., et alii: “The distribution of Eu19 Y-chromosomes (turned out to be 49a,f Ht11 or its derivatives) suggests that the Eu19/49a,f Ht11 emerged in Ukraine, probably in a Palaeolithic population, and thereafter spread toward Europe, Asia, and India at different waves over a few thousand years.” (“The 49a,f haplotype 11 is a new marker of the EU19 lineage that traces migrations from northern regions of the Black Sea ”). (Eu19=R-M17=R1a1a). Therefore, only in the Northern part of Pakistan and in the North Western part of India (Kashmir) additional R1a1a came from the Kushans, Heftalites and Arsi: Indian Kashmir (Punjab): R1a1a=20, 36, 41, 47, 63, 67%. Pakistan Kashmiri: 58%. Kalash: 30%. BIHAR (Bihar, Paswan, R1a1a=40.74%; Bihar, Brahmins, R1a1a=60.53% (Sharma et al. 2009); Chitwan, Nepal, R1a1a=69%). Bihar is a town and a state, south of Nepal, in India, along the Ganges river. The Buddha spent his early time in Bihar and the Hungarian Heftalites are supposed to have arrived there (Timo Stickler). Bihar [today Oradea] is also “ one of the oldest counties of the Kingdom of Hungary, formed before the twelfth century”. If you look in dating sites for images of people of Bihar and Patna (the capital of the Bihar state), you feel that some of those people do not look like Mongols (or Huna, as Eva Aradi calls them!) and not even like Indians: I feel I have seen that → girl while shopping in Váci utca! (www.datanta.in, for young single Hungarians!). Her eyes are also typical of the most beautiful Ukrainian girls. Bihar archaeology:
Magyar Crown, 6
Bihar jewelry, 6
Uttar Pradesh, Tokyo M.
Bihar, Metropolitan M.
Magyar Mother Isten
Note the similarity of the 6 petal rosette of Bihar and those on an Arpadian crown. The Magyar Mother Istens preferably held Their hands down. The different postures of the arms could correspond to different delivering postures at different times. I did not expect such a high frequency of R1a1a in Central India: I shall look for more images in the future! These ones were in my collection not because I was looking for them: they were looking for me!
Gyula Laszlo tested the language of the Indian Magars and decreed that the Magars were not Hungarians because they did not speak Hungarian! He did not test their DNA, nor he was a linguist. Can the Magars not descend from Hungarians because they speak another language now? Funny Country, a Country that allows linguists, artists, philosophers, indologists, anthropologists, mongolists, astronomers, musicians, doctors, nurses and…, worst of all, engineers to write the history of the Country, while the historians and the archaeologists sleep, or write fairy tales! Right, Magar curved dagger, the “Magar tamga”: it shows the Hungarian 3 lines on the hilt (as all the Hungarian swords along 5 millennia did, see “Xiung Nu Huns”), the undulating vegetal motif, and a cross with the typical 4 Hungarian dots, which reminds one of a Mother Isten (it is maybe a cross of daggers)… very Hungarian! According to some “Daco-Romans”, the Magar dagger had belonged to Decebalus and the Magars stole it! Between Bihar and Katmandu there is a high frequency of R1a1a (Chitwan, Nepal, R1a1a=69%) and even traces of the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA. An isolated pocket of European R1b1a2-M269 is also present in Nepal. “Language expert Madhav Pokhrel says that there is 16% similarity between Magar Language and Magyar Language…. The original religion of Magar people are Shamanism and Tengriism… possibly brought from Siberia… They bury their dead [in a subcontinent that cremates] and they have their own belief system regarding life after death (Hitchcock, 1966:25-34)…. Magars constitute the largest number of Gurkha soldiers outside Nepal… The Magars provided Nepal with a dynasty of kings.” (Wikipedia).
Sanchi, Madhia Pradesh: a Hungarian Kapu (Torana in India, Tori in Japan) and its details: two Mother Istens, guarded by two Turuls on top of a three lined Torana, decorated with spirals and animals, 1 st century A.D. or later.
Gandaberunda emblem in Mysore and in Keladi Mughal Turul, British M. Triratna (See above line) Tibetan triratna I have not yet looked for Hungarian artefacts in the Indian archaeology: the above ones were looking for me!
The Garo are one of the few remaining matrilineal societies in the world, supposed to have arrived in Assam from Tibet through the Brahmaputra. R1a1a is at 4%. See “Honfoglalás…” page 189: every Garu village still has its own Hungarian Kapu!
PAZYRYKIA AND SOUTH SIBERIA (SAKA, “INDO-IRANIANS”, KHANTY MANSI)
In order to reconstruct the ancient Y DNA of Pazyrykia, one could do the same analysis I did for Arsia, but it would be more difficult and less reliable. However, there is enough R1a1a and Pazyrykia’s MtDNA and it cannot have been brought there by Indo-Europeans or Mongols! The archaeological evidence in “Magyar art” (Pazyryk, Aržan, Kakhassia and Minusinsk basin) is so much that no other comment is necessary. Note that the Tastyk culture (200 B.C. – 400 A,D) was a mixed Hungarian-Hsiung Nu culture.
“Russian and Central Asian scholars working on the contemporary but very different Andronovo and Bactrian Margiana archaeological complexes of the 2nd millennium b.c. have identified both as Indo‐Iranian, and particular sites so identified, are being used for nationalist purposes. There is, however, no compelling archaeological evidence that they had a common [Indo-European] ancestor or that either is Indo‐Iranian”. (C. C. Lamberg‐Karlovsky, Harvard University). A genetic research on the Scytho-Sarmatians (Saka for the Russians, Indo-Iranians for the IndoGermanists) of Pokrovka (KZ, 6th c. B.C.-3rd c. A.D.) has found that: “Several “warriors” were females”, a marker of matriarchalism that reminds one of Tomiris and of the Amazons. “There is complete absence of any genetic marker of the Indo-Iranians: most markers are European”. The people buried in Pokrovka had “wide cultural and trade links”. (“Mamas of Pokrovka Sarmatians preliminary results of mtDNA study”, Joachim Burger, Mainz University (DE). I have not found the promised results on papas). In Pokrovka, there is no evidence of incineration, but evidence of burial rites similar to those of Pazyrykia and the Tarim basin. In Filippovka, not far from Pokrovka, a very rich Hungarian archaeology has been excavated (Museum of Ufa, Bashkiria, RU, right). Pokrovka was a matriarchal community of non Indo-European traders along the Silk Road. It may have been the logistic base between Tanais and Pazyryk. I guess that there were other 2 similar “service stations” between Pokrovka and Pazyryk. Herodotus tells us of a trade route in the 5 th c. B.C. from Southern Urals to the Minusinsk basin (Pazyrykia): Pokrovka and Filippovka are located in southern Urals. The Southern Ural-PazyrykMinusinsk route continued to Linzi (see next N. Linzi). N1a, U2, U3, U7 MtDNA are the markers of the West-East migrations to Pazyrykia. (See X. References > 38.). The Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has also been found in: Sakhalin (Ainu), Khanty Mansi area, Yukagiria, Volga-Kama, in Central Europe centred in Hungary, and along the Silk Road branch that the Hungarians used to travel from the Tarim basin to Hungary. (See X. References > 37.). The first migrations of Europeans to Siberia may have started in the Palaeolithic, followed by other more recent waves. (X. References > 41). (It has recently been discovered that between 30,000 and 48,000 B.C, a cousin of the Neanderthal was living in the Altai region).
KHANTY MANSI (YUGRA)
What appears to be proved, by the spread of R1a1a and of Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, is the fact that the Pazyryki, after they were attacked by the Hsiung Nu, migrated northward and became the Yugran Khanty Mansi, as I had written in “Honfoglalás…”. The spread of the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA not only overlaps the R1a1a spread, but also gives evidence of the migrations of Pazyryki from Altai to Yugra, Yukaghiria and Ainuland. “63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages ” (“Traces of early Eurasians in the Mansi of northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis”, Olga A. Derbeneva). “The genetic history of the Khanty Mansi appears to be the one of a population that had come from North Eastern Europe and received a Central Asian, South Siberian and Arctic admixture”. (“Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers”, Russian Academy of Sciences). “All the U7 sequences found in Khanty and Mansi are identical, and the same sequence is found in Uighur of Central Asia [Arsia]. This suggests a recent founder effect of U7 haplogroup in Khanty and Mansi with a probable Central Asian origin” (X. References > 41).
A Chinese genetic research, which aimed at disputing the European descent of the Linzis (See Note N.), gives evidence that the today Linzis are akin to the Yunnan people. Of course they are akin: both were Hungarians. Kunming, the capital of the Yunnan province, was quoted in a list of cities along the Silk Road, by Ptolomaeus. Carl Mair has described frescos of people of “Central Asian or Greek (Greek!?) ethnicity in Yunnan”. Yunnan is the Chinese province with the highest R1a1a frequency in China proper: 5%. (If 5% is the average for all of Yunnan, how high can R1a1a be in the pockets and in the refugia where the “Chinese” Hungarians could still live now?). A special case is the one of the matriarchal Mosuo of Yunnan (See Honfoglalás, pages 188-211): their practice of the “visiting marriage” (the same practice of the Amazons!) has made that R1a1a has been completely replaced by the Y chromosomes of the “male visitors”! The only useful DNA is therefore MtDNA. The Mosuo are the only recognized matriarchal society still surviving. In Yunnan and East of Yunnan, along the Yang Tse Kiang, where other Hungarian related minorities live, the Mother Isten and the other Hungarian Sacred Symbols are still frequent designs in folk art.
At the entrance of the Mosuo Cultural Museum, Lugu Lake, CN, a chart shows the 33 Mosuo symbols: at least 8 of them correspond to Hungarian Sacred Symbols.
Above: Middle Yang Tze Kiang minorities’ cultures, XX century folk art, Mingei Museum, S. Diego, CA, USA: Mother Isten, Cross of Istens, lines of Istens, Pleiades… Left: other Mother Istens similar to the above one, from Old Europe to 20 th century Hungary. Below: typical Bronze Age Pannonia designs in South China, Mingei Mus.
You may notice that, as it happened in Székelyföld and in Chudia, the Hungarian symbols that are still in use in the Yang Tze Kiang valley are the same that were in use at Bronze and Iron Age, when the Hungarians arrived in these regions (cultural persistence in isolated populations). “Analyses of present-day Han mtDNA sequences from different regions in China detect a very residual presence (less than 5%) of European haplotypes in a few regions. These include: Qinghai [see Gansu], Yunnan, as well as some coastal regions (Yao et al. 2002).” I wish I knew the names of the coastal regions (maybe in Shan Dong (Linzi)?... or the reaches of the Yang Tze Kiang?).
M. GAN SU: SHAJING, LIJIEN, YUEH CHIH
An isolated pocket of R1a1a has been found in Gan Su exactly where the Hungarian Yueh Chih dwelled. The DNA of the Lijien “Romans” and of the ancient Shajing inhabitants could still be searched in a possible refugium in the nearby valleys and on the Tibet plain: the Lijien “Romans” and the Hungarian Shajing peoples could have migrated to the not far region in which their brothers, the Little Yueh Chih, were living and where R1a1a has been found, in Gan Su, at the borders with Tibet. Archaeology of Shajing:
Cross of Turuls, Shajing Linzi, Shan Dong, China Shajing, Gan Su, CN Shajing, Gan Su, CN Budapest History M. Crosses of Turuls like the above one have been found all along the areas inhabited by Sarmatians, from Gansu to Kazakhstan, Russia, Ucraine and Romania.
Shajing was a town at the eastern end of the Gan Su (or Hexi) corridor. Th e Shajing culture was active in the 1st Millennium B.C. until the arrival of the Huns in the region. “From the age, the distribution of the area can be inferred that the Shajing culture belongs to the ancient Yuezhi ( 月 氏 ) nationality” (Yokota Yoshiaki, JP). The Yueh Chih were Hungarians who worshipped the Mother Isten, the Turul and the Stag. Source of the images: “Civilization along the Silk Road within Gansu”, 韩 博 文 . The above artefacts are also compared to other Hungarian artefacts in the abstract they belong to. The Caucasoid blond people of the “Roman” city of Li Jien ( 骊 靬 , Lichien, Liqian, Li-Chien, Líqián, … as long as the linguist will be unable to standardize transliterations and at least make a proposal for a European standard alphabet! Today: Zhelaizhai, 者來寨) are not descendents of the Romans of the legion that fought the Parthians in Carrhae (as H. H. Dubs hypothesized), but of Shajing Hungarians. Read the story of Lijien on “Honfoglalás…” pages 137 and 197. After you have read it, read the paper of Ethan Gruber (virginia.edu), who disputes the theory of H. H. Dubs, without giving an alternative yet… and you understand that what I had hypothesized in “Honfoglalás…” is now confirmed by the archaeology of Shajing: the “Romans” of Lijien descend from the Hungarians of Shajing. Shajing and Lijien are located a few kilometers from each other. Exactly where Shajing should be: the Hungarians needed a “China settlement” or a logistic base halfway between Loulan and Chang An/Xian. That colony was the hub where the goods were collected from and distributed to China. The best place to be raided by AryaSemite-Mongols! Read about the connection of the Shajing people with the Huns on the book “Xiung Nu Huns”. Location (right, map) and description of the populations in the R1a1a pockets in Gansu and Qinghai (West Tibet) (© 2008 Jeffrey Hays): Dongxiang (R1a1a=28.0%. Some Dongxiang live in Xinjiang): scholars speculate that their identity as an independent ethnic group arose through contact with Central Asians, due to whom the Dongxiang converted to Sunni Islam in the 13th century. One possible origin is that they are descendants of Mongolian troops posted in the Hezhou area by Genghis Khan (1162-1227 AD) ( Borbála! Not Huns!) during his journey westward, while another possibility is that they could be a mixture of many peoples including Mongolian, Han, and Tibetan groups. The Dongxiang speak their own Turkic language, which is similar to Mongolian, and some of them have Caucasian features such as green and blue eyes, large noses and high cheekbones. The Dongxiang are primarily agriculturalist. The Salar (R1a1a=17.0%) are a small dark people who wear embroidered jackets and round felt hats (as the Hunagarians did). Closely related to Uighurs and Uzbeks, they live mostly in Xunhua Salar Autonomous County in Qinghai Province and elsewhere in Qinghai and Gansu Provinces. They descended from a tribe that originated in the Samarkand area in Central Asia and lived for many centuries under Mongol rule. They began migrating to Qinghao around 700 years ago, mixed with Tibetan, Hui and Han people and were crushed by the Qing dynasty after they revolted in 1781. They speak an Altaic language. The Bonan (R1a1a=26.0%) are regarded as Altaic Mongolians and are closely related to Tu and Dongxiang. They appear to be descendants of Mongol soldiers who decided to stay where they were after the fall of the Mongol empire rather than return to Mongolia. (Borbála! Not Huns!) They converted to Islam in the early 19th century and have a history of being persecuted by their Buddhist neighbours. The links between these three populations and the Arsi and Pazyryki are many. Could these three peoples be mongolized descendents of the Liquen and/or Shajing people, or of those 150 Yueh Chih families that the Chinese Chronicles reported having fled the Hsiung Nu by flying to Tibet? Or, rather, descendents of the Little Yueh Chih, i.e. the Yueh Chih that had not left together with those who migrated to Central Asia, and who were living exactly where these minorities live now? I wish I could visit those peoples one day! I am sure that they are still using, maybe as mere decoration, the symbols of the Mother Isten that they had used when they were Yueh Chih!
THE HSIUNG NU/HUNS AND THEIR HUNGARIAN “TECHNOLOGICAL SLAVES”
The Hsiung Nu have left little genetic traces of their being Europoids in Mongolia and China. Genetic research has evidenced a several millennia long continuity in Mongolia (Inner and Outer, including Ordos, the őshaza of Borbála Obrusansky). Grousset has evidenced the anthropological continuity of the Mongols, be they Huns or Genghis Khan Mongols. The Mongols did not enter central Asia before the 7th c. B.C.. ( see References > 49.). Archaeology proves that the Mongols had been influenced by the Hungarian culture, but genetics confirms that there was little intermingling with the Hungarians. The only area of Eurasia where Mongolic DNA is mixed with R1a1a and Pazyrykia’s MtDNA is at the north Eastern borders of Pazyrykia. The mixing of Xiung Nu and Hungarians in this area is proved by history and archaeology (See “The Huns” > Aržan and Tagar/Tastyk). In Duurlig Nars, East Mongolia, in a Hunnish cemetery, one (only 1) non Hunnish dead has been found. The non Hunnish Duurlig Nars man was a Hungarian, likely to have migrated there from Székelyföld: on his body, a birth symbol has been found that is astonishingly similar to the Cucuteni one: it was his tamga, a symbol of his religious Hungarian identity:
S Duurlig Nars Pannonia, Bronze Age Tamga, Bakay Kalash, Arsia, PK Sarmatia Erdely, today zékelyföld, Cucuteni The Duurlig Nars R1a1a man probably was a Minusinsk basin Hungarian: in fact: “Nine of 26 skeletons previously excavated at 11 Kurgan sites in the Krasnoyarsk area possess a Y chromosome mutation pattern. That same genetic signature characterizes the Duurlig Nars man” Science news. See: X. References > 51, where you also find “Ancient Dna provides new insights into the history of South Siberian Kurgan People”, Christine Keyser et al. The ancestors of the Hungarian man of Duurlig Nars was of Szekely descent. His ancestors had migrated from Cucuteni to the Minusunsk Basin. He was enslaved by the Hsiung Nu, maybe while he was on his way from the Minusinsk basin to Linzi, on the early route of the Silk Road. Kyung-Yong Kim of the Chung-Ang University of Seoul, says: “The [non Hunnish] Duurlig Nars man’s tomb lies close to the tomb of an especially high-ranking Xiongnu man whom he may have served in some way.” Yes! Kim is right: he was a “technological slave” of the Hsiung Nu chieftain. Why was he a slave? Because the Mongols have always had a technological deficit all along their history: they have had a place in history only in coincidence with the submission of foreign technological élites:
The Hsiung Nu had their metal artefacts made by Chinese and Hungarians (See “Xiungnu Huns”). The Huns, appeared in history only after they had enslaved the Sarmatians of Central Asia, who were the manufacturers of their swords and of their metal ware (See “Xiungnu Huns”). The Mongolian Rouran (Juan Juan) had an entire tribe of Turkish “blacksmith slaves”. As soon as the Turks revolted, the Rouran disappeared from history: riding horses without iron horseshoes was the same as riding bikes with flat tires! Instead, the small tribe of Turkish slaves shall conquer all of Central Asia. The Mongolian Genghis Khan, who lived in a yurt, as all his people did, built an entire walled town of wood and stone houses to host scientists from the rest of the world. (This town reminds one of the technological “closed cities” of USSR).
The Mongolian Yuan dynasty that reunified China opened China to foreign cultures and innovations: Marco Polo was a consultant of the Emperor Kublai Khan. The Mongols have always welcomed foreign cultures and have always accepted their influence as a mean for boosting their progress. The traces of R1a1a and of Pazyrykia’s MtDNA in Mongolia and Ordos belong to Hungarian technological slaves. The Hunnish warring élite has left no Mongolic genetic traces in Europe: the Huns were exterminated in Europe and a few of them may have gone back to central Asia, and may have become the Huna of Eva Aradi. (See the “Xiung Nu Huns” abstract). Instead, the Hungarians (Sarmatians, Avars, Magyars) came back to Europe with the same high Old European ΣR1a+I+R1b. According to official Chinese statistics, the percentage of ethnic Mongols in Xinjiang is only 2.58%.
O. LINZI, SHAN DONG, CN
“The human fossil remains of the Ordos Man from Salawusu site dated between 50,000 and 35,000 BCE show strong Mongoloid features, specifically on the fore-tooth and occipital bone”. (Weiwen, Huang, Salawusu Relic, Encyclopedia of China). “Many of the peoples of the Ordos region, were identified as belonging to the Xiongnu cultures. Ordos was occupied predominantly by peoples showing Mongoloid features, known from their skeletal remains and artefacts.” (Zhang et al. "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China", p. 176-225). “The Ordos were predominantly Mongoloid, as known from their skeletal remains and artifacts” (Ma, Liqing, “The Original Xiongnu”, Inner Mongolia University Press, p. 196-197). Borbála, even if the Huns came from Ordos, they were Mongols! If there were Caucasoids there, they were slaves of the Xiongnu… those who made the bronze artefacts of the Xiungnu (See “Xiung Nu Huns”). See the genetic research on Linzi, or rather read “Honfoglalás…”, pages 182-198, to know more about both the Linzi and the Yunnan genetic researches. The Chinese report the presence of R1a1a only in the Tarim basin, Gansu, and Yunnan ( C. Lalueza-Fox), and in some coastal areas (Yao et alia) that I have not been able to identify (Shan Dong and the reaches of the Yang Tze Kiang?). In Linzi, an overwhelming Chinese admixture may have replaced the ancient DNA, but did not destroy the ancient culture, which was certainly Hungarian:
Bronze mirror: “triskelion” of Istens (silver + gold)
Horse + cart burial: Linzi and North Caucasus(12+12)
3 What for did the Linzis Double headed Turuls, double spiral, and 3 lines Sword with Isten and Chinese spirals use camels, as they lived of conical spirals or concentric circles. double headed Turul far from deserts? “The Linzi [today Zibo] District remained the capital of the State of Qi [Shan Dong, which is also the name of a type of silk] for as long as 638 years, and was the biggest city in the Orient. As a result of textual research, the Shandong area, with Linzi as its centre, was the major place of silk supply at the time of the Han and Tang Dynasties, and was one of the origins of the Silk Road " (Wikipedia). The shortest and safest route between Linzi and Europe in 500 B.C. would have been through Aržan-Pazyryk-South Ural, to Tanaїs: the existence of this route would be the only way to justify the large amount of gold found along that route in the middle of the first millennium B.C.: the Hungarians exchanged bronze and Tarim basin jade against gold, which, for the Chinese, was not a valuable metal - very lucrative! The existence of this route in 500 B.C. is confirmed by Herodotus (from South Ural to the Minusinsk Basin, Tagar Culture). The otherwise unjustified use of camels in Linzi (above) and in the Minusinsk Basin (right, Mukhareva, Kemerovo University) could only be justified by the need of crossing the Gobi desert in order to connect the Minusinsk Basin with Linzi. Note the similar and unusual way of using cameldrawn carts in both places. My opinion is that “the blond people that contributed to the development of the Chinese civilization - figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. ” (Chinese texts, Victor Mair) lived in Linzi. The state of Qi was the only warring state that refused military confrontation with Qin (in the best “Old European” tradition). 121,000 archaeological artifacts have been found in Linzi: where are they? (The above metal artefacts have not been unearthed in Linzi but in Shandong or East China). ↑ Bird script, China, Warring States, a Mother Isten delivers a Turul. Read the fascinating story of the Hungarian Linzis on “Honfoglalás...”, pages 182-188, and page 199 for the possible connection of the Linzis with the Wusuns: the Linzis were genetically Europeans in 500 B.C.. THIS TERRITORY IS IN CHINA, NOT IN RUSSIA: it is northern Manchuria! Actually, it was the northern part of the kingdom of Koguryeo, where people used to hit and run and where Sarmatian style archaeology has been found. See Korea in IX.: Koguryeo was one of the “3 kindoms of Korea”. The Russians shall argue that it was Russia at some time, and that the Transiberian Railway ran through it at that time, and that the capital city of that Russian territory was Harbin, and that they did bring R1a1a there. I have spent 10 days in Harbin. Yes, the buildings of the city centre still clearly speak Russian… but I was the only Caucasoid in town. If R1a1a was brought there a century ago there should still be there people resembling the Russians, but I haven’t seen any when I was there! That R1a1a is a legacy of an ancient DNA, not of the DNA of the Russians: the Russians have left there only some buildings and an orthodox church. That DNA is the legacy of the Ainu, on their way from Pazyrykia to Khabarowsk and Japan, along the Amur river. James Xueyuan Zhu has written a paper about the linguistic connections of the Moghar of Manchuria with the Hungarians.
They are Finno-Ugrics. Disputed Finno-Ugrics maybe, but absolutely not Indo-Europeans: “The internal life of their community was under the control of the older women: their decisions were indisputable.” (Wikipedia). “The Yukaghirs occupied the lands from the river Lena to the Bering strait before being decimated by epidemies and by the Czarist racist policy. They were finally assimilated by the Evenks.”
Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found in Yukaghiria. The Nganasan share the same U MtDNA sequencies with the Mansi. A trail of R1a1a points to a migration from Pazyrykia toward Yukaghiria. A pocket of R1a1a has been found in Kamchatka (Itelmen).
The Ainu males appear to have lost their original Hungarian genome, even if several hints point to the West. They are anthropologically Caucasoid and they were described as “hairy people” in the Chinese book of Song (478 A.D.). Almost all the Ainu males carry Y chromosome D, which appears to be the typical Jomon Y chromosome. When the Ainu arrived in Japan, Japan was inhabited only by the Jomons; the Chinese arrived later. The Ainu may have intermingled with the Jomons, whose culture was similar to theirs (both societies were matriarchal). The more advanced culture of the Ainu may have prevailed, but the Ainu may have been genetically assimilated by the far larger community of the Jomons. In this case only ancient DNA could help. The most eastern isolate pocket of R1a1a is in Kamchakta (Itelmen). The Ainu could have arrived there from Hokkaido, before mixing with the Jomon, through the Kuril islands (still inhabited by Ainu): the Ainu main activities were sea trade and fishing. Cultural kinship of the Kamchatkans with the Ainu has been reported. The phonology of the Kamchatka Itelmen lacks b, d and γ, as several ancient and Uralo-Altaic languages do. (See “The Ugaritic abjad…”). However, the Hungarian MtDNA did survive in the island of Sakhalin and in Siberia, in front of Sakhalin. The presence of Pazyrykia’s MtDNA only in the northern part of the island is explained by history: Sakhalin was disputed by Russia and Japan between 1807 and 1945, when the Russians took full control of Sakhalin and the Ainu of the conquered southern half of the island were relocated in Japan. Furthermore, Lajos Kazár found similarities in 600 word groups and 35 inflectional similarities between the Hungarian and Japanese languages. (Magyar Nyelv, 92/1996/127). I have been told that “Honfoglalás” could be understood in Japanese as “the return back home”. Were the Japanese Hungarians? No! but the Ainu were! GM genetic markers in immunoglobulin have been found by Hideo Matsumoto at high rates in far east Asia and in a small isolated pocket in Hungary. The Ainu have not lost their ancient cultural heritage: the Mother Isten and the Hungarian Sacred Symbols are still their most used designs. There is an Ainu Museum in Khabarovsk that shows the Ainu still wearing conical hats in the last century and wearing salmon skin Hungarian style boots, along with other Hungarian markers. The Ainu bear thanks giving ceremony is astonishingly similar to the corresponding Siberian and Finnish rite. See “Honfoglalás…”, page 92-97, 217-223). Here are the Mother Istens (cyan and magenta; uterus and offspring stressed by coloured rhombuses) that the Ainu still use in their folk art; one of them (the Kirghiz “tamga”, the same symbol that is the emblem of the Kirghiz Academy of sciences ) has even become the emblem of “The Foundation for Research and Promotion of the Ainu Culture”:
Logo of FRPAC I have a file in my computer that contains about a thousand images of Ainu symbols taken from Museums (including the Ainu Museum in the anthropology Museum of Budapest), books, and Ainu websites. I hope I shall have time to publish them. Most images belong to artefacts made in the last 2 centuries. It confirms my theory that culture freezes in isolated population. The Ainu women still deliver hanging to ropes linked to the Nagyboldogasszony balk.
Archaeology, History, Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, and linguistics point to four main migrations of Europeans westward to the West and to Central Asia and a back migration to Carpathia:
In very ancient times (Stone Age, with a peak in the Neolithic): natural spread of R1a1a to West Eurasia. (Presence in west Asia of European DNA with markers absent in Europe). See “Carpatho-Balkan genetic ancestry in Central Asia”. In the Bronze Age (end of the 3 rd millennium B.C.): a migration of Central Europeans to the Abashevo, Sintashta, and Andronovo area (a culturally Hungarian area) from where they reached southern Siberia together with local predominantly R1a1a people (Low rate of R1b and I in south Siberia). The coexistence of R1a, Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, and N1a is the genetic marker of this migration and of the migration from Hungary to the amber area (beginning of 2nd millennium B.C.) and later on to Finland. See the next map. In the early Iron Age (around 1000 B.C.): a migration of Pannonici (from the area in between the Tisza and the Dniester valleys, with Cimmers from Western Ukraine (See: Turul, hit and run, dear stones…)) to places in Asia already inhabited by Europeans (Pazyrykia and western Tien Shan) and later on (200 B.C.) to Arsia. This migration can be very accurately reconstructed by archaeology, and is defined by the presence of the above 3 Haplogroups + R1b.
Honfoglalás (1st c. B.C. - 895 A.D.): the Sarmatians of West Tien Shan arrived in Hungary as slaves of the Huns; the Avars fled the Indo-European Sassanians, who had taken power in Persia, by migrating to Europe. The Magyars left the Tarim basin after the Tang had been defeated by the Arabs in the battle of Talas (751 A.D.), after the Tang were obliged to withdraw all their troops in central Asia, due to domestic turmoil, after the Tang had lost control over the basin, after the basin was threatened by an Islamic invasion, and after the Uyghurs had invaded the basin in about 840 A.D.. The Magyars brought back to Hungary R1a, Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, N1a, and R1b. G and J had been collected by the Sarmatians and the Avars respectively from North and South Caucasus. U2, U3, and U7 confirm the links between Central Asian Hungarians and Hungarians of Hungary. After the emergence of the Hsiung Nu (3 rd Century B.C.), some of the Hungarians of Pazyrykia found a refugium in Arsia and others escaped the Hsiung Nu by migrating to the Khanty Mansi area (Ugric), Yukhagiria (Ugric), and Sakhalin (Ainu). I had written almost the same conclusion at the end of “Honfoglalás…”! At that time the evidence was archaeology and cultural continuity, now I have found out that Genetics tells the same story, with the help of linguistics.
THE URALIC SUICIDE
See “Suicide rates”, World Health Organization, as edited by Wikipedia. Note that all the non R1a1a Indo-European countries of west Europe, except France and Belgium, have a suicide rate lower than 12, down to the rates of the most Indo-European ones: Greece: 3; Italy: 5.2. The following map shows the areas in which R1a1a Y-Hg, Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, and N1a MtDNA still coexist at significant rates and the area in which suicide rate peaks:
The spread of the Hungarian Bronze age migrations corresponds to the areas with the highest suicide rates in the world.
Uralic suicide: it is the name given to the suicide of the J shape area (from Finland to Hungary and Slovenia) and of the Volga-Ural area: with that name, the linguists are trying to convince people that, if you speak the wrong language (i.e. a non Indo-German language), you have more chances of ending your life with a suicide! No suicide rate found for the Khanty Mansi, the Yukaghirs, and other Uralic speakers. Suicide in Russia: it has been hypothesised that the high rate of suicides in Russia is due to the gene known as ADH2-2, which would be connected to alcohol intolerance and to the associated increased aggressiveness and depression. However, ADH2-2 is common in Asia, but not in Europe. (Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2005 Feb 15;133C(1):43-7). You do not need intolerance if you drink as the Russians do! When they drink Vodka they do not drink to get drunk, but dead. Try yourself to drink 3 bottles of vodka: maybe you will not be able to tell me later. At communist time, Stalin was selling vodka to his subjects at a dumped price (alcohol had replaced religion as “opium of the Peoples”). Soldiers of most armies were given alcohol before the battles: they were not heroes, but candidates to suicide. In Russia, the peaks of the suicide rate are in the Republik of Altai (Pazyryk) and in the Volga-Kama region (in Udmurtia and Mari El, where maybe the less admixed Finnic speakers dwell: “suicide rates are three times higher than those in Hungary and Finland”). Suicide rates are also very high in Tuva (Aržan. Tuva is the country with the highest sexual freedom in the world for pre-marriage girls (“the more sex before, the better marriage later!”), and with shamanism as official religion), and in Khakassia (Minusinsk Basin). The suicide rates of Alaskan Natives and Native Americans is also very high. Suicide in Kazakhstan: I have found no regional statistics and I have drawn the line in the above map as the peak in Kazakhstan was where the Hungarians lived. Kirgizstan also shows quite a high suicide rate, much higher than the one of Islamic countries south of it. Suicide in China: Chinese statistics only regard “selected towns and urban areas”. The high rate of suicide in China is mainly connected to an exclusive Chinese anomaly: women commit suicide at a higher rate than males. I have found no statistics for the Tarim basin and Gansu, but the Yang Tse Kiang valley (where Yunnan and the minorities, who still have Hungarian designs in their folk art, are located) appears to make the peak of the rate in China (40% higher than in the rest of China). Confucianism holds that failure to follow certain values is worse than death; hence, suicide can be morally permissible, and even praiseworthy, if it is done for the sake of those values. The Confucian emphasis on loyalty, self-sacrifice, and honour has tended to encourage altruistic suicide. South Korea and Japan also have high rates of suicides. No data found for the Ainu. Suicide in Italy: the peak of suicide rate in Slovenia is at the border with Hungary. The peak of suicide rate in Italy is at the border with Slovenia, in Friuli. The suicide rates in Trieste and Udine are 12 and 11, three times the rate of Indo-European Magna Grecia (Campania, Calabria and Basilicata). My father served in Friuli in 1932 and I remember how he was enthusiastic of the time he spent in Campoformido: girls were blond and sexually free. Of corse, when I joined the Air Force I asked to serve in Friuli. The Friulani are touchy, taciturn, introverted, and choleric, as the Hungarians are. Suicide rate, blondism, and sexual freedom go together, but never together with the Indo-Europeans. 15 km out of Udine, Cividale is located: the first capital city of the Longobards, a town with almost 100% Avar archaeology. Ritual suicide: a typical Hungarian rite was the suicide committed by the rulers who had failed their mission of protecting their people. The failure was attributed to the fact that the ruler had lost the favour of the God: a similar concept exists in Confucianism (Mandate of Heaven). Was Almos killed or did he commit suicide because he did not reach Carpathia? The Hungarian Decebalus, the CeltoPannonico Boudica, the maybe Alan Kahina (See “Alans in Africa”), the Scythian Tomyris' son, Spargapises, general of her army… all of them committed suicide, when they proved unable to defend their people. Brenno and other Celto-Pannonico generals committed suicide when defeated. Vercingetorix (a Celtic king that ruled a Hungarian population) offered his life in exchange for a better treatment for his defeated people. Karahiri is the Japanese suicide rite for people that have not accomplished their mission or that have just failed to behave according to the duties of their mission: many Japanese generals and officials committed suicide at the end of WW2. Suicide was not in the Indo-European culture. In any case, as Indo-European Tyrants would not commit suicide, the Greeks and the Romans did not consider guilty those who had killed a Tyrant. According to a recent research, Caesar would have committed a hidden suicide, because, notwithstanding he was warned by the haruspex that he would be killed, he did go to the Senate and he did it without his escort. The only case in which Romans committed suicide was when they were already sentenced to death: if they were dead at the time of the execution, their inheritance would be left to the heirs and not to the state. Indian women are expected to take care of the fire that will burn their dead husband (I attended to a such shocking funeral in Varanasi), and to commit suicide or even to be cremated together with their husband. The reason for this habit is very Indo-European: a dead wife would no longer be able to be unfaithful to her husband! Hitler brought with him Eva Brown to the Walhalla. Sardanapal,
an Assyrian king, prisoner of the Medes, committed suicide and ordered that all his concubines be killed with him. A similar massacre may have happened in the Sumerian Puabi’s tomb.
Mass suicide: many pre-Indo-European peoples, chose their own death over slavery, when attacked by the Romans: e.g. the peoples of Numanthia and Masada. The Chude women also committed mass suicide not to fall in the hands of the Russians. An 'epidemic' of suicides occurred among the women of Miletus (Ionia). It was stopped by the decision of the Indo-European rulers to hung the body of the women, who committed suicide, on the main road, naked. See also “Honfoglalas…” pages 94 and 232. I think that suicide is a cultural marker. In fact, suicide rates are much lower in more religious countries, and peak in societies where suicide is or was accepted. Suicide rate is little influenced by genetics, and even less by… linguistics! In the Celto- Pannonico society, the hardest punishment was not death penalty, which was sentenced not frequently, but the ban, which was sentenced to those that were guilty of not having accomplished the “hospitality duties”, a social crime that deserved the hardest punishment. In other words: the worst crime was a social crime and the hardest penalty was not the sentence to death, but social death. Social death was considered a harder punishment than death itself. Socrates committed suicide after he was banned (ostracism = democratic ban sentence = social death). The Kalash still ban those of them that convert to Islam. In ancient cultures, the relevance of the society was behind suicides (altruistic suicide): behind the Hungarian suicide, behind the concept “pulchrum est pro patria mori”, behind Karahiri, and behind the behaviour of today suicide terrorists. One of the problems of our time is that we live in a word of individuals, no longer in a world of societies with shared values (from families, to clans, to tribes, to nations, to states… which are being replaced by “social networks”!). The difference between Communism and Capitalism, was that the first cared for the society (that they named “collectivity”), the latter for the individual. I understood it when I was in Castro’s Cuba and I asked which was the rate of AIDS there: “0%! They are all in jail!”. Castro was protecting the collectivity. Italy is protecting the individuals with AIDS: the secret on their health is protected by the privacy bill. You choose! It is a hard choice! Suicide is generally banned in Europe, but it is going to be accepted soon as euthanasia: another victory for the Hungarian culture in a continent that is already fighting Indo-European patriarchalism and racism. I do think that people should have the right to stop their lives when their life can no longer be lived with human dignity. Suicide was a pre-Indo-European marker. The “closest” Arya-Semite-Mongol marker was “mass homicide”, or genocide (Srebrenitsa, 1995, yesterday!). An easy choice between these 2 markers! Europeans! Think it over!
VI. LINGUISTIC CONSEQUENCIES OF THIS GENETIC RESEARCH
“Linguistic speculations!” If my genetic theory is correct, then: as the Magyars came from Arsia (Tarim Basin) after a 10-15 years long trip (See the abstract “Anthropology of the Silk Road”) and as they spoke Hungarian on arrival, then also the Arsi spoke Hungarian, because 10-15 years are not enough for a total language replacement that, moreover, should have happened in the same single generation. The Magyars found other peoples speaking their language in Europe: in fact, the Jazigs and Roxolani, the Alans brought by Attila, and the Avars also had come from Arsia. The Székelys, who had not migrated (See “Erdely Dacia”) could have spoken the same Hungarian that they spoke in Bronze Age Pannonia. as the Khanty Mansi and the Yukaghirs came from Pazyrykia, then the Pazyryki spoke Hungarian because both the Khanty-Mansi and the Yukaghirs still speak a Ugric language… or somebody must look for another population that would have taught Hungarian to the Yukaghirs (Not “on line courses”, please! That is an Indo-European fairy tale!). if the Indo-Russians were the bearers of R1a1a, and they spoke Indo-European, can somebody tell me when the R1a1a Volga-Kama Indo-Europeans replaced Indo-European with Uralic, without retaining anything from their ancestral Indo-European language? if the Indo-Celts were the bearers of R1b, and they spoke Indo-European, can somebody tell me when the Basque Indo-Europeans replaced Indo-European with Euskara, without retaining anything from their ancestral Indo-European language? Anyhow, what language all these peoples spoke is irrelevant, because in any case they were genetically, archaeologically, anthropologically, and culturally Old Europeans, not Indo-Europeans. Linguistics is the only tool remaining to peoples who have no ancient archaeology, or art, or religious belief, or cultural markers, or genetic markers… to use for finding their urheimat and their identity. This is not the case of the Hungarians: they do not need linguistics! In fact, the Sarmatians, the Avars and the Magyars brought with them from Arsia the same Mother Isten, the same symbolic art, and the same genes that belonged to their Pannonico ancestors along at least 10.000 years. Astonishingly, a handful of the linguistic speculations that attribute a Hungarian identity to all the populations that have a name similar to Magyar have been confirmed by archaeology and genetics:
Maghars, who were fighting on the side of the Hittites (as slaves!), during the reign of Tuthmosis III, according to a hieroglyphic text on walls of temples in Karnak, which also mentions the cities of Arad, Árpád and Maghara (Chambel), (confirmed only by archaeology, if they were the slaves of the Hittites (See “Magyar Art…” > “The Mother Isten” abstract > line 071). When the Hungarian slaves revolted against the Hittite élite, a new language appeared in Hattusha… sofar undeciphered, but it is not Indo-European. Was it Hungarian? The archaeology of the Hittites was Pannonico, see “The Mother Isten” abstract in “Magyar Art”. Line 72. Astonishingly, the only 6 ray sun (Flower of life) found in ancient Egypt, is on a temple of Abidos built at the time Egypt was fighting the Hittites, right. Madjars of Kazakhstan (see above, Note I.) Maghars of India/Nepal (see above, Note J.) Moghars of Manchuria (confirmed only by a few linguistic markers and by low rates of R1a1a)
VII. EURASIAN DNA IN CENTRAL AFRICA
A pocket of R1a1a and of R1b1 has been found around the lake Chad in Central Africa. The Chad area is also the place with the highest rate of E1b1 (formerly E3). These haplogroups appear to be not connected to a single migration. In any case, there is only one place in the world where these haplogroups still coexist at high rates: the Balkans. Furthermore, in that area, the symbol of the Mother Isten is still popular. You know what is astonishing in this matter? The fact that the Kanaga Isten (right) is still the same as the one that represented the Delivering Mother Isten in Europe, in the Neolithic; still the same as the corresponding Vinča sign. Furthermore, if you ask the Kanaga what it represents, they tell you a bird, or a crocodile, or… the symbolic representation of the Creator [the Mother Isten!]. Was Sahara, at the time it was a flourished garden, a refugium for some Europeans when Europe was covered by ice? Did those Europeans found a new refugium on the shores of the Chad lake when the Sahara desertified? A Neolithic migration from Carpathia? Did cultural exchange continue between Carpathian Europeans and Sahara Europeans? Nobody has yet hypothesised that the Indo-Europeans arrived in that area: they shall soon do it: in the Palaeolithic, the R1b proto-Indo-Celts allied with the R1a1a proto-Indo-Russians and they organized a military expedition aimed at the Indo-Europeanization of Africa, … and an Indo-Germanist shall write the fairy tale of that mythic, epic, bloody, failed conquest of Africa! … and he shall become an icon for the Indo-Germanists as Homer did become! Could the Chad lake (which, ”in 4000 BC, covered an area of 400,000 km²”) be the last refugium of the people that populated Sahara when it was a flourished garden? Could the Altamira painted caves have been depicted by descendents of Saharans, who had depicted the Tassili rocks, who had migrated to Europe? Or could R1a and R1b have been brought to the Chad lake by those Alans that arrived in Maghreb together with the Vandals and that contributed to the ethnogenesis of the brown eyed, dolichocephalic, matrilineal Tuaregs and of the Berbers? (See “Alans in Africa” in the “Szekely Varese” page. Right, Berber flag: a Mother Isten). Berbers and Tuaregs exibit a relevant European admixture, larger than the African admixture in Europe. A genetic research on the Wodaabe (also named Fulani or Borobo) of the Chad basin (left: Wodaabe woman) has detected the presence of 8.1% European haplogroups such as U5, U6, and J1, as well as low levels of Middle Eastern ancestry (“MtDNA of Fulani Nomads and Their Genetic Relationships to. Neighboring Sedentary Populations”, V. Cerny et al.). Astonishingly, over 50% of the Fulani males have Eurasian Caucasoid Y-DNA (Hassan et al.). The Wodaabe have at least one typical matriarchal trait left: women choose their husbands during a colourful ceremony. “The diversification and phylogeographic patterns of Y chromosomes indicate a rather old back-to-Africa migration of Euroasian R lineages (Fig. 2f) prior to the widespread dispersion of high-frequency R1a and R1b lineages (Fig. 2g) that are not observed in Africa, Cruciani et al. 2002” as quoted by Underhill, Stanford University).
Kanaga, since 2nd cent. A.D.
The following questions are addressed to Victor Mair, an Indo-Germanist-sinologist, who dreams and leads the battle for the Indo-Europeanization of China! It is an old dream of the Indo-Germanists: see the ridiculous attempt of Jensen, described on “Honfoglalás…”, page 207. Victor! How can you still associate R1a1a to the Indo-Europeans after the discoveries of Underhill?
VIII. OPEN LETTER TO VICTOR MAIR
Antiquity How can you
associate R1a1a to the Indo-Europeans, if R1a1a is absent in West Europe, where the Indo-Celts settled, where the IndoLatins had the capital of their empire, where the Indo-Greeks dwelled in the last 4000 years? The peak of R1a1a in what was Macedonia only proves that Alexander the Great was not Greek and archaeology confirms this hypothesis that I had already made in “Honfoglalás…”!) Or maybe you think that the Indo-Germans were all R1a1a because in Eulau (Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany), almost 2.5 millennia before the first Germanic arrived in the area, an ancient dead carried R1a1a? (Haak et al., 2008, Lan desmuseum Sachsen-Anhalt). Victor, that guy was a Hungarian! In fact, both his ancestors (the LBK people, right, red double spiral) and his descendents (right, black and white double spiral, Landesmuseum SachsenAnhalt) carried Hungarian Sacred Symbols that you can again find in the Bavarian Unetice culture, and wherever the Pannonici settled along the next millennia! Are you not aware that the hypothesis of a German Urheimat (the Corded Ware culture hypothesis of the… 19th century!) has since long been discarded? Is the explanation of some Indo-Germanists – “the demic diffusion halted in Germany and only the Kurgan culture and language went further” - not ridicule? In 1500 B.C, did the Mycenaeans, 2000 km far from the sacred Oder, learn Greek from the Poles, who arrived there over 1500 years later? Did they take correspondence courses or online courses? How can you associate the Indo-Europeans to the Andronovo, Abashevo, Syntashta, Arkeim, Pazyryk, Tagar, Tarim Basin cultures, whose archaeology is 100% Hungarian since 5000-3000 years ago? (See the “Mother Isten” images abstract in “Magyar Art…”, and “Is there Russian archaeology… in Russia?”). The presence of R1a1a (Hungarian) and of C Y-DNA (East Asian) in the Bronze Age Andronovo Culture and in the ancient synchronous Tarim Basin cemeteries indisputably confirms contacts between the Hungarians and the East in the Bronze Age, around 2000 B.C. “Out of 10 human male remains assigned to the Andronovo horizon from the Krasnoyarsk region, 9 possessed the R1a Y-chromosome haplogroup and one the C haplogroup (xC3)”. In Andronovo, 90% of the Mtdna was European, 60% samples had light hair and blue or green eyes. No Indo-European Haplogroup has been detected… nor it exists indeed!! Note that archaeology confirms that the Andronovo, the Abashevo, and the Sintashta cultures were Hungarian cultures. Here is their archaeology, 100% Pannonico:
Andronovo: Hermitage and Müller-Karpe. The vase is decorated with proto-crowns of still angular spirals and waves.
Sintashta/Abashevo (the last two artefacts are Gold Idols), “The Horse, the Wheel and Language”, Princeton University Press. All the above artefacts appear in the abstracts, images, of the book “Magyar Art…”, where you can see that they were used by the Hungarian Pannonici along several millennia. See below which was the origin of the design in the third boxes above:
Varna, BG, -4250
Pannonia, from Romania to Germany. (“Art designs”, line 070)
See also: “Carpatho-Balkan genetic ancestry in Central Asia”. The author of “The Horse, the Wheel and Language”, David W. Anthony, is a horse dentist, who is convinced that the Andronovo/Sintashta cultures were the Urheimat of the Indo-Europeans! David’s book has been awarded a prize at “The 75 th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology” on April 18, 2010 in St. Louis, Missouri. Unbelievable! I forgot: of course, the Hungarians of Abashevo did practice the Hungarian horse burial rite! Abashevo was so Indo-European that the inhabitants of the region (Volga-Kama) still speak a Finno-Ugric language! (Please, do not tell it to David! He shall be so surprised and disappointed, poor guy!). Of course, in the Volga Kama region, there is a peak of Hungarian R1a1a, of Pazyrykia’s DNA, of N1a MtDNA, and the archaeology is congruent with Hungarian archaeology all along the last 5000 years! Victor! Do you trust horse dentists’ fairy tales rather than archaeology? I knew already that you trust Hitler more than archaeology! Hitler is the only one, beside you, who was convinced that the Aryans were blond! Why they are not blond in India then? Did you find evidence that the Indo-Europeans were blond in the Anenerbe’s reports to Hitler? “Russian and Central Asian scholars working on the contemporary but very different Andronovo and Bactrian Margiana archaeological complexes of the 2nd millennium b.c. have identified both as Indo‐Iranian, and particular sites so identified, are being used for nationalist purposes. There is, however, no compelling archaeological evidence that they had a common [Indo-European] ancestor or that either is Indo‐Iranian” (C. C. Lamberg‐Karlovsky, Harvard University). “From the evidence discussed above, the existence of Andronovo cultural influence in Xinjiang during the latter part of the 2nd millennium BC seems beyond doubt”. (“The existence of Andronovo cultural influence in Xinjiang during the 2nd millennium BC”, Mei Jianjin, Colin Shell). “Some metal forms from Gansu and North China are typical of the Andronovo culture (Bunker 1993: 30; Linduff 1997: 19-20)”. “As stated by Loehr (1956: 86), 'if any culture in the West did convey elements likely to promote metalworking in North-China, it must have been the Andronovo culture'”. The burial rites, the decoration, the felted hats, and the leather boots of Andronovo, and the Zhou dynasty bronze cauldrons, decorated with spirals, do fit into the 10 millennia long Hungarian continuity. Archaeology proves that a Hungarian population moved to the Volga Ural area, and from there to South Siberia and the Tarim basin. How can you associate the Indo-Europeans, who disposed of their dead by cremation, to the Kurgan people who inhumed their dead and left with them treasures in their graves? How can you associate the patriarchal Indo-Europeans to matriarchal peoples that worshipped a Mother Goddess?
Which is the foundation of your statement “the mummies of the Tarim Basin spoke an Indo-European language”? Is it the fact that millennia after their death, in the Tarim Basin, in 2 monasteries, the Buddhist priests spoke the Gandhara/Hungarian Tocharian pidgin language? The Indo-Germanists tell you that father in Tocharian was pakar, but they hide that it was apaka too (apuka in Hungarian: from apa, father in Basque and in all agglutinative languages of the world). See “Honfoglalás…”, pp. 139-150 about “Tocharian”. NOTE: as the hypothesis of the “Indo-European R1a1a” was untenable, somebody sentenced that the European R1a1a ought to be Russian. On the basis of which evidence? On the basis of the fact that R1a1a spreads westward up until and not beyond the ancient border of the westernmost Slavic range (the river Oder, today border between Poland and Germany). Thus, it cannot be Indo-German, but it must be Indo-Russian! Unbelievable! The Germans, after having been militarily obliged by the Soviets to recognise the Oder-Neisse line as a political border, are now “scientifically” pushed by the Russians to also recognize the Oder-Neisse line as a “genetic border”! In Russia, someone is still living the Cold War time! (The westernmost border of the early Slavic expansion was not the Oder, but the Elbe valley, in former DDR. (Atlante Storico De Agostini, map of toponyms)).
How can you associate R1a1a to the Indo-Russians if the traces of R1a1a appear in Siberia not where the Russians settled, (along the Trans-Siberian railway), but where Finno-Ugric populations are still dwelling, and were dwelling far before the Russians started their conquest of the “Far East”, with the same rule with which the Indo-Americans conquered the “Far West”: extermination? Victor, when the Russians say, in their official statistics, that 79.83% of the people dwelling in the Russian Federation are Russian, they only mean that they “speak Russian”. The linguistic russification policies (e.g.: university education was only in Russian) of Stalin were very successful. However, Stalin forgot to replace the genome of the “Russians”! R1a1a condemns him. The Russians speak an Indo-European language, but their red hair proves that they are genetically Old Europeans, as much or even more than the Hungarians! If you had travelled Russia by car, not only visiting the russified big cities, but driving through the villages, you would have seen the red haired, Old European, Finno-Ugric, смерды (slaves) still working in the fields: because the смерды were not ethnic Russians, and they were red haired, and they carry R1a1a! Nowadays, they have become “Russians” only because they have become “Russian speakers”! When shall you understand that language is not linked to ethnicity and genetics? Have you and Cavalli Sforza not yet read the research in X. >References > 5.? If the Indo-Russians were the bearers of R1a1a, and they spoke Indo-European, can you tell me, as you are a linguist, when did the Volga-Kama Indo-Europeans replace Indo-European with Uralic, and why their Uralic did not retain anything from their ancestral IndoEuropean language? How is it that the eastern peaks of R1a1a are in Pazyrykia and in Arsia, where the Hungarians had settled and the Russians are still minorities? Were not Russian scholars those who labelled the Saka and the Scythians as Indo-Iranians and Iranophones? Have now the Saka learnt to speak Russian, post mortem? If R1a1a is Russian, are the Altaians, the Khanty, the Mansi, and the Yukaghirs the only Russians in Siberia? Are the Estonians and all the other peoples of Pribaltika, the Volga-Kama peoples, the Komi, the Carelians, the Kaliningrad Prussians, the Pomeranians… all Russians? (The frequency of R1a1a in these regions was certainly much higher before the russification of those regions, which brought there even “Russian speaking” Mongols). The russification of Stalin made that, in the heart of a non Russian (but Finno-Ugric and Tatar [a Kypchak or Northwestern Turkic language]) speaking region, one of the largest automotive plants be built and hundreds of thousands of “Russian speakers” be moved to Naberezhnye Chelny, while millions of Hebrews, of rebel Ukrainians, of Germans, of Finno-Ugrics, of Tatars… were moved or deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan. Yes the élite was Russian, and the methods were 100% Indo-European. Read the chapter “Holmgard and the origins of democracy” on “Honfoglalás…” for more about the conquest of Russia by the DNA-free Indo-Russian élites. What about Hungarians and Uyghurs? Are they also Russians? The Russians never settled in the Tarim Basin, and they just tried to do it in Hungary, in 1956. In other words: how is it that wherever the Hungarians arrived, with their cultural, archaeological and artistic markers, there Pazyrykia MtDNA and R1a1a peak, and that R1a1a did not even reach all the places where the Russians have arrived? Why the peaks of R1a1a in Siberia are not along the Transiberian Railway, where most of the Russian migrants to Siberia settled?
Victor! How can R1a1a be an Indo-European marker, if it is lacking in Indo-European Athens, Rome, Celtia and Germany? Do you know why it is in Slavia? Because the genetic contribution of the Indo-European Slavic warring élites was so small that it was unable to affect the indigenous Old European genetics of Eastern Europe! The Indo-Europeans were bands of warriors without a DNA and/or their number was so little that you shall never find their DNA! The same happened in central and western Europe: R1b and I are still overwhelming there. The Europeans speak “Indo-European”, but all of them carry a mix of Palaeolithic ΣR1b+R1a1a+I Y Haplogroups that is by far their largest genetic main component, since thousands of years, before your Indo-European ancestors showed up! Last, but not least: tell me what evidence you have that this child was an Indo-European speaker:
Cherchen baby, Qiemo Zaghunluq cemetery, Tarim Basin, 1000-800 B.C.. The most ancient youngest (3 months old) Hungarian in the Tarim Basin, was buried with a nursing bottle at his side. The burial site reminds one of the burials of Pazyryk and Pokrovka (pillow and plaid, death mask covering the eyes, cyan, magenta and no green, tattoo…). Two cyan stones covered his eyes (eyes were usually extracted); later on, cyan stones shall be replaced by gold rings. His relative, the Cherchen man, in the same grave, together with 3 women, was red haired, almost 2 metres tall (the average Roman was 1.65!), and had on his face a spiral and a hornid, painted with red ochre. (Dead were painted with ochre all the way from Finland, to Hungary, Caucasus, Middle East, to Altai, since millennia: the Venus of Willendorf was painted with red ochre). One of the women was wearing boots as the Hungarians did along 6 millennia. The man was buried with 10 hats: at least one was a felt conical hat (right) whose style was still in use at the Silk Road time. After longer than a millennium, a wooden house in the Tarim Basin was still decorated with the same horse (or dog? Not an IndoEuropean lion or a Hunnish tiger! Niya, M. A. Stein) that had decorated a wooden box of Cherchen (left). Another Millennium shall elapse and the same animal reappears on Avar belt bukles in Europe. Astonishingly, the quality of the artefact worsens with time! Is the Cherchen bitch delivering, while another cub is ready to come out? Was that dog a Magyar Vizsla, a breed of dogs arrived in Europe with the Magyars? Victor! Your Indo-European Cherchen man was a Hungarian! Victor! Could that family speak an Indo-European language? What evidence do you have that they did? Do you have an audio CD with their voice? (You better provide a video: an audio could come from a polyglot Hungarian). Or is your science Voodoo science? Would you please tell me where I can see images of your “people of Greek ethnicity” in Yunnan? I insist with what I wrote years ago: if you want to look for Indo-European genes, I recommend you to look for the gene that controls the production of testosterone (linked to aggressiveness and libido). When you will find a mutation of that gene, which provokes a pathologic overproduction of testosterone, you will have found the genetic marker of the Indo-Europeans! Search in the DNA of Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn, former president of the Monetary Fund! … and, please, let the geneticists work in peace! Let them do their job without interferences, as you do your job without interferences of geneticists when you teach Chinese at university! Teaching Chinese does not make you a geneticist and not even a linguist!
IX. I AM REALLY HAPPY AND PROUD OF MYSELF!
Wherever I found Hungarian cultural markers (“Honfoglalás…“) and archaeological markers (“The Magyar art…”), there R1a1a and/or Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found by genetics! On “Honfoglalás…” I defined the cultural markers that made the Hungarian cultural identity: it allowed me to list all the places in Eurasia were the Hungarians could have dwelled and that shared those markers. In “Magyar art…” I have identified and isolated some hundreds of art designs and religious Sacred Symbols that the Hungarians had left along the roads of their migrations as "Hop-o'-My-Thumb" did: it allowed me to draw the map of their migrations. In this book I have looked for genetic evidence and I have found the genetic evidence that Hungarians were in all the places they should have been in order to support my theory. Sound genetic evidence of the migrations of Hungarians to west Europe has not yet been found, but I trust that it shall be found in small pockets and refugia. I wish I could see one day genetic researches in: ENGLAND: on the Teesside “Celts”.
Surrey, 650 B.C. Pleiades, British Museum
A symbolic Horse mask. A yurt style house. Bone weaving combs, from Catcote and Thorpe Thewles, decorated with dotted circles and similar to other Magna Pannonia combs. Golden earring, Thorpe Thewles. A symbolic boar, 1st c. B.C.. (Iron Age Teesside, Tees Archaeology, typical Hungarian art).
The circular walls of the yurt is high tech: it is made of a “composite material”: wood and mud together. I have been lucky enough to see one of the latest surviving similar houses, still inhabited, on the way from Bucharest to Cernavoda: a house made of mud, dung, and straw. Composites are now replacing aluminium in aviation industry. Left: Heathrow, Horse burial, Bronze Age. Recently, in Londinium, another “Roman” horse burial has been found (right): I was not aware of the fact that the Romans used to bury horses! The Sarmatians did, at that time. The genetic evidence of the historical displacement of 5.500 Székely-Sarmatians from “Dacia” to Britannia, after the re-conquest of “Dacia” by Marcus Aurelius, is proved by the fact that the “Britannic cluster” of G haplogroup (a Sarmatian marker) was imported in Britannia from Székelyland, where G could be at the highest rate in Europe, west of the Don river. See also “Erdély Dacia”. NORTH-WESTERN IBERIA: on the dead of the Numantia cemetery (who committed mass suicide on arrival of the Romans), or of other “Celtiberian” cemeteries, and on the population of Jaca. Significant levels of R1a1a have been found in Northern Spain, in pockets such as the Pas Valley, Cantabria, which was an Alan-Visigothic Duchy. Alano is the name of a breed of dogs brought to Spain by the Alans. Alans settled also in the Iberian Roman provinces of Lusitania and Carthaginiensis. They were defeated by the Visigoths (on behalf of Honorius, 419 A.D.). Their king Attaces was killed and the Alans appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. They migrated to Africa with the Vandals (“History of the Later Roman Empire”, Bury, J. B.), where they founded the Regnum Vandalorum atque Alanorum, as long as the Alan king was killed again. ITALY: on the Messapi and Terramare peoples and on the Avar “Longobards” buried in Varese, Pavia, Cividale and in the rest of Italy. Isolated pockets of R1a1a have been found in Calabria, where some Lombards settled. In Sicily, R1a1a is found at a frequency of 5.5%, (Di Gaetano et al., 2008): Siculi? Lombards? Alans from Tunis? In Veneto at 10.4% (Battaglia et al., 2008): Cividale del Friuli was the first capital city of the “Longobards”. In Northern Italy (Longobardia Major) it is at 3.5%. If in Northern Italy the average is 3,5%, how much more frequent can R1a1a be in pockets? ( See: “Székely Varese”). FRANCE: on the Pannonico dead of Parisii and Brittany (Armorica). In Paris, a sizeable percentage of R1a1a has been found (Wapedia). On the dead buried in the Basque Itxassou cemetery and in the area were the Alans settled (Regnum Alanorum, North and West France). Alain is still a popular name in France and the Bretons brought it to UK (Alan). GERMANY: on the Avars enslaved by Charlemagne, in the Rhein valley between Aachen and Strasburg. Did you know that Charlemagne could Gourdon treasure, Saône-et-Loire, France, Cabinet des Médailles (Paris) with Sarmatian Turul heads, “tulips”, afford buying a Royal Palace only after he looted the treasures of the Rhombuses, Hearts, undulating design, and cloisonné. Avars? Before 800, he had always lived in a tent! Early 6th c. A.D.: art experts say that this treasure shows (The German and French tests would be very important for one of my future works (“Hungarians in Europe”). influence of eastern nomads art. Why they do not say that it was Sarmato-Avar art? SWITZERLAND: on the La Tene people and on the Swiss “Huns” of Kiszely, who could be linked to the Avars of Ossola, Italy: they lived very close to each other, at either side of the mountain pass that they controlled. Dozens of double spiral idols have been found in the waters of the Neuchâtel lake. KOREA: on the “3 kingdoms” time dead. “3 kingdoms” archaeology:
Goguryeo tomb, hit and run
M. Isten w/ crown of sp.
Pazyrykia style hilt
Crown with M. Istens
Crown with M. Istens
HU cauldron, conical hat Granulation Crown. Vinča M.I. Crown with Heart I. Map of “3 kingdoms” Right: Arpadian Crown. “The Koreans have a 50:50 ratio of Altaic:Southern Asian genetic sequences” ("Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia”, Science magazine). “Archaeological evidence suggests proto-Koreans were Altaic-language-speaking migrants from south-central Siberia” (“The Rise of Civilization in East Asia: the Archaeology of China, Korea and Japan”, pp. 165). The Hungarians could have come to Korea from Linzi after the Linzi were subdued by Quin. The Linzi could have come from the Minusinsk Basin when the Silk Road went from Sothern Urals through the Minusinsk basin to Linzi (Herodotus, 5 th c. B.C.). My opinion is that, after Quin took the state of Qi (Shan Dong), the Linzi migrated to Korea and from there to Yamatai (Japan) that was initially ruled by female táltosok (“sorceresses” for the Japanese). They were pushed northward until they met in Hokkaido with their brothers that had come straight from Pazyrykia: Hokkaido is the border between northern and southern Ainu rites and markers: north of Hokkaido you have the Finno-Siberian thanks giving ceremony for the killed bear; south of Hokkaido you have female priestesses. The Silla kingdom was also ruled by at least 3 ruling queens in the 1 st c. B.C.. In Korea, a dagger in evident Sarmatian style has been found: it had rhodolite inlays, probably coming from Carpathia. Sarmatian markers of the dagger: cloisonné, three 3 ray Suns, 3 circles, trees of life with 9 and 12 branches, crowns of spirals, mushroom head of the hilt. The dagger was secured by 2 straps to the leg, as the Sarmatian daggers and cow boy pistols were.
The Korean alphabet does not have specific letters for /b/, /d/, and / γ/. See also “Honfoglalas…”, pages 217-223.
The Koreans start discovering their links with Central Asia and Europe. Note that Northern Koguryeo is in an area where isolated R1a1a has been found. The Silk Road went from Korea to Stockholm, where a middle age statuette of the Buddha has been found. ….
In any case, archaeological and cultural markers in the above areas remain in favour of my theory, and they do suffice to justify at least cultural diffusion. (See “EU Magyars”).
X. REFERENCES: LINKS TO GENETIC RESEARCHES THAT ARE THE FOUNDATION OF THIS WORK
(The red sentences in the papers are what is enough to read; the cyan ones are my comments or explanations.) (Google the original title of the paper (instead of my title in the below link!) and find the complete paper in the Net) (Citations of other researches are in the text) (Magenta are the best!)
GENERAL 1. Races of the world, Carleton Coon . 2. Light hair and eyes distribution. 3. Eurasian Ancient Y and MtDNA. 4. The Neanderthals are with us! 5. Genetic diversity is influenced by geography, rather than by language!
the waste basket!
The Cavalli Sforza linguistic dogma is finally in
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
Neolithic Farmers Neolithic Farmers McDonald, Maps.
Distribution of Y-DNA, Europe, table, by country. Distribution of MtDNA, Europe, table, by country. Distribution of R1a1a, world, table, by population. R1a1a Global distribution, Underhill map.
HUNGARIANS 13. In the Palaeolithic, the Hungarians were already in the Carpathian Basin. 14. Hungarians are 87% European, and Finns are 90% European. 15. Some MtDNA links between Europe and Asia. 16. Evidence of a migration around 850 B.C.. 17. The spread of Eu19.49a,f Ht11 from Ukraine to the East. 18. No Mongolian admixture in Hungarians. 19. Chinese/Mongolian admixture in Magyars. 20. The Magyars found Hungarians in Carpathia and they brought B and M MtDNA . 21. B and M MtDNA was in the Tarim Basin and is still with the Hungarians. 22. NEW! N1a philogeography. An 8 millennia old marker of the Hungarian migrations. 23. R1b, R1a, and E3B. The markers of the Hungarian Migrations. 24. The Hungarian Y DNA genetic pie. 25. The Hungarians are not Turks, and they are closer to the Indians than to the crocodiles! 26. Poles, Croats and Ukrainians (East Pannonia) are the most closely related to the Hungarians. 27. Cumanian Genetics. 28. Tóth Imre Génjeink. SARMATIANS, SZÉKELYS, AND AVARS 29. Sarmatians in Europe; Szekely in Britannia. 30. What a disillusion for the Indo-Germanists! The Sarmatians were not Indo-Iranians, but matriarchalist Hungarians! 31. Székelys and Hungarians. 32. Csangos migrated to Székelys', not vice versa. 33. Avar genetics, Croatia. PAZYRYKI , SIBERIANS AND KHANTY MANSI 34. In prehistorical times, in western and central Siberia [from Andronovo to 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.
Berel, Kazakhstan (Pazyrykia), genetics. In Kakhassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, nearly all subjects were R1a1a and their MtDNA was the “ Pazyrykia's MtDNA”. N1a, U2, U3, U7, the markers of the West-East migrations to Pazyrykia. Mansi. Europeans may have colonized west Siberia since the Palaeolithic. The Pazyryki fled from the Hsiung Nu by migrating northward. They became the Khanty Mansi. The Khanty Mansi had come from Pazyrykia, from where some Pazyryki migrated also to the Tarim basin. Pazyrykia], 25 out of 25 humans were Caucasoid with light eyes. Baikal, the eastern limit of the Caucasoid spread. Separation between Hungarians and Hsiung Nu.
ARSI 42. DAHEYAN. The existence of a village in the very centre of the desert confirms that in the Iron Age the desert was not as 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
impracticable as it is today. SAMPULA. Han dynasty time cemetery. XIAOHE. Hungarians in the Tarim Basin in 2000 B.C..
YUANSHA, Zaghunluq, Sampula and Niya. The Uyghur admixture in the Tarim Basin was not large. The Uyghurs are 60% Europeans. Their R1a1a is not Indian. The Uyghurs are not Taiwanese! Tarim Basin. There are still people, who use craniometry! ...but it makes sense in this case. Kazakhstan was Mongol free until the 7th c. B.C. Magyar Madjars in Arsia: Genetics says that they are “close to”, archaeology says that they “were” Hungarians!
HSIUNG NUS/HUNS/MONGOLS 51. Breaking News! Duurlig Nars, a Hungarian slave found in a Hsiung Nu cemetery! 52. Egyin Gol Xiung Nu necropolis. 89% of sequencies were Asian, only 11% were European. 53. The Ordos people were always Mongoloids. 54. The Hunnish fenotype. 55. The Hungarians and the Hsiung Nu lived in separate regions. CHINESE (CHINA PROPER. SEE “ARSI”, ABOVE, FOR THE TARIM BASIN) 56. Linzis: how they evolved from Hungarians (in Shan Dong, China) to Japanese. 57. Gan Su: genetic traces of the Hungarian Yueh Chih (Hsiung Nu for Obrusánszki Borbála). 58. Caucasians in south west China, Iron Age. OTHERS 59. The Jomon and Ainu Haplogroup D. 60. Ainu genetics. 61. India. Brahmins. 62. Indian Genetics and the Aryan debate. 63. The origin of the Etruscans. 64. Greece. R1a1a is not where the Greeks settled!
Other genetic researches are quoted in the text. I shall be pleased to publish on this page any pertinent recent research that provides evidence that the Hungarians were Huns, or that the Hungarians of Asia were Indo-Europeans! No fairy tales please! I shall try to update the above list of papers and I trust that the Hungarians of non Hunnish descent (i.e.: all of them, but one!) shall help me do it! Further discoveries of new clades and subclades will enlighten what really happened and when.
I want to credit Max Allen, founder of the Toronto Textile Museum of having been the first to have reconstructed a large part of the Hungarian migrations through archaeology in his book “The birth symbol in traditional women’s art”, 1981. Max had already traced the origin of the Birth Symbol from Çatalhöyük, and its early migration to Hungary. He also reconstructed its migration from Hungary “in the 8th century B.C.” to Central Asia, from where it reached Yunnan (CN). Finally, the Dong Son culture brought it to Indonesia. (See also: pages 188 to 197 of “Honfoglalás…”). Max had already written the Hungarian 10 millennia long history! I have just added the evidence of some other hundreds of symbols that migrated on the same route, and I also found out that the Birth Symbol had come back to Europe with the Sarmatians, Avars and Magyars.
Ž Székely Nat. museum Varese, IT Honfoglalás Halstatt, “Celtic”! utu Brdo-Gârla Mare When the Birth Symbol arrived in Indonesia, it was hardly recognizable, but the symbol still used in Székely Land (in a Hungarian row of Istens, Szekely National Museum, textile) is still almost identical to the one of Çatalhöyük. Çatalhöyük, TR
Székely, Székely, Cucuteni Sarmatia + 6 HU symbols! Székely, Kvar Duurlig Nars Pannonia, Bronze A. Tamga, Bakay The angular shape of the Çatalhöyük Birth Symbol became a curved shape in Cucuteni Székely Land (the 2 circles represent the head and the offspring) and its shape kept unchanged in Hungarian Bronze and Iron Age symbols. It was modified again into an angular shape on Silk Road carpets. (The above ones are not all I have in my computer!) I heartily thank all the Hungarians, who are sending me precious information and feedback . Michelangelo