Advanced Fluid Characterization
Hydrocarbon identification and analysis using NMR
When hydrocarbon viscosity is varying or unknown.3 Oil saturation (%): 45. The station log measurement can be made using any CMR tool. Viscosity can vary by orders of magnitude. The direct. Example of real-time MRF analysis performed at the wellsite. low-contrast pay and thin beds
Residual oil saturation in water-based muds Residual water saturation in oil-based muds Mobility calibration for MDT* Modular Formation Dynamics Tester
What is the MRF method?
The MRF* Magnetic Resonance Fluid characterization method is a patented technique for direct identification and analysis of hydrocarbons.
When is an MRF analysis needed?
Viscosity. fluid volumes and oil viscosities. dipping.0 Oil viscosity (cp): 6.0 OBMF saturation (%): 0. pay intervals can be identified even in zones with low resistivity.
Improved reserves estimates and increased reserves from location of bypassed pay Optimized well completions Worldwide availability using any standard CMR* Combinable Magnetic Resonance tool Real-time answers from automated wellsite inversion Independent analysis without need for resistivity measurements.
Determination of fluid storage volume based on lithologyindependent total porosity Quantification of pay based on oil.4
0.05 0. greatly influences a well’s producing capability.9 Temperature (°C): 24.04 0. Rw or Archie parameters
Water porosity (%): 17.7 Oil T2LM (ms): 180 Bound water φ (%): 2. gas and water saturation Oil mobility determination based on in-situ oil viscosity Producibility calculation using hydrocarbon-corrected bound-water volume and permeability Oil viscosity versus depth mapping for perforation and completion design Direct hydrocarbon detection
Fresh.3 Water T2LM (ms): 48. thin or laminated beds that affect resistivity tools and unknown or varying water resistivity.01 0 0.09 0.02 0. Using direct hydrocarbon characterization.1
Gas porosity (%): 0. where Archie resistivity analysis is difficult. Lithologyindependent formation porosity and separate T2 distributions for brine and oil are also extracted.0 Gas saturation (%): 0. A modified CMR-Plus* tool is required for the fast 3-min data acquisition.8 Free water φ (%): 14.1 1. and in many parts of the world it determines zonal production rates to a much greater extent than formation permeability.6
Oil porosity (%): 14. The MRF method can overcome problems associated with Archie analysis. This real-time analysis improves prediction of the well’s producing capability and is vital for completion decisions.3 Permeability (mD): 1652.000 10.0 TCMR porosity (%): 31.08 0. like permeability. unknown or varying formation water resistivities Low-resistivity.0 Water saturation (%): 54.07 0. The MRF technique integrates downhole data acquisition and wellsite inversion with a multifluid response model to determine fluid saturations. such as varying cementation exponent.243
OBMF porosity (%): 0.0 10 100 1.6 T1/T2 ratio: 1. special tools or modifications are not necessary. the MRF method can provide the answers you need.06 Signal amplitude 0. user-friendly analysis provides a comprehensive formation evaluation of the near-wellbore region and includes quality control indicators.03 0.000 Oil T2 distribution Water T2 distribution Water T2 log mean Oil T2 log mean
Automated 3-min acquisition integrated with wellsite inversion Constituent Viscosity Model (CVM) based on fundamental physics Measurement without radioactive source
T2 relaxation time (ms)
. This method also overcomes incorrect permeability calculations caused by hydrocarbon effects. MRF technology can also provide solutions in fresh or varying formation waters. Hydrocarboncorrected bound-water volume and permeability are computed from the T2 distributions.
Figure 2. The CVM has been empirically validated for both live and dead crude oils. The same result occurs with the diffusion rates. At the macroscopic level. Hydrocarbon molecule relaxation rates and diffusion coefficients are related to the molecule size. individual T2 values in the mixture differ from those of the constituent pure fluids. the CVM properly accounts for the broad diffusivity and T2 spectra of bulk crude oils. As a result of the high viscosity. Constituent viscosity is a phenomenological link between the T2 relaxation and the diffusion coefficient of each molecular species in a hydrocarbon mixture. A mixture containing both smalland large-molecule fluids exhibits one T2 value for the small molecules and another for the large molecules. large molecules have short T2 times. Small or light-end member molecules move quickly. The CVM relates the T2 and diffusion properties of mixtures to molecular composition.
Large hydrocarbon molecule slow rotation leads to slow diffusion
Small hydrocarbon molecule fast rotation leads to fast diffusion
Mixture of C6 and C30 Pure C30 Amplitude Pure C6
10–5 Diffusivity (cm /s)
.How does the MRF analysis work?
Small or light-end hydrocarbon molecules move at rapid rotational and translational velocities as a result of thermally induced Brownian motion. The fluid can be represented as a narrow peak in the T2 and diffusion spectra. However. The bulk viscosity observed with a viscometer reflects the broad distribution of microscopic or constituent viscosities. With their wide range of molecular sizes. heavier long-chain molecules move more slowly. Fast molecular motions result in low fluid viscosity. This slow molecular motion results in a low diffusion coefficient for the fluid and a high viscosity value. crude oils have a broad distribution of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times and molecular diffusion coefficients. a single viscosity value and a single value for its T2 decay. Components in the mixture retain their separate identities while their individual properties are modified. Large molecules have small rotational and translational velocities and therefore move shorter distances through the fluid. small molecules have long T2 decay times. Figure 2 shows this concept at the microscopic level. As a result of the low viscosity. A pure fluid composed of a single molecular species has a single diffusion coefficient value. The Constituent Viscosity Model (CVM) relates molecular diffusivity and T2 relaxation of the individual components to bulk viscosity. Crude oils are a complex mixture of many different hydrocarbon species with a broad range of molecular sizes. Based on fundamental physics. the long distances small molecules can travel in a given time are observed as a high molecular diffusion coefficient.
Largely because of this overlap of oil and water T2 distributions. previous hydrocarbon detection techniques have not been reliable.85 g/cc Heavy oil API: 10–20 Density ~ 0.
Figure 3. In an oil zone.95 g/cc
0. Because the rock is not present.0001 0. Brine T2 distributions are broad as a result of the range of pore sizes found in reservoir rocks. the bulk crude oil T2 distribution is a function of molecular composition only.85–0. 4). This overlap often makes standard T2 interpretation difficult because the contributions of water and hydrocarbon are indistinguishable.000
100. In a formation with no hydrocarbons.001
Figure 4. For bulk crude oils.1 T2 (s) 0.
10 Light oil API: 45–60 Density ~ 0.The CVM predicts an inverse relationship between the geometric mean of the bulk oil T2 distribution and the bulk oil viscosity.75–0. Pore size information is available from T2 distributions measured in water zones.0
100 Viscosity (cp)
1. This relationship has long been observed in laboratory data (Fig. Pore size information is mixed with hydrocarbon viscosity information. The broad T2 distribution of a typical bulk crude is shown in the center. brine-filled porosity produces T2 distributions representative of pore-size distributions with associated bound and free fluids (left).01
0.65–0.75 g/cc Medium oil API: 25–40 Density ~ 0.
Brine T2 Distributions Pore size
Oil T2 Distributions Constituent viscosity
Clay-bound water Capillary-bound water Free water
Tar Heavy oil Intermediate oil Light oil
Tar plus clay-bound water Heavy oil plus capillary bound water Intermediate oil plus free water Light oil plus free water
. the addition of the two distributions results in a mixed response that can be difficult to interpret (right). the brine distribution typically overlaps with the broad T2 distribution of the oil to form the total T2 distribution seen on a standard log (right side of Fig. In a typical T2 log. an inverse relationship exists between the geometric mean of the T2 distribution and the viscosity.
gas and oil. the MRF method separates brine and oil signals even when the T2 distributions completely overlap. Oil viscosity and hydrocarboncorrected bound-fluid volume are calculated.The MRF method incorporates the fundamental physical principles of the CVM and a multifluid inversion algorithm to reliably extract oil and water signals from NMR data. In addition to providing direct and resistivity-independent saturations and volumes. the water signal decays faster than the oil signal for long-echo spacings. 5. oil viscosity. Because water molecules are typically smaller and more mobile than the hydrocarbon molecules in crude oils. This process leads to an additional NMR decay proportional to the square of the echo spacing and to the diffusion constant of each fluid component governed by the simple equation shown in Fig. Schematic of the MRF data suite and simultaneous inversion to extract brine and oil volumes. the MRF method exploits molecular diffusion in the field gradient generated by the tool magnet. the T2 distribution of reservoir oil derived during the MRF inversion helps in interpreting the CMR depth log. To achieve this separation. the individual T2 distributions are used to compute the volumes of water. After separation. The equation describes the decay time of measured NMR signals ( T2D ) caused by molecular diffusion ( D) in the tool gradient ( G).
10 T2 (ms) Water
Molecular Diffusion in Field Gradient Echo spacing = TE1
D (γ G ) TE 2
Brine and Oil T2 Distributions X655 m 45 cp
0. The diffusion decay increases with increasing echo spacing ( TE). and T2 distributions. By inverting a specially designed suite of NMR measurements with different echo spacings.
For viscosities below this range.000
Where is the MRF method available?
Advanced fluid characterization using the MRF method is available worldwide. The DMR method can be used to quantify tar content. a modified CMR-Plus tool and special software kit are required. Its reliability and range of applications have been confirmed by extensive worldwide field tests in diverse environments. specially equipped tools or modifications are not necessary. the DMR* Density-Magnetic Resonance method should be used because hydrocarbons that are very light (such as gas and condensate) result in porosity deficits.
MRF-Sensitive Regime 0.
Has the method been tested?
Schlumberger has validated the MRF method in the laboratory using a broad range of live and dead crude oils and rock types. To achieve the fast 3-min station log measurement and perform the realtime wellsite inversion.000
Transverse relaxation time T2 (ms)
.000 100 Viscosity (cp)
MRF 10 1
DMR 0. Outside this range.5 cp 2 cp 10 cp 100 cp
0. the indicated method should be used.
For the highest viscosities. which measure fluid only. hydrocarbons become invisible to NMR tools.000
EPM 1.000 10. 6).1
1. The MRF method works within the range of approximately 1 to 200 cp.
Figure 6. The shape of the T2 distribution must be analyzed using the CMR-Plus enhanced precision mode (EPM). Any CMR tool can be used for data acquisition. Above 200 cp there is a lack of diffusion sensitivity.In what range of viscosities will the MRF method work?
The MRF method works in viscosities from less than 1 cp to more than 200 cp (Fig.
blind zone 1. 95% point
. standard deviation. three-level averaging 0. three-level averaging at 75°F 0. No limit 50.u.000 lbf 50.CMR-Plus Tool Specifications Physical specifications Length Weight Measure point Min hole size Max hole size Max tension limit Max compression limit Operational ratings Max pressure Max temperature Mud type and salinity Measurement specifications Max logging speed Long T1 environment Short T1 environment Bound fluid mode Vertical resolution Static Dynamic (high-resolution mode) Dynamic (standard mode)) Min echo spacing Measurement range Porosity T2 distribution Precision Total CMR porosity CMR free-fluid porosity Depth of investigation All hole sizes 15.3 ms–3.2 ms 0–100 p. 0. 50% point 1.5-p. above bottom of tool 57⁄ 8 in.5-in. measurement aperture 9 in.6 ft 413 lbm 23 in.000 psi with modified tools) 350°F Unlimited
800 ft/hr 2700 ft/hr 3600 ft/hr 6-in.5-in.1-in.0 s 1-p. standard deviation. three-level averaging at 75°F 0..000 psi (25. three-level averaging 24 in.000 lbf 20.u.u..
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