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that is to say of an operation 0 deterring every real process via its operational double. the other an absence. then every illn s can be considered as simuletable and imulated. nor that of truth. nor duplication. a programmatic. Becau e it is differen e that consttrut the poetry f the map nd the charm of the territory. It i a hyp rreal. h i all of met phy ics that is lost.llacion The Pre es on afSlmulacra rcred from the imaginary. 0 mor imaginary oext nsi ity: it is gen tic miniaturization that is the dimen ion of imulation. and can no longer be taken as a fact of n ture. imulat Is to feign to have what one doesn't have. and medicine loses its meaning ince it only know how to treat "real" illn according to their objective causes. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. reference. One implies a presence. Psycbology and medicine top at thi point. coincid with their model of imulr tion. It is no longer a question of imitation. objective cau hav ceased to exist. Thi imaginary of representation. ow. thaI no longer ev D iv the event or death a chance. Psychosomatics evolves in a dubious manner at the borders of the principle of illness. di ppears In the imulation whose operat . forestalled b rh ilIn henceforth undiscoverable truth. Something has di P red: th sovereign difference. For if any symptom can be produced. It is a que tion of. Whoever simulat an illne produc in himself some of (he symptoms" (lime). TItE OlV1N • IRR FER' OF 1MAGE imperiali m that pr nt-da imulators attempt to make the real. n i nuclear and genetic. No more mirror of being and appearance . or rather of anticipated resurre tion. n r even parod . It no longer needs to be rational. it is impl masked. and memory banks. wh t can medicine do with what floats on either 3 .Teav the principl of reality intact: the differ nee i always lear. In fact. Never again willth real hay the chance to produce itselfuch the vital function of the mod Iin a y tern of death. to II binary oppositions. of the real and its concept. model of onttoland it can be reproduced an indefinite number of lim from these.ircuits all its vicissitudes. produc d from a radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without armo ph reo B)' crossing into a spac who curvature is no longer that or the real.. But it is no long r a qu non of either maps or territories. between ne and th other. the era of lmularion is inaugurated by a liquidation fall rcferentials-wor e: with their artificial r urrecrion in the systems of si ns. because it no longer meanires itself against either an ideal or negative instance. perfectly descriptive machine that offer all the signs of the real and short. metastable. pretending. It is no long r anything but p rari nal. gi en that he produces "true" symptoms? Objectively one cannot treat him being either ill or not ill." This (which date from 186S) in order [0 safeguard the principle of a truth at all costs and to escape the interrogation posed by simulationth knowledge that truth.imula . But it is more complicated than that because Simulating' not pretending: "Whoever Cakesan iIln can simply stay in bed and make everyone believe he' ill.a and iml. it is no longer really the real. or di imulaung. matrices. Certainly. all of the real. the magi of the concept and the charm of th real. in that it lends i elf t all terns f equivalences. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. it transfers lh symptom of the organic order to th unconscious order: rh latter is n wand taken for "real" more real than th other-s-but why would imulation b at the gales of the unconsci u 7 Why ouldn't the "work" of the unconscious be "produced" in the same way as any old symptom of classical m di in ? Dreams already are. no longer at Ll specular or discu ive.. and from any di tinction between the real and the imaginary. that co tinned th charm of abstraction. to all combinatory algebra. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of mod Is and for the imulated generation f differences. whereas simulation threater the difference between the "true" and the "Ialse. The rcfore. which simultaneou Iy ulminates in and is engulfed b the cartographer mad project of the ideal coextensivit of map nd territory. As to psychoanaly is. the psychtatrist purports that "for every form of mental alienation there Is a particular order in the succession of mprorns of whi h the imulator i ignorant and in the absence of which the ps chtatnst would not be deceived. ubsrirurm the igns of the real for the real. A hyperreal henceforth shel2 To di imulate is to pretend not to hav what one h. a material m re malleable than meaning." the "real" and the "imaginary" Is the simulator sick or not.

whos millennial quarr I i still with us today. who founded their politics on the virtual disappearance of God and on the worldly and spe tacular manipulation of conscienc -the evan cence of God in the epiphany of power-the end of transcendence. in contrast to the i onolaters who only sa . which now only erves as an alibi for a strategy altogether free of influences and signs. that sign could be exchanged for meaning and that something could guarantee this exchange-God of course. Today ir can discharge a very good imulator exa tly equival nt to a "r I" homo al. because.Slmulacru and imutalion Tht' Prece ion of im~lacra son to destroy them. it's because he is. ide of illness. were those who accorded them their true value. that is to say can be reduced to the signs that constitute faith? Then the whole system becomes weightless. If tb y could ha e believed that these images only obfuscat d or masked the Platonic Idea of God. and this lack of distinction is the worst kind of subversion. annihilating truth that they allow to appear-that deep down God never existed. favored terrains of simulation. "I forbade that there be any imulacra in the t mpl because the divinity that animal natur can never be repr em d. and the destructive. but that it wa therein the great game lay-knowing also that it is danger. But it is what today again outflanks them ubmerging the principle of truth.they were already enacting his death and his disappearance in the epiphany of his representations {which. One can see that the iconoclasts. on either ide of health. that only the simulacrum ever existed. deplo their power and pomp of fascination-th vi ihle machinery of icons ub muted for the pure and intelligtbl Idea of God? his is precisely what was feared by Iconoclasts. the Byzantine i ons could be those of divine identity. This ~ ay the tak will alway have b en the murderous power of tmag . On the other hand. But what if God himself can be simulated.. th fa ulry imulacra have of effacing God (rom the conscience of man. in the guise of having God become apparent in th mirror of imag . that they were purely a game. all crazy people Simulate. even that God himself was never anything but his own simulacrum-from this came their urge to destroy the trnag . Beyond medicine and the army. with th dupli lion of illness in a discourse that is no longer either true or fOc ? What I can P ychoanalysis do with the duplication of the discourse of the unconscious in th di cour of imulation that can nev r again be unmasked. or a madman. murderers or their own model.3 Thi i precisely be ause ih y predicr d thi omnipoten e of imula ra. Behind the baroqueness of images hides the eminence grise of poltn . alone. but perfect simulacra. since they dissimulate the fact that there is n thing behind them). To this murderous power is opposed that of representations as a dialecncal power. This was the approach of th jesuits. the visible and intelligible mediauon of the Real. All W '1 rn faith and good faith be me engaged in tit "''llger on representation: that a ign could r fer (0 the depth of meaning.murderers of the real. "H he is this good at acting crazy." Nor is military psychology mlstak n in this regard: in this sen .") ndeed it can be. since it is not faIs either?2 What can the army do about imulators? Traditionally it unmasks them and puni hes them. such as an original model w uld ha e made them. they already knew no longer represented anything. one can say that the icon worshipers were tb most modem minds. o (O unmask images. forever radiant with th ir own fascination. hu thi: death of the divine referential must be exorci eel at all costs. whom one accuses of disdaining and negating image . a heart patient. But what becomes of the di inity when it r veal itself in Icons. ac ording to a clear principle of identification. there would have been no rea- 5 . and that these images were in essen e not images. One can live with the idea of di torted mnh. But their metaphysical despair came from the idea that the image didn't conceal anything at all. perhaps. reflections in them and were content to venerate a filigree God. the most d enturou . It is against this lack of distinction that clas i I reason armed i elf in all i categoric. when it is multiplied in simulacra? Docs it remain the upreme power that is simply incarnated in images as a visible theology? Or do it volatilize itself in the simulacra that. the question returns to religion and the simulacrum of divinity. ven milit ry psychology draws back from Cart ian certainties and hesitate to make the distinction between tru and fal e. between the "produced" and the authentic symptom.

The Tasaday. In the first case. no longer a Last judgmcnt t separate th false from the true. it is an evil appearance-s-it is of the ord r of rnaleficence. it is alway murd rou ).n talgia a urn its full meaning. Panic-stricken production of the real and of th ref rennal. resurrection of the figurative where the object and sub tance have disappeared. but of simulation. In order for ethnology 10 live. but of th simulated sacrifice of its object in order to sa e its reality principle. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Lik Orpheus. of lived experience. its object falls ba k into Had . In the third. lik mummies in the open air. No one tan touch them anymor : a in a mine the vein i closed dov n. Doesn't all science liv on this paradoxical lop to which it is doOmd by the evanescence of it object in irs very apprehension. the image is a good appearance-representation is of the sacramental order. but changed for iLSeU. calanon of th true. of econdary obje tivity and authen- R:Mss. and. frozen in their natural element. Whereas representation attempts to absorb simulation by interpreting it a Ial representation. in which there i no longs r a God to recognize hi own. it alway turns around too soon. Representati n t from the principl of the qui alence of the sign and of the r 1 ( v n if this equival nc tsutopian. It i against {hi hell of {he paradox that the ethnologists wished to prot r themscl es by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. but th object will be safe. th object takes its revenge for bein "discovered" and with i death defies the science that wants to grasp it. in n uninterrupted circuit without reference or circumference. an eternal guarantee. The transition from igns that dissimulate something 10 signs that dissimulate that there is nothing marks decisi c turning point. but a imulacrum. In any case. ~ ho were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon coma t. of the neoreal and the hyperreal that e erywh r is the double of a trategy of deterrence. parallel to and greater than the panic of material production: this i how simulation appears in the phase that concern u -8 tratgy of the real." it is not a question of sacrifice (science ne ver cnfice itself. its object mu t die.jmm the radical negation of t1l sign as alue. In the fourth. When the r l i no longer what it wa . This at the suggestion of the amhropologl I {hem elves. it masks and denatures a profound reality. where they had lived for ight centuries without any contact \ uh the r t of the pe i . Simulation. RTHI:R 't'-CLk-oRSRRETlO thnology bru hed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. Th first reflects a theology of truth and ecrec (to which th notion or id ology still belongs). will provide a perfect alibi. it masks the ab ence of a profound reality. The econd inaugurates the era of simulacra and of imulauon. it i it own pur. ucb i imulation. tourists. it is no I ng r of the order of app arances. 1 st to science. it h no r Ianon t any reahty whatsoever: simulacrum. it is no longer itself anything but a gigantic imulacrum-not unreal. like Eurydice. from the sign as the reversion and death sent nc of very r Ierence. the real from its artificial resurrection. it i a fundamental axiom). In the second. Ther i a plethora of myths of ori in and of igns of realu -a plethora of truth. that is to say never exchanged for the real. insofar it is opposed to representation.to th ir primitive state. it plays at bing an appearanc -it' of th order of sorcery. as e erything is already dead and resurre led in advance. imulation envelop the whole edifice of representation itself as a imulacrurn. the logical evolution of a science is 10 distance i If increasingly 7 . the day when the Philippine government decid d to r tum the few dozen Tasada who had just been discovered in the depth of the jungle. out of the reach of colonizers. Castaneda. by dying.imulacra and 5 muku on The PI"« ssio" oj Simulacra lICUY. Such would be the succ i e ph es of the image: it is the reflection of a profound reality. Scien e loses precious capital there. Clastres are various wi In . Here begins an anueihnology that will ne er end and to which jaulin. on the contrary stems from the utopia of the principle of equtvalence. but intact in its "virginity. and ethnologists.

at the level of the "open" museum where one mus umified in situ. etc. historical retrospection-a murder of which the Savage . science can't help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. to con eal that it is this world. as "historical" wirnes of their period. which is devastated by difference and b death. It is possible that the memoryof the original grottoes is itself tamped in the minds of Iutur g ncrauons. like an omnipresent fourth dimension.~ The form produced by confinement is follov ed by an innumerable. of the murder of every ymbolic form and of its hysterical. It is cience that masters the objects. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. und r the sign of dead differen e . what a triumph for thi science that seemed dedicated (0 their desrrucuonl Of course. everywh r • in the m rropoli . of the blackmail of the real. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux ca es. ctc. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminat d by thi mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. Nothing changes when sociery breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. but it is the obje ts that invest it with depth. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. in Castaneda. living metallurgic zone . and of the r urrection of differences.) nor when scienc m to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. We have all become living specimens in the pectral light of thnology. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. like a dimension of life. entire working-class neighborhoods. or of anti ethnology. Thi model thu grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself be ond i elf in thc "brute reality of these Indians it has entirely reinv nt d-Sa ag who art indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: v hat a {urn of e ents. but out of sight and far from the light of day. but from now on there is no longer any diff rene': the duplication suffices to rend r both artificial. the Savage fiction everywhere.which has again become vage In its way. protect d (0 death. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. until it dispenses with it entirely: its auronom only rendered even more (anta lic-it attains us pure form. The West i seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserv for forty centuries. diffracted slowed-dov n mechanism. The same h Ids tru at Cruesot. The Indian thu returned to the gh uo. Th museum. and science itself has become pure simulation. As ethnology collapses in itS classi al institution. which is nothing but the pure form of rriumphal ethnology. but an e act replica was constructed five hundred meter from it. it urvives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. In thc same wa .) and to bend down before the "difference . were the The Precc Jon of lmula ra first victims. in the While community. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. We are all Tasadays.after it was left to rot for sev ral dozen years in the depths of a museum. In the same way ienc and l chnology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses 11. It is thus very naive to look for ethnology in the avage:s or in some Third World-it is here. a ordtng to an unconscious r ersion. sterilized. that of the imulacrum. Ram do not signify 9 8 . and children included-gestur • languages. Indian who have again become what they were-e-simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the uni rsal (ruth of thnology. The confinement of the cienufic object i equal to the confin ~ rnent of the mad and the dead. or the hallucination of truth. with the pretext of saving the original. men. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. is everywhere now. will today. in a world of imulation. gives speech back to the insane. nobl oblige.ou .imulacra and Si"udalJon from its object. again becomes the m d I f imulation of all the possible Indians from befort ethnology. women.an entire culture. liberated from its object. so that everyone could see them (on glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. that Is to say. cryogenized. the ha e becom referential irnulacra. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. these savages ar posthumou : frozen. in th gla coffin of the virgin forest. but that for a long time ha extended to all Western societies. Thus ethnology. then artificially resurreeled undu the auspices of the real. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible.

this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. their reimportauon to the Original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with "reality" through a complete circumvoluuon. which play at extricating it If from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. The cloister should have stayed in ew York in its simulated environment. that is to say ~ toring a isibl~ order. more authentic. if the exportation of the cornices was i. master over putrefaction and death. ible nunuum. at the ginning of colonization. as can be seen in Ishis case. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderm nt before the ery possibility of escaping the uni ersallaw of the Go pel. only the mumm i of ao ine timable worth because it is what gu rant that accumulation has meaning. which no longer masters anything. In the same way. In this way.) Everywhere we live in a universe trangely similar to the original-things are doubled by their own scenario. which would suffic to slowly exterminate them. or even imply di covering th m.n effect an arbitrary act. to an order of history. if the Cloisters in ew York are an artificial mosaic of aU cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). Becaus mummi d n'l rot from worms: the die from being transplanted from a I w order of the symbolic. Becaus finally we ha e ne er believ d in them. ~ only know how to place our j nee in . Irreparable violence toward all secrets. 10 g neral. Americans flatter them lv s fOT having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest level. as it did traditionally. ur entir linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpil th past in plain i w. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retro peen e hallucination. Thi i presented as proof of the superiority of civilization: it will produce more Indian than th y themselves were able to do. the violence of a civilization without secrets. like the faces in funeral homes. (With sinister derision. They are prey to both science and worms." And ev ryone i upposed to applaud thi restitution (as they did "the expenm ntal campaign to take back the idewalks on the Champs lyse l). Thu it would have been enough to e. a i Ible myth of origin. We require visible past. But m tly because our culture dreams. their demographic "promotion" is just another tep toward ymboJic termination. Wh ? Because Ramses \ a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. one cont rued on If with converting them. and museums. Wim tbe cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. which reassures us about our end. like all tribal culture. But this doubl ng does not ignify.imulacra and imulation The Precession of Simulacra lh and ubsequently LO try anything for u . hume Ramses to nsure hi' xtermlnatlon by museumlfication. in (he light of their model. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. To th' end they must be e humed and given military honor. Onl. 11 past We are fascinated by Ram as Renaissance Chri tians were by the American Indians. And j t with erhn logy. rests on the limitation of the gTOup and the refusal of any "unlimited" increase. They even flauer ih mselves for doing better. a . more cheerful. cience. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. whe embalming was a mythical Ilon that strove to immortalize a hidden dim n ion. One dE ces everything and starts over. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in its original site. and beuer than when they were alive. the imminence of their death-they are already purged of their death. Thus. for exceeding the original number. 0 thi end the pharaohs must be brought ut of rh ir tomb and th mummi out of their silen e. no one. our order. absolute crecy assured them this millennial PO\ er-th m tery over putrefaction that igntfied th mastery f the ompleie cycle of exchanges with death. which 001 knows how to condemn 10 . Wrll. Repatriating it i nothing but a supplementary ubterfuge. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. or exterminate the indians to efface the evidence. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it b exhuming it as ilS 0\ PI what preceded it to decay and d to reviv it with science. demuseumijia:uion i nothing but anomer piral in artificiality. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. which at lea t fooled. There were two p ible responses: either admit that this Law wa not universal. rvi e { repairing the mummy. Whence this historic ne of the reception of th mummy at the Orly airport.

miniaturized pleasure of real Am ri . childlike world' found to hav been con elved and realized b a man . needs this old imagtn r like a sympathetic nervous s st m made up of childhood signals and faked phantasm . the historical. solitude is directed at a Ingl gad et: the automobil . The only phantasme goria in this imaginary world lies in th tenderness and wannth of the crowd. Whence the debility of this imaginary. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. On a mental level. Marshall Sahlins' idea that it is the economy of the marker. without dimension. i drawn. or lost sodahl. Enchanted iIIage. that secretes penury. Disn land: a pace of th reg neration of the imaginary as wasrc-rreatmeru plants are elsewhere. yoga. down to the morphology of indi idu Is and of the crowd. but there ar instltut for that. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetize the r wd in directed flows-outside. It I no longer a question of a false 12 .r much as cinema studios. The contrast with the absolut solitude of th parking lot-a verln ble cone ntrarion c mp-i total. This world wants to be childish in order to make u believe that the adults are elsewhere. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degre entigrade. People no longer look at each other. in the "real" world. much as electrical and atomic power tations. all of "rear' America that i Disneyland (8 bu lik pri ns are there to hid that it is th soclal in its emiret . But this rna ks The Precession oj Imulll£ra repr entation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the r al is no longer real and thus of saving the reality principle. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm.Simulacra and imulalion THE HVPEKR A 0 THE I 1A I R Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled order of simulacra. pia)' of spacel): dige 1 of the American way of life. however. the Future World. legendary imaginary of children nd adul is a waste product. one i altogeth r abandoned at the exit. the religfOlI . Or. somatic recycling institut . One reinvents p nury. and to cone al the fa t that true childishness is e crywher -thal it i that of the adults rh rnselves who come here to act th hild in order to fo rer ilIu ~ons as to th ir real hildishness. II is a deterrence machine er up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the OPPO ite camp.e erywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. Everywhere toda one must recycle w ie. and even here. the fir t great toxic e. ruther: inside. which is no longer anything but an immcn e scenario and a perpetual pan shot. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality.whi h prolif rate in California. but th r is conmctorhcrapy.' in order to hid that it i the "real" country. land is pres rued as Imaginary in order to make u believ that the rest is real. etc . but at a sec- something el and thi "id logical'tblank rfuncuons a a c ver for II {mula/ion oj 'he third order: Di nc 1 nd . Marin did it very well in Utopiqu!: . unreal circulation-a cit . Whence the po ibility of an ideol gical anal is of Di n yland (L. Disne r. panegyric of Am ri n value.J rement of a hyperreal ivtlization. fairylike. But all the sexual. Certainly. or 10 t b dies. and the dreams. is verified. Th y no longer touch each oth r. or the lost taste for food. Everywh r one recycles lost faculties. its infantil degeneration. All its values are exalted bv the miniature and the ernie trip. Embalm d and pacified. health fo d. the phantasms. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false.jeux d'espa e [Utopias. etc.of icon traints and jo . asc ti ism. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of tmulauon. this city. Disne land is not the only one. and nOI of nature at all. the energy of the real to a cit who my tery is precisely that of no long r belng anythlng but a network of in sant. whereas all of Los Ang I and the America that urround il arc no longer real. Thu . Iarine World: Los Angel i urrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. in its banal omnipresence. They no long r walk. ho i himself now cryogenized: Walt Disne . psychic.. Thi ima inary world" upposed to ensur the su ofth op ration. and in th ufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous ffect. that is carceral). bUI th :y go jogging. belong to the same order. By an extraordinary coinciden e (but thi drive without a doubt from the enchantment inher m to this uni er e). Magic Mountain. of incr dible proportion but without sp ce. One parks utside and lands in lin inside. Disneyland is the proretype of thi new function. thl frozen. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates the Frontier.

in the guise of ecology. was never linked by a contra t to the society that it dominates. which are only its shifting and indiffer nt configuration in the moral and political consciences of men. a penuryl imulacrum a imulated behavior of the underdevelop d (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. to receive it as moral or to combat it in the name of morality. It i "enlightened" thought that k. Capital.&au is not a scandal. change). "Power is unjust. whose visible ign would be those of this strange obesity. All that capital ask of u .) works spontaneously for the order of capital. And Watergate in particular succeeded in impo in the idea that Watergate was a scandal-in this ense it wa a pr diglous operation of intoxi atlon. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. which can be thought of in another wa : formerly one worked to dissimulate scandal-e-tcday one works LO conceal that ther . and mone • to the improb bl luxurious m t rialtzauon of life and to undiscoverable contradictions.s to 00lTOI it by imposing rules on it.Simulacra and imulalion onds ry lev I: here. its fundamental tmmoraliry-c-that is what is scandalous. none. capital exploits us. and who er r viv thi publi morality (through indign: (ion. an ord r of truth in which the veritable symbolic violence of the social order is engendered. A large dose of political rnoralit reinj ted on a world seal ." -as if capital were linked by a conrract to the society it rules. unacceptable to the system of moral and economic equivalence that is the axiom of leftist thought. rcndlng to r g ncrate through candal a moral and political principle. its justice Is a class justice. hea en. Same operation.it i. in fact. can onl function behind a moral supersrru ture. whi h orrepond LO th improbable coalition of luxury. because it is what everyone is busy concealing. or the incredible co xi ten of the most bizarre theorie and practices. this is what must be said at all costs. a sinking reality principle. p Th~ Preas 01"1 oj Simulacra WatergaLe. this dissimulation masking a trengthening of moralit • of a moral pam one approaches the primitive (mise en) scene of capital: its instantaneous cruelty it incompreh nsible ~ rocity. he take the "relation of force" for the LrlLlh of capitalist domination. It i a sorcery of cial relation . adds a final esoteri aur ole to the triumph of an esoteric ulrur . 15 .maybe mental cat strophe. but it doesn't give a damn-it is a monstrous unprincipled enterprist. The denun lad on of candal i always an homage to the law. d nunciation. etc. Because Ihese are the same. He does the same work of purging and reviving moral order. And aLI the recriminauon that replaces revolutionary thought today comes back LO incriminate capital for not following the rules of the game." understood as follows: capital. no need for revolution: it suffi that apital a ornmodat i If to the rational formula of e. It' n t a ndal to be denounced according to moral or economic r tionaliry but a challenge 10 take up ccording to ymbolic law. But thi would be nothing but the formula f ideology and when Bourdieu States it. LO re eive it as rational or to-combat it in the name of rationality. of energy crises and the critique of capital. and be him elf denounc thi rela14 tion of force as scandal-he Is thus in the same determlnlstic and moralistic position as the Washington Post journal' ts are. a chall "gc to socitty. comply with this phantasmagoria of the social contract and fulfill its obligation to the whole of society (by the same token. tc. One imputes this thinking 10 the contract of capital. It is the Left that holds out the mirror of equivalence to capital hoping that it will comply. WaU. This is what the journalists of the Washington Po t did. nothing more. and it must be responded to as uch. mental implo i nand involuti n without precedent lies in wait for a system of this kind. Ne erthele . from the theories of th Enlightenment up to Communism. Th same cenano in Di neyland (effect f the imaginary on ealing that reality n more is ou ide than inside the limi of the artificial perimeter): here the scandal effect hidin that there is no difference between the facts and their denunciation (identical methods on the part of the CIA and of the Washington Po t journalists). immoral and without scruple. On could say along with B urdieu: "The e ence of every relation of force is to dissimulate itself as such and to acquire aU its force only because it dissimulates itself as uch. well beyond aU the relations of force. through the imaginary.

That is. pow r. this prec ion. Th fae no longer ha e a specific trajectory. It is through the arbitrary cessation of th plraling causality that a principle of political reallt can be saved. in th sense that th ir truth is to be e:l changed. but this one is uperfluou : the Left itself does perfectly good j b. am not afraid 10 see the Communists take power in ltaly-whi h may eern self-evident. conventional field of perspective in which the premises and th consequenc of an aCI or of an event can be calculated. manipulating the left-wing journalists in order to g t rid of ixon=-and why not? II hypoth es are po ible. but that con eys the impossibility or a determined position of power. In fa r. It traverses all di cour " uhout them wanting it to. of doing the work of the Right. all determination evaporates. orbital like that of the bomb. will change nothing of its fundamental capitali t mechanism. no more dial tical pol tily. It i (he seer t of a di cours • a political dtscours can be." who was id to be the minence grise of the Republicans. ven for a Communist). because it could mean the oppo it (no need for psychoanal sis here): I am afraid to se th Communists take power (and there are good reasons for that. Simulation is charact rued by a precession of the model. if they come to power. er or seizes it again. one unfavorable to the Left in general. but nOI as much as you might think. or unfavorable to them within the Union of the Left-or do th )' no longer want it. which no longer has anything to do with a logic of facts and an order of reason. Berlin uer. it would be naive to e an embittered good conscience at work here. in the image of the mod Is from which the derive.)." it imuhaneousl ignifies: (hal there is no need to be afraid. in a generalized cycle. this confu ion of the fact with its model (no mor divergence of meaning. constitutes th genuine magnetic field of the vent. Th Communi t attack the Socialist Party as if they wished to hauer the union of the eft The give credence to the idea that th e r istanc would come [rom a more radical political need. this short circuit. erc. we are in a logic of simulation. by definition? When Berlinguer declares: "Ther is no nee d to be afraid to see the Communists take power in Italy. If one envi ions the emir cycle of any act or event in a s stem where linear continuity And dial tical polarity no longer exist. is what allow each time for all possible interpretation . indeed the objectivity of the facts does not put an end to this vertigo of interpretation. is no longer simply ambiguou Watergate was thu nothing but a lur held out by the s tern to catch its adv rsarie. Because manipulatlon t a wa ering lity in which po itivit and negariviry are engendered and overlap. The Mobius strip. ls any given bombing in Italy the work of leftist extremists. every act is t rminated t the end of the cy le having benefited everyone and having been auered in all directions. implosion of antagonistic poles).Sfmlllo ra and Simulcuiqn MOBI s-SrIRA I E ATI ITY Th Prr e ion oJ Simulacra once. in whi h there is no longer eith r an ctive or a passive. that a political credibility can be maintained (and of course "objecrive" analysis. they ar born t the intersection of models. Beside. and spontaneousl . or exrrerne-right provocation. the impo ibility of a del rrnin d discursive position. and the search for proof. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut.. ant to)-and even if they occupy the eat of power. il is because they no longer want power. But do rh not want power at thi jun tur . but further: I. since the Communists. that in fact. that there is no ri k that the will ver com to pov er (bee u they don't . results in a su~ All of this i imultaneously tha. if one divides it. or again. or all the models based on the merest fact-the models come first. And this logic is n uher that of one party nor of another. a tngl fact n be engendered by all the models at 16 17 . and thu there is no ri k whoever eues po . In the film. true. It is through the simulruion of a narrow. the tru Ie. th will ne er exercise it except by proxy. this i embodied b the character of "D ep Throat. is it a pollee-inspired scenario and a form of blackmail to public security? All of this is simultaneously true. This ruicip lion. or a centrist mise-en-scene to discredit all extreme rerron LS and to shore up its own failing power. their circulation.s-a simulation of scandal for regenerative ends. no mor ncgati e electricity.. ven th mo t contradictory-all true. genuine power no long r exi IS. in a field unhinged by simulation.

proving the law by tr~~sgression! proving wo~k by the trike. Simulation i infinitely more dangerous since it always suggests over and above its object. Hades of simulation. Illusion is no longer possible.uniting the Spanish ma ses again t foreign intervention? Where IS the truth in all that. of all those scenarios of deterrence which.knit . the discourse on desire to the one on power: today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. mu. Everything is metamorphosed into its inverse in order to be perpetuated in its purged form.its object (the Tasaday). As for the Moebius strip. It is the whole political problem of the parody. Not so long ago sex and work were savagely opposed terms: today both are dissolved into the same type of demand. which is posed here. the ultimate joy and metamorphosis of ~e law (which is why it is so well received at the moment): only capital rakes pleasure. It traverses aJI discourses without their wanting it. Thus with the American presidents: the Kennedys are murdered because they still have a P_OLiticaldimension. Formerly the discourse on history took its force from opposing itself to the one on nature. which finds In them the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism. the right of property. Nixon. of desire and capital. by simulation of death. of hypersirnulation or offensive simulation. Lyotard said. And this logic belongs to neither party. the whole system.the same with desire and libidinal space? The.rder .where even those con: de~ned at B~rgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. it results in an a mona sptra WI out r ere eing any POSSI I try 0 reso vmg ItS\ surfaces (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). and whose indignant protestation consolidates in return ~ranco 's . is the impossibility of staging an illusion. In olden days the king (also the god) had to die . like Watergate. etc. ' Strategy of the real Of the same order as the impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real..only had a right to puppet attempts." to want its own repression and to invest paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion which reduces this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. Without counting: proving theater ?y ami-theater.z. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. Others . But they nevertheless needed that aura of an artificial menace to conceal that they were nothing other than mannequins of power. The conjuncnon of desire and the law. if it is split in two. proving art by anti-art. because the real i no longer possible. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated hold up than to a real one? For a real hold up only upsets the order of things. which is no longer one of torture.that was hi trength.together without their authors even knowing it? The conjunction of the system and its extreme alternative like tWO ends of a curved mirror. proving truth by scandal. to renew the cycle by the mirror of crisis. in order to attempt to escape. Every form of power. to simulated murder.' phantas~.Johnson. but of the subtle maleficent. t?O long to run through the whole range of ~peratlonal neganviry. that law and order themselves might r~al/y be nothing more than a simulation. ALI the referentials intermingle their discourses in a circular Moebian compulsion. proving the system by CrISISand capital by revolution. of every institution attempting to break the viciou circle of its irresponsibility and its fundamental nonexistence of irs deja-vu and its deja-mort.ed. and as if involuntarily. It would take. proving pedagogy by ann-pedagogy. Transgression and violence are Ie serious. To seek new blood in irs own death. the "vicious" curvature of a political space hencef~rth mag?eti. when such colJusions admirably . con~unctlon . before coming ro think that we take plea ure in capital. Ford . negativity and anti-power: this is the only alibi of every power.t . Power can stage its own murder to rediscover a glimmer of existence and legitimacy. Today he does his miserable UtIDO t to pretend to die. a torsion that IS like the evil demon of commutation. circularized. etc. proving psychiatry by anti-psychiatry.of desire and value. the infinity of capital folded back over its own surface: transfini~e? ~d isn't it .a ort of hormonal treatment by neganviry and cnsis. elusive twisting of meaning" .. the impo ibiliry of a determinate position of discourse. Overwhelming versatility of de ire in Deleuze: an enigmatic reversal which brings this desire that is "revolutionary by itself. for they only contest the distribution of the real. try to revive a moribund principle by simulated scand~l. and for that matter proving ethnology by ~e dispossession of .176 Simulacra alld Simulations imulatra and imulations 177 of power. whereas a simulated hold up interferes with the very principle of reality. It IS always a question of proving the real by the imaginary. rever ibilized from right to left. But even this is gone. irs real agony. so as to preserve the blessing of power. . in wanting what it wan. every situation speaks of itself by denial. historical revolution. regime by .

precisely to devour every attempt at simulation. In brief. since it i pre i ely a uch tbat no equivalence with the real is po ible.180 Simulacra and imulations Simulacra and Simulations 181 rransgressionrproving work by the strike. Power can stage its own murder to rediscover a glimmer of existence and legitimacy.nd yourself immediately in the real. The established order can do nothing against it. IUusion is no longer pos ible. To seek new blood in its own death. negativity and anti-power: thi is the only alibi of every power. in fact the ign incline neither to one side nor the other. you will unwittingly fi. proving pedagogy by anti-pedagogy. Hence failing the real. In this impo ibility of isolating the proce of imulation mu r be seen the whole thrust of an order that can only see and understand in terms of om reality. But they neverrheles needed that aura of an artificial menace to conceal that they were nothing other than mannequins of power. since it cancels out the difference IlPon which the law is based. How to feign a violation and put it to the rest? Go and simulate a theft in a large department tore: bow do you convince the security guards that it is a simulated theft? There is no "objective" difference! the arne g tures and the same igns exi t a for a real tbeft.. well before institution and ju rice come into play.and take the most trustworthy ho rage. for they only contest the distribution of the real. The simulation of an offence. for it i practically impossible to isolate the process of Copyrighted ma enal 60C&pg = PP8&lpg = PP l&dq = Jean ~ Baud rillard i + selected ~ wrrnnqs + . every ituarion peak of itself by denial. Ford . to renew the cycle by the mirror of cri is. etc. to reduce everything to some reality: that's exactly how the established order is. r. of hypersirnulation or offen ive simulation. over and above its object. Everything i metamorphosed into its inverse in order to be perpemated in its purged form. Go and organize a fake hold up. Other . In brief. whereas a simulated hold up interferes with the very principle of reality. one of whose functions i. But the difficulty is in proportion to the peril. so that no life i in danger (otherwi you ri k committing an offence). Every form of power. It is the whole political problem of the parody. Be sure to check that your weapon are harmle . But even this is gone. Parody makes obedien e and transgre sion equivalent. ixon. that law and order themselves might really be nothing more than a simulation. The challenge of simulation is irreceivable by power. As far as the esrabli bed order is COn erned. Without counting: proving theater by anti-theater. for the law is a second-order imulacrum wherea imulation is a third-order imulacrum beyond true and fa} beyond equivalence. and for that matter proving ethnology by the eli possession of its object (the Tasaday). Simulation i infinitely more dangerou since it always suggests." 0 as to te t the rea tion of the apparatus to a perfect imulation. of its deja-vu and its deja-mort. and that is the most erious crime. which is posed here. proving the system by crisi and capital by revolution. In a tate of uncertainty it always prefer this assumption (thu in the army they would rather take the irnulator a a true madman). is the impo ibility of staging an illusion. if it is patent. How can you punish the imulation of virtue? Yet as such it i a eriou a the irnularion of crime.that wa hi trength. by imulation of death its real agony.but never as simulation. Thu with the American presidents: the Kennedy are murdered becau e they still have a political dimen ion. beyond the rational di tinction upon which function all power and the entire social stratum. Thi i why order always opt for the real. of every institution attempting to break rhe vicious cir Ie of its irrespon ibiliry and itsfundarnenral nonexi renee.. becau rhe real i no longer p ible. the right of property. so as to preserve the blessing of power. proving psychiatry by ann-psychiatry etc. Transgre ion and violence are less serious. becau it can function nowhere el c.to imulated murder . it is here that we must aim at order. But thi becomes more and more difficult. will either be puni hed more lightly (becau e it has no "consequences") or be punished as an offence to public office (for example. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repre ive apparatu would not react more violently to a simulated hold up than t? a real one? For a real hold up only up ets the order of things. they are alway of the order of the real. and hence no repression either. in order to attempt eo escape. \ Strategy of the real Of the arne order as the impossibility of redi overing an absolute level of the real. Demand ran om. a bank cu tomer will faint and die of a heart attack· they will really turn the phoney ransom over to you). In olden days the king (also the god) had to die .only had a right to puppet attempt . if one triggered off a police operation "for nothing ) .Johnson. and arrange it 0 that the operation create the greate r commotion possible. Today he doe hi mi rable utmost to pretend to die. stay close to the "truth. But you won't uceeed: the web of artificial igns will be inextricably mixed up with real elements (a police officer will really shoot on sight.nnvnnhtArl m~t nal . proving art by anti-an.

about that weightless nebula no longer obeying the law of gravitation of the real . it was also the first to liquidate it in the extermination of every u e value. deterrirorialization. In brief. good and evil. etc. a determinate power which can only dominate a determined world. that they are precisely unverifiable by ao order which can only exert itself on the real and the rational. "Take your desires for reality!" can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power. of every human goal. demon trations. On the contrary.the discourse of desire. which shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. But this does not make them inoffensive. and if it was capital which fostered reality. abstraction. of every real quivalence. through the force of inertia of the real which surrounds u the inverse is al 0 true (and this very reversibility forms part of the apparatus of simulation and of power's impotency): namely. they turn against power rhi deterrence which i 0 well utilized for a long time itself. finally.why not? . the iron law of its power. Thu all hold ups. but which can do nothing about that indefinite recurrence of simulation. no longer having any particular content or aims..182 imulacra and Simulations simulation. but al 0 . of tbe gravity of the e on my and the finalities of production. but indefinitely refracted by each other (for that matter like so-called historical events: strikes. and there power i alway right.power itself eventually breaking apart in thi space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its aims and objectiv . it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. its only strategy against this defection. crises etc. hija ks and the like are now as it were simulation hold ups. It was the first to practice deterrence. for in a nonreferenrial world even the confusion of the reality principle with the desire principle is Ie dangerous than contagious hyperreality. on ends and means: a referential order which can only dominate referential . and no longer to their "real goal at all. The only weapon of power. in the sense that they are inscribed in advance in the decoding and orchestration ritual of the media. in order to e tablish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. or to prove the real. the reality principle.and dedicated to power effects and mas imulation). is to reinject realness and referentiality everywhere. For. anticipated in their mode of presentation and possible consequence. it is a hyperreal events. s). of production and 60C&pg = PP8&lpg = PPl&dq = Jean ~ Baudrillard t t selected ~ wrltmg s t " . One remains among principle. Hyperreality and imulation are deterrents of every principle and of every objective. in order to convince u of the reality of the ocial. disconnection. it was capital which was tb first to feed throughout its history on the destruction of every referential. For that purpose it prefers the discourse of crisis. where they fun tion as a er of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs.

What ociery eeks through production. The spark of production. logically we will be under the total spell of power . and more and more. This is a que tion of life or death for it. all the profundity and energy of representation). as is the custom in a "self-managed" job. a structure. but work has subtly become something else: a need (as Marx ideally envisaged it. or was.strikes which are incorporated like obsolescence in objects. and if it wa capital which fo tered reality. But we are still in the same boat: none of our societies know how to manage their mourning for the real. it was also the first to liquidate it in the extermination of eve usc value. which is implicated in this same breakdown. the whole discourse of traditional production. It retains all the features. Likewise with work.a haunting memory already foreshadowed everywhere. a sccnodrama (not . for some time now produces nothing but signs of its re emblance. rather than to violence and death. power risk the real. an obse ion with its survival which becomes greater the. that of la belle epoque of political economy. Thus the hyperrealism of simulation i expressed everywhere by the real's striking re emblancc to it elf. Now. power risked deterrence and simulation. And at the same time. And of a double or locum for the strike process . When it is threatened today by simulation (the threat of vanishing in the play of signs). That is why contemporary "material" production is itself hyperreal. By an unforeseen twist of events and an irony which no longer belongs to history it is through the death of the social that ocialism will emerge . only tbe fiction of a political universe is saved. but both simultaneously. A demand exactly proportional to the loss of stake in the work process. and overproduction. has disappeared. that is to say something else entirely: a wizardry of work. on which to found one last glimmer of power. social. a perverse event.ame of power comes down to nothing more than the critical obsession with power: an ob ession with its death.f The same change in fortune as for power: the scenario of work is there to conceal the fact that the work-real the production-real. it is this very logic which i today hardened even more against it. Its spark has disappeared.as it is through the death of God that religions emerge. Then there are no longer any strikes or work. Everybody still produces. after declaring the strike. that of goods and commodities. since . it is dependent. an unintelligible reversion to the logic of reason.this is nothing but the object of a social demand. A twi ted coming. on production and mass consumption. and ha not for some time. and resumed production. like any other commodity. everybody unloads it on others) and grieving its loss.I0 Simulacra and Simulations " Simulacra and Simulations 181 disconnection." like leisure.unlike "true" power which is. disintegrating every contradiction by means of the production of equivalent signs. it gambles on remanufacturing artificial. As long as it was hi rorically threatened by the real.. When it ha totally disappeared. Completely expunged from the political dimension.a holy union which forms around the disappearance of power. it only multiplie the signs and accelerates the play of umulaticn. which is no longer a sroppage of work. economic. of roduction and wealth. risks crisis. is the restoration of the real which e apes it. Melancholy for ocieties without power: this has already given rise to fascism. that overdose of a powerful referential in a society which cannot terminate its mourning. by declaring them "elves (and virtually being) in a state of permanent strike. but it is nothing more than irs scaled-down refraction (thus the hyperreali ts fasten in a striking resemblance a real from which has fled all meaning and charm. a strategy. in exactly the same terms as before. As is the fact that power is no longer present except to conceal that there is none. This isn't a science-fiction dream: everywhere it is a question of a doubling of the work process. political stakes. the violence of its stake no longer exists. . A simulation which can go on indefinitely. like crises in production. a stake . manifesting at one and the same time the satisfaction of having got rid of it (nobody wants it any more. But it i too late. but not at all in the same sense). erc. Po wert too. The other production. but its alternative pole in the ritual scansion of the social calendar. to which it is equivalent in the general run of life's options. for power. And when it wants to fight this catastrophic spiral by secreting one last glimmer of reality. more it disappears. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power . Everybody belong to it more or less in fear of the collapse of the political. no longer makes any sense of its own. the reality principle. in the very sensation we ave 0 t e unrea ity 0 t e ta e and the omnipotence of manipulation. a trompe l'oeil. deterrirorialization. It is as if everyone has "occupied" their work place or work post. for the social itself. a relation of force. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our time: the hy teria of production and reproduction of the real. And it i by an artificial revitalization of all this that we try to escape it. And in the end the g. and hence subject to tbe law of supply and demand. the object of a social "demand. Undoubtedly this will ellen end up in socialism. And for that matter so has the strike-real too. of every teal equivalence.

like crises in production. to which it is equivalent in the general run of life's options. A simulation which can go on indefinitely. A demand exactly proportional to the los of stake in the work process. By an unforeseen twist of events and an irony which no longer belongs to history. a scenodrama (not to ay melodrama) of production. an unintelligible rever ion to the logic of rea on. that is to say something else entirely: a wizardry of work. the object of a social "demand. it i dependent. a perverse event. but of the scenario of power. This isn't a ience-ficrion dream: everywhere it is a question of a doubling of the work proccs .unlike true power which is. The arne change in fortune a for power: the scenario of work is there to conceal the fact that the work-real.184 Simulacra and imulations which is implicated in this ame breakdown. has di appeared. after declaring the strike. Undoubtedly this will even end up in socialism. collective dramaturgy upon the empty stage of the social. A rwi ted coming. And of a double or locum for the trike proces . a trompe-l'oeil. but its alternative pole in the ritual scan ion of the social calendar. Likewise with work. Everybody till produces. a take . ince .of the traditional ethic that ob ures the "real" labour proce and the "objective" process of exploitation . 60C&pg = PP8&lpg = PPl&dq =je.\lrinhton rn'lto.trikes which are incorp rated like obsolescence in objects. it is through the death of th ocial that socialism wiU emerge . like any other commodity. it i no longer a question of the ideology of power. The spark of production. and hence ubjecr to the law of upply and demand rather than to violence and death. And it i by an artificial revitalization of all thi that we try to escape it. and resumed production.r'Ir::t1 .}11 -Baudrtltard + + selected-wnunos ~" r'nn. but not at all in the same sense). by declaring themselves (and virtually being) in a state of permanent strike.but of the scenario of work. And for that matter so has the strike-real too. a relation of force. but work ha ubtly become om thing else: a n ed (a Marx id ally envisaged it. Likewi e. on production and ma COn umption.a it i through the d arh of God that religions em rge. only the fiction f a political universe i saved. Then there are no longer aoy strike or work but both imultaneously. As i the fact that power is no longer present except to con eal that there is none. and more and more. Its spark has di app ared. in exactly the same terms a before." like leisure. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work . which is no longer a toppage of work. or was a structure a strategy. It is as if everyone ba "occupied" their work place or work po t.thi is nothing but rhe object of a ocial demand. the violence of its stake no longer exists. a is the custom in a "self-managed" job. C mpletely expunged from the political dimen ion. Ideology only corre pond to a betrayal of reality by igns. the production-real.

it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. from the fact of being seduced by one' own image in the water.endless reproduction of himself and his power to the limits of the world. Notes Counterfeit and reproduction imply always an anguish a disquieting foreignness: the uneasine s before the photograph considered Like a witch's trick . to the mortal turning back of this vast technical apparatus secreted today by man as his own image (the narcissistic mirage of technique McLuhan) and that returns to him. to counter the mortal blows of simulation. where the devil detaches the image of the student from the mirror and harrasses him to death by the intermediary of this image). It is always the aim of ideological analysis to restore the objective process.objectiveness.of the traditional ethic that obscures the "real" labour process and the "objective" proces of exploitation . but of the scenario of power. which reflects the ambiguity of all current science. even and especially if they are revolutionary. cancelled and distorted .and more generally before any technical apparatus. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work . 2 There is furthermore in Monod's book a flagrant contradiction. Reproduction is diabolical in its very essence. of control and of death. who knows. His discourse concerns the code. reproduced at will (d. that i the third-order simulacra. All reproduction implies therefore a kind of hlack magic. for these arc all discourses of truth . This is ultimately why power is so in accord with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. JUSt like the imitative object (primitive statuette image of photo) always had as objective an operation of black image. This has hardly changed for us: simulation (that we describe here as the operation of the code) is still and always the place of a gigantic enterprise of manipulation. . (deolo only corresponds to a betraval of reality by signs sirnu arion corre pon to a sort-circuit 0 reality an to It up rcation by signs. All things incompatible with tbe indeterminable models of the third-order. collective dramaturgy upon the empty stage of the ocial. like arcissus. to being haunted by the double and. stocked. is related by Benjamin to the uneasine s before the mirror-image.but of the scenario of work. Likewi e. There is already sorcery at work in the mirror. science's principle of truth and transcendence. it makes omething fundamental vacillate. " cientific" ethic of knowledge. But how much more so when this image can be detached from the mirror and be transported.182 imulatra and imulations to say melodrama) of production. which is always an apparatus of reproduction. The Student of Prague. but it doe 0 still according to "scientific" schemes of the second-order . it is always a false problem to want to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum.always good.

there is no que ti n of "leaving them be. but not only: the more authority i contested." and it i obvious that unlike the "cia sical" objective or transferable relation this one here is insoluble and interminable. who tell the "oedipal" stories. draws its energy from its own reflection and it disappointment with itself. they say' it's fun. when it enters into the third-order simulation . tbat produce and reprodu the un on iou a it institutional u lance. They play at Oedipus also. It is another thing ennrely when the uneon ions itself.ub tance of reproducti n. malaise.perverse demand and for that rea n all tbe more obstinate. the untouchable at being a tea e . it is oing to be necessary to add the hyperreal. There i a whole chapter to add to the history of rraosf renee and couneertran ference: that of their liquidation by simulation. Francoi Richard: "Student a ked to be duced either bodily or verbaUr. to deny it all the more vehemently. To the famou aregories of the real the s mbolic and the imaginary. And the young ( rodents high-schoolers.tl interminable a p ycboanaly i and for the me rea on . Oedipal p ychodrama of imularion (n :ltber I real not I dramari for all that). after ]J ?ther eepre ive elution had been tried and found wanting in order to In ure a quorum. em like the real emancipation of paren ." "The Medium is the Me age" i the very slogan of the political economy of the sign. The me ag of the uncon iou b ve been hort-circulted by the p ycboanaly i "medium. un-referential]." Thi i libidinal hyperreali m.naked demand with no possible answer.1 Copyrighted rna nal . domina. but for all that all the more severe . ow we ve reached the phase of desperate reproduction and ~ here the stakes are nil. you have the word.~ut tb~ i n't desire.. 'GIve u YOUI knowledge. he naly is then can no longer end. hi sedu rion number. "liberated. ironically. Alone at last. Hyperdependence (much greater than before) di rored by irony and refusal. your presence. free and re ponible. Deprived of ymboli subsran e. The interminable psycho nal i. But at 0 they are aware of thi and they play the game. get hummy.sis ho a k for Oedipus ba k ag in. desire that has been fed by lack." Like one under an l. The contents of knowledge (teaching) or of affective relation) the pedagogical or familial referent baving been e_liminatcd in th act of eman ipation. by the place left vacant. you re there for that. The 'teach' he' Daddy.tes . or with the "uninformed patients in the form of the gift of th it anal tic knowledge." desire captured in it own vertiginous image. which captures and obsrru ts the functioning of th three order. you play ar ince t. 6 Athenian demoera y.r em nciparion of children and reena e1 . P choan I i di also of the exchange of the signs of the uncon ious. Therefore. had r ched me point where the vote wa considered payment for a rvice. as detour. the simulacrum is maximal . Very different ft m {be real libidinal tak f knowledge and power r even of real m urning f r the absence of same (a could have happened after 1968 in the univer ities).e acerbated and parodied imularion at one and the same time . adolescents) seem to sense it in their alway more in istent demand (though mil a paradoxi I) for the presence and advice of parent or of teacher. close approa he . But thi wa still interpreted a re mane. "Transfer ble" de ire (that i (0 say n n-referential. the discourse of the unconsciou become unfindable . parody of libidinous original mechanisms.' Conte ration certainly.al. of the imposible psychoan lysi becau it i itself.the distinction between me medium and th message haracrerizes instead ignification of me second-order. desire of desire. it become logi ally nd T hi rorically interminable ince it rabilize on a puppet. it's imulation. unjustified. imulared Oedipu .according to the same scenario of simulative anti :ipation that we have seen at work on all levels with the machines of th t~ird c:>rder." They're going to ha le them not witb any emotional or material spontaneou demand. Doesn '. without referent.in order to de-sexualize fin Uy. and did n t put fundamentally into question either the_process of analysi or the prin iple of rran ference. hyperre. ('nnIlYlf'lhtt>ti m "k>YI.. but with an exigency that has been premeditated and corrected by an implicit oedipal knowledge. from now on. there remains only a demand linked to the empty form of the institution . an un 0 iou programmed on demand . Jusr a revolution dies of the exchange of the critical signs of politi al e onomy. Tbi is literally today the "demand. The entire current "psychological" iruation is characterized by rhi horrircuit. it double back upon itself. a pore form.n im ibleto-break-throu b point around wbich tbe wbole analysi i rearranged. vilified the greater the need for authority as uch. mu h more advan ed than our own. who ha the "~aly~cal" dream to sati fy the opposed request of the analy r. Demand without content. peak. it seemed to them suddenly that other people possibly h ve ab onded with their tru liberty.186 imulacra and imulations Simulacra and Simulations 18 4 5 paces in the mesh by a convulsive sensuous participation that i profoundly kineric and tactile. once the initial pha of revolt J passed and one there h been tablished the principle of the right to emancipati 0. This herr-circuit was well known to Freud in the form of the gift of the nalytic dream. or to res r him? In th arne \ ay the rudenr goes through hi oedipal number.

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