i

Chapter 5
PILES
CHAPTER 5

5.1 Piles
- For piles the length to width (diameter) ratio i.e. Lp/d > 4 , where Lp is the
pile length and d is pile diameter.
- The basic situation for a pile foundation is where soft soil exists near the
ground surface which underlain by rock formation e.g.

Figure 5-1 Pile foundation resting on hard stratum underlying a soft soil
layer
5.2 Uses of Piles
Piles are commonly used for the following purposes (Figure 5-2).
- To carry superstructure loads into or through a soil stratum. Both vertical
and lateral loads may be involved.
Building
Soft Soil
Piles
Firm Soil

2
- To resist uplift or overturning forces such as for basement mats below the
W.T. or to support the tower legs subjected to overturning from lateral loads
such as wind.
- To compact loose, cohesionless deposits through a combination of pile
volume displacement and driving vibration, thus increasing their bearing
capacity.
- To carry the foundation through the depth of scour to provide safety in the
event the soil is eroded away.
- To stiffen the soil beneath machine foundations to control both amplitudes
of vibration and the natural frequency of the system.
- In offshore construction to transmit the loads above the water surface
through the water and into the underlying soil. This case is one in which
partially embedded piling is subjected to vertical (and buckling) as well as
lateral loads.


Figure 5-2 (a) Tension pile to resist overturning movements in tall buildings (b) Shear pile to
resist horizontal forces or movements Friction pile (c) raking piles in harbor and river
(a)
(b)
(c)
tension
compression
Wind

3
5.3 Classification of Piles
5.3.1 Classification according to the mechanism of load transfer
End/Point Bearing Piles
If a bedrock or rocklike material is present at a site within a reasonable depth,
piles can be extended to the rock surface (figure 5-3(a)). In this case, the
ultimate bearing capacity of the pile depends entirely of the underlying
material; thus the piles are called end or point bearing piles. In most of these
cases the necessary length of the pile can be fairly well established.
Instead of bedrock, if a fairly compact and hard stratum of soil is encountered at
a reasonable depth, piles can be extended a few meters into the hard stratum.
Friction Piles (figure 5-3 b)
When no layer of rock or rocklike material is present at a reasonable depth at a
site, point/end bearing piles become very long and uneconomical. For this type
of subsoil condition, piles are driven through the softer material to specified
depth. These types of piles are called friction piles because the load on the pile
is resisted mainly by skin/friction resistance along the side of the pile (pile
shaft). Pure friction piles tend to be quite long, since the load-carrying capacity
is a function of the shaft area in contact with the soil.
In cohesionless soils, such as sands of medium to low density, friction piles are
often used to increase the density and thus the shear strength.
Friction cum end bearing piles
In the majority of cases, however, the load-carrying capacity is dependent on
both end-bearing and shaft friction (figure 5-3 c).




4

5.3.2 Classification of piles according to their method of
installation (figure 5-4)
Driven or displacement piles
They are usually preformed before being driven, jacked, screwed or hammered
into ground. This category consists of driven piles of steel or precast concrete
and piles formed by driving tubes or shells which are fitted with a driving shoe.
The tubes or shells which are filled with concrete after driving. Also included in
this category are piles formed by placing concrete as the driven piles are
withdrawn.
Bored or Replacement piles
They require a hole to be first bored into which the pile is then formed usually
of reinforced concrete. The shaft (bore) may be cased or uncased depending
upon type of soil.
Soft
ground
hard
Soft to
firm
Soft to
firm
Firm to
hard
Soft
Figure 5-3(a) End bearing pile (b) Friction pile (c) friction cum end bearing pile
(a) (b)
(c)

5


5.3.3 Classification of Piles according to Materials
Timber piles
- Timber piles are made of tree trunks driven with small end as a point
- Maximum length: 35 m; optimum length: 9 ÷20m
- Max load for usual conditions: 450 kN; optimum load range = 80÷240
kN
- Disadvantages: difficult to splice, vulnerable to damage in hard driving,
vulnerable to decay unless treated with preservatives (If timber is below
permanent W.T. it will apparently last for ever), if subjected to alternate
(a) (b) (c)
(d)
(e) (f)
Figure 5-4 Principal types of pile: (a) precast RC pile (b) steel H pile (c) shell
pile (d) concrete pile cast as driven tube withdrawn (e) bored pile (cast in
situ), (f) under-reamed bored pile (cast in situ)

6
wetting & drying, the useful life will be short, partly embedded piles or
piles above W.T. are susceptible to damage from wood borers and other
insects unless treated.
- Advantages: comparatively low initial cost, permanently submerged piles
are resistant to decay, easy to handle, best suited for friction piles in
granular material.

Steel Piles
- Max length: practically unlimited,
- optimum length: 12÷50 m
- load for usual conditions = maximum allowable stress × x-section area,
- Optimum load range = 350÷1050 kN
- The members are usually rolled HP shapes/pipe piles. Wide flange beams
& I beams proportioned to withstand the hard driving stress to which the
pile may be subjected, In HP pile the flange thickness= web thickness,
pipe piles are either welded or seamless steel pipes, which may be driven
either open ended or closed end. Closed end piles are usually filled with
concrete after driving. Open end piles may be filled but this is not often
necessary.
- Advantages: easy to splice, high capacity, small displacement, able to
penetrate through light obstructions, best suited for end bearing on rock,
reduce allowable capacity for corrosive locations or provide corrosion
protection.
- Disadvantages: Vulnerable to corrosion, HP section may be
damaged/deflected by major obstruction
Concrete Piles
- Concrete piles may be precast, prestressed, cast in place, or of composite
construction.
- Precast concrete piles may be made using ordinary reinforcement or they
may be prestressed.

7
- Pecast piles using ordinary reinforcement are designed to resist bending
stresses during picking up & transport to the site & bending moments
from lateral loads and to provide sufficient resistance to vertical loads
and any tension forces developed during driving.
- Prestressed piles are formed by tensioning high strength steel prestress
cables, and casting the concrete about the cable. When the concrete
hardens, the prestress cables are cut, with the tension force in the cables
now producing compressive stress in the concrete pile. It is common to
higher-strength concrete (35 to 55 MPa) in prestressed piles because of
the large initial compressive stresses from prestressing. Prestressing the
pile tends to counteract any tension stresses during either handling or
driving.
- Max length: 10÷15 m for precast, 20÷30 m for prestressed
- Optimum length: 10÷12 m for precast, 18÷25m prestressed
- Loads for usual conditions 900 for precast, 8500 kN for prestressed
- Optimum load range: 350÷3500 kN
- Disadvantages: difficult to handle unless prestressed, high initial cost,
considerable displacement, prestressed piles are difficult to splice.
- Advantages: high load capacities, corrosion resistance can be attained,
hard driving possible
- Remarks: cylinder piles in particular are suited for bending resistance.
- Cast in place concrete piles are formed by drilling a hole in the ground &
filling it with concrete. The hole may be drilled or formed by driving a
shell or casing into the ground.
- Disadvantages of Concrete piles: Concrete piles are considered
permanent, however, certain soil (usually organic) contain materials that
may form acids that can damage the concrete. Salt water may also
adversely react with the concrete unless special precautions are taken
when the mix proportions are designed. Additionally, concrete piles used
for marine structures may undergo abrasion from wave action and
floating debris in the water. Alternate freezing & thawing can cause
concrete damage in any exposed situation.

8
Composite piles
- In general, a composite pile is made up of two or more sections of
different materials or different pile types. The upper portion could be
cased cast-in-place concrete combined with a lower portion of timber,
steel H or concrete filled steel pipe pile. These piles have limited
application and are employed under special conditions.
5.4 Load Capacity of Piles
Three general methods are available to establish load capacity:
(1) Static Analysis (2) Dynamic Analysis (3) Load Testing (4) Correlation
with field tests (SPT, CPT etc)
Dynamic formulae are used for driven piles. Static formulae are used both for
bored and driven piles. Load testing is the most reliable method to determine
the load capacity of the pile in the field. They should be performed on all piling
projects. However, they are considerably more expensive than the other
methods used to determine pile capacity, and economic consideration
sometimes preclude their use on projects. Field tests like SPT, CPT are also
used to correlate to load carrying capacity particularly for cohesionless soils.
5.5 Driven Piles
5.5.1 Dynamic Pile Formulas
Piles are usually forced into the ground by a pile driver or pile hammer. In
medieval times piles were driven by men manually swinging hammer, which
consists of a weight raised by ropes or cables and allowed to drop freely
striking the top of the pile. After the drop hammer came the single acting
hammer, double acting hammer, differential acting hammer, diesel pile
hammer, vibratory driver.
Dynamic pile formulas are widely used to determine the static capacity of the
driven pile. These formulas are derived starting with the relation
Energy Input = Energy Used + Energy Lost
The Energy used equals the driving resistance (Pu) × the pile movement (s).

9
Energy lost is due to friction, heat, hammer rebound, vibration and elastic
compression of the pile, the pacing assembly, and the soil.
Energy News Record (ENR) Formula:
This formula takes into account the energy lost due to temporary compression
(C) resulting from elastic compression of the pile. Thus
Energy Input = Energy Used + Energy Lost
Wr × h = Pu × s + Pu × C
Pu = Wr × h / (s + C)
Where Wr = weight of the ram, h= height of fall of the ram, s = penetration of
pile per hammer blow, Pu = average resistance of soil to penetration.
C= 25 mm (1 inch) for drop hammer, and
C= 2.5 mm (0.1 inch) for steam hammer (single acting/double acting)
Pa = Pu / SF where Pa = allowable load on pile, and SF(factor of safety) = 6
For single/double acting hammer, the term (Wr × h) can be replaced by q
h
E
where q
h
=hammer efficiency (table-1) and E=rated energy of hammer. Thus
Pu = q
h
E / (s + C)
Table-1: Hammer efficiency q
h

Table 5-1 Hammer efficiency q
h


Hammer type Efficiency
q
h

Single and double acting
hammer
0.7-0.85
Diesel hammers 0.8-0.9
Drop hammers 0.7-0.9



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Example: A precast concrete pile 12in× 12 in in cross section is driven by a
steam hammer. The maximum rated hammer energy = 26 kips-ft, hammer
efficiency = 0.8 and the number of blows for the last 1 inch of penetration = 5.
Estimate the allowable pile capacity by using (a) ENR formula using SF=6.0
Solution:
ENR formula:
q
h
= 0.8, E=26 kip-ft, s=1/5 = 0.2 inch/blow. SF=6.0
SF C s
E
Pa
h
) ( +
=
q
= 0.8 × 26 × 12 / [ (0.2 + 0.1) 6 ] = 836 kips
5.5.2 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT
Piles are installed by a special pile driving device know as a pile hammer. The
hammer may be suspended from the boom of a crawler crane, supported on a
large frame called a pile driver or carried on a barge for construction in water.
In all cases, the hammer is guided between two parallel steel members called
leads. The leads may be adjusted at various angles for driving vertical and
batter piles.
Several types of hammers are in use and each of which are different sizes. The
hammer types are:
Drop hammer
The drop hammer consists of a heavy ram in between the leads. The ram is
lifted up to a certain height and released to drop on the pile. This type is slow
and therefore not in common use. It is used in the cases where only a small
number of piles are driven.
Single-acting hammer
In single acting hammer a heavy ram is lifted up by steam or compressed air but
dropped by its own weight. The energy of a single acting hammer is equal to
the weight of the ram times the height of fall.
Double-acting hammer
The double-acting hammer employs steam or air for lifting the ram and for
accelerating the downward stroke. The energy of a double-acting hammer is

11
equal to the (weight of the ram + mean effective pressure x the effective area of
ram) x times the height of fall.
Diesel hammer
The diesel hammer is a small, light weight and highly mobile. They use
gasoline for fuel. To start the operation, the ram is raised, and the fuel is
injected. As the ram is released, the ram falls and compresses air and fuel. The
air and fuel becomes hot because of the compression and the air-fuel mixture is
ignited. The resulting explosion (1) advances the pile and (2) lifts the ram. If the
pile advance is very great as in soft soils, the ram is not lifted by the explosion
sufficiently to ignite the air-fuel mixture on the next cycle, requiring that the
ram be again manually lifted.
Vibratory hammer
The principle of the vibratory driver is two counter-rotating eccentric weights.
The driving unit vibrates at high frequency and provides two vertical impulses-
one up and one down. The downward pulse acts with the pile weight to increase
the apparent gravity force. These hammers have reduced driving vibrations,
reduced noise, and great speed of penetration.
5.5.3 HAMMER SELECTION
Generally the size of hammer is more important factor than type of hammer.
A heavy pile should be driven by a heavy hammer delivering large energy.
Preferably the weight of the hammer should be at least on-half the total weight
of the pile, and the deriving energy should be at least one foot-pound for each
pound of pile weight.
Each type of hammer has its use under suitable conditions. The advantages and
disadvantages of each type are summarized below:
Single-acting hammer
They are advantageous when driving heavy piles in compact or hard soils; the
heavy ram striking at low velocity produces least damage due to impact. The
disadvantages are low driving speed and large headroom requirement.
Double-acting hammer

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They are generally used to drive piles of light or moderate weight in soils of
average resistance against driving. This type of hammer can drive piles at fast
speed, requires less headroom and can be used to extract piles by turning them
[i.e. the double-acting hammer] upside down.
Diesel hammer
They are similar in application as double-acting hammers, but driving may
become difficult in extremely soft ground.
Vibratory hammer
They have fairly good results in silty and clayey deposits. They are used in
heavy clays or soils with appreciable numbers of boulders. These hammers
have reduced driving vibrations, reduced noise, and great speed of penetration.
5.6 STATIC PILE FORMULAS
The ultimate load which can be carried by a pile is equal to the sum of the base
resistance and the shaft resistance (figure 5-5).
P
u
+ W
p
= A
b
q
b(gross)
+ A
s
q
s


P
u
is the ultimate load that can be carried at top of pile, q
b
ultimate (gross)
bearing capacity at base level, A
b
= base area of pile, q
s
=ultimate shearing/skin
resistance per unit area, A
s
= perimeter area of pile, and Wp = weight of the pile.
Subtracting Ws from both sides of the equation. Where Ws is effective soil
weight replaced/displaced due to pile volume. Ws = ¸'LA
b
where ¸' is the
effective weight of soil, and L is pile length.
P
u
+ (W
p
– Ws)= A
b
q
b(gross)
+ A
s
q
s
-Ws
P
u
+ (W
p
– Ws) = A
b
q
b(gross)
+ A
s
q
s
- ¸'LA
b


P
u
+ (W
p
– Ws) = (q
b(gross)
- ¸'L)A
b
+ A
s
q
s

P
u
+ (W
p
– Ws) = (q
b(gross)
- oo')A
b
+ A
s
q
s

Where oo'=¸'L is effective vertical stress at pile base
P
u
+(W
p
– Ws) = A
b
q
b
+ A
s
q
s


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P
u
= A
b
q
b
+ A
s
q
s
– (W
p
– Ws)
P
u
= A
b
q
b
+ A
s
q
s
– W
P
u
is the ultimate load that can be carried at top of pile, q
b
ultimate (net) bearing
capacity at base level, A
b
= base area of pile, q
s
=ultimate shearing/skin
resistance per unit area, A
s
= perimeter area of pile, W= Wp – Ws = weight of
the pile – effective weight of soil replaced. In most cases Wp~ Ws and hence
W~0.
P
u
= A
b
q
b
+ A
s
q
s

However in the case of under-reamed piles (figure 5-4 f) the reduction in
pressure on the soil at base level due to the removal of soil is greater than the
subsequent increase in pressure due to the weight of the pile and hence use
equation-1 (i.e. do not assume that W
p
~ W
s
)


5.6.1 COHESIONLESS SOILS
End bearing Resistance (q
b
)
q
s

q
b

W
P

Figure 5-5 Free body diagram of a pile
P
u


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The ultimate B.C. and settlement of a pile depends mainly on the relative
density of sand. However, if a pile is driven into sand the relative density
adjoining the pile is increased by compaction due to soil displacement (except
in dense sands, which may be loosened). The soil characteristics governing
ultimate bearing capacity and settlement, therefore, are different from the
original characteristics prior to driving. This fact, in addition to the
heterogeneous nature of sand deposits, makes the prediction of pile behavior by
analytical methods extremely difficult.
The ultimate (net) B.C. at base level can be expressed as
q
b
= cN
c
+ o
o
' N
q
+ ½ ¸ B N
¸
-o
o
' [o
o
' is subtracted to get net value of q
b
]
Where o
o
' is the effective overburden pressure at base level of pile.
q
b
= cN
c
+ o
o
'(N
q
-1) + ½ ¸ B N
¸

c=0 for sand and 1/2¸BN
¸
term can be neglected because the B (width/diameter
of pile) is small compared to the length of pile. so
q
b
= o
o
' (N
q
-1) ~ o
o
'N
q
(N
q
-1) ~ N
q
[because reduction of N
q
by 1 is a
substantial refinement not justified by estimated soil parameters]. N
q
is a B.C.
factor (figure 5-6)














15



Figure 5-6: Values of Nq for pile formulae (After Berezantsev et al. 1961)

16
Friction/Shaft Resistance (qs):
The average value of skin resistance (q
s
) over the length of pile embedded in
sand can be expressed as
o o tan ' ' + = c q
s

Where
'
'
o s
K o o = and c’=0
o o tan
'
o s s
K q =
K
s
a coefficient of earth pressure dependent largely on the relative density of
the soil, ' o = average effective pressure in the layer perpendicular to q
s
(i.e.
horizontal).
'
o
o = average effective vertical overburden pressure in the layer, and
o=angle of friction between the pile and the soil.

Table 5-2 K
s
and o values
Pile Type o
K
s

Loose Sand Dense Sand
Concrete 3/4 | 1.0 2.0
Steel 20° 0.5 2.0
Wood 2/3 | 1.5 4.0

Variation of q
b
and q
s
with depth
The above equations for q
b
and q
s
indicate a linear increase with depth of q
b
and
q
s
. However, tests on full scale and model piles have shown that these equations
are valid up to certain depth called critical depth (z
c
). Below this depth z
c
(=15d
to 20d, conservatively take z
c
= 15 d), base (q
b
) and shaft/skin (q
s
) resistances
do not develop linearly [i.e. become constant]. This is because the vertical
effective stress adjacent to the pile is not necessarily equal to the effective
overburden pressure (away from the effect of pile) but reaches a limiting value
at critical depth z
c
(figure 5-7).

17

q
b
and q
s
from SPT Test
Ultimate base resistance q
b
Due to the critical depth limitation and to the difficulty of obtaining values of
the required parameters, the above equations are difficult to apply in practice. It
is preferable to use empirical correlations
The following empirical correlations have been proposed by Meyerhof for
driven piles in sand.
q
b
= (40N
55
)×L
b
/B s 400N
55
(kN/m
2
)
N= is the value of standard penetration resistance in the vicinity of the pile base.
Use any applicable SPT N corrections discussed in earlier chapter-3.
B = width or diameter of pile point
L
b
= the length of pile embedded in sand
Skin friction resistance
W.T.
d
o
oc
'
d
o
oc
'
z
c
=15 d
z
c
=15d
Figure 5-7 Effective vertical stress distribution diagram adjacent to pile

18
Skin friction resistance is N q
s
2 = [kN/m
2
]
Where N is the average value of standard penetration resistance over the
embedded length of the pile within the sand stratum.
The values of q
s
should be halved in the case of small displacement piles such
as steel H piles. For bored piles the values of q
b
and q
s
are approximately 1/3
and 1/2, respectively, of the corresponding values for driven piles.
5.7 COHESIVE SOILS
5.7.1 Driven Piles
In the case of driven piles, the clay adjacent to the pile is displaced both
laterally and vertically. Upward displacement of the clay results in heaving of
the ground surface around the pile and can cause a reduction in the bearing
capacity of adjacent piles already installed. The clay in the disturbed zone
around the pile is completely remoulded during driving. The excess porewater
pressure set up by the driving stresses dissipates within a few months as the
disturbed zone is relatively narrow (of the order B): in general, dissipation is
virtually complete before significant structural load is applied to the pile.
Dissipation is accompanied by an increase in skin friction. Thus the skin
friction at the end of dissipation is normally appropriate in design.
5.7.2 Bored Piles
In the case of bored piles, a thin layer of clay (of the order of 25 mm)
immediately adjoining the shaft will be remoulded during boring. In addition, a
gradual softening of the clay will take place adjacent to the shaft due to stress
release, pore water seeping from the surrounding clay towards the shaft. Water
can also be absorbed from wet concrete when it comes in contact with the clay.
Softening is accompanied by a reduction in shear strength and a reduction in
skin friction. Construction of a bored pile, therefore, should be completed as
quickly as possible. Limited reconsolidation of the remoulded and softened clay
takes place after installation of the pile.
Base Resistance

19
The relavent shear strength for the determination of the base resistance of a pile
in clay is the undrained strength at base level. The ultimate bearing capacity is
expressed as
q
b
= c
u
N
c
+ o
o
' N
q
+ ½ ¸ B N
¸
-o
o
' [o
o
' is subtracted to get net value of q
b
]
1/2¸BN
¸
term can be neglected because the B (width/diameter of pile) is small
compared to the length of pile and for |u=0, Nq=1, we get
q
b
= c
u
N
c
where N
c
= 9, and cu is undrained shear strength at pile base
Skin Resistance
Total Stress (Undrained Conditions |
u
=0)
) tan(
u a s
c q | o + = [where c
a
is average adhesion]
0 ) tan( =
u
| o as |
u
=0
Hence
u a s
c α c q = = o is a coefficient depending on type of clay, the method of
installation, and the pile material. The appropriate value of o is obtained from
load tests. Values of o range from 0.3 to 1.
u
c is the average undrained shear
strength. One difficulty with this approach is that there is usually a considerable
scatter in the plot of undrained shear strength against depth and it may be
difficult to define the value of
u
c . See figure 5-8 for different values of o.
Effective Stress (drained conditions)
An alternative approach is to express skin friction in terms of effective stress.
The zone of soil disturbance around the pile is relatively thin, therefore
dissipation of the positive or negative excess pore water pressure set up during
installation should virtually be complete by the time the structural load is
applied. In principle, therefore, an effective stress approach has more
justification than one based on total stress. In terms of effective stress the skin
friction can be expressed as
) ' tan( '
'
| o
o s s
K c q + =
) ' tan(
'
| o
o s s
K q = [c’=0 for saturated clay under drained conditions]

20
Where K
s
is the average coefficient of earth pressure and
'
o
o is the average
effective overburden pressure adjacent to the pile shaft. Failure is assumed to
take place in the remoulded soil close to the pile shaft, therefore the angle of
friction between the pile and the soil is represented by the angle of shearing
resistance in terms of effective stress (|’) for the remoulded clay: the cohesion
intercept for remoulded clay will be zero. The above equation can also be
written as
'
o s
q o | = [where ) ' tan(| |
s
K = ]
Approximate value of | can be deduced by making assumptions regarding the
value of K
s
, especially in the case of normally consolidated clays. However, the
coefficient is generally obtained empirically from the results of load test carried
out a few months after installation. Correlations with loading tests have shown
that for soft clays | falls within a narrow range of values (0.25 to 0.4),
irrespective of the clay type.



21



Figure 5-8 Relationship between the adhesion factor o and undrained
shear strength s
u
(c
u
).
5.8 FACTOR OF SAFETY
The base resistance requires a larger deformation for full mobilization than the
shaft resistance, therefore different values of load factor may be appropriate for
the two components, the higher factor being applied to the base resistance.
In the case of large-diameter bored piles, including underreamed piles, the shaft
resistance may be fully mobilized at working load and it is advisable to ensure a

22
load factor of 3 for base resistance, with a factor of 1 for shaft resistance, in
addition to the specified over all load factor (generally 2) for the pile.
5.9 NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION
When piles are driven through a layer of fill material which slowly compacts or
consolidates due to its own weight, or if the layers underlying the fill
consolidate under the weight of the fill, a downward drag is imposed in the pile
shaft (figure 5-9).
The skin friction between the pile and soil therefore acts in a downward
direction. The force due to this downward or negative skin friction is thus
carried by the pile instead of helping to support the external load on the pile.
Negative skin friction increases gradually as consolidation of the clay layer
proceeds, the effective overburden pressure gradually increasing as the excess
pore water pressure dissipates.

P
u
+ ¿q
sN
As = q
b
A
b
+ ¿q
s
A
s
where q
sN
is negative skin friction
(downward), A
sN
is the corresponding surface area of pile, q
s
is the skin friction
q
sN

q
b

q
sN

q
s

Fill: consolidating
under own weight
Soft clay: consolidating
under weight of fill
Firm or Hard bearing
layer
Figure 5-9 Negative skin friction
P
u


23
(upward) and A
s
is the corresponding surface areas of pile, A
b
is the end bearing
area of pile.
To calculate negative skin friction equation
'
o N s
q o | = can be used. In normally
consolidated clays, a value of |=0.25 represents a reasonable upper limit to
negative skin friction for preliminary design purposes.
It should be noted that there will be a reduction in effective overburden pressure
adjacent to the pile in the bearing stratum due to the transfer of part of the
overlying soil weight to the pile: if the bearing stratum is sand, this will result in
a reduction in bearing capacity above the critical depth.
5.10 PILE GROUP
Rarely is the foundation likely to consist of a single pile. Generally, there will
be a minimum of two of three piles under a foundation element or footing to
allow for misalignments and other inadvertent eccentricities.
The group of piles is installed fairly close together (typically 2B-4B where B is
the width or diameter of a single pile) and joined by a slab, known as the Pile
Cap, cast on top of the piles.
The cap is usually in contact with the soil in which case part of the structural
load is carried directly on the soil immediately below the surface. The group of
piles in this case is called piled foundation. If the cap is clear of the ground
surface, the piles in the group are referred to as free-standing (figure 5-10).


24

5.10.1 Load Distribution in Pile Group
It is generally assumed that the load distribution between the piles in an axially
loaded group is uniform.
However experimental evidence indicates that for a group in sand the piles at
the center of the group carry greater loads than those on the perimeter.
In clay, on the other hand, the piles on the perimeter of the group carry greater
loads than on those at the center.
5.10.2 Efficiency of Pile Group
In general the ultimate load which can be supported by a group of N piles is not
equal to N times the ultimate load of a single isolated pile of the same
dimensions in the same soil. Where N is the number of piles in a group. So
[in general] Ultimate load of Pile Group = N × Ultimate load of a single pile

The ratio of the average load per pile in a group at failure to the ultimate load
for a single pile is defined as the efficiency of the group (ç).
Average load per pile in a group at failure = Ultimate group load / N
ç = ( Ultimate group load ] / ( N × Ultimate Individual load )
Pile Cap
Pile Cap
(a) (b)
Figure 5-10 (a) A group of free-standing piles (b) A group of piled foundation

25
5.10.3 Pile Group in Cohesionless Soils
Driven Piles
The driving of a group of piles into loose sand or medium-dense sand causes
compaction of the sand between the piles, provided that the spacing is less than
about 8×B: consequently the efficiency of the group is greater than unity. The
maximum efficiency is reached at a spacing of 2 to 3 diameters and generally
ranges between 1.3 to 2. It is recommended that in this case the design value
of ç=1 be taken.
In the case of piles driven into dense sand, the group efficiency is less than
unity due to loosening of the sand and the overlapping of zones of shear (figure
5-11).
Bored Piles
However, for a group of bored piles the efficiency may be as low as 2/3 because
the sand between the piles is not compacted during installation but the zones of
shear of adjacent piles will overlap.

26











Figure 5-11 Stress surrounding a friction pile and the summing effects of a
pile group
5.10.4 Pile Group in Cohesive Soils
A closely spaced group of piles (spacing = 2×B to 3×B) in clay may fail as a
unit, with shear failure taking place around the perimeter of the group and
Four piles contributing
to this stress zone
Three piles contributing to
this stress zone
Two piles contributing to
this stress zone

27
below the area covered by the piles and the enclosed soil. This is referred to as
Block Failure. (figure 5-12)
The ultimate load in the case of a pile group which fails as a block is given by
u sg b bg ug
c A q A P × + × =
A
bg
= base are of the group = Bg × Lg; A
sg
= perimeter area of the group =
2D×(B
g
+ L
g
); c
u
= undrained shear strength at depth D
u
c = average undrained shear strength between 0 and D below the ground.
qb=cu×Nc where N
c
=5.14× (1+0.2×B
g
/L
g
) [ 1 + \(0.053×D/B
g
) ] s 9
) ( 2
g g u g g u c ug
L B D c L B c N P + × + × × × =
Design Ultimate Load
Piled Foundation
The ultimate load should be taken as the lesser of the
Block Failure value (2) The sum of the individual pile values
Free Standing Group of Piles
The ultimate load should be taken as the lesser of the
(1) Block Failure value (2) 2/3 of the sum of the individual pile values
5.11 Settlement of Pile Group
The settlement of pile group is always greater than the settlement of a
corresponding single pile, as a result of the overlapping of the individual zones
of influence of the piles in the group. The bulbs of pressure of a single pile and
a pile group (with piles of the same length as the single pile) are of the form
illustrated in figure 5-13.
In order to estimate settlement for a pile group, it is assumed that the total load
is carried by an “Equivalent raft” located at a depth of 2L/3 where L is the
length of piles (figure 5-14). It may be assumed as shown in figure 5-14 that the
load is spread from the perimeter of the pile group at a slope of 1 horizontal to 4
vertical to allow for that part of the load transferred to the soil by skin friction.
The vertical stress increment at any depth below the equivalent raft may be

28
estimated by assuming in turn that the total load is spread to the underlying soil
at a slope of 1 horizontal to 2 vertical.


29
Pile Cap
Pile Cap
(a) A group of free-standing piles
(b) A group of piled foundation
L
g

B
g

D
D
L
g

B
g

D
Figure 5-12Block failure of pile group in clay
(c ) Dimensions of Failure block

30




















Figure 5-13 Bulbs of pressure for a single and a pile group







31


Figure 5-14 Equivalent raft concept
5.12 Pile Load Test
The loading of a test pile enables the ultimate load to be determined directly
and provides a means of assessing the accuracy of predicted values.
Tests may also be carried out in which loading is stopped when the proposed
working load has been exceeded by a specified percentage.
Figure 5-15 shows a schematic diagram of the pile load test arrangement for
testing in axial compression in the field. The load is applied to the pile by a
hydraulic jack. The load is applied in suitable increments, allowing sufficient
time between increments for settlement to be substantially complete. According
to ASTM D1143, the test pile is loaded in eight equal increments up to a
maximum load, usually twice the predetermined working (allowable) load.
Unloading stages are normally included in the test program. This testing
procedure is Maintained load test (or Controlled load test).
In constant rate of penetration (CRP) test the pile is jacked into the soil at a
constant speed, the load applied in order to maintain the penetration being
continuously measured. Suitable rates of penetration for tests in sands and clays
are 1.5 mm/min and 0.75 mm/min respectively.
Another type of pile load test is cyclic loading, in which an increment load is
repeatedly applied and removed.
Driven piles in clays should not be tested for at least a month after installation
to allow most of the increase in skin friction (a result of dissipation of the
excess pore water pressure due to the driving stresses) to take place. Load tests
on piles in sand can be carried out immediately after the piles are driven.
5.12.1 Ultimate Load
Figure 5-15 shows load settlement diagram obtained from fried loading and
unloading. For any load Q, the pile settlement can be calculated as follows.
When Q=Q1,
net settlement, s
net(1)
= s
t(1)
– s
e(1)


32
When Q=Q2
net settlement, s
net(2)
= s
t(2)
– s
e(2)

and so on….
Where s
net
= net settlement
s
e
= elastic settlement of the pile itself
s
t
= total settlement
These values of Q can be plotted in a graph against the corresponding net
settlement, s
net
as shown in figure 5-15 (c). The ultimate load of the pile can be
determined from this graph. Pile settlement may increase with load to a certain
point, beyond which the load settlement curve becomes vertical. The load
corresponding to the point where Q-snet becomes vertical is the ultimate load,
Qu, for the pile. It is shown by curve 1 of the figure 5-15 (c ).
In many cases, the latter stage of the load-settlement curve is almost linear,
showing large degree of settlement for a small increment of load; it is shown by
curve 2 in figure 5-15 ( c). The ultimate load for such cases is determined from
the point of the curve where this steep linear portion starts.
5.12.2 Disadvantages
The performance of single pile does not correspond to actual conditions of
performance underneath the structure within the entire group of piles. (2) The
loading test must be performed at the actual construction site and under real
conditions of the blueprint conditions which are often difficult to fulfill and to
execute. (3) This method of test requires specially heavy, sturdy equipment and
platforms, precise settlement measuring devices, large quantities of dead load,
or powerful hydraulic jacks. (4) The aforementioned conditions and factors
make this kind of pile bearing capacity test very expensive.

33




























34
Figure 5-15 (a) Schematic diagram of pile load test arrangement; (b) plot
of load against total settlement (c) plot of load against net settlement

35

Figure 5-16 Schematic setup for applying vertical load to the test pile using
a hydraulic jack acting against an anchored reaction frame


36
Problem 5-1Single Pile in Sand
A 12m long, 305mm square section pile is to be embedded in sand. Water table
is encountered at 3m depth below the ground surface. Sand has the following
properties: ¸=16.8 kN/m
3
above WT, ¸sat=18 kN/m
3
, |'=35°. Angle of friction
between soil and pile is taken to be o=0.6|', lateral earth pressure coefficient
Ks=1.4. Calculate the ultimate compressive load.
Solution:
End-bearing resistance:
q
b
= o
o
'×Nq from figure 5-6, L/B=12/0.305=40, and |'=35°, Nq=42
q
b
= 54.7×42=2297.4 kPa
Friction resistance:
o o tan
'
o s s
K q =
First find average vertical effective stress along the pile length, it is
equal to the area under vertical effective stress distribution diagram
divided by the length of pile.
2 '
kN/m 46 = 4.575) - (12 54.7 + 2) - (4.575 54.7)/2 + (33.6 + 2)/2 (33.6 12 / 1 × =
o
o
kPa k K q
o s s
7 . 24 ) 35 6 . 0 tan( 46 4 . 1 tan
'
= × × × = = o o
L=12m








zc=15×0.305
=4.575 m
16.8×2=33.6 kPa
(18-9.81)(4.575-2)+33.6
=54.7 kPa
o
o
'=54.7 kPa
2m

37
Ultimate compressive load (Pu)
Pu = A
b
×q
b
+ A
s
×q
s

A
b
=0.305
2
= 0.093 m
2
, A
s
= 4×0.305×12= 14.64 m
2

Pu= 0.093×2297.4 + 14.64×24.7 = 213.6 + 361.6 = 575.2 kN
Example 5-2 Single Pile Capacity in Sand using SPT
A precast concrete pile 450 mm square in section and 9 m long is to be driven
into a river bed which consists of a depth of sand. The standard penetration
resistance (N) at the pile base is 24, and the average value of N along the pile
length is 13. Calculate the ultimate compressive and tensile load carrying
capacity of the pile.

Solution
N = 24
13 = N
L
b
= 9.0 m
Ultimate compressive load capacity = A
b
q
b
+ A
s
q
s

Ultimate tensile load capacity = A
s
q
s

q
b
= (40N)×Lb/B s 400N (kN/m
2
)
qb = 40 × 24 × 9/ 0.45 =
N q
s
2 = [kN/m
2
]
=2 × 13 = 26 kN/m
2


Problem 5-3, Single Pile in Clay
L=12









38
A 400mm, square section concrete pile is driven to an embedded depth of 12m
in a cohesive soil, which has the following properties, |u=0, ¸=20 kN/m
3
both
above & below W.T., cu at 12m depth is 85.4 kPa. The water table is at a depth
of 3m. Assume |=0.4. Calculate safe load capacity for the pile adopting a FOS
of 3 for the base shear and factor of safety of 2.5 for skin resistance.
Solution
End bearing resistance
kPa cN q
c b
6 . 768 4 . 85 9 9c = × = = =
Skin/friction resistance:
'
=
o s
q o |
Let us find average effective overburden pressure
kPa
o
9 . 86 )] 3 12 ( 2 / ) 60 7 . 151 ( 2 / ) 60 3 [( 12 / 1 = ÷ × + + × × =
'
o
kPa q
o s
7 . 34 9 . 86 4 . 0 = × =
'
= o |
Ultimate & Allowable Compressive loads:

s s b b u
q A q A P + =
kN P
u
792 2 . 666 8 . 125 7 . 34 12 ) 4 . 0 4 ( 6 . 786 ) 4 . 0 4 . 0 ( = + = × × × + × × =
L=12m







20×3=60 kPa
(20-9.81)(12-3)+60=151.7 kPa
3m

39
kN P
a
308
5 . 2
2 . 666
3
8 . 125
= + =
Problem 5-4Pile Group in Clay
Determine the safe load capacity for a square group of 9 piles in cohesive soil.
Safety factor 2.5 against block failure. ¸=20 kN/m
3
, cu at the base 85.4 kPa,
average undrained shear strength =60.2 kPa, |u=0. Pu for single pile is equal to
819 kN.
Given Data
No of piles = n = 9, ¸=20 kN/m3, cu (base) = 85.4 kN/m2, cu (avg.) = 60.2 kPa
P
u
(single pile) = 819 kN
Required
Safe Load Capacity of pile group = Pug
Solution
s s b b gp u
q A q A P + =
) (

2
/ 2 . 60 m kN c q
u s
= =
c u b
N c q =
Find N
c
by using the relation:-
9 053 . 0 1 2 . 0 1 14 . 5 s
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ×
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
g g
g
c
B
D
L
B
N
9
25 . 2
12
053 . 0 1
25 . 2
25 . 2
2 . 0 1 14 . 5 s
(
¸
(

¸

+ ×
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
c
N
9 45 . 9 > =
c
N
So take 9 =
c
N
kPa N c q
c u b
6 . 768 9 4 . 85 = × = =

40
2
0625 . 5 25 . 2 25 . 2 m A
b
= × =
depth Parameter A
s
× =

2
108 12 ) 25 . 2 25 . 2 ( 2 m A
s
= × + =
kN P
gp u
10392 2 . 60 108 6 . 768 0625 . 5
) (
= × + × =

Ultimate load for piled foundation (Pile cap resting over group).
(a) Base Failure Value=10392 kN
(b) Such as of induced pile cap=819×9=7371 kN

Minimum of (a) & (b) is selected for Pu(group)= 7371 kN
kN
FOS
P
P
u
allowable
4 . 2948
5 . 2
7371
= = =




12 m
2.25 m
2.25 m

CHAPTER 5

5.1 Piles  For piles the length to width (diameter) ratio i.e. Lp/d  4 , where Lp is the pile length and d is pile diameter.  The basic situation for a pile foundation is where soft soil exists near the ground surface which underlain by rock formation e.g.

Building

Soft Soil Piles Firm Soil

Figure 5-1 Pile foundation resting on hard stratum underlying a soft soil layer 5.2 Uses of Piles Piles are commonly used for the following purposes (Figure 5-2).  To carry superstructure loads into or through a soil stratum. Both vertical and lateral loads may be involved.

 To resist uplift or overturning forces such as for basement mats below the W.T. or to support the tower legs subjected to overturning from lateral loads such as wind.  To compact loose, cohesionless deposits through a combination of pile volume displacement and driving vibration, thus increasing their bearing capacity.  To carry the foundation through the depth of scour to provide safety in the event the soil is eroded away.  To stiffen the soil beneath machine foundations to control both amplitudes of vibration and the natural frequency of the system.  In offshore construction to transmit the loads above the water surface through the water and into the underlying soil. This case is one in which partially embedded piling is subjected to vertical (and buckling) as well as lateral loads.

Wind

(a)

tension

(b) compression

(c)

Figure 5-2 (a) Tension pile to resist overturning movements in tall buildings (b) Shear pile to resist horizontal forces or movements Friction pile (c) raking piles in harbor and river

2

Friction cum end bearing piles In the majority of cases. Pure friction piles tend to be quite long.3 Classification of Piles 5.5. Instead of bedrock. piles are driven through the softer material to specified depth. piles can be extended a few meters into the hard stratum. In cohesionless soils. point/end bearing piles become very long and uneconomical. piles can be extended to the rock surface (figure 5-3(a)). In this case. the load-carrying capacity is dependent on both end-bearing and shaft friction (figure 5-3 c). such as sands of medium to low density.1 Classification according to the mechanism of load transfer End/Point Bearing Piles If a bedrock or rocklike material is present at a site within a reasonable depth. since the load-carrying capacity is a function of the shaft area in contact with the soil. In most of these cases the necessary length of the pile can be fairly well established. Friction Piles (figure 5-3 b) When no layer of rock or rocklike material is present at a reasonable depth at a site. thus the piles are called end or point bearing piles. friction piles are often used to increase the density and thus the shear strength. however. These types of piles are called friction piles because the load on the pile is resisted mainly by skin/friction resistance along the side of the pile (pile shaft). the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile depends entirely of the underlying material. 3 . For this type of subsoil condition. if a fairly compact and hard stratum of soil is encountered at a reasonable depth.3.

jacked.2 Classification of piles according to their method of installation (figure 5-4) Driven or displacement piles They are usually preformed before being driven. Bored or Replacement piles They require a hole to be first bored into which the pile is then formed usually of reinforced concrete.3. screwed or hammered into ground. This category consists of driven piles of steel or precast concrete and piles formed by driving tubes or shells which are fitted with a driving shoe. The tubes or shells which are filled with concrete after driving. Also included in this category are piles formed by placing concrete as the driven piles are withdrawn.Soft Soft to Soft ground firm Soft to firm Firm to hard (a) (b) (c) hard Figure 5-3(a) End bearing pile (b) Friction pile (c) friction cum end bearing pile 5. The shaft (bore) may be cased or uncased depending upon type of soil. 4 .

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 5-4 Principal types of pile: (a) precast RC pile (b) steel H pile (c) shell pile (d) concrete pile cast as driven tube withdrawn (e) bored pile (cast in situ).3.3 Classification of Piles according to Materials Timber piles  Timber piles are made of tree trunks driven with small end as a point  Maximum length: 35 m. (f) under-reamed bored pile (cast in situ) 5. it will apparently last for ever). if subjected to alternate 5 . optimum load range = 80240 kN  Disadvantages: difficult to splice. optimum length: 9 20m  Max load for usual conditions: 450 kN. vulnerable to damage in hard driving.T. vulnerable to decay unless treated with preservatives (If timber is below permanent W.

or of composite construction. damaged/deflected by major obstruction Concrete Piles  Concrete piles may be precast. best suited for end bearing on rock. small displacement. reduce allowable capacity for corrosive locations or provide corrosion protection. high capacity.  Disadvantages: Vulnerable to corrosion. permanently submerged piles are resistant to decay.  Advantages: comparatively low initial cost.T.  Advantages: easy to splice. pipe piles are either welded or seamless steel pipes. 6 HP section may be .  Optimum load range = 3501050 kN  The members are usually rolled HP shapes/pipe piles. able to penetrate through light obstructions. easy to handle.  Precast concrete piles may be made using ordinary reinforcement or they may be prestressed. Open end piles may be filled but this is not often necessary. cast in place. partly embedded piles or piles above W.wetting & drying. the useful life will be short. Closed end piles are usually filled with concrete after driving.  optimum length: 1250 m  load for usual conditions = maximum allowable stress  x-section area. prestressed. In HP pile the flange thickness= web thickness. best suited for friction piles in granular material. which may be driven either open ended or closed end. Wide flange beams & I beams proportioned to withstand the hard driving stress to which the pile may be subjected. Steel Piles  Max length: practically unlimited. are susceptible to damage from wood borers and other insects unless treated.

 Disadvantages of Concrete piles: Concrete piles are considered permanent.  Advantages: high load capacities.  Max length: 1015 m for precast. corrosion resistance can be attained. prestressed piles are difficult to splice. Pecast piles using ordinary reinforcement are designed to resist bending stresses during picking up & transport to the site & bending moments from lateral loads and to provide sufficient resistance to vertical loads and any tension forces developed during driving. 8500 kN for prestressed  Optimum load range: 3503500 kN  Disadvantages: difficult to handle unless prestressed. The hole may be drilled or formed by driving a shell or casing into the ground. 2030 m for prestressed  Optimum length: 1012 m for precast.  Cast in place concrete piles are formed by drilling a hole in the ground & filling it with concrete. When the concrete hardens. concrete piles used for marine structures may undergo abrasion from wave action and floating debris in the water. with the tension force in the cables now producing compressive stress in the concrete pile.  Prestressed piles are formed by tensioning high strength steel prestress cables. 7 . Alternate freezing & thawing can cause concrete damage in any exposed situation. 1825m prestressed  Loads for usual conditions 900 for precast. and casting the concrete about the cable. Prestressing the pile tends to counteract any tension stresses during either handling or driving. It is common to higher-strength concrete (35 to 55 MPa) in prestressed piles because of the large initial compressive stresses from prestressing. Additionally. hard driving possible  Remarks: cylinder piles in particular are suited for bending resistance. the prestress cables are cut. however. Salt water may also adversely react with the concrete unless special precautions are taken when the mix proportions are designed. certain soil (usually organic) contain materials that may form acids that can damage the concrete. high initial cost. considerable displacement.

Load testing is the most reliable method to determine the load capacity of the pile in the field. vibratory driver. a composite pile is made up of two or more sections of different materials or different pile types. 5. Dynamic pile formulas are widely used to determine the static capacity of the driven pile. differential acting hammer. diesel pile hammer. However. The upper portion could be cased cast-in-place concrete combined with a lower portion of timber. and economic consideration sometimes preclude their use on projects.5 Driven Piles 5. 5. These piles have limited application and are employed under special conditions. double acting hammer.5. CPT etc) Dynamic formulae are used for driven piles. In medieval times piles were driven by men manually swinging hammer. 8 . They should be performed on all piling projects. steel H or concrete filled steel pipe pile.1 Dynamic Pile Formulas Piles are usually forced into the ground by a pile driver or pile hammer.Composite piles  In general. they are considerably more expensive than the other methods used to determine pile capacity. Static formulae are used both for bored and driven piles. CPT are also used to correlate to load carrying capacity particularly for cohesionless soils.4 Load Capacity of Piles Three general methods are available to establish load capacity: (1) Static Analysis (2) Dynamic Analysis (3) Load Testing (4) Correlation with field tests (SPT. Field tests like SPT. After the drop hammer came the single acting hammer. These formulas are derived starting with the relation Energy Input = Energy Used + Energy Lost The Energy used equals the driving resistance (Pu)  the pile movement (s). which consists of a weight raised by ropes or cables and allowed to drop freely striking the top of the pile.

5 mm (0. heat. the term (Wr  h) can be replaced by hE where h=hammer efficiency (table-1) and E=rated energy of hammer.Energy lost is due to friction. Energy News Record (ENR) Formula: This formula takes into account the energy lost due to temporary compression (C) resulting from elastic compression of the pile.7-0. and C= 2. h= height of fall of the ram. Thus Energy Input = Energy Used + Energy Lost Wr  h = Pu  s + Pu  C Pu = Wr  h / (s + C) Where Wr = weight of the ram.7-0.9 Diesel hammers 9 . hammer rebound. vibration and elastic compression of the pile. Thus Pu = hE / (s + C) Table-1: Hammer efficiency h Table 5-1 Hammer efficiency h Hammer type Single and hammer Drop hammers double Efficiency h acting 0.8-0. the pacing assembly.85 0. Pu = average resistance of soil to penetration.1 inch) for steam hammer (single acting/double acting) Pa = Pu / SF where Pa = allowable load on pile. C= 25 mm (1 inch) for drop hammer. and SF(factor of safety) = 6 For single/double acting hammer. s = penetration of pile per hammer blow.9 0. and the soil.

8 and the number of blows for the last 1 inch of penetration = 5.1) 6 ] = 836 kips 5. Several types of hammers are in use and each of which are different sizes. The hammer may be suspended from the boom of a crawler crane. The maximum rated hammer energy = 26 kips-ft. Estimate the allowable pile capacity by using (a) ENR formula using SF=6. E=26 kip-ft.0 Solution: ENR formula: h= 0.2 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT Piles are installed by a special pile driving device know as a pile hammer. The energy of a double-acting hammer is 10 .0 Pa  h E ( s  C ) SF = 0.Example: A precast concrete pile 12in 12 in in cross section is driven by a steam hammer. The hammer types are: Drop hammer The drop hammer consists of a heavy ram in between the leads. hammer efficiency = 0.8  26  12 / [ (0. Single-acting hammer In single acting hammer a heavy ram is lifted up by steam or compressed air but dropped by its own weight. Double-acting hammer The double-acting hammer employs steam or air for lifting the ram and for accelerating the downward stroke.5. The leads may be adjusted at various angles for driving vertical and batter piles.2 + 0. It is used in the cases where only a small number of piles are driven. The ram is lifted up to a certain height and released to drop on the pile.2 inch/blow. This type is slow and therefore not in common use. supported on a large frame called a pile driver or carried on a barge for construction in water. The energy of a single acting hammer is equal to the weight of the ram times the height of fall. SF=6. the hammer is guided between two parallel steel members called leads. s=1/5 = 0.8. In all cases.

The driving unit vibrates at high frequency and provides two vertical impulsesone up and one down. requiring that the ram be again manually lifted. reduced noise. The resulting explosion (1) advances the pile and (2) lifts the ram. If the pile advance is very great as in soft soils. The downward pulse acts with the pile weight to increase the apparent gravity force. the ram falls and compresses air and fuel. Preferably the weight of the hammer should be at least on-half the total weight of the pile. Vibratory hammer The principle of the vibratory driver is two counter-rotating eccentric weights.equal to the (weight of the ram + mean effective pressure x the effective area of ram) x times the height of fall. the heavy ram striking at low velocity produces least damage due to impact. 5. A heavy pile should be driven by a heavy hammer delivering large energy. the ram is not lifted by the explosion sufficiently to ignite the air-fuel mixture on the next cycle. The disadvantages are low driving speed and large headroom requirement. Each type of hammer has its use under suitable conditions. and great speed of penetration. and the deriving energy should be at least one foot-pound for each pound of pile weight. As the ram is released. The air and fuel becomes hot because of the compression and the air-fuel mixture is ignited. The advantages and disadvantages of each type are summarized below: Single-acting hammer They are advantageous when driving heavy piles in compact or hard soils.3 HAMMER SELECTION Generally the size of hammer is more important factor than type of hammer. the ram is raised. Diesel hammer The diesel hammer is a small. and the fuel is injected. To start the operation. light weight and highly mobile. These hammers have reduced driving vibrations. Double-acting hammer 11 .5. They use gasoline for fuel.

e. 5.LAb Pu + (Wp – Ws) = (qb(gross). Vibratory hammer They have fairly good results in silty and clayey deposits. and L is pile length. As= perimeter area of pile.o)Ab + As qs Where o=L is effective vertical stress at pile base Pu +(Wp – Ws) = Abqb + As qs 12 . reduced noise. They are used in heavy clays or soils with appreciable numbers of boulders. Pu + (Wp – Ws)= Abqb(gross) + As qs -Ws Pu + (Wp – Ws) = Abqb(gross) + As qs . Pu + Wp = Abqb(gross) + As qs Pu is the ultimate load that can be carried at top of pile. Subtracting Ws from both sides of the equation. This type of hammer can drive piles at fast speed. Ws = LAb where  is the effective weight of soil. qb ultimate (gross) bearing capacity at base level. These hammers have reduced driving vibrations. but driving may become difficult in extremely soft ground. the double-acting hammer] upside down. and great speed of penetration.They are generally used to drive piles of light or moderate weight in soils of average resistance against driving. and Wp = weight of the pile.L)Ab + As qs Pu + (Wp – Ws) = (qb(gross). qs=ultimate shearing/skin resistance per unit area. requires less headroom and can be used to extract piles by turning them [i. Diesel hammer They are similar in application as double-acting hammers. Ab = base area of pile.6 STATIC PILE FORMULAS The ultimate load which can be carried by a pile is equal to the sum of the base resistance and the shaft resistance (figure 5-5). Where Ws is effective soil weight replaced/displaced due to pile volume.

As= perimeter area of pile. Pu = Abqb + As qs However in the case of under-reamed piles (figure 5-4 f) the reduction in pressure on the soil at base level due to the removal of soil is greater than the subsequent increase in pressure due to the weight of the pile and hence use equation-1 (i. In most cases Wp Ws and hence W0. W= Wp – Ws = weight of the pile – effective weight of soil replaced. Ab = base area of pile. qs=ultimate shearing/skin resistance per unit area.1 COHESIONLESS SOILS End bearing Resistance (qb) 13 .Pu = Abqb + As qs – (Wp – Ws) Pu = Abqb + As qs – W Pu is the ultimate load that can be carried at top of pile.6. do not assume that Wp  Ws) Pu WP qs qb Figure 5-5 Free body diagram of a pile 5.e. qb ultimate (net) bearing capacity at base level.

The soil characteristics governing ultimate bearing capacity and settlement.C. Nq is a B. This fact. 14 . which may be loosened). at base level can be expressed as qb= cNc + o Nq + ½  B N -o qb= cNc + o(Nq-1) + ½  B N c=0 for sand and 1/2BN term can be neglected because the B (width/diameter of pile) is small compared to the length of pile. factor (figure 5-6) [o is subtracted to get net value of qb] Where o is the effective overburden pressure at base level of pile. in addition to the heterogeneous nature of sand deposits.The ultimate B. are different from the original characteristics prior to driving. makes the prediction of pile behavior by analytical methods extremely difficult.C. and settlement of a pile depends mainly on the relative density of sand. However. The ultimate (net) B.C. therefore. if a pile is driven into sand the relative density adjoining the pile is increased by compaction due to soil displacement (except in dense sands. so (Nq -1)  Nq [because reduction of Nq by 1 is a qb= o (Nq -1)  oNq substantial refinement not justified by estimated soil parameters].

1961) 15 .Figure 5-6: Values of Nq for pile formulae (After Berezantsev et al.

e.5 1.0 0.0 Variation of qb and qs with depth The above equations for qb and qs indicate a linear increase with depth of qb and qs. Table 5-2 Ks and  values Pile Type Concrete Steel Wood  3/4  20 2/3  Ks Loose Sand 1. tests on full scale and model piles have shown that these equations are valid up to certain depth called critical depth (zc). However. and =angle of friction between the pile and the soil. This is because the vertical effective stress adjacent to the pile is not necessarily equal to the effective overburden pressure (away from the effect of pile) but reaches a limiting value at critical depth zc (figure 5-7). 16 .e.  o' = average effective vertical overburden pressure in the layer.0 2.5 Dense Sand 2.0 4. conservatively take zc = 15 d). become constant].  ' = average effective pressure in the layer perpendicular to qs (i. base (qb) and shaft/skin (qs) resistances do not develop linearly [i. horizontal).Friction/Shaft Resistance (qs): The average value of skin resistance (qs) over the length of pile embedded in sand can be expressed as q s  c'   ' tan  Where  '  K s o' and c’=0 q s  K s o' tan  Ks a coefficient of earth pressure dependent largely on the relative density of the soil. Below this depth zc(=15d to 20d.

Use any applicable SPT N corrections discussed in earlier chapter-3. B = width or diameter of pile point Lb = the length of pile embedded in sand Skin friction resistance 17 .T. zc=15 d oc oc zc=15d d d Figure 5-7 Effective vertical stress distribution diagram adjacent to pile qb and qs from SPT Test Ultimate base resistance qb Due to the critical depth limitation and to the difficulty of obtaining values of the required parameters. the above equations are difficult to apply in practice. It is preferable to use empirical correlations The following empirical correlations have been proposed by Meyerhof for driven piles in sand. qb = (40N55)Lb/B  400N55 (kN/m2) N= is the value of standard penetration resistance in the vicinity of the pile base.W.

Thus the skin friction at the end of dissipation is normally appropriate in design. a thin layer of clay (of the order of 25 mm) immediately adjoining the shaft will be remoulded during boring. a gradual softening of the clay will take place adjacent to the shaft due to stress release. Construction of a bored pile.7. In addition.7. Upward displacement of the clay results in heaving of the ground surface around the pile and can cause a reduction in the bearing capacity of adjacent piles already installed. should be completed as quickly as possible. the clay adjacent to the pile is displaced both laterally and vertically.2 Bored Piles In the case of bored piles. Limited reconsolidation of the remoulded and softened clay takes place after installation of the pile. The clay in the disturbed zone around the pile is completely remoulded during driving.7 COHESIVE SOILS 5.1 Driven Piles In the case of driven piles. 5. 5. pore water seeping from the surrounding clay towards the shaft. therefore.Skin friction resistance is q s  2 N [kN/m2] Where N is the average value of standard penetration resistance over the embedded length of the pile within the sand stratum. Water can also be absorbed from wet concrete when it comes in contact with the clay. dissipation is virtually complete before significant structural load is applied to the pile. Dissipation is accompanied by an increase in skin friction. Base Resistance 18 . The excess porewater pressure set up by the driving stresses dissipates within a few months as the disturbed zone is relatively narrow (of the order B): in general. For bored piles the values of qb and qs are approximately 1/3 and 1/2. of the corresponding values for driven piles. Softening is accompanied by a reduction in shear strength and a reduction in skin friction. respectively. The values of qs should be halved in the case of small displacement piles such as steel H piles.

and the pile material. The appropriate value of  is obtained from load tests. the method of installation. In principle.3 to 1. The ultimate bearing capacity is expressed as qb= cuNc + o Nq + ½  B N -o [o is subtracted to get net value of qb] 1/2BN term can be neglected because the B (width/diameter of pile) is small compared to the length of pile and for u=0. Values of  range from 0.The relavent shear strength for the determination of the base resistance of a pile in clay is the undrained strength at base level. therefore. Effective Stress (drained conditions) An alternative approach is to express skin friction in terms of effective stress. The zone of soil disturbance around the pile is relatively thin. and cu is undrained shear strength at pile base Skin Resistance Total Stress (Undrained Conditions u=0) q s  c a   tan(u ) [where ca is average adhesion]  tan(u )  0 as u=0 Hence q s  c a  α c u  is a coefficient depending on type of clay. One difficulty with this approach is that there is usually a considerable scatter in the plot of undrained shear strength against depth and it may be difficult to define the value of cu . In terms of effective stress the skin friction can be expressed as q s  c' K s o' tan( ' ) q s  K s o' tan( ' ) [c’=0 for saturated clay under drained conditions] 19 . an effective stress approach has more justification than one based on total stress. cu is the average undrained shear strength. Nq=1. we get qb = cu Nc where Nc = 9. therefore dissipation of the positive or negative excess pore water pressure set up during installation should virtually be complete by the time the structural load is applied. See figure 5-8 for different values of .

the coefficient is generally obtained empirically from the results of load test carried out a few months after installation.4). irrespective of the clay type. especially in the case of normally consolidated clays. Failure is assumed to take place in the remoulded soil close to the pile shaft. However. The above equation can also be written as q s    o' [where   K s tan( ' ) ] Approximate value of  can be deduced by making assumptions regarding the value of Ks.Where Ks is the average coefficient of earth pressure and  o' is the average effective overburden pressure adjacent to the pile shaft.25 to 0. 20 . Correlations with loading tests have shown that for soft clays  falls within a narrow range of values (0. therefore the angle of friction between the pile and the soil is represented by the angle of shearing resistance in terms of effective stress (’) for the remoulded clay: the cohesion intercept for remoulded clay will be zero.

therefore different values of load factor may be appropriate for the two components. including underreamed piles. the shaft resistance may be fully mobilized at working load and it is advisable to ensure a 21 . In the case of large-diameter bored piles. the higher factor being applied to the base resistance.8 FACTOR OF SAFETY The base resistance requires a larger deformation for full mobilization than the shaft resistance.Figure 5-8 Relationship between the adhesion factor  and undrained shear strength su (cu). 5.

a downward drag is imposed in the pile shaft (figure 5-9). qs is the skin friction 22 . Pu Fill: consolidating under own weight qsN Soft clay: consolidating under weight of fill qsN Firm or Hard bearing layer qs qb Figure 5-9 Negative skin friction Pu + qsNAs = qbAb + qsAs where qsN is negative skin friction (downward). with a factor of 1 for shaft resistance. Negative skin friction increases gradually as consolidation of the clay layer proceeds.9 NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION When piles are driven through a layer of fill material which slowly compacts or consolidates due to its own weight. in addition to the specified over all load factor (generally 2) for the pile. 5. AsN is the corresponding surface area of pile. The force due to this downward or negative skin friction is thus carried by the pile instead of helping to support the external load on the pile. The skin friction between the pile and soil therefore acts in a downward direction. the effective overburden pressure gradually increasing as the excess pore water pressure dissipates.load factor of 3 for base resistance. or if the layers underlying the fill consolidate under the weight of the fill.

(upward) and As is the corresponding surface areas of pile. Ab is the end bearing area of pile.25 represents a reasonable upper limit to negative skin friction for preliminary design purposes. a value of =0. this will result in a reduction in bearing capacity above the critical depth. It should be noted that there will be a reduction in effective overburden pressure adjacent to the pile in the bearing stratum due to the transfer of part of the overlying soil weight to the pile: if the bearing stratum is sand. known as the Pile Cap. The group of piles is installed fairly close together (typically 2B-4B where B is the width or diameter of a single pile) and joined by a slab. Generally. 23 . 5. The cap is usually in contact with the soil in which case part of the structural load is carried directly on the soil immediately below the surface. cast on top of the piles. there will be a minimum of two of three piles under a foundation element or footing to allow for misalignments and other inadvertent eccentricities. the piles in the group are referred to as free-standing (figure 5-10). The group of piles in this case is called piled foundation. In normally consolidated clays. If the cap is clear of the ground surface.10 PILE GROUP Rarely is the foundation likely to consist of a single pile. To calculate negative skin friction equation q s N   o' can be used.

So [in general] Ultimate load of Pile Group  N  Ultimate load of a single pile The ratio of the average load per pile in a group at failure to the ultimate load for a single pile is defined as the efficiency of the group ().10. 5.Pile Cap Pile Cap (a) (b) Figure 5-10 (a) A group of free-standing piles (b) A group of piled foundation 5. Average load per pile in a group at failure = Ultimate group load / N  = ( Ultimate group load ] / ( N  Ultimate Individual load ) 24 . on the other hand. In clay.1 Load Distribution in Pile Group It is generally assumed that the load distribution between the piles in an axially loaded group is uniform.2 Efficiency of Pile Group In general the ultimate load which can be supported by a group of N piles is not equal to N times the ultimate load of a single isolated pile of the same dimensions in the same soil. the piles on the perimeter of the group carry greater loads than on those at the center. However experimental evidence indicates that for a group in sand the piles at the center of the group carry greater loads than those on the perimeter. Where N is the number of piles in a group.10.

The maximum efficiency is reached at a spacing of 2 to 3 diameters and generally ranges between 1. for a group of bored piles the efficiency may be as low as 2/3 because the sand between the piles is not compacted during installation but the zones of shear of adjacent piles will overlap. the group efficiency is less than unity due to loosening of the sand and the overlapping of zones of shear (figure 5-11). In the case of piles driven into dense sand.3 to 2. 25 . Bored Piles However.5.10. provided that the spacing is less than about 8B: consequently the efficiency of the group is greater than unity.3 Pile Group in Cohesionless Soils Driven Piles The driving of a group of piles into loose sand or medium-dense sand causes compaction of the sand between the piles. It is recommended that in this case the design value of =1 be taken.

10.Two piles contributing to this stress zone Four piles contributing to this stress zone Three piles contributing to this stress zone Figure 5-11 Stress surrounding a friction pile and the summing effects of a pile group 5.4 Pile Group in Cohesive Soils A closely spaced group of piles (spacing = 2B to 3B) in clay may fail as a unit. with shear failure taking place around the perimeter of the group and 26 .

In order to estimate settlement for a pile group. This is referred to as Block Failure. (figure 5-12) The ultimate load in the case of a pile group which fails as a block is given by Pug  Abg  qb  Asg  cu Abg = base are of the group = Bg  Lg.11 Settlement of Pile Group The settlement of pile group is always greater than the settlement of a corresponding single pile.053D/Bg) ] 9 Pug  N c  cu  B g  L g  cu  2 D( B g  L g ) Design Ultimate Load Piled Foundation The ultimate load should be taken as the lesser of the Block Failure value (2) The sum of the individual pile values Free Standing Group of Piles The ultimate load should be taken as the lesser of the (1) Block Failure value (2) 2/3 of the sum of the individual pile values 5.below the area covered by the piles and the enclosed soil. cu = undrained shear strength at depth D cu = average undrained shear strength between 0 and D below the ground. The vertical stress increment at any depth below the equivalent raft may be 27 .14 (1+0. Asg= perimeter area of the group = 2D(Bg + Lg).2Bg/Lg) [ 1 + (0. It may be assumed as shown in figure 5-14 that the load is spread from the perimeter of the pile group at a slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical to allow for that part of the load transferred to the soil by skin friction. it is assumed that the total load is carried by an “Equivalent raft” located at a depth of 2L/3 where L is the length of piles (figure 5-14). as a result of the overlapping of the individual zones of influence of the piles in the group. The bulbs of pressure of a single pile and a pile group (with piles of the same length as the single pile) are of the form illustrated in figure 5-13. qb=cuNc where Nc=5.

estimated by assuming in turn that the total load is spread to the underlying soil at a slope of 1 horizontal to 2 vertical. 28 .

Lg Bg Pile Cap Pile Cap D D (a) A group of free-standing piles (b) A group of piled foundation Bg Lg D (c ) Dimensions of Failure block 29 Figure 5-12Block failure of pile group in clay .

Figure 5-13 Bulbs of pressure for a single and a pile group 30 .

in which an increment load is repeatedly applied and removed. Tests may also be carried out in which loading is stopped when the proposed working load has been exceeded by a specified percentage. Figure 5-15 shows a schematic diagram of the pile load test arrangement for testing in axial compression in the field. the test pile is loaded in eight equal increments up to a maximum load. The load is applied to the pile by a hydraulic jack. This testing procedure is Maintained load test (or Controlled load test). Load tests on piles in sand can be carried out immediately after the piles are driven. Unloading stages are normally included in the test program.75 mm/min respectively. Another type of pile load test is cyclic loading. 5.Figure 5-14 Equivalent raft concept 5. net settlement. Suitable rates of penetration for tests in sands and clays are 1. Driven piles in clays should not be tested for at least a month after installation to allow most of the increase in skin friction (a result of dissipation of the excess pore water pressure due to the driving stresses) to take place. snet(1) = st(1) – se(1) 31 .12. the load applied in order to maintain the penetration being continuously measured. In constant rate of penetration (CRP) test the pile is jacked into the soil at a constant speed.1 Ultimate Load Figure 5-15 shows load settlement diagram obtained from fried loading and unloading. The load is applied in suitable increments. the pile settlement can be calculated as follows.5 mm/min and 0. According to ASTM D1143. usually twice the predetermined working (allowable) load.12 Pile Load Test The loading of a test pile enables the ultimate load to be determined directly and provides a means of assessing the accuracy of predicted values. When Q=Q1. allowing sufficient time between increments for settlement to be substantially complete. For any load Q.

The ultimate load for such cases is determined from the point of the curve where this steep linear portion starts. (4) The aforementioned conditions and factors make this kind of pile bearing capacity test very expensive. snet(2) = st(2) – se(2) and so on…. The ultimate load of the pile can be determined from this graph. (2) The loading test must be performed at the actual construction site and under real conditions of the blueprint conditions which are often difficult to fulfill and to execute. The load corresponding to the point where Q-snet becomes vertical is the ultimate load. the latter stage of the load-settlement curve is almost linear. sturdy equipment and platforms. precise settlement measuring devices. snet as shown in figure 5-15 (c). Pile settlement may increase with load to a certain point. 5. for the pile.When Q=Q2 net settlement.2 Disadvantages The performance of single pile does not correspond to actual conditions of performance underneath the structure within the entire group of piles. showing large degree of settlement for a small increment of load. Qu. 32 . Where snet = net settlement se = elastic settlement of the pile itself st = total settlement These values of Q can be plotted in a graph against the corresponding net settlement.12. it is shown by curve 2 in figure 5-15 ( c). beyond which the load settlement curve becomes vertical. (3) This method of test requires specially heavy. In many cases. or powerful hydraulic jacks. It is shown by curve 1 of the figure 5-15 (c ). large quantities of dead load.

33 .

Figure 5-15 (a) Schematic diagram of pile load test arrangement. (b) plot of load against total settlement (c) plot of load against net settlement 34 .

Figure 5-16 Schematic setup for applying vertical load to the test pile using a hydraulic jack acting against an anchored reaction frame 35 .

575-2)+33.6 + 54. lateral earth pressure coefficient Ks=1. Calculate the ultimate compressive load.8 kN/m3 above WT.2) + 54. L/B=12/0.575 .7 kPa L=12m o=54. Sand has the following properties: =16.4. sat=18 kN/m3. =35.6  35)  24.4  46  tan(0.742=2297.Problem 5-1Single Pile in Sand A 12m long.575 m 16. and =35.7 (12 . 305mm square section pile is to be embedded in sand.6 2)/2 + (33. Nq=42 qb= 54. Water table is encountered at 3m depth below the ground surface.4. it is equal to the area under vertical effective stress distribution diagram divided by the length of pile. Solution: End-bearing resistance: qb= oNq from figure 5-6.6 =54.575) = 46 kN/m 2 q s  K s o' tan   1.4 kPa Friction resistance: q s  K s o' tan  First find average vertical effective stress along the pile length.305 =4.82=33.  o'  1 / 12  (33.7 k kPa 36 .6 kPa (18-9.305=40.6.7 kPa between soil and pile is taken to be =0.81)(4. Angle of friction 2m zc=150.7)/2 (4.

45 = qs  2N (kN/m2) [kN/m2] =2  13 = 26 kN/m2 Problem 5-3. As= 4  0.6 + 361.64  24. Solution N = 24 N  13 L=12 Lb = 9.093  2297.7 = 213.305  12= 14. and the average value of N along the pile length is 13.3052= 0.Ultimate compressive load (Pu) Pu = Ab  qb + As  qs Ab=0.093 m2. Single Pile in Clay 37 .6 = 575. Calculate the ultimate compressive and tensile load carrying capacity of the pile.64 m2 Pu= 0.2 kN Example 5-2 Single Pile Capacity in Sand using SPT A precast concrete pile 450 mm square in section and 9 m long is to be driven into a river bed which consists of a depth of sand. The standard penetration resistance (N) at the pile base is 24.0 m Ultimate compressive load capacity = Abqb + As qs Ultimate tensile load capacity = As qs qb = (40N)Lb/B  400N qb = 40  24  9/ 0.4 + 14.

which has the following properties. Calculate safe load capacity for the pile adopting a FOS 3m 203=60 kPa L=12m (20-9.6 kPa Skin/friction resistance: q s   o  Let us find average effective overburden pressure  o   1 / 12  [(3  60) / 2  (151.4)  786.4  86. =20 kN/m3 both above & below W.7  60) / 2  (12  3)]  86.81)(12-3)+60=151. Solution End bearing resistance qb  cN c  9c  9  85.7 kPa of 3 for the base shear and factor of safety of 2.7 kPa Ultimate & Allowable Compressive loads: Pu  Ab qb  As q s Pu  (0.6  (4  0.9 kPa  q s    o  0. The water table is at a depth of 3m.4 kPa.4)  12  34. cu at 12m depth is 85.T.5 for skin resistance.4.. square section concrete pile is driven to an embedded depth of 12m in a cohesive soil.7  125.4  0. Assume =0.8  666. u=0.2  792 kN 38 .9  34.A 400mm.4  768.

4 kN/m2.053 Lg   Bg      9   2.25   2.4  9  768. Safety factor 2. average undrained shear strength =60.2   1  0.2 9 2.2 kPa Pu (single pile) = 819 kN Required Safe Load Capacity of pile group = Pug Solution Pu ( gp )  Ab qb  As q s q s  cu  60. u=0.141  0.2   308 kN 3 2. =20 kN/m3.25    N c  9.25   12    1  0.45  9 So take N c  9 qb  cu N c  85. cu (avg. cu (base) = 85.5 against block failure. =20 kN/m3.2 kN / m 2 qb  cu N c Find Nc by using the relation: Bg   D N c  5. Given Data No of piles = n = 9.8 666.2 kPa.053 N c  5.141  0. Pu for single pile is equal to 819 kN.) = 60.Pa  125. cu at the base 85.5 Problem 5-4Pile Group in Clay Determine the safe load capacity for a square group of 9 piles in cohesive soil.6 kPa 39 .4 kPa.

2  10392 kN Ultimate load for piled foundation (Pile cap resting over group).25  5.5 2.25 m 2. (a) Base Failure Value=10392 kN (b) Such as of induced pile cap=8199=7371 kN Minimum of (a) & (b) is selected for Pu(group)= 7371 kN Pallowable  Pu 7371   2948.6  108  60.Ab  2.25 m 12 m 40 .25)  12  108 m 2 Pu ( gp )  5.0625  768.25  2.4kN FOS 2 .0625 m 2 As  Parameter  depth As  2(2.25  2.

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