Exam Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Diffusion is an example of ______. A) exocytosis B) phagocytosis C) active transport D) passive transport E) endocytosis 2) Complete the equation: monosaccharide + monosaccharide A) fat B) polysaccharide C) nucleic acid D) disaccharide E) polypeptide 3) What accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs? A) artificial selection B) creation C) genetic drift D) overreproduction E) natural selection 4) What term is used to describe a situation in which the energy released from one reaction provides the energy required for another reaction? A) entropy B) energy coupling C) electron transport D) energy conservation E) cellular respiration 5) A newly discovered multicellular organism feeds on organic waste. Such an organism is most likely a member of kingdom ______. A) Eukarya B) Fungi C) Plantae D) Animalia E) Protista 5) 4) 3) 2) 1)

______ + water

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6) Table sugar is ______. A) fructose B) maltose C) lactose D) sucrose E) glucose

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7) The following molecule is best described as a ______. CH3 -CH2-CH2-CH2 A) carbohydrate B) lipid C) protein D) hydrocarbon E) nucleic acid 8) What form of energy is ATP? A) motion B) kinetic C) work D) potential E) ionic

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9) How many autosomes do humans have? A) 44 B) 22 C) 46 D) 23 E) 2

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10) What are eukaryotic genes composed of? A) A B) C C) G D) DNA E) RNA

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11) The region of an enzyme to which a substrate binds is called the ______ site. A) enzymatic B) conformational C) active D) substrate E) denatured 12) Nucleic acids are polymers of ______ monomers. A) DNA B) nucleotide C) fatty acid D) hydrocarbon E) monosaccharide

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13) How are adjacent water molecules connected? A) by the sharing of electrons between adjacent oxygen molecules B) by the sharing of electrons between hydrogens of adjacent water molecules C) by the sharing of electrons between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule D) by the electrical attraction between the hydrogens of adjacent water molecules E) by the electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule 14) Which of the following is NOT a component of an amino acid? A) a carboxyl group B) an amino group C) a phosphate group D) a central carbon E) a hydrogen atom 15) A base ______. A) decreases the pH of a solution B) removes OH- ions from a solution C) adds HOH molecules to a solution D) removes H+ ions from a solution E) removes H2 O molecules from a solution 16) Which of the following is NOT a true statement about diffusion? Diffusion ______. A) proceeds until equilibrium is reached B) is driven by entropy C) requires no input of energy into the system D) occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated E) is a result of the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules 17) A glycerol with three fatty acids attached is referred to as a ______. A) nucleic acid B) fat C) steroid D) prostaglandin E) protein

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18) ______ is a hydroxyl group. A) -SH B) -H C) -NH2 D) -COOH E) -OH

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19) Anaphase II is essentially the same as mitotic anaphase except that in anaphase II ______ and in mitotic anaphase ______. A) the cells are haploid and sister chromatids separate . . . the cells are diploid and homologous pairs separate B) crossing over occurs . . . crossing over does not occur C) chromosomes line up double file on the midline of the cell . . . chromosomes line up single file on the midline of the cell D) the cells are diploid . . . the cells are haploid E) tetrads do not form . . . tetrads form 20) Energy is transferred from ATP to other molecules by transferring a(n) ______. A) heat B) adenosine C) spring D) photon E) phosphate group 21) Homologous chromosomes ______. A) always carry identical variants of genes B) do not include the sex chromosomes C) carry the same gene sequence D) are a set of chromosomes that the cell received from one parent E) were formed when they separated during anaphase

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22) Which of the following sequences is arranged from simplest to most complex? A) everything in the Florida Everglades (both living and nonliving), everything alive in the Florida Everglades, an alligator in the Florida Everglades, all the alligators living in the Florida Everglades, nervous tissue, brain, brain cell, phospholipid, carbon B) everything in the Florida Everglades (both living and nonliving), everything alive in the Everglades, an alligator in the Florida Everglades, all the alligators living in the Florida Everglades, nervous tissue, brain, brain cell, phospholipid, carbon C) carbon, phospholipid, brain cell, nervous tissue, brain, an alligator in the Florida Everglades, all the alligators living in the Florida Everglades, everything alive in the Florida Everglades, everything in the Florida Everglades (both living and nonliving) D) molecule, atom, population, community, cell, tissue, ecosystem, organism E) carbon, phospholipid, brain cell, brain, nervous tissue, all the alligators living in the Florida Everglades, an alligator in the Florida Everglades, everything alive in the Florida Everglades, everything in the Florida Everglades (both living and nonliving) 23) Ten kilocalories are equivalent to ______ calories. A) 10,000 B) 0.01 C) 0.1 D) 100 E) 1,000

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24) Which of these is a hypothesis? A) My car is too old to function properly. B) If my car does not start and I recharge the battery then my car will start. C) What is wrong with my car? D) My car will not start. E) My car's battery is dead. 25) What are saturated fats saturated with? A) hydrogen B) phosphorus C) oxygen D) nitrogen E) carbon 26) When two solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will ______. A) exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration B) not cross the membrane C) exhibit a net movement to the side with higher water concentration D) exhibit a net movement to the side with lower solute concentration E) exhibit an equal movement in both directions across the membrane

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27) Sunlight is an example of ______ energy. A) stored B) kinetic C) created D) conserved E) potential

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28) What is the basic unit of life? A) DNA B) nuclei C) cells D) A, G, C, and T E) organelles 29) How many chromosomes will a gamete produce as a result of nondisjunction? A) n + 1 only B) 2n + 1 OR 2n - 1 C) n + 1 OR n - 1 D) 2n - 1 only E) 2n + 1 OR n - 1 30) In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will ______. A) undergo plasmolysis B) pump out excess water C) burst D) become flaccid E) become turgid 31) The primary structure of a protein is ______. A) an helix or a pleated sheet B) the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain C) irregular folding D) composed of two or more polypeptide chains E) maintained by hydrogen bonds 32) An atom's protons are found in its ______. A) molecule B) shell C) orbital D) nucleus E) neutron

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33) If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______. A) need to manufacture more lysosomes B) become flaccid C) divide into two cells D) digest itself E) shrivel 34) ______ is a carcinogen that may promote colon cancer. A) Fat B) Estrogen C) A virus D) Testosterone E) UV light 35) Usually, enzymes are ______. A) fats B) phospholipids C) monosaccharides D) proteins E) steroids 36) Which of these is NOT a function of the plasma membrane? A) cell signaling B) attachment to the extracellular matrix C) cell-cell recognition D) enzymatic activity E) control center of the cell 37) What is the genetic complement of an individual with Turner syndrome? A) 4n B) 2n - 1 C) n + 1 D) n - 1 E) 2n + 1

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38) Sweating cools your body by ______. A) irradiation B) conduction C) evaporative cooling D) convection E) radiation

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39) Which of these is deductive testing? A) My car is too old to function properly. B) What is wrong with my car? C) My car will not start. D) If my car does not start and I recharge the battery then my car will start. E) My car's battery is dead. 40) Given the reaction: galactose + glucose A) monomer B) protein C) lipid D) polysaccharide E) polymer 41) Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely ______. A) result in the conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy B) result in cell death C) force the cell to rely on ADP for energy D) have no effect on the cell E) force the cell to rely on lipids for energy 42) Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane? A) fat synthesis B) protein synthesis C) regulation of the passage of material into and out of the cell D) control center of the cell E) intracellular digestion 43) The genetic material is duplicated during ______. A) G1 B) the mitotic phase C) G2 D) the S phase E) mitosis lactose + water, galactose is a ______.

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44) Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ______. A) nucleus and cell wall B) cell wall and central vacuole C) cell wall and contractile vacuole D) cell wall and ribosomes E) nucleus and contractile vacuole 45) An atom with an an electrical charge is a(n) ______. A) ion B) molecule C) radioisotope D) compound E) isotope 46) An atom with a positive charge has ______. A) more protons than neutrons B) more electrons than protons C) more protons than electrons D) more neutrons than protons E) equal numbers of proton, electrons, and neutrons 47) Most human cells contain ______ chromosomes. A) 18 B) 36 C) 46 D) 2 E) 23

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48) Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7; therefore it has ______ electrons in its outermost electron shell. A) 1 B) 5 C) 18 D) 10 E) 2

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49) Which of the following is NOT a health effect of a diet high in saturated fats? A) increased life span B) reduction of blood flow C) increased risk of atherosclerosis D) increased risk of stroke E) increased risk of heart attack

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50) A cell that completed the cell cycle WITHOUT undergoing cytokinesis would ______. A) be diploid B) be a prokaryotic cell C) have two nuclei D) be haploid E) not have completed anaphase 51) As a(n) ______ is to a cell, a(n) ______ is to a multicellular organism. A) cytoskeleton . . . brain B) nucleus . . . respiratory system C) cell junction . . . arm and leg D) lysosome . . . digestive system E) ribosome . . . digestive system 52) The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed in known as ______. A) entropy B) conservation of energy C) interconversion D) conservation of heat E) enthalpy 53) The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found within the ______. A) lysosome B) biome C) nucleus D) ecosystem E) cell membrane 54) How does inductive reasoning differ from deductive reasoning? A) Discovery science utilizes deductive reasoning, not inductive reasoning, to establish conclusions. B) Inductive reasoning is based on hypotheses, deductive reasoning is not. C) Inductive reasoning is based on experimentation, deductive reasoning is based on observation. D) Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general, whereas deductive reasoning involves going from the general to the specific. E) Deductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general, whereas inductive reasoning involves going from the general to the specific.

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55) Vacuoles are ______. A) manufactured by ribosomes B) membranous sacs C) composed of protein D) composed of microtubules E) found only in plant cells 56) Which of these is required for natural selection to occur? A) inheritance B) unequal reproductive success C) overreproduction D) individual variation E) all of these 57) Which of the following provides evidence that humans and bacteria share a common genetic code? A) A bacterial cell has a nucleus. B) Bacterial cells are about the same size as mitochondria. C) Bacteria contain DNA. D) Bacterial DNA is composed of the same four letters as human DNA. E) Bacteria are able to express human genes. 58) An uncharged atom of gold has an atomic number of 79 and an atomic mass of 197. This atom has ______ protons, ______ neutrons, and ______ electrons. A) 118 . . . 276 . . . 118 B) 79 . . . 118 . . . 79 C) 276 . . . 118 . . . 79 D) 79 . . . 276 . . . 79 E) 118 . . . 79 . . . 118 59) You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it must be a ______ cell. A) plant B) prokaryotic C) bacterial D) animal E) liver

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60) Why (if you are careful) are you able to float a needle on the surface of water? A) The polarity of individual water molecules makes this happen. B) A single needle is less dense than water. C) Water exhibits adhesive properties. D) The covalent bonds that hold a water molecule together are responsible for this ability. E) The surface tension that is a result of water's cohesive properties make this possible. 61) Crossing over during prophase I results in ______. A) translocation B) genetic recombination C) nondisjunction D) duplication E) reciprocal translocation 62) All of the people in your class form a ______. A) community B) organism C) ecosystem D) population E) tissue 63) Glucose molecules provide energy to power the swimming motion of sperm. In this example, the sperm are changing ______. A) chemical energy into potential energy B) kinetic energy into potential energy C) kinetic energy into chemical energy D) chemical energy into kinetic energy E) None of the choices are correct. 64) Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers. A) hydrocarbon B) 5-carbon ring C) nucleotide D) peptide E) amino acid

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65) The lower the pH of a solution, the ______. A) more basic the solution B) greater the number of oxygen atoms C) less toxic the solution D) higher the OH- concentration E) more acidic the solution 66) The difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells. A) have a plasma membrane, which is lacking in B) have DNA, which is lacking in C) have a nucleus, which is lacking in D) have a nucleoid region, which is lacking in E) lack the complexity seen in 67) Sugar dissolves when stirred into water. The sugar is the ______, the water is the ______, and the sweetened water is the ______. A) solvent . . . solute . . . solution B) solution . . . solvent . . . solute C) solution . . . solute . . . solvent D) solute . . . solvent . . . solution E) solvent . . . solution . . . solute 68) Given the reaction: K + Cl A) hypertonic B) hydrophobic C) hydrophilic D) ionic E) covalent 69) Humans are ______. A) ecosystems B) decomposers C) cells D) producers E) consumers
K+ + ClKCl, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together?

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70) Which of the following is a scientific conclusion based on knowing that humans and bacteria share a common genetic language? A) The cells of both humans and bacteria store their DNA in a nucleus. B) Humans and bacteria have the same number of genes. C) Bacteria will eventually develop into humans. D) The same genetic code was created for humans as for bacteria. E) Humans and bacteria share a common ancestor. 71) Which of these is a difference between DNA and RNA? A) DNA is found in the nucleus; RNA is never found in the nucleus. B) DNA consists of five different nucleotides; RNA consists of four different nucleotides. C) In DNA, adenine pairs with guanine; in RNA, adenine pairs with thymine. D) RNA is double-stranded; DNA is single-stranded. E) DNA contains thymine; RNA contains uracil. 72) What is a gene? A) a type of prokaryotic cell B) a type of eukaryotic cell C) an organelle that houses DNA D) a unit of heredity E) a type of animal cell 73) Humans, and other organisms that have mitochondria, convert approximately ______ of the energy stored in food to energy stored in ATP. A) 40% B) 99.9% C) 60% D) 80% E) 20%

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74) The chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are found in the ______. A) centriole B) Golgi apparatus C) nucleolus D) nucleus E) basal body

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75) If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand? A) GTCATGA B) CTACAGT C) AGTACTG D) GACGTCA E) TCATGAC 76) Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. How many covalent bonds can sulfur form? A) 3 B) 1 C) 0 D) 2 E) 4

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77) Lysosomes are responsible for ______. A) intracellular digestion B) cellular respiration C) protein synthesis D) photosynthesis E) lipid synthesis 78) A balloon permeable to water but not to glucose contains a 10% glucose solution. A beaker contains a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is true? A) The solution in the beaker is hypertonic relative to the solution in the balloon. B) The solution in the balloon is hypertonic relative to the solution in the beaker. C) The solution in the balloon is isotonic; the solution in the beaker is hypertonic. D) When placed in the beaker, the balloon will experience neither a net gain nor a net loss of water. E) When placed in the beaker, the balloon will lose water by osmosis. 79) Which component of the following reaction is the substrate? lactose + lactase + water lactase + glucose + fructose A) fructose B) lactose C) lactase D) glucose E) There is no substrate in this reaction.

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80) The nuclear envelope is composed of ______. A) genes B) carbohydrates C) a double membrane D) DNA E) a single membrane 81) Upon completion of telophase I and cytokinesis there is(are) ______ cell(s). A) two haploid B) four diploid C) two diploid D) one diploid E) four haploid 82) Which of the following elements is NOT one of the four most common elements in living systems? A) hydrogen B) oxygen C) nitrogen D) carbon E) zinc

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83) The consumption of sugar is a major cause of ______. A) rheumatoid arthritis B) tooth decay C) gout D) cancer E) acne 84) What theory states that all living things are composed of cells? A) Mendel's law B) cell theory C) evolutionary theory D) law of thermodynamics E) Hooke's rule 85) The correct sequence of the stages of the cell cycle is ______. A) metaphase, interphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase B) prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase C) interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase D) telophase, prophase, interphase, anaphase, metaphase E) anaphase, interphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase

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86) What name is given to substances that resist changes in pH? A) acids B) bases C) buffers D) salt E) sugar

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87) Which of the following energy transfers is(are) possible in living systems? A) light energy to potential energy B) chemical energy to kinetic energy C) potential energy to kinetic energy D) light energy to chemical energy E) All of the choices are correct. 88) A bacterial cell's DNA is found in its ______. A) capsule B) nucleus C) nucleoid region D) ribosomes E) peroxisome 89) ______ represent sites of crossing over. A) Chiasma B) Synapses C) Centromeres D) Tetrads E) Centrosomes 90) For a species with four pairs of chromosomes, how many gametic combinations are possible? A) 8 B) 2 C) 20 D) 4 E) 16

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91) In contrast to other organelles, BOTH chloroplasts and mitochondria are ______. A) not bounded by membrane B) surrounded by two membranes C) smaller than the nucleus D) green E) manufactured by the nucleolus

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92) A duplicated chromosome consists of two ______. A) genes B) centrosomes C) chromatins D) chromatids E) centromeres 93) Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment ______. A) is hypertonic to the protozoan B) contains a higher concentration of solutes than the protozoan C) is hypotonic to the protozoan D) is isotonic to the protozoan E) None of the choices are correct. 94) Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by ______. A) increasing the temperature of the substrates B) decreasing activation energy C) changing the pH of the substrates D) contributing electrons to the reaction E) contributing water to the reaction 95) Which domain(s) consist(s) of prokaryotic cells? A) Archaea and Eukarya B) Bacteria and Archaea C) Archaea only D) Eukarya only E) Bacteria only 96) During which stage of the cell cycle does cytokinesis usually occur? A) telophase B) interphase C) metaphase D) prophase E) anaphase

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97) What name is given to the following reaction? galactose + glucose A) hydrogenation B) dehydration synthesis C) gluconeogenesis D) glycolysis E) hydrolysis

lactose + water

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98) What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons? A) ionic B) van der Waals C) covalent D) hydrogen E) isotonic 99) Which of the following is NOT a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? A) barbiturate detoxification B) amphetamine detoxification C) lipid synthesis D) steroid synthesis E) protein synthesis 100) A ______ is an example of a unicellular organism. A) protist B) fish C) human D) cat E) pine tree

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101) Destruction of a protein's shape is called ______. A) anabolism B) hydrogenation C) dehydration synthesis D) denaturation E) hydrolysis 102) The bond between oppositely charged ions is a(n) ______ bond. A) covalent B) isotonic C) polar covalent D) ionic E) hydrogen 19

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103) Which of the following is an organ system? A) plasma B) seminal vesicle C) brain D) reproductive E) heart 104) The cell cycle results in the production of ______ A) a diploid zygote B) four haploid cells, each with the same amount of genetic material but with different genetic information C) two diploid cells, each with the same amount of genetic material and the same genetic information D) four diploid cells, each with the same amount of genetic material and the same genetic information E) two diploid cells, each with the same amount of genetic material but with different genetic information 105) The energy required to initiate an exergonic reaction is called the ______. A) endergonic energy B) exergonic energy C) energy of activation D) hydrolytic energy E) nothing: Spontaneous reactions do not require an input of energy 106) During metaphase I, ______. A) tetrads form and crossing over occurs B) tetrads line up on the midline of the cell C) sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles D) the nuclear envelope breaks up E) centrosomes migrate to opposite poles 107) What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system? A) Tissues are not composed of cells; organ systems are composed of cells. B) Tissues are not considered to be living; organ systems are considered to be living. C) An organ system includes tissues. D) A tissue cannot exist unless it is a component of an organ system, whereas an organ system can exist independently of tissues. E) The tissue level of organization is more inclusive than the organ system level. 20

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108) What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons? A) 12 B) 8 C) +1 D) 6 E) 18

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109) You are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result, ______. A) your cells lyse, due to the excessive intake of salt B) you dehydrate yourself C) your cells become turgid D) you quench your thirst E) None of the choices are correct. 110) A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______. A) isotonic to its environment B) hypertonic to its environment C) hypotonic to its environment D) metabolically inactive E) dead 111) Given the equation: galactose + glucose A) disaccharide B) fatty acid C) dipeptide D) nucleic acid E) polypeptide 112) Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion? A) diffusion B) passive transport C) endocytosis D) exocytosis E) pinocytosis lactose + water, lactose is a ______.

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113) What will happen if you do NOT (properly) finish your antibiotic prescription? A) You will promote the evolution of bacteria resistant to that antibiotic. B) You will become sick again within one or two weeks. C) You will become immune to that antibiotic. D) You will save money by saving the pills for future use. E) Nothing will happen. 114) About half of all known species are ______. A) plants B) animals C) fish D) vertebrates E) insects 115) Geological evidence indicates that Earth formed about ______ years ago. A) 8.3 million B) 3.6 billion C) 156 million D) 500,000 E) 4.5 billion 116) In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell will ______. A) experience turgor B) lyse C) shrivel D) neither gain nor lose water E) lose water 117) What name is given to the functional compartments of a cell? A) lysosomes B) nuclei C) mitochondria D) organelles E) chloroplasts 118) Which of the following is LOWEST in unsaturated fats? A) trout B) beef C) potato D) pumpkin E) salmon

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119) Relative to a pH of 6, a pH of 4 has a ______. A) 200 times higher H+ concentration B) 100 times higher H+ concentration C) 20 times higher H+ concentration D) 100 times lower H+ concentration E) 20 times lower H+ concentration 120) In a DNA double helix, adenine is always paired with ______. A) itself B) guanine C) thymine D) uracil E) cytosine

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121) ______ code for the structure of proteins. A) Genes B) Phospholipids C) Endoplasmic reticula D) Lysosomes E) Ribosomes 122) Which of these is NOT a component of meiosis? A) independent orientation of chromosomes B) random fertilization C) pairing of homologous chromosomes D) the production of gametes E) crossing over 123) Which of the following is hydrophilic? A) butter B) polyunsaturated fatty acids C) testosterone D) cholesterol E) cellulose 124) Genetic variation is NOT increased by ______. A) crossing over B) the events of prophase I C) random fertilization D) independent assortment E) the events of anaphase II

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125) Microtubules are a component of ______. A) the cytoskeleton B) basal bodies C) centrioles D) cilia E) flagella 126) Which one of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings? A) active transport B) osmosis C) facilitated diffusion D) plasmolysis E) diffusion 127) Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called ______. A) competition B) inhibition C) selective permeability D) signal transduction E) self-recognition 128) The level of the classification of life that is MORE inclusive than the kingdom is the ______. A) phylum B) class C) family D) domain E) order

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129) Which of these events occurs during anaphase? A) tetrads form B) nucleoli reappear C) centromeres divide D) cytokinesis E) chromosomes align on the midline of the cell

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130) You decide that you want to die of cancer. Which of these will help you achieve your goal? A) don't smoke B) exercise C) avoid overexposure to the sun D) eat a high-fiber, low-fat diet E) avoid colonoscopies 131) Why is water considered a polar molecule? A) Both hydrogens are at one end of the molecule and oxygen is at the other end. B) It remains liquid even at very low temperatures. C) Its electrons spend more time with its oxygen than with either hydrogen. D) The oxygen is found between the two hydrogens. E) The negatively charged oxygen atom attracts the positively charged hydrogen atoms. 132) How much genetic material is present in a cell during prophase I compared with a cell that has completed meiosis II? A) four times as much B) one-half as much C) one-quarter as much D) twice as much E) the same amount 133) Which of the following are isomers? A) sucrose and glucose B) sucrose and lactose C) lactose and maltose D) glucose and sucrose E) glucose and fructose 134) Which of the following occurs during prophase? A) chromosomes line up on the midline of the cell B) nucleoli reappear C) sister chromatids separate D) the mitotic spindle begins to form E) cytokinesis

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135) The branch of biology that explains both the diversity and the unity of life is ______. A) evolution B) taxonomy C) physiology D) microbiology E) genetics 136) Which of these is NOT a component of the endomembrane system? A) mitochondria B) Golgi apparatus C) nuclear envelope D) endoplasmic reticulum E) transport vesicles 137) If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference? A) the relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall B) the fact that plant cells are isotonic to tap water C) the relative impermeability of the plant cell membrane to water D) expulsion of water by the plant cell's central vacuole E) the relative impermeability of the plant cell wall to water 138) During prophase I, the pairing of homologous chromosomes results in the formation of a ______. A) zygote B) chromatid C) centrosome D) tetrad E) cell plate 139) Which of the following is NOT a component of the endomembrane system? A) ribosome B) vacuole C) endoplasmic reticulum D) Golgi apparatus E) lysosome

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140) Genes are carried on ______. A) chromosomes B) chiasma C) centrosomes D) centromeres E) nuclei 141) Archaea are composed of ______ cells. A) plant B) prokaryotic C) animal D) bacterial E) eukaryotic 142) The act of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is ______. A) osmosis B) pinocytosis C) receptor-mediated endocytosis D) diffusion E) phagocytosis 143) During telophase ______. A) the events of prophase are reversed B) sister chromatids separate C) the genetic material doubles D) tetrads form E) chromosomes line up on the midline of the cell 144) A DNA molecule is composed of complementary strands of ______. A) nucleotides B) phosphates C) adenines D) guanines E) sugars

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145) Isotopes of an element have the same number of ______ and different numbers of ______. A) neutrons . . . protons B) neutrons . . . electrons C) protons . . . neutrons D) electrons . . . protons E) protons . . . electrons 146) Active transport ______. A) can move solutes against their concentration gradient B) uses ATP as an energy source C) requires the cell to expend energy D) can involve the transport of ions E) All of the choices are correct. 147) A protein's function is dependent on its ______. A) shape B) temperature C) size D) weight E) pH 148) What is the ULTIMATE reason for the similarity seen between the pygmy sea horse and the coral found in its habitat? A) The more similar the pygmy sea horse is to the coral, the harder it is for predators to find the pygmy sea horse. B) The more similar the pygmy sea horse is to the coral, the more food the pygmy sea horse is able to obtain. C) Such similarity makes it more difficult to see the coral. D) The more similar the pygmy sea horse is to the coral, the higher the pygmy sea horse's reproductive success. E) Such similarity makes it more difficult to see the pygmy sea horse. 149) Chromosomes that do not determine sex are called ______. A) sister chromatids B) centromeres C) transposons D) polysomes E) autosomes

145)

146)

147)

148)

149)

28

150) In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane? A) cytosol B) phospholipid bilayer C) gene D) nucleoplasm E) cytoplasm 151) What are nucleosomes made of? A) DNA and nonhistone proteins B) DNA wrapped around histone proteins C) intertwined RNA and DNA D) RNA and protein E) DNA and RNA polymerase 152) Which of the following is NOT a stage of mitosis? A) interphase B) prophase C) telophase D) anaphase E) metaphase 153) Which of these processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient? A) passive transport B) facilitated diffusion C) diffusion D) osmosis E) active transport 154) What compound directly provides energy for cellular work? A) DNA B) fat C) rubisco D) ATP E) C6 H12O6

150)

151)

152)

153)

154)

155) Which one of the following is true? A) Enzymes catalyze specific reactions. B) Most enzymes are lipids. C) An enzyme's function requires inhibitors. D) An enzyme's function is unaffected by antibiotics. E) Enzymes are the reactants in a chemical reaction. 29

155)

156) An enzyme's function is dependent on its ______. A) shape B) pH C) temperature D) size E) weight 157) Beryllium's atomic mass is 9 and its atomic number is 4. How many neutrons are found in a beryllium atom? A) 4 B) 2 C) 13 D) 9 E) 5

156)

157)

158) What name is given to the following reaction? glycerol + fatty acid A) hydrolysis B) dehydration synthesis C) denaturation D) catabolism E) hydrogenation

monoglyceride + water

158)

159) A single carbon atom can form a maximum of ______ covalent bond(s). A) none; carbon only participates in ionic bonds B) 1 C) 3 D) 4 E) 2 160) Which of these is most closely associated with Darwin? A) genetic code B) cell theory C) DNA structure D) natural selection E) ecosystem structure

159)

160)

30

161) Which of the following was most abundant in Earth's first atmosphere? A) N2 gas B) H2 S gas C) CO2 gas D) H2 gas E) H2 O vapor 162) What name is given to the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes? A) endoplasmic reticulum B) chromosome C) nucleolus D) nucleus E) cytoplasm 163) Which of the following elements, essential to life, is a trace element? A) calcium B) iodine C) sulfur D) hydrogen E) phosphorus 164) Structural proteins ______. A) respond to environmental changes B) include hemoglobin C) anchor cell parts D) include receptor molecules E) bond to hormones 165) Which of these is an amino group? A) –COOH 166) As water cools ______. A) its atoms move farther apart B) it loses its polarity C) it absorbs energy from the surrounding environment D) it cools the surrounding environment E) its hydrogen bonds break apart 31 B) –SH C) –NH2 D) –C=O E) –OH

161)

162)

163)

164)

165)

166)

167) Sometimes when I have my morning coffee, which I drink black with no sugar, I notice a thin film floating on top of the coffee. Since I have just read Chapter 3 of the text I now realize the nature of this substance and so I run to my wife screaming, "Look at this ______ in my coffee!" A) nucleotide B) hydrophilic substance C) hydrophobic substance D) hydrocarbon E) enzyme 168) Genetically, human ______. A) children are more closely related to their mother than to their father B) females are more closely related to their father than to their mother C) males are more closely related to their father than to their mother D) children are equally related to both parents E) females are more closely related to their mother than are males 169) In a scientific experiment, what is the function of the control group? A) The control group is the sample that is subjected to the factor whose effect is being tested B) The control group is required for the validity of discovery science. C) The control group serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group. D) The control group allows for the simultaneous testing of multiple factors. E) The control group serves to increase the sample size of the experiment. 170) Humans are composed of ______ cells. A) eubacterial B) bacterial C) eukaryotic D) archaeal E) prokaryotic 171) What is a hypothesis? A) a fact B) a theory C) an observation D) a tentative explanation E) a guess

167)

168)

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32

172) It is significant that ______ is not mentioned as having been abundant in either Earth's first or second primitive atmosphere. A) ammonia B) carbon monoxide C) carbon dioxide D) methane E) oxygen gas 173) Unequal reproductive success ______. A) is natural selection B) does not affect the frequency of expression of traits in succeeding generations of a population C) always decreases the size of a population D) leads to a population being less well adapted to its environment E) increases variation 174) The types of cell junctions found in plant cells are called ______. A) desmosomes B) plasmodesmata C) communicating junctions D) tight junctions E) anchoring junctions 175) ______ is an example of an element. A) Water 176) What is biology? A) the study of genetics B) the study of the environment C) DNA fingerprinting D) the study of biomes E) the study of life 177) A hormone destined for secretion from the cell would be manufactured by ribosomes ______. A) attached to the endoplasmic reticulum B) suspended in the nucleoplasm C) attached to the plasma membrane D) suspended in the cytosol E) attached to the Golgi apparatus 33 B) Glucose C) Methane D) Salt E) Carbon

172)

173)

174)

175)

176)

177)

178) Enzymes are ______. A) steroids B) phospholipids C) monosaccharides D) proteins E) fats 179) When a base is added to a buffered solution, the buffer will ______. A) accept H+ ions B) form covalent bonds with the base C) donate H+ ions D) donate OH- ions E) accept water molecules 180) Photosynthesis converts ______. A) carbon dioxide and oxygen into glucose B) stored energy into motion energy C) kinetic energy into potential energy D) energy stored in organic compounds into energy stored in inorganic compounds E) glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP 181) Why, when mixed with water, do phospholipids spontaneously form membranes? A) Phospholipids are capable of violating the second law of thermodynamics. B) Phospholipids do not spontaneously form membranes when mixed with water. C) Phospholipids have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to their hydrophobic fatty acid tails. D) Phospholipids have hydrophilic fatty acid tails that are attracted to water and hydrophobic phosphate groups that avoid water. E) Phospholipids have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water. 182) Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ______ and moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient. A) energy and transport proteins . . . down B) transport proteins . . . down C) energy . . . down D) transport proteins . . . against E) energy and transport proteins . . . against

178)

179)

180)

181)

182)

34

183) In the reaction A

B + C + heat, ______.

183)

A) entropy has decreased B) there is a net input of energy C) the potential energy of the products is the same as that of the reactant D) the potential energy of the products is greater than that of the reactant E) the potential energy of the products is less than that of the reactant 184) When using a light microscope to view a cell you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cell lacks a nucleus; therefore, you conclude that the cell must be a type of ______ cell. A) animal B) plant C) fungal D) prokaryotic E) eukaryotic 185) The linear sequence of monomers in a polypeptide chain is referred to as its ______ structure. A) secondary B) quaternary C) primary D) pentamerous E) tertiary 186) Which of the following is a measure of disorder? A) entropy B) respiration C) conservation of energy D) kinetic energy E) potential energy 187) ______ are the major lipids of plasma membranes. A) Phospholipids B) Mosaics C) Steroids D) Prostaglandins E) Triglycerides 187) 186) 185) 184)

35

188) A rock on the top of a mountain contains ______ energy. A) kinetic B) potential C) motion D) no E) conserved

188)

189) Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ______. A) stored in food to energy stored in ATP B) stored in ATP to energy used to do work C) of sunlight to energy stored in inorganic compounds D) stored in ATP to energy stored in food E) of sunlight to energy stored in organic compounds 190) What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus? A) lysosomes B) transport vesicles C) ribosomes D) nucleosomes E) peroxisomes 191) A friend of yours appears to have put on a lot of muscle very quickly, and at the same time you notice that your friend has become very irritable and depressed. It is reasonable for you to suspect that your friend has begun to take ______. A) protein powder B) creatine C) an anabolic steroid D) amino acid supplements E) ephedra 192) How do members of kingdom Plantae differ from members of the other kingdoms of Eukarya? A) Most members of the Plantae are unicellular. B) Most members of the Plantae obtain food by ingestion. C) Most members of the Plantae are consumers. D) Most members of the Plantae are decomposers. E) Most members of the Plantae produce their own food.

189)

190)

191)

192)

36

193) What feature is common to prokaryotes, fungi, and plants? A) at one time, membership in the kingdom Monera B) cell walls C) photosynthesis D) a nucleus E) single cells 194) What name is given to the following reaction? sucrose + water A) hydrolysis B) dehydration synthesis C) glucogenesis D) anabolism E) denaturation 195) Both mitosis and meiosis are preceded by ______. A) prophase B) telophase C) interphase D) metaphase E) anaphase 196) The tendency of molecules to stick together is called ______. A) cohesion B) bonding C) adhesion D) interactivity E) polarity 197) Which component of the following reaction is the enzyme? lactose + lactase + water lactase + glucose + fructose A) fructose B) water C) glucose D) lactase E) lactose

193)

glucose + fructose

194)

195)

196)

197)

37

198) Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity are accounted for by its ______. A) size B) mass C) hydrogen bonds D) orbitals E) weight 199) Chromatin consists of ______. A) DNA only B) RNA only C) DNA and protein D) RNA and protein E) protein only 200) Which component of the following reaction is the enzyme? lactose + lactase + water lactase + glucose + fructose A) water B) fructose C) lactose D) glucose E) lactase

198)

199)

200)

201) What is the name given to the reaction that breaks peptide bonds? A) denaturation B) hydrolysis C) dehydration synthesis D) anabolism E) hydrogenation 202) During metaphase ______. A) chromosomes line up on the midline of the cell B) centromeres divide C) cytokinesis occurs D) tetrads form E) the nuclear envelope breaks up 203) ______ is a steroid. A) Butter B) Maltose C) Monounsaturated fat D) Estrogen E) Amino acid 38

201)

202)

203)

204) A hydrogen atom has 1 electron. How many bonds can hydrogen form? A) 1 205) What is energy? A) the capacity to do work B) a measure of calories C) a measure of disorder D) metabolism E) the capacity to cause movement 206) Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus? A) intracellular digestion B) protein synthesis C) cellular respiration D) protein modification E) drug detoxification 207) Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells. A) lung B) liver C) brain D) muscle E) intestinal B) 4 C) 5 D) 3 E) 2

204)

205)

206)

207)

208) What type of microscope would be best for studying the structure of a plasma membrane? A) transmission electron microscope B) scanning electron microscope C) TEM D) light microscope E) phase contrast microscope 209) Cellulose is an example of a ______. A) steroid B) fat C) nucleic acid D) polypeptide E) fiber

208)

209)

39

210) What is taxonomy? A) the study of organisms and their interaction with the environment B) the study of natural selection C) the study of cells D) the naming and classifying of species E) the study of genetics 211) Which of the following is the best description of the events of anaphase I? A) Sister chromatids separate and the daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite poles. B) Sister chromatids separate and those inherited from the mother migrate to one pole and those inherited from the father go to the opposite pole. C) Half of the chromosomes inherited from the mother go to one pole along with half of the chromosomes inherited from the father. D) Homologous chromosomes separate and migrate to opposite poles; which homologue goes to which pole is random. E) All of the chromosomes inherited from the mother go to one pole of the cell and all of the chromosomes inherited from the father go to the other pole. 212) Human body cells are approximately ______ water. A) 95% to 99% B) 55% C) 25% to 35% D) 10% to 25% E) 70% to 95% 213) Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by ______. A) osmosis B) pinocytosis C) passive transport D) active transport E) phagocytosis 214) The aspect of biology that unites all of the diverse fields of biology as a single science is ______. A) evolution B) ecology C) microbiology D) genetics E) histology

210)

211)

212)

213)

214)

40

215) Fatty acids are ______. A) composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio B) nonpolar C) components of DNA D) composed of carbon, hydrogen, glycerol, and a phosphate group E) composed of four linked rings 216) The second electron shell of an atom can hold a maximum of ______ electron(s). A) 6 B) 8 C) 3 D) 1 E) 2

215)

216)

217) Osmosis can be defined as ______. A) active transport B) the diffusion of water C) the diffusion of nonpolar molecules D) the diffusion of a solute E) endocytosis 218) By definition, what type of fatty acid has double bonds? A) monoglyceride B) unsaturated C) saturated D) triglyceride E) steroid 219) In eukaryotic cells, organelles are suspended within the ______. A) gene B) nucleoplasm C) cytosol D) cytoplasm E) phospholipid bilayer 220) Which of the following events of prophase I do NOT occur during prophase II? A) nucleoli disappear B) tetrads form C) chromatin condenses D) nuclear envelope breaks up E) spindle formation

217)

218)

219)

220)

41

221) What is the sex chromosome complement of a normal human male? A) XX B) XO C) YO D) XXY E) XY

221)

222) Which of these statements is correct? A) In science, hypotheses need not be testable. B) Scientific ideas are subjected to rigorous and repeated testing. C) Science does not require verifiable observations. D) Science and religion are equally valid explanations of natural phenomena. E) In science there are absolute truths. 223) A fat that is hydrogenated is ______. A) more unsaturated B) less likely to cause strokes C) likely to go bad faster D) harder to spread on bread E) more solid 224) Which of these pairings would you expect to have the most similar DNA sequences? A) insects - earthworms B) cats - dogs C) humans - chimpanzees D) cats - mice E) humans - mice 225) Carbohydrates are defined as ______. A) being made of C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio B) a 5-carbon ring C) having a PO4 group D) having an NH2 group E) a hydrocarbon chain 226) The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by ______ bonds. A) covalent B) osmotic C) hydrogen D) ionic E) hydrolytic

222)

223)

224)

225)

226)

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227) What is the difference between a benign and a malignant tumor? A) Benign tumors cannot kill you; malignant tumors can. B) Benign tumors are not the result of a failure of a cell-cycle control system; malignant tumors are. C) Benign tumors do not metastasize; malignant tumors do. D) Benign tumors are composed of cancer cells; malignant tumors are not. E) Benign tumors are classified as sarcomas; malignant tumors are leukemias. 228) Which of the following does NOT occur during interphase? A) protein synthesis B) chromatin becomes tightly coiled C) replication of organelles D) DNA synthesis E) cell growth 229) In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a(an) ______ bond. A) nonpolar covalent B) polar covalent C) ionic D) hydrogen E) double covalent 230) The two basic types of cells are ______ and ______. A) prokaryotic . . . eukaryotic B) bacterial . . . animal C) bacterial . . . protist D) plant . . . animal E) nerves . . . muscles 231) How does RNA differ from DNA? A) In RNA G pairs with T; in DNA G pairs with C. B) RNA is a polymer of amino acids; DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. C) RNA contains uracil; DNA contains thymine. D) RNA contains one less -OH than does DNA. E) RNA is double-stranded; DNA is single-stranded.

227)

228)

229)

230)

231)

43

232) Which one of the following is NOT true? A) An enzyme's function depends on its three-dimensional shape. B) Enzymes are very specific for certain substrates. C) Enzymes are used up in chemical reactions. D) Enzymes emerge unchanged from the reactions they catalyze. E) An enzyme binds to its substrate at the enzyme's active site. 233) The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as ______. A) adhesion B) cohesion C) polarity D) transpiration E) evaporation 234) Which of these would NOT be a valid hypothesis? A) Humans are composed of archeal cells. B) Humans are animals. C) Humans were created by a deity. D) Humans are plants. E) Humans and bacteria share a common genetic code. 235) What name is given to the type of cell junctions found in plants? A) intercalated disks B) gap junctions C) plasmodesmata D) adhering junctions E) tight junctions 236) Which of the following organelles is NOT defined by a membrane? A) lysosome B) endoplasmic reticulum C) ribosome D) Golgi apparatus E) chloroplast

232)

233)

234)

235)

236)

44

237) How do radioactive isotopes differ from isotopes? A) Radioactive isotopes have more neutrons than do isotopes. B) Radioactive isotopes are stable; isotopes are unstable. C) Radioactive isotopes are unstable; isotopes are stable. D) They are atoms of different elements. E) Radioactive isotopes have fewer neutrons than do isotopes. 238) Skin cancer is a type of ______. A) lymphoma B) leukemia C) sarcoma D) chondrosarcoma E) carcinoma 239) Which of the following is NOT recycled? A) energy B) nitrogen C) carbon D) sodium E) magnesium 240) Where does protein synthesis take place? A) in the nucleolus B) in the Golgi apparatus C) on smooth endoplasmic reticulum D) in the nucleus E) on ribosomes 241) Which of the following is true with regard to a DNA molecule? A) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine. B) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of guanine, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of cytosine. C) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of guanine, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of uracil. D) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of uracil. E) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of cytosine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of thymine. 45

237)

238)

239)

240)

241)

242) Sister chromatids are joined at the ______. A) spindle B) centriole C) chromatin D) centromere E) centrosome 243) The type of bonds joining adjacent water molecules are ______ bonds. A) ionic B) polar and covalent C) trivalent D) covalent only E) hydrogen 244) All of the organisms and nonliving components of a particular environment are referred to as a(n) ______. A) population B) community C) cell D) ecosystem E) biome 245) A karyotype would be unable to determine ______. A) sex B) eye color C) polyploidy D) Down syndrome E) Turner syndrome 246) All atoms of an element have the same number of ______. A) electrons plus neutrons B) electrons C) protons plus neutrons D) neutrons E) protons 247) The human genome consists of about ______ chemical letters. A) 3.2 billion B) 1.2 billion C) 120,000 46 D) 3.2 million E) 1.2 million

242)

243)

244)

245)

246)

247)

248) Which of the following kingdoms of Eukarya consists primarily of unicellular organisms? A) Animalia B) Monera C) Fungi D) Protista E) Plantae

248)

249) Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide? A) glucose B) fructose C) maltose D) sucrose E) starch

249)

250) Why would you expect tobacco smokers (and those exposed to tobacco smoke) to be at greater risk of an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy? A) Tobacco smokers tend to get pregnant when they are younger. B) Tobacco causes the cilia to grow to be very long and block movement through the Fallopian tubes. C) Tobacco interferes with the transfer of oxygen to the uterus, thereby forcing the zygote to implant in a Fallopian tube. D) Tobacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus. E) Tobacco interferes with the functioning of the flagella propelling sperm. 251) When water dissociates, what is transferred from one water molecule to form a hydronium ion? A) H3 O+ B) a hydrogen atom C) H2 O D) a hydrogen ion E) OH252) Which of the following is a producer? A) cat B) dog C) house plant D) earthworm E) Sun 253) A ______ is an example of an organism that can reproduce asexually. A) cat B) human C) dog D) philodendron E) mouse

250)

251)

252)

253)

47

254) ______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking. A) Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis B) Cell pumping . . . endocytosis C) Active transport . . . diffusion D) Endocytosis . . . exocytosis E) Diffusion . . . receptor-mediated endocytosis 255) A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______. A) in a marine environment B) in fresh water C) in estuarine water D) within the cells of another organism E) on land 256) How many oxygen atoms are in the product(s) of the following reaction? C6H12O6 + 6 H2 O + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 12 H2 O A) 12 B) 2 C) 24 D) 6 E) 18

254)

255)

256)

257) The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ______. A) nucleoli B) ribosomes C) ATP D) chromatin E) nucleoplasm 258) How does prophase I differ from prophase II? A) During prophase I the nuclear envelope breaks up; during prophase II the nuclear envelope remains intact. B) During prophase I chromatin condenses; chromatin does not condense during prophase II. C) During prophase I there is one diploid cell; during prophase II there are two haploid cells. D) Tetrads do not form during prophase I; tetrads form during prophase II. E) During prophase I chromosomes line up single file on the midline of the cell; during prophase II the chromosomes line up in double file on the midline of the cell.

257)

258)

48

259) Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis? A) mitochondrion B) chloroplast C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum D) granum E) cristae 260) Which of the following pairs is most closely related? A) dog - cat B) human - chimpanzee C) bird - squirrel D) alligator - bird E) goldfish - shark 261) Asexual reproduction requires ______ individual(s). A) 2 B) 0 C) 3 D) 1 E) 4

259)

260)

261)

262) Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via ______. A) rER B) ATP C) DNA D) RNA E) sER

262)

263) Animals store carbohydrates as ______. A) cellulose B) starch C) glucose D) maltose E) glycogen

263)

264) Which of the following is an acid? A) NaCl B) H2 SO4 C) H2 O D) CH4 E) NaOH

264)

265) One centimeter = ______ millimeters. A) 1,000 B) 0.10 C) 0.01 D) 100 E) 10

265)

266) Which of the following is NOT a nucleotide found in DNA? A) thymine B) guanine C) adenine D) uracil E) cytosine

266)

267) Discovery science is primarily based on ______. A) theory B) observation C) experimentation D) hypothesis testing E) deduction 49

267)

268) Relative to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells are ______. A) larger and equally complex B) smaller and equally complex C) larger and more complex D) smaller and more complex E) smaller and simpler 269) How do hypotheses differ from theories? A) Theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses. B) Theories must be testable; hypotheses do not need to be testable. C) Hypotheses are educated guesses and theories are tentative explanations. D) Hypotheses are more generally stated than theories. E) Hypotheses are derived by experimentation; theories are derived from observation.

268)

269)

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