India’s Foreign Trade

From A. K. Sengupta
Reading Materials
INDIAN PERSPECTIVE ON GLOBALISATION
The world changed, and India changed even more: from an aid dependent country, notable
chiefly for its past glory and current poverty, to an economic powerhouse widely expected to
grow into not just one of the largest but also the most dynamic economies of the world.
For more than four decades since Independence, India had adopted a highly protected,
regulated, restricted, and controlled policy towards an inward market approach and did not
seem to have a policy of globalization as such. There have been policy attempts from time to
time which either directly or indirectly had implications for globalization.
The year 1990-91 marked the end of the most protected trade regime phase in India
and the country ushered into an era of globalisation. The continued deterioration in
the economy due to the political instability, turmoil in Punjab, Kashmir, Assam and
the rest of north east, and overspending by the central and state governments in an
attempt to meet the new exigencies during 1980s had a worsening impact on fiscal
sector and the external sector.

In the fiscal sector, the current account deficit went

up from 0.2 per cent of the GDP during 1974-79 to 1.6 per cent in 1980-85 and
further to 2.3 percent during 1989-90. The negative trends in the external sector
accentuated by the fall of the Soviet Union and the sharp rise in oil prices led to drop
in India’s exports to Eastern Europe from 20 per cent of total in 1989 to 11 per cent
by 1991-92. Further the attack on Kuwait by Iraq disrupted the long-term supply
contracts of oil to India from Iraq and led to a sharp rise in oil import bill for over two
years. The net effect of these developments on India was that the import cover of
the foreign exchange reserves came down from around five months in the mideighties to just 1.8 months by 1989-90. Short-term debt, which was 6.1 per cent of
the total debt in March 1989, was pushed up to 9.9 per cent of the total debt in
March 1990, and further to 10.2 per cent by March 1991. The ratio of short-term
debt to total foreign exchange reserves – excluding gold and SDR – was 90 per cent

in March 1989. By March 1990 it was 2.2 times the reserves, and by March 1991 it
went up to 3.8 times the foreign currency reserves.
As the situation continued to worsen, India’s international credit ratings were
downgraded. India, therefore, had no other option except to mortgage 46.9 tonnes
of its gold reserves to raise additional funds from the international markets to meet
international obligations. In order to meet the above crisis, the Government of India
initiated the reform process in 1991. The reforms included a programme of microeconomic stabilization, changes in industrial and trade policies with the aim of
improving the efficiency, productivity and international competitiveness of Indian
economy. Further, in order to get the Indian economy integrated with the world
economy, the Government announced structural changes in its economic policies
relating to exchange rate determination and management, industrial licensing,
foreign collaborations, investment by NRIs, portfolio investments by foreign
institutional investors, mobilization of funds by Indian commercial and industrial
corporates from foreign countries, reduction in the tariffs (peak customs duty on nonagricultural imports has decreased from 300% in 1990 to 15% in 2005), simplification
of export-import procedures, and so on.
Some of the key indicators of the reforms introduced by the Government directed towards
globalization include:

The launch of the New Industrial Policy in July 1991 which led to dereservation of
the sectors kept in the domain of public sector in favour of private both domestic and
foreign players. The effort towards opening of the economy can be gauged from the
fact that out of the 17 sectors reserved for the public enterprises as many as 15
sectors have been opened for private participation. The two sectors viz. Atomic
Energy and Railways have been kept reserved for the public sector because of
strategic importance. Even within the railways – the peripheral services like catering,
maintenance of platforms, palace on wheels, etc have been opened up.

To improve the efficiency and cut down the public expenditure investment norms
have been liberalized to attract inflow of capital from domestic and foreign

enterprises including institutional investment in various sectors like banking,
insurance, transport, real estate, retailing etc. The inflow of private capital has not
only improved the competitiveness of the Indian manufacturing sector but has
generated large employment opportunities leading to rise in the standard of living of
the people.

The opening of the telecom-IT sector has resulted into India’s presence in the global
marketplace and has been rated among the world’s best. It is wrong to say that the
fortune is confined to information technology and BPO, the growing increase in
India’s exports even without the help of a weak currency has led India to emerge as a
powerful economy in the Asian region.

The reforms thus introduced in the policy frames have accelerated the growth rate
from 5.7% in the eighties to what could well be a new trend growth rate of 7% now.
The quality of this growth has improved remarkably: whether measured in terms of
the units of capital required to produce a unit of output, foreign borrowings needed or
the quality of the output, an indication of which is how much of it can be sold abroad.
INDIA’S SHARE IN WORLD EXPORTS
India’s share in world exports slipped from around 2 per cent in 1950 to the lowest
ever level of 0.4 per cent in 1992-93. The economic and trade reforms introduced in
1991 have given a boost to raise its share to around 0.8 per cent in 2004-05. The
Government is committed to double its share by the end of 2008-09. To achieve the
above goal, the government had identified a 25 by 220 country-commodity matrix in
its Medium Term Export Strategy 2002-07. The 220 items were classified into seven
main categories that include engineering (including instruments and items of
repairs), textiles, gems and jewellery, chemicals & allied products, agriculture & allied
products (including marine & plantations), leather & footwear, and other items.
Strategies suggested in the Medium Term Export Plan include (a) product-market
penetration strategy for existing products (b) market diversification strategy for
existing products (c) product diversification strategy for existing markets, and (d)
product-market diversification for new products and new markets. Besides, having

realized the near market saturation reached in USA, Western Europe, and Japan,
the focus has been laid on enhancing exports in the emerging markets of Latin
America, Africa, and CIS. It is in this context that new initiatives have been taken to
launch “Focus Africa” and “Focus CIS” in 2002 and 2003 respectively after
experiencing an overwhelming success from “Focus LAC” launched in 1998.
Recognising the fact that diversification and expansion of markets is an important
factor in sustaining export growth, a movement towards free trade/regional trading
arrangements has been initiated by signing of bilateral and economic cooperation
agreements with various countries/regions. Some of the recent measures in this
direction include: the expansion of Focus Africa Programme by including the
remaining 11 countries of the region, and launching of Focus CIS Programme from
April 2003.

Some of the bilateral agreements concluded/under negotiations to

enhance trade and economic cooperation are: the Framework Agreement for
Economic Cooperation between India and the ASEAN and bilateral agreement
between India and Thailand. Similar agreement with Singapore is currently under
negotiation. These framework agreements include provisions relating to free trade
agreements in goods, services, and investments and are aimed at strengthening
India’s trade and economic cooperation with its South East Asian neighbours.
Modalities to work out Framework Agreements with Mauritius and China are under
way. Bilateral agreements with Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Myanmar, South Africa and
MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) are under consideration.
The Agreement on SAFTA is expected to provide a fillip to trade growth with the
region. Besides, India along with Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Nepal
have signed the Framework Agreement on the BIMST-EC Free Trade Area in 2004
with the objective to strengthen and enhance economic, trade and investment
cooperation among the member countries and to progressively liberalise and
promote trade in goods, services and investment cooperation.

Such regional

arrangements are presumed to help integrate developing countries like India into the
world economy by providing immediate gains in trade and investment, particularly for
geographically contiguous regions.
A STRATEGIC APPROACH

To diversify and expand the market and product base for exports various strategies
have been implemented since 1992 – prominent among these are:
1. Extreme Focus Product Strategy 1992;
2. 15 x 15 Matrix Strategy 1995;
3. Focus LAC 1997;
4. Medium-Term Export Strategy 2002;
5. Focus Africa 2002; and
6. Focus CIS 2003.
For giving a fillip to the trade growth and fostering economic cooperation a
movement towards free trade/regional trading arrangements has been initiated by
signing of bilateral and economic cooperation agreements with various countries.
Some of the agreements include:
1. Framework Agreement for Economic Cooperation between India
and ASEAN
2. Bilateral Agreement between India and Thailand
3. Bilateral Agreement between India and Singapore
4. Bilateral Agreement between India and Bangladesh, Afghanistan,
Myanmar, South Africa, MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
and Uruguay)
5. Framework Agreements with Mauritius and China
6. Framework Agreements on BIMST-EC Free Trade Area (BIMST
countries include Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and
Nepal)
7. Agreement on SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Area)
INDIA’S EXPORT PERFORMANCE IN THE POST-LIBERALISATION ERA
India’s export performance in the post-liberalisation period i.e. 1991-2005 has been
much better than the pre-reform period. From a negative growth of 0.55 per cent
during 1991-92, the value of exports in dollar terms witnessed a growth rate of 25.98
per cent in 2004-05.

In terms of openness of Indian economy, that is trade

measured as percentage of value of GDP, the degree of openness almost doubled
from a level of 13 per cent in 1990-91 to 22 per cent in 2002-03.
Exports from India registered a continuous increase from a modest 2.79 per cent
growth in 1992-93 to 20.91 per cent in 1995-96. A declining trend in the export
growth started in 1996-97 and witnessed a negative growth of 5.14 per cent in 199899. The negative growth in exports could mainly be attributed to the recession in
world economy caused by East Asian crisis. Exports, however, picked up in 19992000 and witnessed a growth of 19.84 per cent in 2000-01 at USD 44 billion from
USD 37 billion in previous year. The volume of exports has touched the level of USD
80 billion in 2004-05 from USD 18 billion in 1990-91 – an increase of 344.44 per
cent. India’s share in global exports has also risen from the lowest level of 0.4 per
cent in 1992-93 to around 0.8 per cent in 2004-05.
A notable feature in India’s export performance is that it had achieved 18 per cent
growth at a time when the global economy was struggling to revive and even many
of the developed countries found it difficult to achieve growth in their export.
Besides, as per the WTO Report 2002, the country achieved 15 per cent growth,
next only to China (22 per cent), among the 30 leading exporters in world
merchandise trade during 2002. Export performance of many countries during this
period has either been negative or in single digit, for example, USA (-5 Per cent),
(Canada (-3 per cent), Japan (3 per cent), UK (1 per cent), Hong Kong (5 per cent),
Korea (8 per cent), Singapore (3 per cent), Thailand (5 per cent), and Indonesia (0
per cent).
Growing integration of India’s financial sector with that of the rest of the world, along
with growing integration of the economy as a whole, has brought down interest rates
and input prices. Venture funds, private equity and a booming stock market have
enabled enterprise to flourish, overcoming earlier limitations of having to accumulate
initial capital either through inheritance or loot. The foreign exchange reserves of the
country are now at a very comfortable level at USD 145 billion against a mere USD
one billion in 1990.

SECTORAL PERFORMANCE DURING APRIL-MARCH, 2004-05
The following trends can be observed from the latest available provisional
disaggregated data from DGCI&S for April-March, 2004-05.
EXPORTS

(i)

High to Moderate growth (40% and above) was witnessed in the export of Iron
Ore (134%), Petroleum Crude & Products (90%), Plastic & Linoleum Products (68%),
Primary & Semi-finished Iron & Steel (51%) and Transport Equipments (45%).

(ii)

Negative to Low growth (less than 15%) was observed in case of Cotton yarn,
fabrics, madeups etc.(-6%), RMG Cotton including accessories (-5%), Marine products
(-5%) Electronic goods(1.6%), Man made yarn, fabrics, madeups (6%) and Drugs,
pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals(12%),

IMPORTS

(i)

High to Moderate growth (40% and above) was witnessed in the import of Coal,
Coke & Briquettes etc. (99%), Metaliferous & Metal Scrap (83%), Iron & Steel (72%),
Gold (57%), Petroleum: Crude & Products (45%).

(ii)

Negative to Low growth (less than 15%) was observed for Transport Equipments
(-25%) and Vegetable Oils Fixed-edible (-6%).

COUNTRY SPECIFIC TRADE
Among the top 15 countries for exports, Singapore recorded the highest growth (79%)
followed by China (55%), UAE (38%), Belgium (35%) and France (26%). Bangladesh
PR recorded negative growth rate. Among the top 15 countries for imports the
highest growth was recorded by UAE (122%) followed by Switzerland (76%), China
(66%), Australia (34%) and Germany (33%).

CONCLUSION
The implementation of various economic and trade reforms in recent years have led
to sufficient reserves of foreign exchange (approx. USD 145 billion), containment of
the inflation rate at single digit level, appreciation of Indian rupee, strong growth in
manufacturing activity, surge in FDI inflow, etc. All these factors have resulted in the
continuous growth in India’s export performance over the last decade. The 25 per
cent growth in exports witnessed during 2004-05 over the previous year coupled with
firming up of domestic manufacturing activity and India’s growing export
competitiveness give clear indications that the target set by the Department of
Commerce at USD 150 billion by 2009-10, and USD 300 billion 2015 can be
achieved without any difficulty.

References
1.

World Bank, www.worldbank.org

2.

Larsson, Tomas, The Race to the Top: The real Story of Globalisation

3.

Smith, Adam, The Wealth of Nations

4.

Spruiell, Stephen, Protectionism: Tariffs, Subsidies, and Trade Policy

5.

Rippon, Mathew J, History of Globalization

6.

Martin Chris, Gains from Trade

7.

The Economic Times, New Delhi (various issues)

8.

Wadhwa, RK, An Overview of India’s Foreign Trade in the Pre- and PostLiberalization Era

9.

Exports – A Success Story, Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
Government of India, New Delhi

10.

India’s Foreign Trade Policy 2004-09, Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
Government of India, New Delhi

11.

Globalization, Free Trade, Foreign Aid – www.newsbatch,com

12.

www.aworldconnected.org

13.

www.imf.org

Table 1

INDIA’S TRADE PERFORMANCE
(US $ BILLION)
Year

Exports

%Change

Imports

1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-2001
2001-2002
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005

18.1
18.0
18.5
22.2
26.3
31.8
33.5
35.0
33.2
36.8
44.2
44.0
52.7
63.5
80.0

9.25
-0.55
2.78
20.00
18.47
20.91
5.35
4.48
-5.14
10.84
20.11
-0.45
19.09
20.49
25.98

23.5
19.6
21.9
23.3
28.7
36.7
39.2
41.5
42.4
49.8
50.1
51.6
61.4
77.0
106.0

Source: DGCI&S, Kolkata

%Change
10.59
-16.60
11.73
6.39
23.18
27.87
6.81
5.87
2.17
17.45
0.60
2.99
18.99
25.41
37.66

Table - 2
EXPORT OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES: APRIL-MARCH,2004-05
 

(Rs.Crores)
Weight
(%)

COMMODITIES

APRIL-MARCH
2003-2004

APRIL-MARCH
2004-2005

Growth
(%)

I.PLANTATIONS

2723.26

2792.14

2.53

0.78

1. Tea
2. Coffee

1637.35
1085.92

1784.18
1007.96

8.97
-7.18

0.50
0.28

24844.48

27111.41

9.12

7.61

1.Cereal

6956.68

8866.38

27.45

2.49

a) Rice
b} Wheat
c) Others
2.Pulses
3.Tobacco

4167.98
2391.15
397.55
328.60
1096.47

6641.67
1448.03
776.68
553.81
1246.75

59.35
-39.44
95.37
68.53
13.71

1.87
0.41
0.22
0.16
0.35

a) Unmanufactured
b) Manufactured
4. Spices
5. Nuts & Seeds

801.41
295.06
1544.18
3003.45

937.71
309.04
1794.11
3573.05

17.01
4.74
16.19
18.97

0.26
0.09
0.50
1.00

a) Cashew incl. CNSL
b) Sesame & Niger seed
c.)Groundnut
6. Oil Meals
7. Guergum Meal
8. Castor Oil
9.Shellac
10.Sugar & Mollasses
11.Processed Foods

1704.84
754.30
544.30
3348.41
507.90
656.06
179.74
1235.97
3485.06

2347.73
723.33
501.99
3100.75
655.96
1028.26
162.77
149.13
3234.65

37.71
-4.11
-7.77
-7.40
29.15
56.73
-9.45
-87.93
-7.19

0.66
0.20
0.14
0.87
0.18
0.29
0.05
0.04
0.91

a)Fresh Fruits & Vegetables
b)Fruits/Vegetable seeds
c)Processed and misc.
Processed items
12. Meat & Preparations
13. Poultry & Dairy Product
14. Floriculture products
15. Spirit & Beverages

1737.95
53.61
1693.50

1625.05
62.93
1546.67

-6.50
17.40
-8.67

0.46
0.02
0.43

1714.41
415.15
250.47
121.92

1734.37
670.54
205.25
135.62

1.16
61.52
-18.05
11.24

0.49
0.19
0.06
0.04

III. MARINE PRODUCTS

6105.63

5695.21

-6.72

1.60

IV. ORES & MINERALS

10884.62

18841.77

73.10

5.29

5173.26
105.66
2879.95

11814.84
62.74
3402.72

128.38
-40.62
18.15

3.32
0.02
0.96

II.AGRI&ALLIED PRDTS

1.Iron ore
2.Mica
3.Processed Minerals

4.Other ores & Minerals
5.Coal

2433.75
291.99

3330.60
230.86

36.85
-20.94

0.94
0.06

V. LEATHER & MFRS.

9939.43

10285.86

3.49

2.89

1.Footwear
2.Leather & mfrs.

3524.60
6414.83

3707.02
6578.84

5.18
2.56

1.04
1.85

48586.07

61580.58

26.75

17.29

VII. SPORTS GOODS

455.48

440.80

-3.22

0.12

VIII. CHEMICALS &
RELATED
PRODUCTS

45768.06

56960.62

24.45

16.00

1.Basic chemls.,Pharma
& cosmetics
2.Plastics & Linoleum
3.Rubber, glass &
other products
4.Residual chemls. &
allied products

26861.56

30092.07

12.03

8.45

8054.08

13243.21

64.43

3.72

9199.97

11357.54

23.45

3.19

1652.46

2267.79

37.24

0.64

IX. ENGINEERING GOODS

48324.44

65543.24

35.63

18.41

MACHINERY
Machine tools
Machinery & Instruments
Transport equipments
IRON & STEEL
Iron & Steel bar rod etc
Primary & semi- fnshd iron &
steel
OTHER ENGINEERING
ITEMS
Ferro Alloys
Aluminium other than prods.
Non-ferrous metals
Manufacture of metals
Residual Engineering Items

22391.89
646.32
12757.45
8988.12
11385.72
1487.28

29136.76
727.95
15694.86
12713.94
16315.55
1725.10

30.12
12.63
23.03
41.45
43.30
15.99

8.18
0.20
4.41
3.57
4.58
0.48

9898.44

14590.44

47.40

4.10

14546.83
388.78
715.88
2084.89
11150.28
206.99

20090.94
819.13
810.80
3414.55
14734.22
312.23

38.11
110.69
13.26
63.78
32.14
50.85

5.64
0.23
0.23
0.96
4.14
0.09

X.ELECTRONIC GOODS

8293.86

8105.93

-2.27

2.28

1. Electronics
2. Computer Software in
physical form
XI. PROJECT GOODS

7941.86
352.01

7885.93
220.01

-0.70
-37.50

2.21
0.06

386.58

220.92

-42.85

0.06

XII. TEXTILES

56082.21

53996.24

-3.72

15.16

1.Readymade garments
2.Cotton,yarn,fabrics,
made-ups, etc.
3.Manmade textiles

28634.40

27077.47

-5.44

7.60

15599.87

14389.26

-7.76

4.04

VI. GEMS & JEWELLERY

made-ups, etc.
4.Natural silk textiles
5.Wool & woollen mfrs.
6.Coir & coir mfrs.
7.Jute mfrs.

8368.83
1739.96
267.81
357.37
1113.98

8738.05
1823.06
298.52
456.35
1213.53

4.41
4.78
11.47
27.70
8.94

2.45
0.51
0.08
0.13
0.34

XIII. HANDICRAFTS

2296.13

1543.27

-32.79

0.43

XIV. CARPETS

2691.23

2679.43

-0.44

0.75

1.Hand-made excl. Silk
2.Mill-made excl. Silk
3.Silk Carpets

2571.02
0.00
120.22

2556.87
0.00
122.56

-0.55
0.00
1.95

0.72
0.00
0.03

942.37

364.49

-61.32

0.10

16397.44

30518.10

86.12

8.57

8645.46
293366.75
45.9513

9388.87
356068.88
44.9315

8.60
21.37

2.64
100.00

XV.COTTON RAW incl. waste
XVI. PETROLEUM
PRODUCTS

XVII. UNCLASSIFIED
EXPORTS
GRAND TOTAL
Us Dollar Exchange Rate

Source: Economic Division, Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commer & Industry,
Government of India.

Table - 3
IMPORT OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES:APRIL-MARCH ,2004-05
(Rs. Crores)

_________

APRILMARCH
2003-2004
_________

APRILMARCH
2004-2005
__________

BULK IMPORTS
-------------Cereals&preparations
__________________
Rice
Wheat
Other cereals
Preparations

134451.00
_________
89.24
_________
0.27
0.25
1.87
86.85

188042.83
__________
111.76
__________ _
0.00
0.11
7.36
104.28

39.86
_________
25.23
-100.00
0.00
293.90
20.07

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02

Fertilizers
__________________
Crude
Sulphur & Un-roasted
pyrites
Manufactured

3312.10
_________
614.96
395.94

5531.44
__________
995.27
483.75

67.01
_________
61.84
22.18

1.15
__________
0.21
0.10

2301.20

4052.42

76.10

0.84

COMMODITIES

I.
1.
a)
b)
c)
d)
2
a)
b)
c)
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

II.

III.
1
2
3
4
IV.

Growth
(%)

Weight
(%)
_
39.09
__________
0.02
_

Edible Oil
Sugar
Pulp & waste paper
Paper board & mfrs.
Newsprint
Crude rubber
Non-ferrous Metals
Metalliferrous ores &
metal scrap
Iron & Steel
Petroleum crude & products

11683.24
62.70
1880.06
2766.99
1610.78
1290.18
4359.82
5954.91

10755.65
954.24
2126.05
3045.23
1699.52
1774.50
5630.30
10650.53

-7.94
1421.86
13.08
10.06
5.51
37.54
29.14
78.85

2.24
0.20
0.44
0.63
0.35
0.37
1.17
2.21

6920.98
94520.00

11669.62
134094.00

68.61
41.87

2.43
27.87

PEARLS,PRECIOUS &
SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES
__________________

32757.32
_________

42340.96
__________ _

29.26

MACHINERY
__________________
Machine Tools
Machinery other than
electrical
Electrical machinery
Transport Equipment

42752.62
_________
2114.43
21797.41

48121.06
__________
2660.37
29433.00

12.56
_________
25.82
35.03

10.00
__________
0.55
6.12

4008.01
14832.78

5141.92
10885.78

28.29
-26.61

1.07
2.26

PROJECT GOODS
__________________

1819.62
_________

2613.65
__________ _

43.64

8.80
_

0.54
_

V.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

OTHERS
_________
Cashew Nuts
Fruits & Nuts
Wool raw
Silk raw
Synth.&reg.fibres
Pulses
Raw Hides & Skins
Leather
Coal,coke&briquettes
Non-metallic mnl.mfrs.
Other crude minerals
Organic&Inorganic chmls.
Dyeing,tanning matrl.
Medicinal&Pharma.prds.
Artf.resins, etc.
Chemical products
OtherTextile yarn,fabrics,etc
Manufactures of metals
Profl. instruments, etc.
Electronic goods
Wood and wood products
Gold & Silver
Tea
Wollen Yarn and Fabrics
Cotton yarn and fabrics
Man made f'mnt spun yarn
Made up textile articles
Ready made garments(wov.)
Silk yarn and fabrics
Milk & Cream
Spices
Oil seeds
Jute raw
Woollen & Cotton rags
Veg. & animal fats
Cottow raw and waste
Essential oils & Cos.prep
Cement
Computer Soft.physical form
Other Commodities
TOTAL IMPORTS

147327.10
_________
1371.80
802.27
870.61
629.17
268.51
2284.87
228.82
785.81
6482.74
1504.37
590.58
18527.12
1601.11
2958.04
4971.98
2902.29
1963.38
3169.42
5653.39
34491.86
3269.46
31506.13
64.60
167.93
652.98
1912.04
375.67
177.83
529.89
89.562
564.42
13.89
93.92
134.60
12.68
1570.03
419.37
9.28
1760.82
11943.87
359107.66

199945.94
__________ _
1757.18
1057.28
825.95
604.72
330.20
1718.64
211.85
924.87
12587.36
2034.22
644.67
23971.38
1780.99
3051.47
6272.19
3541.00
2465.13
3986.16
6681.24
43758.96
3802.99
48635.54
152.79
172.86
844.23
2116.09
264.43
143.27
731.28
12.87
564.92
25.59
31.79
108.19
12.20
1099.60
533.42
7.64
2918.58
19562.22
481064.11

35.72

41.56
_

28.09
31.79
-5.13
-3.89
22.98
-24.78
-7.42
17.70
94.17
35.22
9.16
29.39
11.23
3.16
26.15
22.01
25.56
25.77
18.18
26.87
16.32
54.37
136.50
2.94
29.29
10.67
-29.61
-19.43
38.00
-85.63
0.09
84.22
0.00
-19.62
-3.79
-29.96
27.20
-17.70
65.75
63.78
33.96

Source: Economic Division, Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commer & Industry,
Government of India.

0.37
0.22
0.17
0.13
0.07
0.36
0.04
0.19
2.62
0.42
0.13
4.98
0.37
0.63
1.30
0.74
0.51
0.83
1.39
9.10
0.79
10.11
0.03
0.04
0.18
0.44
0.05
0.03
0.15
0.00
0.12
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.00
0.23
0.11
0.00
0.61
4.07
100.00

Table - 4

MINISTRY OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
ECONOMIC DIVISION
EXPORTS BY REGIONS AND COUNTRIES: APRIL-MARCH,2004-05
COUNTRIES/REGIONS

I.WEST EUROPE
__________________
(a)EU Countries
__________________
1.Belgium
2.Denmark
3.France
4.Germany
5.Greece
6.Ireland
7.Italy
8.Luxembourg
9.Netherlands
10.Portugal
11.Spain
12.United Kingdom
13.Austria
14.Sweden
15.Finland
16.Cyprus
17.Malta
18. Lithuania
19. Estonia
20. Latvia
21. Czech Republic
22. Slovak Republic
23. Hungary
24. Poland
25. Slovenia
(b)Rest of West Europe
__________________
1.Norway
2.Turkey
3.Switzerland
II. EAST EUROPE
__________________
1.Romania

APRIL-MARCH
2003-2004

APRIL-MARCH
2004-2005

72382.93

84736.77

_

_
66370.13

_
8297.56
1111.54
5885.84
11692.61
919.20
693.56
7946.88
65.21
5923.65
780.67
4607.02
13892.31
488.82
1010.36
511.32
129.59
541.99
82.36
27.50
75.05
404.46
77.44
422.15
616.70
166.31

_

219.61

2.04
_

29.14
19.43
13.43

0.13
0.87
0.66

43.22
_

476.33

3.08
0.36
2.03
3.34
0.37
0.24
2.73
0.01
1.92
0.26
1.66
4.47
0.14
0.29
0.17
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.11
0.03
0.13
0.21
0.08

20.54

795.06
_

21.76
_

_
449.13
3091.59
2344.85

555.13

_

32.24
16.17
22.84
1.61
41.69
23.07
22.17
-25.50
15.15
18.95
28.17
14.64
2.83
1.49
19.68
-5.29
-74.06
61.00
53.14
-6.01
-7.52
30.96
10.41
21.62
68.05

7248.03

347.79
2588.63
2067.21

23.80

16.75
_

_

Weight

     %

17.07

10972.69
1291.27
7229.99
11880.32
1302.44
853.58
9708.93
48.58
6820.85
928.58
5904.96
15926.84
502.67
1025.43
611.96
122.74
140.60
132.60
42.11
70.53
374.05
101.41
466.09
750.02
279.49

6012.80

_

     %

77488.74
_

_

RS. CRORES
Growth

0.22
_

116.90

0.13

2.Bulgaria
3.Yugoslavia
III. C.I.S.& BALTIC STATES
__________________
a) Russia
b) Rest of CIS Countries
1. Kazakhstan
2. Ukraine
IV ASIA AND OCEANIA
(a).Escap
1.Bangladesh
2.Nepal
3.Sri Lanka
4.Australia
5.China P.R.
6.Hongkong
7.Indonesia
8.Japan
9.Korea Republic of
10.Malaysia
11.Singapore
12.Thailand
13.Pakistan
(b).Others
__________________
1.Saudi Arabia
2.United Arab Emirates
3.Israel
V. AFRICA
___________
1.Egypt
2.Nigeria
3.South Africa
VI. AMERICA
_________
(a)North America
__________________
1.Canada
2.U.S.A.
(b).Latin American Countries
_________________
1.Brazil
2.Argentina
3.Mexico
(c).Rest Of America
_____________________________
1.Panama Canal Zone
2.Peurto Rico
3.Turks & Calcos Is.

115.89
77.33

107.76
40.53

4742.97
_

4662.55
_

3279.80
1463.17
343.76
506.69
136112.79
-

2684.33
1978.22
357.37
907.67
168822.80

93899.67
7998.98
3075.79
6061.91
2684.91
13579.06
14988.52
5179.68
7854.45
3514.65
4102.38
9763.93
3821.72
1318.52

-

5161.77
23552.85
3326.80

63282.74

3507.00
52798.54

1266.52
401.29
1215.07

14.71
121.46
79.38

2.63
_

132.76
100.15
30.28

67.09

0.83
0.23
0.44

-69.05
_

2.09
58.14
1.42

1.03
16.74

80.55
_

_

17.77
_

4.57
12.89

2947.98
803.17
1583.04

216.75
_

12.39

9357.25
_

20.42
_

_
3667.13
59604.33

5182.70
_

0.53
0.77
1.21

17.83
_

_

6.77
_

12.63
5.96
73.79

72707.08

56305.54
_

1.73
8.96
1.25

42.16
_

_

15.03
_

19.23
35.41
33.70

1901.93
2753.39
4307.14

61705.00
_

32.39
2.00
0.92
1.71
0.87
5.79
4.61
1.63
2.50
1.21
1.26
4.79
1.08
0.64

26.74

24093.07
_

1688.65
2598.51
2478.39

-

_
6154.53
31893.01
4447.98

16947.32
_

0.75
0.56
0.10
0.25
47.41

22.81
-10.90
6.41
0.34
14.97
51.75
9.46
11.96
13.13
23.08
9.13
74.66
0.65
72.24

53501.11
_

1.31
_

-18.16
35.20
3.96
79.14
24.03

115321.69
7126.94
3273.06
6082.60
3086.93
20606.84
16405.99
5799.27
8885.62
4325.84
4476.77
17053.79
3846.44
2271.03

42213.12

0.03
0.01

-1.70
_

-

_

-7.01
-47.59

0.02
_

-85.78
-52.13
-98.21

0.00
0.02
0.00

GRAND TOTAL

293366.75

356068.88

21.37

100.00

Source: Economic Division, Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce & Industry,
Government of India.

Table - 5
MINISTRY OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
ECONOMIC DIVISION
__________________
IMPORTS BY REGIONS AND COUNTRIES: APRIL-MARCH, 2004-05
___________________________________________________
 
COUNTRIES/REGIONS

I.WEST EUROPE
__________________
(a)EU Countries
__________________
1.Belgium
2.Denmark
3.France
4.Germany
5.Greece
6.Ireland
7.Italy
8.Luxembourg
9.Netherlands
10.Portugal
11.Spain
12.United Kingdom
13.Austria
14.Finland
15.Sweden
16.Cyprus
17.Malta
18. Lithuania
19. Estonia
20. Latvia
21. Czech Republic
22. Slovak Republic
23. Hungary
24. Poland
25. Slovenia
(b)Rest of West Europe
__________________
1.Norway
2.Turkey
3.Switzerland

APRIL-MARCH
2003-2004

APRIL-MARCH
2004-2005

85885.03
_

 

68889.29
_

Growth
%

108711.40
_

Rs. Crore

26.58
_

81105.64
_

Weight
%
22.60
_

17.73
_

16.86
_

18269.86
1036.67
5009.77
13411.24
216.40
602.57
4921.58
204.02
2460.99
63.72
1189.13
14862.26
926.71
1241.12
3211.05
11.95
4.26
49.63
1.10
1.95
513.91
48.81
125.56
225.41
279.63

20517.02
1166.28
6203.69
17380.88
105.62
586.01
5943.41
43.45
3410.03
80.38
1673.98
15417.56
1169.13
1694.14
4120.97
20.99
2.36
78.87
3.00
4.81
753.10
100.23
140.71
394.52
94.50

12.30
12.50
23.83
29.60
-51.19
-2.75
20.76
-78.71
38.56
26.15
40.77
3.74
26.16
36.50
28.34
75.61
-44.72
58.90
172.69
146.42
46.54
105.36
12.07
75.02
-66.21

4.26
0.24
1.29
3.61
0.02
0.12
1.24
0.01
0.71
0.02
0.35
3.20
0.24
0.35
0.86
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.16
0.02
0.03
0.08
0.02

16995.74

27605.76

62.43

5.74

_

_
1392.43
336.91
15222.52

_
874.28
578.40
26140.78

_
-37.21
71.68
71.72

0.18
0.12
5.43

II. EAST EUROPE
__________________
1.Romania
2.Bulgaria
3.Yugoslavia
III. C.I.S.& BALTIC STATES
__________________
a) Russia
b) Rest of CIS Countries
1. Kazakhstan
2. Ukraine
IV.ASIA AND OCEANIA
_
(a).Escap
__________________
1.Bangladesh
2.Nepal
3.Sri Lanka
4.Australia
5.China P.R.
6.Hongkong
7.Indonesia
8.Japan
9.Korea Republic of
10.Malaysia
11.Singapore
12.Thailand
13.Pakistan
(b).Others
__________________
1.Saudi Arabia
2.United Arab Emirates
3.Israel
V. AFRICA
_
1.Egypt
2.Nigeria
3.South Africa
VI. AMERICA
_________
(a)North America
__________________
1.Canada
2.U.S.A.
(b)Latin American Countries

433.15
_

856.38
_

330.51
51.18
16.71

748.34
79.05
18.64

5796.44
_
4409.64
1386.80
42.56
1080.54

101950.25
_

1.18
0.55
0.01
0.46

36.49
_

128385.73
_

1.73
_

28.93
90.00
62.33
104.38

170287.06
_

0.16
0.02
0.00

43.54
_

5685.53
2634.91
69.08
2208.39

124764.27

0.18
_

126.42
54.47
11.50

8320.43
_

_

97.71
_

35.40
_

25.93
_

26.69
_

356.71
1314.40
894.85
12173.59
18625.14
6859.08
9751.21
12258.39
13000.48
9404.23
9582.60
2798.69
264.90

246.58
1527.75
1636.65
16000.54
30313.73
7686.13
11271.99
13506.22
14351.54
9979.43
11602.05
3744.97
428.33

-30.87
16.23
82.90
31.44
62.76
12.06
15.60
10.18
10.39
6.12
21.07
33.81
61.69

0.05
0.32
0.34
3.33
6.30
1.60
2.34
2.81
2.98
2.07
2.41
0.78
0.09

22814.02

41901.33

83.66

8.71

_

_

_

_

3390.15
9465.27
3077.62

5665.33
20587.41
4369.67

67.11
117.50
41.98

1.18
4.28
0.91

14690.47

16807.94

14.41

3.49

_

_
451.27
347.59
8727.06
31826.81

_

_
614.90
216.33
9648.31
40200.35

_
26471.39

_

_
36.26
-37.76
10.56
26.31

_
31586.87

_

0.13
0.04
2.01
8.36
_

19.32
_

6.57
_

3335.57
23135.83

3318.04
28268.63

-0.53
22.19

0.69
5.88

5351.14

8553.11

59.84

1.78

_________________
1.Brazil
2.Argentina
3.Mexico
© Rest of America
_____________________________
1.Panama Canal Zone
2.Peurto Rico
3.Turks & Calcos. Is.
__________________
GRAND TOTAL
Exchange Rate

_

_
1440.67
2407.70
339.55
4.28

_

_
3423.87
2315.92
355.63
60.36

_

_
137.66
-3.81
4.74

0.71
0.48
0.07

1311.85
_

0.01
_

2.43

37.94

1464.37

0.01

1.79
0.04

22.18
0.00

1139.11
0.00

0.00
0.00

_

_
359107.66
45.9513

_
481064.11
44.9315

_
33.96

100.00

Source: Economic Division, Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commer & Indu

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