# Effect of Compression on Steel Samples Objectives

:
Study the effect of friction on steel samples under compressive loading.

Specimens:
Three steel billets – some sand – Lubricant

Procedure:
1. On the billet, divide the length into equally six parts and try to draw a circumference at each division. 2. Measure the length of the specimen and each part of six and measure the cross section of each part with appropriate precision. On cylindrical specimens, measurements should be made on, at least, two mutually perpendicular diameters. 3. Attach the two flat plates to the machine. 4. Effort should be made to have axis of the specimen coincides with the axis of loading. 5. Apply suitable type of lubricant on each faces of the first billet, some sand on faces of the second one. Third billet will be compressed free from lubricant or sand. 6. Apply the load continuously at appropriate speed up to suitable reduction in length.

Required:
1- Get a copy of the load-displacement or stress-strain curve of each specimen. Put all in one curve if it is convenient. 2- Re-measure the six circumferences of each specimen and draw the barreled profile of each condition. 3- Get a photo of each sample and comment on your results. 4- Search on the coefficients of friction of steel/steel, steel/sand, and steel/lubricant pairs and relate these values with your results. The first step was to Compress the steel specimen without adding a lubricant, nor sand. Coefficient of friction of Steel to steel= 0.8 but because of the marker which we used before the process, that made the specimen a little bit greasy it is going to be 0.16. • After measuring the height of the specimen it was found to be 29.8mm, and then it was divided into 6 equal parts using the vernier, each division was of 4.96 mm

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85 39. • After re-measuring the circumferences.9 39.675 33.525 39.7 33.8 39. the results of the diameters were as following: D1(mm) 38.85 39.425 The barreled profile is attached.85mm.7 33.6 33.7 33.7 33.85 39.75 33.725 33.7mm • Then the specimen was attached to the machine precisely.7mm 33.9 39.85 39.65 33.5 Average D(mm) 38.85 39.8mm to 21.35 • • D2(mm) 38. • The cross section at each part was measured on two mutually perpendicular diameters and the results were as following: D1 D2 Average D 33.5 39.75 33. .65 33.55 39.8 39. • The Stress applied to the specimen was calculated by the computer after dividing the force to the area and was found to be 990MPa. The height of the specimen has been reduced from 29.725 The diameter which was given to the machine was 33.625 33.• A circumference was drawn only at the first two lines because it was a little hard and no appropriate tool was existent to do this step. • The specimen was compressed to a maximum load of 884KN.7 33.

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