Charlotte Reeves

Page |1 Unit 1, Assessment 1, Task: Titration

Titrating Different Concentrations of NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide) with 1 Molar Concentration of HCL (Hydrochloric Acid) Aim: The aim of this experiment was to find out the titration rate of different concentrations of NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide) Hypothesis: What I expected from this practical experiment is that the higher the molar of Sodium hydroxide, the greater the amount of hydrochloric acid would be needed to neutralize or react with the solution. I also expected there to be some relation or pattern in the results that will be collected to support this theory. Apparatus:
Burette

Weighing Scales Beakers Weighing Boat Glass Stirrer Sodium Hydroxide (powder) Distilled Water Pipette (25ml, 10ml, 5ml) Burette Conical (Erlenmeyer) Flask 100ml & 250 ml Volumetric Flasks Procedure:

Hydrochloric Acid Weighing Scales White Tile
Burette Stand

Measuring Cylinder Spatula Burette Stand & Clamp Distilled Water Phenolphthalein Funnel
Some Equipment Used in a Titration Conical Flask

Firstly 20g of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) powder was weighed with scales precisely in a weighing boat, this was then added to a beaker. Then the powder in the beaker was washed with distilled water along with the weighing boat so that no powder was lost. This was then stirred vigorously until all the solution turned clear and all the solute was dissolved. This was then transferred into a 250ml volumetric flask, the beaker was then rinsed with distilled water again so that none of the solution was lost and poured into the volumetric flask. This was then topped up with distilled water until the meniscus (bottom curve of the liquid) touched the 250ml line. This was now a 2 molar solution of

25M solution.5M = 16. making sure that the tap was closed before adding the acid. a funnel was needed to do this. A white tile was added to the bottom of the stand to ensure that the colour change was seen. The left over clear solution (of NaCl + H2O) was poured away in the sink and rinsed with purified water.Charlotte Reeves Page |2 Unit 1. For the titration. 12. The same method for titration and results for the 2M solution was repeated for the 1M solution. 2 Molar 1 56.9 0. Then holding the beaker in one hand. An extra titration was needed for the 0.67 . This was then recorded (e.25 molar solution.8 0.2 3 49. then drops of HCL was mixing with the NaOH. 3 drops of phenolphthalein was added as an indicator of PH. Task: Titration NaOH(aq).3 Average for 1M = 22. this was then put into an 100ml volumetric flask using two 25ml pipettes. We now had our bases to titrate.2 2 12.4 1 13.25 Molar 2 8.g.5 Average for 0.5ml of distilled in a separate conical flask. the beaker being swirled in between to assess any colour change.5M solution and 0.2 Amount of HCl used to neutralise solution Average for 2M = 51.9 4th Result added for accuracy Without anomaly Number of attempts. this was now a pink solution.5 was make using a quarter of the 2ml pipette) and then topped up with 87. the tap was opened slightly.03) Average for 0.5 2 48.5 Molar 3 26.5M (molars) 25ml of NaOH (using a 25ml pipette) was taken from the 2 molar solution in a conical beaker and then topped up with 75ml of distilled water and for the 0. 50ml of solution was taken from the 250ml volumetric flask. 50ml of HCL used to titrate 2M of NaOH) and then repeated twice more for accuracy. When the colour of the solution in the flask turned clear the titration of 2M was complete. For 0. 0.1 1 Molar 2 21 3 22. Assessment 1.5M titration due to an anomaly in the results Data: The concentration of NaOH(aq) My results from the titration are as follow. a burette was filled with a 1 molar solution of HCL (hydrochloric acid) out of a beaker. again we knew the meniscus needed to touch the 100ml line. This same procedure was needed to be repeated twice to make the other dilutions. 0.25M = 8.5 4 13. 3 8.2 1 24. to maintain accuracy I made sure that the HCL was always topped up to the 50ml line between titrations. Then 25ml was taken from the 2M solution using a pipette and placed in a beaker.1 1 8. The ratio of stock solution to water was 1:1 so another 50ml of distilled water was needed to be added to the 100ml volumetric flask.5ml of NaOH was taken from the 2 molar solution (using a 10ml and 2ml pipette. To produce a 1 molar solution.4 (13.

Task: Titration Titration is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine an unknown concentration of acid or alkali. An acid and an alkali react to make sodium chloride or salt in water. the PH indicator that was added (phenolphthalein) was used to find the endpoint of the reaction which was when the reaction was PH neutral. this allows it to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. The burette in this practical is used to deliver the HCl in this experiment to react with the alkali in the beaker. Assessment 1. so this would be 80g in the litre. Molarity is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution. In this titration of HCl(aq) and NaOH(aq) the balanced equation is as follows – Equation as a word equation including all reactants and all products Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chloride (Salt) Water HCL(aq) NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) H2O(l) Formula for each substance in equation Left Hand Side Right Hand Side Na 1 Na 1 O1 O1 Balanced equation with same number of elements on each side H2 H2 Cl 1 Cl 1 . as seen earlier the 2M NaOH solution was 20g of solute to the 250ml of water.Charlotte Reeves Analysis: Page |3 Unit 1.

ions NaOH -> Na+ + OHAtomic Number 8 It forms OH. Sodium hydroxide. this is because the sodium atom loses the electron in its outer shell and becomes positively charged (N+) Chlorine gains an electron to become negatively charged chlorine ion (C-) Halogens 7 electrons in outer shell Na+ Cl- The positive charge of the sodium ion and negative charge of the chloride ion are attracted and this holds the ions strongly together.ions as the only negative ion in aqueous solution. Assessment 1. It’s an insoluble hydroxide.ions HCl -> H+ + ClIt’s a substance which forms H+ ions as the only positive ion in aqueous solution. forms Na+ and OH.Charlotte Reeves Page |4 Unit 1. Atomic Number 1 Atomic Number 11 Atomic Number 17 Alkali Metals 1 electron in outer shell The bonding between sodium chloride is ionic. when dissolved in water. These form a giant ionic lattice . Task: Titration Hydrochloric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and Cl.

Task: Titration In my hypothesis I predicted that the higher the molar of NaOH the greater the amount of HCL it would take to react. I feel that the difference in my results to the expected results may be down to the possibility of cross contamination from the equipment used for example beakers that have been washed in the dishwasher may have leftover residue of salts.3ml which is higher than the average for 1 molar which is 22. However on the next two results I improved this and released the HCl slower and therefore getting a more accurate result. 48.1ml.4ml.Charlotte Reeves Page |5 Unit 1. .3ml. However this isn’t accurate enough.5ml. or my measuring to be slightly out when making the aqueous solution for example having 101ml instead of 100. To find the formula for titration. 2M x 25ml V2 = = 2M x V2 2M x 25ml 1M = 50ml For the 2 molar experiment my results were 56. 21ml & 22. To a degree this is correct. On the 1st result it was 56.5ml.5ml I think that this was higher than the expected rate as I was releasing the liquid from the tap very quickly and didn’t see the neutralisation of the two chemicals. this equation is needed So for example 1M to find the unknown reaction we use the equation above 1M x 25ml V2 = = 1M x V2 1M x 25ml 1M = 25ml This is quite close to the result that I produced in my practical. the average being 22. the average being 51. making the level of accuracy quite poor. as I can see through my results that the average for 2 molar is 51.2ml & 49. for 1 molar experiment my results were 24. I feel that this was very close. I also had difficultly reading the pipette as it was quite high so I feel I may have been have been at a disadvantage as the hydrochloric acid start point may have been off the 50ml point.2ml.5ml. Assessment 1.

9ml and 8. I know that afterwards I hadn’t measured the correct amount of solution when making 0. Assessment 1.25M x V2 0. 0.5M titration I had to do 4 results as I had quite a large anomaly on my 3rd result. leaving a pool of water.2ml.25M x 25ml = V2 = 0. my results were 13.1ml. Through the equation above we can see the expected result was 12. I found making 0.03ml.8ml.25ml On the 0. 26. which again was quite close with the same problems as previously mentioned.Charlotte Reeves 0. however from this result I realised what errors I had made previously and corrected this on the following titration.5ml (out of the 12. However I feel that the anomaly was due to cross contamination as after the result I had realised that I had washed my beaker with tap water and this wasn’t dried out properly.9ml. I think I could of corrected this by using a 1ml pipette (exactly half of it) or even finding a 12.25M x 25ml 1M = 6.5M x 25ml 1M = 12. 12.5ml without the anomaly my the average of my results were 13.5ml needed) was quite difficult using a 2ml pipette. .25M solution from the 2 Molar solution. Task: Titration On the 0.5M x V2 0. my results were 8.5ml pipette. 8.1ml.5ml &13.5ml Page |6 Unit 1.25M titration my results wasn’t very near the expected results.5M x 25ml V2 = = 0.

Charlotte Reeves Page |7 Unit 1.g.5 Conclusion: The main aim of this experiment was to find out the titration rate of different concentrations of NaOH against 1 molar of HCl using an indicator to see the PH rate of reaction. The solution of the titration’s (NaCl(aq) + H20(l)) Relative molecular mass would be 76.5 The molecule NaOH contains 1 sodium. not washing properly using distilled water and drying equipment. they seemed to half. So the relative molecular mass of NaOH is 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 The RMM of HCl (containing 1 Hydrogen and 1 Chloride) is 1 + 35. 1 oxygen and 1 Hydrogen.5. Using the molar equation of M1 V1 = M2 V2 I could see that that my theory was along the same lines. Assessment 1. Task: Titration The Relative Molecular Mass of a compound is the sum of the masses of all the atoms present in the molecule Relative Atomic Masses Element Symbol RAM Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium Sulphur Chlorine C H O Na S Cl 12 1 16 23 32 35. the greater the amount of acid (hydrochloric acid) it would take for the neutralisation to occur. I also realised from this experiment that the tiniest of errors can vastly alter the final results e. In conclusion I feel that this experiment went quite well even though I could have improved in some different areas and to a degree that my hypothesis was correct . In my hypothesis I thought that the higher the molar of sodium hydroxide.5 = 36. I found that my results were quite close to the results that were expected and were quite close to the other classmates. the other results from the class supported this. From my results I can see that the hypothesis is correct but as I was doing the titration I noticed a correlation between my results.

Charlotte Reeves Figures & Graphs: Page |8 Unit 1. Task: Titration . Assessment 1.

Assessment 1.nanoelf.pwp.jpg http://www.za/biodiesel-c-140.chemistry.Text Book Handouts from lessons and information on STEPS Molarities – www. Task: Titration “Applied Science Level 3” Edexcel (Various Authors) .blueyonder.about.uk/Science/ Source for images http://www.bbc.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/38_modern_periodic_table.co.co.Charlotte Reeves References: Page |9 Unit 1.html .co.com http://www.sky-web.

From my results I can see that the hypothesis is correct but as I was doing the titration I noticed a correlation between my results. they seemed to half.5 Conclusion: The main aim of this experiment was to find out the titration rate of different concentrations of NaOH against 1 molar of HCl using an indicator to see the PH rate of reaction. Task: Titration So the relative molecular mass of NaOH is 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 The RMM of HCl (containing 1 Hydrogen and 1 Chloride) is 1 + 35. not washing properly using distilled water and drying equipment. I also realised from this experiment that the tiniest of errors can vastly alter the final results e.5 = 36. The solution of the titration’s (NaCl(aq) + H20(l)) Relative molecular mass would be 76. In conclusion I feel that this experiment went quite well even though I could have improved in some different areas and to a degree that my hypothesis was correct Figures & Graphs: . In my hypothesis I thought that the higher the molar of sodium hydroxide. the other results from the class supported this. Assessment 1. I found that my results were quite close to the results that were expected and were quite close to the other classmates. the greater the amount of acid (hydrochloric acid) it would take for the neutralisation to occur. Using the molar equation of M1 V1 = M2 V2 I could see that that my theory was along the same lines.g.5.Charlotte Reeves P a g e | 10 Unit 1.

Text Book Handouts from lessons and information on STEPS Molarities – www.uk/Science/ Source for images .Charlotte Reeves P a g e | 11 Unit 1.pwp.about. Assessment 1.sky-web. Task: Titration References: “Applied Science Level 3” Edexcel (Various Authors) .com http://www.chemistry.blueyonder.co.

uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/38_modern_p eriodic_table. Assessment 1.co.nanoelf.bbc.Charlotte Reeves P a g e | 12 Unit 1.co.za/biodiesel-c-140.html . Task: Titration http://www.jpg http://www.

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