RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

MB 0050

Name: Rajesh Kumar Roll number: 520932980 Learning centre: 03036 Subject: MB 0050- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Assignment No.: Set 1 Date of submission at learning centre:

in that they belong to a definable category. etc. although this may not be described.MB0050-Research Methodology ASSIGNMENTS Subject code: MB0050 (4 credits) Marks 60 SUBJECT NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Note: Each Question carries 10 marks Q1)a. This may appear ordinal but is not -these are used to simplify capture and referencing. Differentiate between nominal. Nominal items may have numbers assigned to them. 2 . Nominal items are usually categorical. meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system. interval and ratio scales. and so on. Letters or other sequential symbols may also be used as appropriate. Nominal The name 'Nominal' comes from the Latin nomen. This may indicate such as temporal position. each one adding more to the next. such as 'employees'. b. The only thing a nominal scale does is to say that items being measured have something in common. Example The number pinned on a sports person. superiority. Types of scales: Ans) There are four types of data that may be gathered in social research. Ordinal Items on an ordinal scale are set into some kind of order by their position on the scale. with an example of each. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research? a. The order of items is often defined by assigning numbers to them to show their relative position. Thus ordinal data is also nominal. A set of countries. ordinal.

B. in degrees Fahrenheit. rated from 1 to 10. Because they can be measured on a scale. Example A person's weight The number of pizzas I can eat before fainting 3 .MB0050-Research Methodology Ordinal items are usually categorical. Thus the difference between a person of 35 and a person 38 is the same as the difference between people who are 12 and 15. but also that 4 is twice as much as 2. numbers can be compared as multiples of one another. third and fifth person in a race. Temperature. Ratio data can be multiplied and divided because not only is the difference between 1 and 2 the same as between 3 and 4. in that they belong to a definable category. A person can also have an age of zero. Interval and ratio data measure quantities and hence are quantitative. Interval data cannot be multiplied or divided. such as '1956 marathon runners'. Important also. they are also called scale data. Example My level of happiness. Pay bands in an organization. This allows for the distance between two pairs to be equivalent in some way. This is often used in psychological experiments that measure attributes along an arbitrary scale between two extremes. the number zero has meaning. Ratio In a ratio scale. Interval Interval data (also sometimes called integer) is measured along a scale in which each position is equidistant from one another. as denoted by A. Thus one person can be twice as tall as another person. C and D.they show sequence only. Example The first. You cannot do arithmetic with ordinal numbers -.

there are also guidelines concerning which statistical tests are appropriate. but how meaningful would that be? How would you interpret a mean sex of 1. Let's say our University administrator was interested in the relationship between undergraduate major and starting salary of students' first job after graduation. we would look at the relationship between these two variables using the Pearson correlation coefficient. the most appropriate measure of association between gender and major would be a Chi-Square test. it is more appropriate to compute a statistic such as a percentage (60% of the sample was male). it is a ratio level variable. let's say a University administrator was interested in the relationship between student gender (a Nominal variable) and major field of study (another Nominal variable). and 8 of which were female. neither Chi-square nor ANOVA would be appropriate. it is generally inappropriate to compute the mean for Nominal variables. One of the primary purposes of classifying variables according to their level or scale of measurement is to facilitate the choice of a statistical test used to analyze the data. instead. In this case. Finally. suppose we were interested in the relationship between undergraduate grade point average and starting salary. What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? b. both grade point average and starting salary are ratio level variables. salary is not a Nominal variable. Types of Research Projects • • those that relate to states of nature those which relate to relationships between variables 4 . It requires thorough understanding of the problem and rephrasing it in meaningful terms from an analytical point of view. For example. When a research wishes to examine the relationship or association between two variables. could you compute the mean sex of subjects in your sample? It is possible to compute a mean value. Now.4? When you are examining a Nominal variable such as sex. Suppose you had 20 subjects. In this case. Q2) a.MB0050-Research Methodology b. Purpose of measurement in social science. If you assigned males a value of '1' and females a value of '2'. For example. 12 of which were male. The appropriate test of association between undergraduate major and salary would be a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). There are certain statistical analyses which are only meaningful for data which are measured at certain measurement scales. to see if the mean starting salary is related to undergraduate major. Why literature survey is important in research? Ans: Identifying research Problem This involves the identification of a general topic and formulating it into a specific research problem. In this case.

sharpening the focus of the research. informing the researcher of what has already been done in the area. Reading all the knowledge that's accumulated so far on the problem you want to study can be time-consuming and even tedious. such as the American Political Science Review.” Nwana (1982).MB0050-Research Methodology In understanding the problem. Other sources are the Education Index and the Educational Resources information centre (ERIC). • • Providing insights into possible research designs and methods of conducting the research and interpreting the results. They have the advantage of comprehensiveness and speed. “If one had the literature and exercised enough patience and industry in reviewing available literature. Being able to define the problem unambiguously helps the researcher in discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones. This helps to avoid exact duplication. It is important in the following ways: • • specifically limiting and identifying the research problem and possible hypothesis or research questions i. including journals of general interest in each discipline. But careful evaluation of that material helps make your investigation worthwhile by alerting you to knowledge already gained and problems already encountered in your areas of interest. Computerassisted searchers of literature have become very common today. It is also necessary to examine conceptual and empirical literature on the subject. They are also very cost-effective in terms of time and effort although access to some of the databases requires payment. In the review of the literature. it may well be that his problem has already been solved by someone somewhere some time ago and he will save himself the trouble. Within the library there is access to books. The library is the most likely physical location for the research literature. Irrespective of the sources of the literature. There are many sources for literature reviews. b. The task of defining the research problem is of greatest importance in the entire research process. After the literature review. the researcher attempts to determine what others have learned about similar research problems. Providing suggestions for possible modifications in the research to avoid unanticipated difficulties. periodicals.e. the researcher is able to focus on the problem and phrase it in analytical or operational terms. analyzing and organizing findings. Extensive literature review Review of literature is a systematic process that requires careful and perceptive reading and attention to detail. There are also journals for specific topics such as the Leadership 5 . Why Literature survey is important in research? Doing a literature survey before you begin your investigation enables you to take advantage of the unique human capacity to pass on detailed written information from one generation to another. ethics of research require that the source is acknowledged through a clear system of referencing. A literature survey amounts to reading available material on a given topic. it is helpful to discuss it with colleagues or experts in the field. and producing a summary. technical reports and academic theses.

doing a goodliterature surveyis easier when you know a great deal about the subject already. 9. Having located literature. but on other occasions authors are more subtle. In addition. efficient use of library/Internet services and organizing how they check sources are especially important skills. Careful reading of both tables and text for awhile will convince you they don't always agree. Talking to knowledgeable people may also give you information that helps you formulate your problem. Then. For certain problems you may want to search through popular or non-scholarly periodicals as well. 6 . 5. businesses and private organizations gather and publish information you might find useful.MB0050-Research Methodology and Organization Development Journal. 3. 6. But for the novice. for example. Because research reports can be tedious and difficult to understand for new researchers. now allows easy access to limitless information on given topics. 4. of course. 2. The time varies from problem to problem. Most libraries have staff trained in information retrieval who can help find sources and suggest strategies to review the literature. Sometimes data are grossly misinterpreted in the text. In such a case you'd probably be familiar with publications and even other people who do research in your area of interest. You might ask yourself. the following statements: Fully 30 percent of the sample said they did not vote. particularly for research articles: 1. What was the exact problem studied? How were the topics of interest defined? What did the authors expect to find? How were things measured? What research did this author cite? Have you read it? Who were the subjects of study? What do the results show? Do the data presented agree with the written conclusions? What were the limitations of the study? A thorough literature survey should demonstrate that you've carefully read and evaluated each article or book. Only 30 percent of the sample said they did not vote. Thoroughness in your review means not only finding all current publications on a topic but locating earlier writing as well. At some point in this search you'll find the material is beginning to be only peripherally related to your current interest or that authors claim originality for their work. Consider. many tend to read others' conclusions or summaries and take the author's word that the data actually support the conclusions. The United Nations and the United States Government Printing Office are two major sources. While it's customary to include only data from sources that actually research the problem in a precise fashion. Of course. Governments publish great quantities of data on many topics. Thoroughness is the key. follow these authors' footnotes and bibliographies. 8. The Internet. 7. keeping a checklist of useful information will help you read each source. A useful way to locate past as well as current writing is to begin with the most current sources likely to contain relevant material. articles in more popular sources may provide interesting insight or orientations. There's no easy rule for how long ago literature was published on your topic.

It's important that after you finish your reading. and otherwise reorganized. You. Reading the actual data before accepting the author's conclusions will help prevent some of these errors of interpretation from creeping into your own research. you're able to write your literature survey in a way that's clear. Q3) a. Note in most journal articles that what probably began as a long literature survey is usually condensed on the first few pages of the research report.MB0050-Research Methodology The percentage is the same. organizing what you know about the content and methods used to study your problem. compared.Why is the study being conducted? iii. You may find it helpful to record information about each source on a separate card or piece of paper so that information can later be reshuffled. but the impression conveyed is decidedly different.What type of data is required? v. too. it constitutes theblueprint for the collection. want to add to this growing body of knowledge we call social science by a creative summary of what's been accomplished by others as well as by your own research.Where will the study be carried out? iv. What are the components of a research design? Ans) Research Design – Definition “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose witheconomy in procedure”Is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. explaining previous research on the problem and how the current study will contribute.What is the study about? ii. measurement and analysis of data more explicitly: i.Where can the required data be found? Components of research design 7 . What are the characteristics of a good research design? b.

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