Metabolic syndrome in the Philippine general population: prevalence and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes

mellitus.
Morales DD, Punzalan FE, Paz-Pacheco E, Sy RG, Duante CA; National Nutrition And Health Survey: 2003 Group.

Collaborators (84)
Source Department of Medicine, University of the Philippines College of Medicine, Pedro Gil, Manila, Philippines. dantedmorales@yahoo.com

Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its component risk factors among Filipinos using three sets of criteria and to evaluate the association between MS and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The study utilised a multi-staged cluster sampling design. The prevalence of MS was found to be 11.9% by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) criteria, 14.5% by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 18.6% by NCEP/ATP III criteria modified by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NCEP/ATP III-AHA/NHLBI) criteria. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) occurred in 60.2% of men and 80.9% of women. Abdominal obesity was noted in 17.7% of men and 35.1% of women. Blood pressure (BP) > or = 130/85 mmHg was seen in 33.3%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 20.6% and fasting blood sugar > or = 100 mg/dL (5.55 mmol/L) in 7.1%. Ageadjusted odds ratios showed that MS, by all three definitions, predisposed an individual to diabetes mellitus (DM) and stroke while MS by the IDF definition predisposed an individual to myocardial infarction (MI). Individuals with MS did not have a significant predisposition to angina and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thus, the metabolic syndrome is common in Filipinos, with low HDL-C as the most prevalent component. The metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes mellitus and stroke, with a tendency to MI using the IDF criteria.

Metabolic syndrome in the Philippine general population: prevalence and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its component risk factors among Filipinos using three sets of criteria and to evaluate the association between MS and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The study utilised a multistaged cluster sampling design. The prevalence of MS was found to be 11.9% by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) criteria, 14.5% by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 18.6% by NCEP/ATP III criteria modified by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NCEP/ATP III-AHA/NHLBI) criteria. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) occurred in 60.2% of men and 80.9% of women. Abdominal obesity was noted in 17.7% of men and 35.1% of women. Blood pressure (BP) ≥ 130/85 mmHg was seen in 33.3%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 20.6% and fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL (5.55 mmol/L) in 7.1%. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that MS, by all three definitions, predisposed an individual to diabetes mellitus (DM) and stroke while MS by the IDF definition predisposed an individual to myocardial infarction (MI). Individuals with MS did not have a significant predisposition to angina and peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa. The study included 16.26.Thus. Martins S. Belo A.15. waist circumference. the metabolic syndrome is common in Filipinos. only the AHA/NHLBI criteria showed a statistically significant association (OR: 1. respectively. A questionnaire was applied to record sociodemographic. irrespective of the reason for the consultation. body mass index. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research Metabolic syndrome in the Philippine general population: prevalence and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus Comparison of definitions of metabolic syndrome in relation to risk for coronary artery disease and stroke. Portuguese] Cortez-Dias N. NCEP-ATP III 2004.5% and 69. Investigadores do estudo VALSIM. Regarding stroke. hypertension. HDL cholesterol. triglycerides. clinical and laboratory data. Source Serviço de Cardiologia I.3% simultaneously fulfilled the criteria of all definitions.com Abstract OBJECTIVES: To compare definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS) in relation to their association with coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. with low HDL-C as the most prevalent component. age. IDF and AHA/NHLBI definitions was 28. with a tendency to MI using the IDF criteria. Hypertension was the treatable risk factor most strongly associated with CAD and stroke. diabetes and MS according to each definition. cortezdias@yahoo. The prevalence of MS adjusted for gender. 32.4%. Only the IDF and AHA/NHLBI definitions of MS were independently associated with CAD (OR: 1. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in a primary care setting. .1 years). IDF and AHA/NHLBI criteria. age and region size according to the 2001 and 2004 NCEP-ATP III. Lisboa.8%. The metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes mellitus and stroke. 65. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk of CAD and stroke according to gender.1 +/.4%. Fiuza M. Portugal. The degree of agreement according to k statistics was modest and only 60.74 and 2. Hospital de Santa Maria. respectively). [Article in English.856 individuals (age 58. involving 719 general practitioners and based on stratified distribution proportional to the population density. A diagnosis of MS was defined according to NCEP-ATP III 2001.85). The first two adult patients scheduled for an appointment on a given day were invited to participate.

80 and over Analysis of Variance Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology Coronary Artery Disease/etiology Cross-Sectional Studies Female General Practice/statistics & numerical data Humans Male Metabolic Syndrome X/complications Metabolic Syndrome X/diagnosis* Metabolic Syndrome X/epidemiology* Middle Aged Portugal/epidemiology Regression Analysis Risk Stroke/epidemiology Stroke/etiology Young Adult Treat metabolic syndrome to deter stroke Delicia Yard . and remains an independent risk factor for CAD and stroke after adjustment for its individual components. MeSH Terms Publication Types  Comparative Study MeSH Terms                      Adult Aged Aged.CONCLUSIONS: MS as defined according to the AHA/NHLBI criteria appears to be the best predictor of CAD and stroke in the Portuguese population. PMID: 21553609 [PubMed .indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text Publication Types.

981 adults.Treating metabolic syndrome may help prevent recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). diabetes. MD. 
 Among the key updates—the first revisions since 2006—is the suggestion that although the value of screening for metabolic syndrome after stroke is still not clear. 
 The revised guidelines also state that either aspirin alone.
 In an analysis of the health records of 7. even though blacks in the study generally were 60% more likely than whites to die from stroke.
 From the January 2011 Issue of Clinical Advisor Relationship between metabolic syndrome and familial history of hypertension/stroke. which were presented at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2010. and colleagues found no connection between vitamin D levels and stroke fatalities in black patients. MD. MPH. and cardiovascular disease.
 A separate report states that vitamin D deficiency is associated with fatal stroke among whites but not among blacks." noted Dr. whites with deficient vitamin D levels had double the risk of dying from stroke compared with whites with higher levels. but we did not find the same relationship between vitamin D and stroke in blacks. patients should be counseled to make the proper lifestyle changes. or clopidogrel are reasonable options for stroke or TIA patients who need to take an antiplatelet drug to prevent recurrence (excluding persons whose stroke or TIA was caused by a clot from the heart). 
 Authored by a group chaired by Karen L. they should be treated for components of metabolic syndrome that are also stroke risk factors. In addition. . according to updated guidelines issued by the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association. despite their expectations. MHS. the guidelines were published online ahead of print in Stroke. Furie. Michos in a statement detailing the findings. particularly high BP and cholesterol. if it is diagnosed. But lead researcher Erin Michos. 
 "We thought the lower vitamin D levels might explain why blacks have higher risks for stroke. aspirin combined with dipyridamole.

cardiovascular disease.indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2729894 Free PMC Article Publication Types. The prevalence of MS was 25.Paek KW. Baekseok Unversity. such as hypertension/stroke. which used a stratified multistage probability sampling design. Lee KW. Odds ratio for MS among men with a familial history of hypertension/stroke was higher than that among men who did not have this history. as defined by the Nation-al Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guidelines.7% in women. These results show that familial history of hypertension/stroke and diabetes was significantly related to the presence of MS in both young men and women.more resources . The prevalence of MS and its components. This analysis is based on the 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.5% in men and 28. Source Division of Social Welfare. MeSH Terms LinkOut . PMID: 16891816 [PubMed . Chun KH.742 adults who had completed the necessary health examinations and met the diagnosis of MS. Cheonan. and diabetes. The OR for MS among women with a familial history of hypertension/stroke or diabetes was higher than that among women who had no familial history of these diseases. were evaluated in nationally representative samples of non-institutionalized civilian Koreans. Abstract This research analyzes the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korea and examines how the presence of a familial history of diseases related to MS. affect the development of MS in Koreans. The final study included 5. Korea.

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