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8/16/2010

KE31303 CONTROL SYSTEMS


Assoc. Prof Dr Yang Soo Siang BEng(Hons) MSc PhD
Room 28 Level 3 School of Engineering and Information Technology Universiti Malaysia Sabah

KE31303 CONTROL SYSTEMS

LECTURE 5: STABILITY ANALYSIS

Assoc Prof Dr Yang Soo Siang

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OVERVIEW
General. Routh-Hurwitz criterion. Stability design.

Assoc Prof Dr Yang Soo Siang

GENERAL
Transient requirements: time constant, rise time, settling time, peak overshoot, damping ratio etc Steady state requirements: errors Stability: actually MOST IMPORTANT SYSTEM SPECIFICATION!
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GENERAL
If system is unstable need not consider other unstable specifications specifications no basis for controller design. design. Formal definitions: definitions:
An LTI system is stable if the natural response approaches zero as time approaches infinity. infinity. An LTI system is unstable if the natural response grows without bound as time approaches infinity. infinity. An LTI system is marginally stable if the natural response neither decays nor grows but remains constant or oscillates as time approaches infinity. infinity.
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GENERAL
OR can be described as: A system is stable if every bounded input yields a bounded output A system is unstable if any bounded input yields an unbounded output
this definition is more relevant in terms of control system stability!
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GENERAL
Remember which part of the transfer function effects system stability? Hint:
if poles in left half plane (s-plane). (s If poles in right half plane (s-plane). (s-

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GENERAL

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GENERAL
Unstable systems- physically results in systemsdamage of equipment, adjacent properties and most importantly human lives. importantly lives. Systems are designed with limit stops to runaway. prevent total runaway.

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GENERAL
Not all mathematical models or transfer functions are easily factorised for you to observe their poles conveniently! For example example

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
This method- yields stability information without methodthe need to solve for the closed loop poles. poles. Results- the number of closed loop system poles Resultsin the left half plane, in the right half plane and on the j axis. axis.
How many but not where! So back to the previous questions why questions is this method still relevant? Hint: for controller design able to yield Hint: design a range of parameters to ensure stability of system. system.
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Requires two steps:
Generate a data table known as a Routh table Interpret the Routh table to know how many closed loop poles are in the left half plane etc... etc...

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Generating the Routh table:


For example:

Begin by labeling the rows with powers of s from the highest of the denominator of the closed loop transfer function to s0

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Start with coeff of the highest power of s in the denominator and list horizontally in the first row, every other coeff. coeff.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

In the second row, list horizontally starting with the next highest power of s, every coeff that was skipped in the first row. row.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Generating the Routh table: the remaining entry
Each entry is a negative determinant of entries in the previous two rows divided by the entry in the first columns directly above the calculated row. row. The left hand column of the determinant is always the first column of the previous two rows, and the right hand column is the elements of the column above and to the right. right. The table is complete when all the rows are completed down to s0.
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Generating the Routh table:

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
For example:

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

for convenience any row can be multiplied by a positive constant without changing the value of the rows below. Not to be multiplied by negative constants!
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Interpretation:
The Routh-Hurwitz criterion declares that the number Routhof roots of the polynomial that are in the right half plane is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column. If closed loop tf has all poles in LHP then system is stable; stable; no sign change in the first column! From the example shown two poles in right RHP shown RHP Why? (based on Routh-Hurwitz criterion) Routhcriterion
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Positive number

Negative number

Positive number 2 sign change = 2 RHP poles exist! Hence system is unstable unstable!
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Special cases:
Zero in first column of a row Entire row consisting of zero

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
For example (zero in first column): T(s)= 10/s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Replace zero by a small number, . Assume a sign, positive or negative for the quantity .

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Whether positive or negative, results of interpretation will be the same. same. For the example, system is unstable with 2 poles in RHP. RHP.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Alternatively Write a polynomial that has reciprocal roots of the denominator write the denominator denominator in reverse order,

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Via the same example: example: T(s)= 10/s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3 10/s s+3 The denominator in reverse order order D(s)= 3s5+5s4+6s3+3s2+2s+1 s+1

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Two sign changes hence system is unstable and has two RHP poles!

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
For example (row of zeros*): T(s)= 10/s5+7s4+6s3+42s2+8s+56

* zero in magnitude NOT zero of transfer function!

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Second row divided by 7 for convenience. Third row all zeros hence Observe the row immediately above the row of zeros, use entries in that row for coeff to form polynomial to replace all zeros in the 3rd row. row.
P(s)=s4+6s2+8 12s+0 Differentiating, dP(s)/ds=4s3+12s+0 dP(s)/ds=
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION
Use the coeff from the differentiated polynomial to replace the
zeros,

4s3+12s+0 12s+0
For convenience, multiplied divide by 4 after replacing the zeros. zeros. Remainder of row is formed in a straightforward manner by following the standard form. form. Obviously, there are no RHP poles!
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STABILITY DESIGN
Stability design example: find the range of gain K for example: system to be stable, unstable and marginally stable. stable. Assume K>0. K>0

Find the closed loop transfer function. function. Form the Routh table table
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STABILITY DESIGN
Stability design example: example:

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STABILITY DESIGN
Stability design example: example:
Since K is assumed positive, we see all elements in the first column are always positive except for the s1 row. row. This entry can be positive, negative or zero. zero. If K < 1386 all terms will be positive, hence no sign changechangepoles on the LHP and stable. stable. If K > 1386 the s1 term will be negative, hence 2 sign changechange2 poles on the RHP and 1 pole in LHP, system unstable. unstable.
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STABILITY DESIGN
Stability design example: example:
If K = 1386 we have entire row of zero 1386, Returning to the s2 row and replacing K with 1386, form the polynomial, P(s)=18s2+1386 Differentiating with respect to s, dP(s)/ds = 36s+0 dP(s)/ds hence replace coeff in the row of zeros
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STABILITY DESIGN
Stability design example: example:

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STABILITY DESIGN
Stability design example: example: No change of sign hence the even polynomial down to bottom of table. table. Even polynomial has two roots on the jw axis. axis. No sign change above even polynomial, hence remaining root is in LHPLHPsystem is marginally stable. stable.
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NEXT LECTURE
Root Locus:
Basic stuff- significance etc. Plotting and sketching

What you need to do!


Review this lecture and try out examples in Chp 5, Nise till pg 305. They are all relevant for your understanding and for you to be familiar with forming the Routh table and stability design via Routh Hurwitz. In addition, read about root locus of course!
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