ADRIAN KNIEL

TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORK
A HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS IN GHANA

ADRIAN KNIEL

TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORK A HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS IN GHANA

UNIVERSITY OF WINNEBA

DRUCKEREI

CONTENT

I. PREFACE ..........................................................................................5 1.1. A new concept of transition .....................................................5 1.2. Decent work as the goal of transition ......................................6 1.3. Gender roles and work in Ghana ..............................................7 1.4. A word of thanks .....................................................................8 II. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................9 2.1. Opportunities, abilities and interests .....................................10 2.2. A stepwise approach .............................................................11 III. THE PRESENT SITUATION OF SCHOOL LEAVERS .........................12 3.1. The situation of handicapped and non handicapped school leavers is comparable .....................................................................14 3.2. Employment related Legislation and Disability ......................14 IV. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION ....................................................17 4.1. School Learning .....................................................................17 4.2. Transition planning ................................................................19 4.3. How to analyze job opportunities ..........................................21 4.4. Vocational assessment ..........................................................23 4.5. Assessing vocational interest ................................................24 4.6. Assessing abilities .................................................................26 4.7. Job Analysis ...........................................................................31 4.8. Job matching .........................................................................33 V. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS ......................................................37 5.1. ANIMAL REARING ..................................................................40 5.1.1. Animal manure maker ...................................................41 5.1.2. Beekeeping assistant ....................................................43 5.1.3. Feed attendant ..............................................................45 5.1.4. Fisherman’s assistant ...................................................47 5.1.5. Helper in grass cutter rearing .......................................49 5.1.6. Herdsman’s helper ........................................................51 5.1.7. Poultry feeder ...............................................................53 5.1.8. Rabbit rearing helper ....................................................55 5.1.9. Snail raising helper .......................................................58 5.1.10. Tilapia raising assistant ................................................60

5.2. CROP FARMING ..................................................................... 62 5.2.1. Citrus orchard assistant ............................................... 63 5.2.2. Cocoa farmer’s assistant .............................................. 65 5.2.3. Cotton farming assistant .............................................. 67 5.2.4. Flower garden helper ................................................... 69 5.2.5. Garden eggs farming assistant ..................................... 71 5.2.6. Mushroom farming helper ............................................ 74 5.2.7. Okro farmer’s helper .................................................... 76 5.2.8. Onion farming assistant ............................................... 78 5.2.9. Pepper farming assistant ............................................. 81 5.2.10. Potato farming assistant .............................................. 84 5.2.11. Shallot farming assistant ............................................. 86 5.2.12. Tomato farmer’s assistant ............................................ 88 5.3. CRAFTS INVOLVING HEAVY PHYSICAL LABOUR .................... 92 5.3.1. Blacksmith’s helper ...................................................... 93 5.3.2. Block maker’s assistant ................................................ 95 5.3.3. Chain saw operator’s assistant ..................................... 97 5.3.4. Charcoal burner’s assistant .......................................... 99 5.3.5. Firewood splitter’s assistant ...................................... 101 5.3.6. Salt mining assistant .................................................. 103 5.3.7. Vulcanizer’s assistant ................................................. 105 5.4. CRAFTS INVOLVING LIGHT PHYSICAL LABOUR ................... 107 5.4.1. Batik maker’s assistant .............................................. 108 5.4.2. Bead maker’s helper ................................................... 111 5.4.3. Body pomade maker’s helper ..................................... 113 5.4.4. Book binding assistant ............................................... 115 5.4.5. Broom maker’s helper ................................................ 117 5.4.6. Calabash maker’s helper ............................................ 119 5.4.7. Carver’s helper ........................................................... 121 5.4.8. Chew stick maker’s assistant ..................................... 123 5.4.9. Door mat weaver’s helper .......................................... 125 5.4.10. Dressmaker’s helper .................................................. 127 5.4.11. Envelope maker’s helper ............................................ 129 5.4.12. Leather bag maker’s helper ........................................ 131 5.4.13. Mat weaver’s helper ................................................... 133 5.4.14. Paper flower maker’s helper ...................................... 135 5.4.15. Polythene bag maker’s helper .................................... 137 5.4.16. Pure water bag packer ............................................... 139 5.4.17. Rope maker’s assistant .............................................. 141 5.4.18. Shea butter extractor’s helper .................................... 144 5.4.19. Soap maker’s helper ................................................... 147 5.4.20. Thatch weaver’s helper .............................................. 149 5.4.21. Yarn spinning assistant .............................................. 151

5.5. FOOD PREPARATION AND PROCESSING ..............................153 5.5.1. Bean cake preparation helper .....................................154 5.5.2. Biscuit baker’s assistant .............................................157 5.5.3. Blackberry drink seller’s assistant ..............................160 5.5.4. Coconut flour preparation helper ................................162 5.5.5. Coconut seller’s helper ...............................................164 5.5.6. Corn dough preparation assistant ...............................166 5.5.7. Corn mill assistant ......................................................169 5.5.8. Fish descaler’s helper .................................................171 5.5.9. Fish smoking assistant ................................................173 5.5.10. Groundnut paste maker’s helper .................................176 5.5.11. Groundnut chips ‘Kulikuli’ preparation helper .............179 5.5.12. Kenkey seller’s helper .................................................181 5.5.13. Local corn drinks preparation helper ..........................184 5.5.14. Palm oil preparation helper .........................................187 5.5.15. Palm wine tapper’s assistant ......................................190 5.5.16. Pito brewing assistant ................................................192 5.5.17. Plantain griller’s helper ...............................................194 5.5.18. Porridge making assistant ..........................................196 5.5.19. Soya bean kebab seller’s helper ..................................198 5.5.20. Tea seller’s helping hand ............................................201 5.6. SERVICES AND COMMERCE ..................................................203 5.6.1. Bookman’s assistant ...................................................204 5.6.2. Car washer’s assistant ................................................206 5.6.3. Chop bar assistant ......................................................208 5.6.4. Clothes washer’s assistant ..........................................210 5.6.5. Cobbler’s helper ..........................................................212 5.6.6. Cocoa bean dryer’s assistant ......................................214 5.6.7. Female house helper ...................................................216 5.6.8. Garden boy .................................................................219 5.6.9. Hairdresser’s assistant ...............................................221 5.6.10. Houseboy ....................................................................224 5.6.11. Refuse collector’s helper .............................................226 5.6.12. Sales assistant ............................................................228 5.6.13. Second hand shoe seller’s helper ................................230 5.6.14. Ward assistant ............................................................232 VI. ORGANIZING TRANSITION AND SUPPORT ................................234 6.1. Transition Team ...................................................................234 6.2. Information needed .............................................................235 6.3. Results and discussion ........................................................236

VII. AN OUTLINE OF PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING ......................... 240 7.1. An analysis of basic vocational skills .................................. 240 7.2. Prerequisite skills in animal rearing .................................... 243 7.3. Prerequisite skills in crop farming ...................................... 244 7.4. Prerequisite skills in crafts: light or heavy physical labor ... 245 7.6. Prerequisite skills in food preparation and processing ........ 247 7.7. Prerequisite skills in services and commerce ...................... 248 7.8. The school curriculum and prerequisite skills for vocations 249 VIII. AN OUTLINE OF A PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM ..... 251 8.1. Task skills common to all vocational areas ......................... 251 8.2. Criteria for selecting pre-vocational activities in the Ghanaian setting ......................................................................................... 253 8.3. Time Frame ......................................................................... 257 8.4. School based vocational project phase ............................... 257 8.5. Job shadowing program ...................................................... 258 8.6. Onsite training program ...................................................... 258 IX. A FINAL WORD .......................................................................... 261 X. ANNEXE ...................................................................................... 262 10.1. WINNEBA VOCATIONAL READINESS SCALE (WVRS) ........... 262 10.2. WINNEBA SUPPORT NEEDS CHECKLIST .............................. 263 10.3. WINNEBA ACTIVITY LIST OF FAMILY MEMBERS (WALFM) .. 264 XI. REFERENCES ............................................................................. 266

PREFACE
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I. PREFACE
Schools for the Mentally Retarded have been burdened with adult “pupils” for many years. Since teachers of pupils with a mental handicap not only feel responsible for their schooling but also for their future life, the tendency was to keep these persons in a school setting as long as possible. This “solution” is due to a misunderstanding of the process of transition from school to work and a lack of confrontation with the realities of economic life and the social organization of families and communities in Ghana. The aim of some schools was to start production of food or other saleable articles, ignoring the fact that none of the teachers were trained craftsmen or had much business experience. Also, the prerequisites for successful marketing, such as market analysis, advertising goods and services, favorable location of the production site, etc. were often absent. Other establishments guided by the traditional training and rehabilitation approach aimed at teaching their wards a skill (usually batik, basket or envelope making, farming etc.) with the goal of achieving such a level of competence that they could survive economic competition after graduation. High hopes were also placed in government laws and regulations that would oblige employers in Ghana to hire mentally retarded persons for the few salaried jobs available – though the majority of Ghanaians works in the informal sector.

1.1.

A new concept of transition

This handbook attempts a radical departure from these strategies which have failed in the past and attempts to outline a concept which takes into account the realities of Ghanaian society. This includes: • Focusing on the role of the family as the primary source of selfemployment in Ghanaian economy • Guiding the process of (individualized) transition from school to work in describing the basic elements of each step in simple terms

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PREFACE
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Presenting informal tools for assessing work readiness and support needs of adolescents with mental retardation in order to judge the likelihood that they will be successful at a given job

Listing in detail a large number of vocational activities common to Ghanaian economy that can be mastered to different degrees by persons with mental retardation depending on their individual skill level

And finally describing what basic skills are the necessary foundations for a large number of jobs and should be trained at the prevocational level in school.

1.2.

Decent work as the goal of transition

The term “job” and “employment” will be used in this handbook in the sense of productive activity which includes self-employment and family labor as jobs for persons with disabilities. Presently, these will be found predominantly in the informal sector which does not exclude hiring persons with intellectual disabilities in the formal sector. For example, a hospital could hire such a person as a ward cleaner; or a senior secondary school could hire someone for gardening, maintenance work etc. Thirty five years ago, in 1971, the UN General Assembly proclaimed a Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons. The Declaration affirmed that mentally retarded persons had the same rights as everyone else. Specifically, they had a right to such education, training, rehabilitation and guidance that would enable them to develop their ability and maximum potential; a right to economic security and a decent standard of living; a right to perform productive work or to engage in any other meaningful occupation to the fullest possible extent of their capabilities. This idea was taken up again in the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities that were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 1993. There are 22 rules, ranging from awareness-raising to international cooperation. Employment is covered by Rule 7: ‘States should recognize the principle that persons with disabilities must be empowered to exercise their human rights, particularly in the field of employment. In both rural and urban areas, they must have equal opportunities for productive and gainful employment in the labor market.

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PREFACE
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In recent years, the concept of “decent work” has been propagated by the International Labor Organization (ILO). In the Decent Work Report of Mr. Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General, at the 87th session of the International Labour Conference (1999) he defined this term as follows: "Decent work means productive work in which rights are protected, which generates an adequate income, with adequate social protection. It also means sufficient work, in the sense that all should have full access to income-earning opportunities. It marks the high road to economic and social development, a road in which employment, income and social protection can
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achieved

without

compromising workers' rights and social standards.”

Thus, the right to decent work has three right’s dimensions: • • • the right to work, rights in work and the right to adequate social protection.

The right to decent work is not confined to wage employment, but extends to self-employment, home working and other income-generating activities. This is why we have decided to call the benefits a person with a mental handicap gets in the informal sector or a family business his “take home share”. The fact that the person does not receive a steady wage and must be satisfied by a share of the profits an economical activity applies to most family businesses and activities in the informal sector. Very often this “take home share” is limited to food, lodgings and some clothing from time to time. This does not only apply to persons with an intellectual disability but seems a general characteristic of work in the informal sector which dominates Ghana economy.

1.3.

Gender roles and work in Ghana

Many of the simple jobs described in this handbook are still gender bound. Blacksmithing or being a butcher, a musician, a palm oil extractor or pito brewer is customarily done either by men or women. Though most jobs will be open to both sexes in the future, in this handbook we stick to realities at the beginning of the millennium.

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PREFACE
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In order to make reading less cumbersome I have also avoided the “politically correct” option of writing him or her him or her and himself/herself at every occasion where the designated person could be either female or male. Where a job is customarily performed by women I have opted for “she” in the cases of vocations usually taken by me I use “he”. I hope the reader will excuse this procedure.

1.4.

A word of thanks

This handbook could not have been prepared without the help of three generations of students of the Education of the Mentally Handicapped unit at the Special Education Department of the University of Education, Winneba (graduation years 2004, 2005 and 2006). Following guidelines, they analyzed the tasks that comprise the helper jobs described in the chapter “An analysis of vocational options for mentally handicapped school leavers”. I would like to thank all of these students for their contribution and hope that the handbook will be useful for practicing teachers of mentally handicapped persons. Christiane Kniel-Jurka, Sandy Weiler, Comfort Ahamenyo and Shadrack Majisi read through and commented on the draft version of this handbook. I would also like to thank them for their ideas and support. The intention of this handbook can be summed up in two proverbs, one from the African and one from the European tradition: It takes a whole village to raise a child an African thought which means that everyone in a community needs to participate in the education of a child so that it fits into society. The Latin proverb Non scholae sed vitae discimus tells us that we learn not for school but for life. It is with these thoughts in mind that the handbook has been written Winneba November 2006 Adrian Kniel

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INTRODUCTION
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II. INTRODUCTION
Every parent and teacher hopes for a bright future for the children entrusted to them and worries about what type of work they can do to survive after leaving school. In Ghana the majority of school leavers - be they handicapped or non handicapped - earn their living in the informal sector, which means that there is no formal employment contract, no health benefits or social security payments and their earnings fluctuate from day to day. The Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 1998 (Ghana Statistical Service, 1999, 1923) shows for example that three quarters of all working women are selfemployed and that the majority earns cash. Others work seasonally or occasionally. Those 10 percent of women who work for a relative in the majority of cases do not receive cash for their work. Very often a young person contributes with his work to the survival of the family as a unit but the majority of income is contributed by the parents or other relatives. According to recent estimates, 60% of the labor force is working in agriculture, 15% in industry, and 25% are occupied in services. We can expect a similar distribution of work areas if we consider the transition from school to work for adolescents with mental retardation. In addition, as the unemployment rate in Ghana estimated for 2001 is presently at 20% of the workforce, we can also assume that about one fifth of all mentally handicapped persons of working age would not find a job.2

Information about youth unemployment and the informal sector in sub Saharan Africa can be found in African Economic Outlook2004/2005, Chant & Jones (2005), Economic Commission for Africa (2002), EFA Global Monitoring Report 2996), Fluitman 2001), United Nations Office for West Africa 2005), Xaba, Horn & Motala (2002). The location of these documents in the internet can be found in the References at the end of this handbook.

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INTRODUCTION
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2.1.

Opportunities, abilities and interests

In any country of the world, what a person does depends on three factors:

OPPORTUNITIES

INTERESTS

ABILITIES

In the case of Ghana opportunities depend to a large extent on the individual’s situation. • Whether the person lives in an urban or rural environment. Obviously farming is a more common occupation in a rural environment, whereas services, manufacturing and trading dominate in an urban setting. • On the geographical location of the persons residence. Fishing and fish smoking is more frequent on the coast, whereas herding cattle is more likely to be a means of earning a living in the north. • And finally the financial means of the family are an important factor. If the father owns a cocoa farm, the son can work in this occupation. If the mother has the capital to start up a small shop, the daughter can sell there, etc. Interests are obviously influenced by experiences the person has made. A person who grows up in a setting where small animals are raised will often develop an interest for this activity but is very unlikely to have the desire to become a fisherman. Usually young people tend to become interested in activities in which they do well and where they are successful. One of the goals of educating children with a mental disability is to offer them many opportunities to increase the number of their interests, so that choice and self determination will be possible when it is time to look for work.

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INTRODUCTION
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Abilities also determine the type of work a young person will eventually perform. We have developed a scale that measures different competence levels that are necessary for most simple jobs available in the Ghanaian environment. The scale also includes physical strength and agility, motivation and work behavior, orientation and travel and functional academics among other skill areas.

2.2.

A stepwise approach

In this handbook we use a stepwise procedure to analyze the elements that need to be considered and shaped in placing a person with a mental disability on the job market. Our approach differs from the usual procedure, for example in a National Vocational Training Institute or a Rehabilitation Centre where a person is trained in an activity up to a certain level of competence and then left to go out, to search for work or set up his own business. The basic idea of this former strategy can be described as

TRAINING LEADS TO JOB

As we will show however, this has not been very successful with youths with a mental handicap in Ghana as opportunities, interests and abilities have not been sufficiently considered in the past. The basic orientation of this handbook is therefore:

FIRST THE JOB THEN THE TRAINING

This means that when a future job activity has been selected under the participation of all concerned parties (as a rule parents and the young person him/herself), the gap between the skills the person has already acquired and those still necessary for mastering the job at hand are directly trained on the job site.

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INTRODUCTION
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III. THE PRESENT SITUATION OF SCHOOL LEAVERS
Before we look at specific studies in Ghana, it is important to view the employment situation of persons with a disability in so-called developed countries to avoid illusions. As Elwan (1997) reports in her review, the rate of employment of persons with a disability in high income countries is about half of those of non disabled persons of the same age group. In developing countries such as Mauritius only 16% of persons with a disability are economically active as compared to 53% of the total population; and, in Botswana, the figures are 34% of the disabled as compared to 51% in the general population (SIDA, 1995). Just as there are no systematic follow-up studies of transition from school to work for graduates of regular schools in Ghana, information about youngsters with an intellectual disability are mostly anecdotal. Hayford (2001) in a study of four Special Schools in Ghana found that in the period between 1992 and 1996, only five adolescents changed over from school to the world of work. In addition, none of these schools used formal assessment procedures to select trainees for specific vocational programs, and the numbers of options were extremely limited: basketry, farming, batik and envelope making. Even though Special Schools for the mentally handicapped have officially existed in Ghana since 1968, a study by Kniel (1995) indicates these schools were not able to supply data on the situation of their graduates. Schools were not in contact with school leavers who, in the case of boarding schools, come from all over the nation. This still applies to the present situation. In a survey of all school leavers of schools for mentally handicapped children in Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Togo and Zaire graduates had left schools on the average five and one half years previously and were in their early twenties (Kniel, 1995). The large majority (83%) was still living with their parents, and their vocational activities can be characterized as “helpers” or “assistants”. If we combine male and female graduates • • Most school leavers (35,5%) were helping at home The second largest group was, in the opinion of their former teachers, doing nothing at all

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INTRODUCTION
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• •

Craftsmanship such as weaving, sewing or woodwork was the third most frequent activity (10, 5%) Service activities such as sweeping in a hospital, transporting goods on a pushcart or peddling wares in front of the house were about as frequent as crafts (10%).

This distribution of activities can only be understood if we consider that the existing schools were all located in large towns (Abidjan, Lomé, Kinshasa and Yaoundé) so that farming or animal raising was not an option. Unfortunately, with very few exceptions (Congo, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo) in the nations of Western and Central Africa, schools for mentally handicapped children are limited to the capitals or do not exist at all. Four fifths of the sample (79,5%) worked at home or with relatives and only a minority (20,5%) worked away from home or with other persons than their (extended) family members. About half of the former pupils of Special Schools (51,5%) received no remuneration for their activities; about one third (32%) occasional gifts; and less than one fifth (16,5%) received a part of the profit or a salary. Even without exact data, it seems safe to assume that only a few school leavers could support themselves independently just as this applies to a large sector of graduates in the general population. Except for general housekeeping training which seems to be useful, with such a large number of mentally handicapped graduates helping at home, there is a lack of fit between training at school and actual activity after leaving school. Only 14% of those trained in farming and animal husbandry were later active in this field, 32% were exercising the craft they had learned at school, whereas 67% of those trained in housework were actually helping in the home. More graduates from poor homes were following some kind of activity as compared to those from wealthier families and more girls were working than boys. Good work habits and willingness to work, as observed by their former teachers, correlated with actually working after leaving school. This situation seems quite comparable to anecdotic evidence given by teachers at the JSS level of their former pupils. Questioned on the present situation of their former pupils students from three consecutive years of Special Education Training in Winneba indicated • • the majority were self employed with no steady income average earnings were around 300 000 cedis a month

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INTRODUCTION
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• •

with few exceptions these graduates in their early twenties still lived with their parents and could not afford to marry Many helped in the (extended) family activities.

3.1.

The situation of handicapped and non handicapped school leavers is comparable

There seems to be a comparable situation between school leavers of regular and special schools • the link between schools and the world of work in regular and special settings is extremely weak • the family environment and setting in which the graduate will return after graduation is not taken in account The main difference between these schools is that teachers in regular schools do not accept responsibility for the vocational future of their graduates. In special schools however, there is a tendency to keep even adults in the hope of eventually training them to a level of competence so that they can succeed in working independently. This seems an illusion as, by definition, mental retardation implies that although the person can attain a certain level of independence; he will need lifelong support and guidance.

3.2.

Employment related Legislation and Disability

Very often it is assumed that employment opportunities for persons with a disability can be enforced by national laws. As the International Labour Organization (2004) outlines, legal frameworks include quota obligations, employment equity and non- discriminations laws and laws on job retention. Job retention laws require an employer to continue to hire an employee who has acquired a disability while working for him. We can ignore these provisions

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INTRODUCTION
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as the mentally handicapped school leaver changing over to the world of work has not been employed before. In many European countries such as Germany, France and Italy quota schemes oblige companies of a certain size to hire a percentage of handicapped workers. Otherwise they have to pay a contribution into a central fund for the use of vocational rehabilitation, sheltered workshops or accessibility of the workplace. Equity or non-discrimination laws require firms to offer equal employment opportunities to persons with a disability and prohibit discrimination in recruitment, promotion and other areas of employment. This model is applied in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom among others. In Ghana part II of the Legislative Instrument (L1632), Transfer Labour Regulation 1969 specifies among other • • • the establishment of Disablement Employment Centres (DEC), a National Council in to advise and assist the Minister in matters and training of persons with a disability and that a quota of posts in the public and private sectors (0,5% of the total labour force) should be set aside for sedentary jobs. None of these provisions have been applied. The recently discussed but not yet approved “Persons with Disability Bill” foresees • • • providing unemployed persons with a disability with training, providing the person with the necessary tools or working materials or assisting with the access to loan capital so the person can start a business. However the monitoring and implementation of a legal framework for persons with a disability assumes that the government and the individual have the necessary means and powers to enforce these laws and regulations. Presently this does not seem to be the case in Ghana. In addition, studies have shown (Mont, 2004) that even in developed nations with a legal support system and enforcement of these regulations by the judiciary system and monitoring agencies, employment rates of persons with a disability are far higher than those of the general population.

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INTRODUCTION
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This is not to say that everyone interested in the welfare of school leavers with a mental handicap should not lobby for legal provisions. But a legal framework without implementation measures cannot be effective. This is why in this handbook we concentrate on a short term strategy for enabling the transition from school to work instead of counting on government measures that will probably not be implemented in the near future.

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION
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IV. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION
Thressiakutty, A.T. & Rao, L.G. (2001) have reviewed numerous transition models in a publication of the National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, India and have developed a transition model for persons with mental retardation. This can be adapted to the Ghanaian situation in a simplified form:

Phase of Transition

Elements of Transition

School learning

Pre-primary Primary Secondary Pre-vocational

Transition Planning

Job Identification Vocational assessment Job Analysis Job Matching

Job Placement

On the job training Identifying support Monitoring and fade out of support

4.1.

School Learning

In school children do not only learn specific academic skills but they are also socialized in the norms and values of society. These behavioural dispositions acquired in school allow the later integration into the world of work even of

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION
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those children with a mental retardation who have not been successful in functional academics. The following table based on the ideas of a German psychologist Rudolf Oerter illustrates some of the elements which school learning and the world of work have in common: School which do not seem to be related Work necessarily related in the understanding of the worker Obligation to study subjects which may Obligation of achieving work, which not be interesting for the pupil may not be interesting or satisfying for the worker Tasks need to be achieved in a given Tasks need to be achieved in a time frame good quality subjects and learning materials given time frame in good quality dedication at any type of task Tasks are expected to be achieved in Tasks are expected to be achieved Pupil is expected to show interest for all Worker is expected to work with In most cases pupils are not able to In most cases workers are not able judge the fundamental reasons for the to judge the role his work plays in content they are expected to learn the economic structure of society Praise by teachers parents and other Money food or other advantages as students as reinforcement for learning reinforcement for work in school As we shall see in a later analysis, quite a number of specific elements taught in school help acquire skills needed in vocational activities: • • • • being able to communicate and respond adequately to questions and conversation following instructions measuring equal distances being able to distinguish clean from dirty, large from small, heavy from light etc.

Learning a large number of contents Achieving tasks which are not

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION
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In an Indian study of vocational skills of persons with an intellectual disability Suresh & Santhanam (2002) distinguish between generic skills and vocational skills and aptitudes. By generic skills they mean general skills such as self-help skills, communication, social behaviour, functional academics, safety skills, domestic behaviour and motor skills. Vocational skills and aptitudes describe abilities such as perception, motor co-ordination, finger and manual dexterity, which relate more closely to the specific job at hand. In addition we distinguish work traits which refer to motivation, promptness of task achievement etc. and which determine the employability of a person. As a rule, the jobs which we will analyze in one of the following chapters do not demand a high level of academic skills. In fact, as a rule no skills in reading, writing or formal arithmetic are required. The majority of the non handicapped people exercising these vocations are barely literate. We will look at key skills that are necessary for the majority of simple activities described in this handbook and present tools that will enable the reader to judge if the young person with an intellectual disability is suitable for the job at hand or what further training he would need.

4.2.

Transition planning

Job Identification includes surveying job opportunities available in the environment in which the person lives as well as the persons (usually family members) who are willing to have the person assist them in their occupation. Vocational Assessment consists of identifying the interests of the trainee, usually by observation as well as determining vocational readiness in different skill areas which make it likely that he/she will succeed in a specific job. Job analysis consists of listing the different tasks which make up the job in sequence as precisely as possible. Here we distinguish core elements, which are those most frequently performed (i.e. stacking of firewood) and episodic elements which occur from time to time (i.e. bringing the wood to the market).

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION
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By comparing the skills needed for the specific job and the individual’s present level of competence we can decide what elements must be trained (Job Matching). A detailed guide to these procedures by Heron (2005) can be found in the internet. Job Placement Finally following the principle first the job, then the training, we need to train the person to perform the tasks that make up the job sequence or identify those elements which he can do efficiently. Carving sculptures consists of multiple elements from selecting wood, sharpening tools, designing the shape to be carved to finally polishing and exhibiting the product. But there is no reason why one or several simple elements such as storing the tools, keeping the workplace clean or sanding and polishing the sculpture cannot be a full time job for a carver’s helper. This means that in training we concentrate on those job elements which the person can achieve with success. Some girls with a mental handicap can learn to sew with a machine, some can learn to stitch evenly, and others can learn to sew buttons depending on their individual skill level. This does not mean that each one of these persons cannot become a helper to a seamstress depending on the need for this type of assistance. There is no formula to determine the number of weeks and the degree of intensity with which a person must be trained as this depends on the individual’s motivation and ability. However, by using our own observation and common sense we can soon determine how much training and supervision will be necessary. It should again be stressed, that job training can only be achieved under real conditions: There is no way a charcoal burner’s helper can be trained at the site of a special school or that a special school can offer the wide range of activities that exist as possible jobs for adolescents with a mental handicap. Therefore, the task of the school is to practice certain basic skills in prevocational training and follow the graduate into the community where he/she is trained by those persons actually performing the job. Teachers can only assist in this process by coaching and supervising when

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necessary, not by assuming the role of a craftsman or farmer themselves.

4.3.

How to analyze job opportunities

If we are looking for potential jobs in the community in which the young mentally retarded person lives, we can select a number of activities in taking the following guidelines in consideration: • • • • Look for simple jobs, where the same procedure is repeated without great variation Look for jobs where the risk of accidents and injury is low Look for jobs with low time pressure Look for jobs which can be performed in a group so that help and supervision is possible Obviously, the first source of employment would be a family business. In a survey of parents of children at Echoing Hills in Accra for example, Sarbah & Gidiglio (2003) found that the majority of mothers and aunties could imagine having their handicapped children working alongside their jobs as very many were petty traders or doing small crafts in the house. But in approaching potential employers we can also think of the extended family, aunties, uncles, brothers and sisters, cousins, grandparents etc. who might need a helping hand and work in a field that appeals to the graduate and fits his abilities. In addition, there are church members and other person in the community that can be approached because they need some assistance and are willing to help their fellow man. Certainly, if the parents are well connected, they can attempt to find jobs such as messenger/ cleaner in the public sector (hospitals, schools, district councils) if possible. This handbook gives a wide variety of job activities which can stimulate your ideas.

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A stepwise approach Use a stepwise approach: 1. A list of all possible job options can be worked out with the parents in a brainstorming session. 2. This list of possible jobs can be evaluated together by looking at the young person’s abilities and interests to see, which options should really be attempted. 3. Work out, who is going to approach which potential employer3. 4. Decide when to meet again to report on results.

Approaching potential employers In approaching potential employers, even if they are relatives of the person concerned, we cannot always count on an enthusiastic reception. Therefore we should use the following approach: 1. Contact the potential employer in a friendly and positive manner. 2. Choose a convenient time for the visit or offer to come back again if the time chosen is not practical. 3. Talk about what the person in question can do and not what he cannot do. 4. Give examples of positive job performance of other workers with mental retardation. 5. Underline that very often mentally handicapped persons enjoy simple repetitive tasks and are eager to work if they are treated well. 6. Remember, in talking to a potential employer or relative willing to work with the graduate it is your job to listen and understand the problems that this person might anticipate and not to preach or argue with him. 7. You are not there to expound the righteous sermon of brotherly love for the mentally retarded but to understand and analyze what obstacles the potential employers or family member sees in working with the young mentally handicapped person. These doubts must be overcome
The employer will in the majority of cases be a relative sharing his work and some of the profits with his mentally handicapped helper
3

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by your input and active assistance, not by sermonizing or giving verbal advice. Talk is cheap; it is direct help from you that the potential employer or family member expects. 8. It is also possible that some member of the family perhaps an elder brother or sister or the mother would like to start a small business, where the person with a mental disability could be of help. The National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) has an Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) which trains persons in starting and running a successful business and has regional secretariats in all regional capitals throughout Ghana as well advisors in some district capitals. 9. You should therefore be familiar with the location of advisory services, of micro credit schemes and of NGOs active in your area in order to help the family or potential employers.

4.4.

Vocational assessment

Vocational assessment consists of analyzing the vocational interests of a young person with an intellectual disability as well as testing those abilities that make it likely that he will succeed at a specific task. The goal of assessment is making an informed decision as to whether the young person has the prerequisite skills to handle a specific job and if his personality and interests are suitable so that he will be willing to work at this specific task. Work is a very important part of our life and we spend most of the time we are awake working. A job can be a source of accomplishment and pride and have an enormous effect on our overall life satisfaction, or it can be a cause for frustration and dissatisfaction. That is why it is so important to spend some time in analyzing what type of work is available (i.e. opportunities), and could be done by the young person, as well as to include the graduate in the decision making process. Not the teacher or the school decides the vocational future of the graduate but the young person and his parents or tutors.

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4.5.

Assessing vocational interest

Most formal tools for assessing vocational interests are paper and pencil tests which look at general interests and compare choices of activities and work that matches this interest (e.g. the Strong Interest Inventory4). However, these assessment tools demand reading and writing skills that the vast majority of students with a mental handicap do not possess. They have been developed for industrialized society so their use is questionable in Ghana. Even the Reading Free Vocational Interest Inventory (R-FVII)5 which is designed specifically for persons with mental retardation or learning difficulties and uses pictures in order to assess interest for different service areas cannot be used in our context because of different vocational activities in American and Ghanaian society. Therefore until such tools have been developed, parents, teachers and the graduates themselves will need to base their decisions as to interest in vocational activities on observation and informal questioning.

Three simple methods There are three simple methods of finding out the vocational interests of a young school leaver. These are: • • • Asking the young mentally handicapped person himself in a formal interview or informal conversation Questioning the parents, teachers and other individuals familiar with the person Observing if the person shows enthusiasm and satisfaction as he performs different prevocational activities Very often by observing the young person in the school context, talking to him about his preferences and interviewing individuals close to him, we can easily decide, if the student:

4
5

http://www.careers-by-design.com/strong_interest_inventory.htm http://www.psychcorp.com/catalogs/paipc/psy132dpri.htm

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• • • • •

prefers activities in the classroom to those out on the grounds likes gross motor physical activities as compared to fine motor activities while sitting down prefers to work alone or in a group likes being around animals or prefers working the soil can tolerate dirty work and noise or would prefer a quiet indoor environment

Unfortunately, in Ghana education often seems to mean staying in a school building. However, especially for the prevocational classes getting to know a large number of vocational activities is very important for developing career interests. Visiting a cobbler at the work site, seeing how a food seller prepares her meals and accompanying a cattle herdsman for a day or two can be more educational than sitting in a classroom looking at a blackboard. The syllabus of prevocational training should include a large number of such educational visits. Very often in informal conversation young mentally handicapped pupils will express interest in jobs that are very probably “out of their reach”, such as becoming a bus driver or repairing televisions and cassette decks. We should not make fun of them and ridicule them for misjudging their abilities but take their wish seriously. An older boy in a unit for mentally handicapped children was very interested in and friendly with craftsmen in an electronics workshop near his family house. He expressed a strong desire to work as a TV and radio repairman. Since the fine motor and cognitive skills involved in this work were considered too complex for his abilities, the mother and the school looked for a solution that would reconcile his interest and abilities. As there were people in the house that could always be called on to help, the young man was installed in front of the house to sell DVDs and play cassettes to people passing by which he did with great enthusiasm and some success.

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4.6.

Assessing abilities

In our stepwise approach, an analysis of abilities of the young person with a mental handicap is intended to analyze prerequisite skills that make it likely that the person will succeed in the job that he and his family have selected. It can only be underlined again that many simple jobs in which mentally retarded school leavers can work as assistants or helpers do not demand very high prerequisite skill levels, especially if the person is not expected to perform the entire task involved from beginning to end. This means, for example, in helping with making pottery the activities of the helper can be limited to preparing the clay or firing the kiln, so that dexterity at shaping pots is not essential. Just as many jobs do not demand a great deal of physical strength, in others language skills or a pleasing appearance or reading skills are not essential. Our Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale (WVRS) which is printed in the annexe can be used to determine whether a mentally handicapped individual has those necessary skills which make it likely that he can work in a certain occupation. This scale permits a judgement if the person possesses the necessary prerequisite skills that make it probable that he will succeed in effectively training for a certain job Each of the eight dimensions (social competence, safety awareness, self care skills, orientation and travel, functional academics, social behaviour, motivation and work behaviour, physical strength and agility) may be of different importance for different occupations. For example, skills concerning orientation in the community and travel competencies are important for someone moving around and collecting rubbish whereas functional academic skills are irrelevant for this job. On the other hand, a person working as a shop assistant would in some cases need certain functional academic skills such as reading product labels or making change whereas travel competencies would usually not be important. Therefore observing the level of competence in the eight skill areas of prerequisite skills at the school level can give valuable information as to the selection of possible occupations for school leavers. To make this point more clear let us compare profiles in the Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale (WVRS ) that would make it likely that a person could successfully be trained to work effectively as a tomato grower’s helper; whereas successful training as a chop bar cleaner would be quite

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difficult because the prerequisite skills are mostly missing. In the following table, the minimum competencies have been listed according to the Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale. Even though a higher level of competence may be desirable and would make collaboration with the helper who is mentally handicapped easier, this readiness level would be sufficient to perform the job at hand, if specific training on the job is added. Please compare the total scores in the different skill areas to get an idea of how these can be used to judge whether a person has the necessary prerequisite skills to be likely to accomplish certain jobs6.

Of course some of the scores deemed necessary for certain skills are somewhat arbitrary. we have tried to define the minimum level of competence that would be required as a starting point for on the job training

6

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION Tomato grower’s helper

Chop Bar Assistant Selling of drinking water to customers, Collecting of the plates after customers finish eating Cleaning of the tables Sweeping of the room Communication: Makes himself understood easily and to everybody (4) Greeting: Greets politely and spontaneously (4) Offers Help or Assistance: Assists when prompted (3) Social Behaviour: Shows age and culturally appropriate behaviour towards peers as well as strangers (4) TOTAL:15 Toileting: Has effective control of toilet needs (4) Personal Hygiene: Can wash independently in any familiar environment (3) Eating: Can serve himself and eat in a group (4) Grooming: Can groom himself independently but forgets some aspects(3) TOTAL:14 Use of sharp objects: Can use sharp objects under loose supervision (3) Electrical Hazards: Can operate switches and electrical appliances safely under loose supervision (3)

Duties

Clearing of the land Planting of Tomato seedlings Weeding Supporting plants with sticks

Social Interaction

Communication: Makes himself understood only by gestures (1) Greeting: Recognizes familiar persons (2) Offers Help or Assistance: Does not offer to assist (1) Social Behaviour: Is distinctly unsociable (1) TOTAL: 5

Self Care Skills

Toileting: Has an occasional “Accident “ (2) Personal Hygiene: Needs some assistance (2) Eating: Needs to be served but can eat in a group (3) Grooming: Needs assistance for clean dress, hair and finger nails (1) TOTAL:8

Safety Awareness

Use of sharp objects: Can use sharp objects under very close supervision (2) Electrical Hazards: Cannot use switches and electrical appliances (1) Fire Hazards:

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION Cannot light or use a fire but is aware of its danger (2)

Threats by Animals (Scorpions, Snakes): Runs away and informs others of danger (4) TOTAL:9 Orientation and Travel Orientation in the community: Walks independently in the community (4) Directions and Sign Boards: Can follow difficult directions (4) Public Transport: Needs help in ticket purchasing and where to get off (2) Traffic Hazard: Can use certain busy roads after intensive training (3) TOTAL:13 Functional Academics Reading & Writing: Cannot read or write (1) Measurement: Can measure with a string or measuring bowl (3) Money skills: Does not know the value of coins or bills (1) Number skills: Can count objects up to ten (2) TOTAL:7 Task Behaviour Group functioning: Can work together in small groups of up to 5 persons under close supervision (2) Responsibility: Is careful with equipment given to him under close

Fire Hazards: Can light and use a fire under supervision (3) Threats by Animals (Scorpions, Snakes): Stands and shouts for help (2) TOTAL:11 Orientation in the community: Remembers routes in the neighbourhood when sufficiently trained (3) Directions and Sign Boards: Can follow one-component directions (2) Public Transport: Needs help in ticket purchasing and where to get off (2) Traffic Hazard: Can use certain busy roads after intensive training (3) TOTAL:10 Reading& Writing: Cannot read or write (1) Measurement: Can distinguish larger or smaller (2) Money skills: Can give correct change for a sum of up to 5000 c (4) Number skills: Can add / subtract two digit numbers and has concepts of them (3) TOTAL:10 Group functioning: Can function in small groups under loose supervision (3)

Responsibility:

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THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION supervision (3)

Reaction to Instruction: Follows instructions for one step at a time (3) Tolerance of criticism: Accepts criticism and tries to correct (3) TOTAL: 11 Motivations and Work Behaviour Perseverance: Can carry out a work activity for 15 minutes without stoppages (3) Willingness: Is willing to take up only familiar assignments (3) Punctuality: Is punctual only 50% of the time (2) Remaining in workplace: Occasionally leaves workplace without permission (2) TOTAL: 10 Physical Strength and Agility Lifting and Carrying: Can lift and carry weight up to 15 kg (3) Walking and Running: Can walk for more than an hour without resting (4) Holding and Grasping: Can grasp and hold objects firmly of any site or weight (4) Bending and Balancing: Can bend down (for example for sweeping or weeding) for at least 10 minutes (2) TOTAL:13

Is careful with equipment given to him under close supervision (3) Reaction to Instruction: Follows instructions of several steps at a time (4) Tolerance of criticism: Accepts criticism and corrects as needed (4) TOTAL:14 Perseverance: Can carry out a work activity for 15 minutes without stoppages (3) Willingness: Is willing to take up only familiar assignments (3) Punctuality: Is punctual for almost all of the time (3) Remaining in workplace: Leaves workplace only with permission (3) TOTAL:12 Lifting and Carrying: Can lift and carry small weights up to 5 kg (2) Walking and Running : Can walk steadily for 10 minutes (2) Holding and Grasping: Can grasp and hold objects firmly of any site or weight (4) Bending and Balancing: Can bend down (for example for sweeping or weeding) for at least 10 minutes (2) TOTAL:10

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The table illustrates clearly that level of competence for a tomato grower’s helper need to be slightly higher in the areas of physical strength and agility as well as in orientation and travel skills as he perhaps has to move around to tend to different fields. On the other hand, a chop bar assistant needs a pleasing appearance (self care skills), positive social interaction and good task behavior in order to be accepted by the customers. Safety awareness, functional academics and motivation and work behavior have almost the same necessary skill level for both types of jobs, even though it is evident that the hazards for chop bar assistant would consist of dealing with electrical appliances and cooking fires. A tomato grower’s helper would need to instead react safely to bush fires and dangerous animals such as snakes and scorpions. However it also becomes clear that, given the necessary supervision and training, most graduates of a school for mentally retarded children would be capable of performing the necessary skills in both jobs. However, if some of the core prerequisite skills for a certain occupation have not been acquired during the whole period of schooling due to physical or other limitations despite intensive training, then this is an indication that the abilities of the graduate are not sufficient for this job.

4.7.

Job Analysis

A breakdown of all the tasks involved in a job (Task Analysis) serves as a guideline for the necessary steps in the job training of the person with an intellectual disability. All the components of the job need to be described as precisely as possible to develop a training plan and a checklist to find out which elements of the job have been mastered. Task analysis goes back to the nineteen twenties when assembly lines were being installed for manufacturing and time motion studies were used to determine the quickest and least wasteful way of performing certain tasks. Following Thressiakutty & Rao (2001, 67) we can distinguish four useful elements for analyzing a work sequence: • • • • core work routines episodic work routines work behaviors and work related skills

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Core work routines are those that occur very frequently or daily in a job. For example, fowls must be fed every day and given drinking water and also the chicken coops must be cleaned every day to avoid contagious disease. The goal of task analysis is to arrange these recurring tasks into simple sequential steps that can be trained until the person has mastered them. Episodic work routines are those tasks that occur more seldom in a job, such as once a week. For example, carrying feed sacks to a storage shed on a chicken farm will only be necessary when new grain for feeding has been bought. Catching and preparing chickens for inoculations will only be necessary on the day when the veterinarian is expected. Work behaviors are those “soft skills” expected from a worker such as punctuality, getting along with co-workers, being able to stand time pressure, etc. In many cases, feedback from the job trainer will be necessary to make the trainee with a mental disability aware of these expectations. Work related skills are skills associated with successful performance but not directly linked to the job itself. For example, someone working in agriculture must be able to find his way to the outlying fields where yams are being planted (orientation and mobility skills), must be capable of identifying labels that signal “Poison” when spraying plants (functional academics) etc. Some work behaviors and work related skills have been identified and are included in the Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale. They will be underlined in our Task Analysis of different jobs available for persons with a mental retardation in the Ghanaian context.

How to develop a job analysis The different elements making up a job can be observed and analyzed by watching other persons perform the core and episodic activities. You can ask someone to directly instruct you in performing all elements of the job. Then perform these activities yourself. Look at how well you have done and ask someone who customarily does this activity to criticize your work. Let the

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person point out to you which elements are correct and which activities could be improved. Do not assume you know it all before trying to do the job yourself. On this basis, develop a task analysis by writing down the sequence of activities that follow one upon the other. This handbook contains a large number of jobs accessible to adolescents with a mental handicap who will leave school. They have been put in alphabetical order and can also be sorted as to activity areas. All these jobs have been analyzed as to their sequence of tasks. Some hints are given as to the prerequisite skills that would make it very probable that a school leaver could be trained for this job following the results in the Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale. In the following chapter these task analyses will be listed so that the reader can choose professions which will be suited for an individual school leaver after having looked at • • • the job opportunities that are available in the environment in which the person lives the young school leaver’s interests and abilities and having discussed these options with the adolescent and his parents.

4.8.

Job matching

As we have already mentioned, job matching consists of comparing the skills needed for performing the selected job and the skills which the person has already acquired in order to decide what must be trained so that a high level of performance can be achieved. To give an example: most adolescents with a mental handicap have learned how to sweep a room or wash their clothing by hand. However, in some cases they fail to notice areas of the floor that are still dirty or cannot judge the amount of soap that must be used for the amount of washing and water given. These steps must be patiently demonstrated and repeated until the person has mastered these steps. Two issues are important to keep in mind: • The person who is doing the training on site (we will call him the job coach) will usually be a co-worker and family member. The job coach must be well selected and trained. The person must be patient and

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willing to take the time to show each step as often as necessary. In addition he must be able to give feedback without becoming abusive or overly critical. Otherwise the young school leaver will not learn. • Not all elements of the job must be mastered for the young mentally handicapped person to be useful. There is no reason why the person should not concentrate on a few simple elements, such as hoeing, weeding and watering. Preparing the mixture and spraying the plants would be done by another person. This type of division of labor is very common in settings where persons considered “normal” often work. A 15 year old girl enrolled in a unit for mentally handicapped children in a regular school was quite competent in assisting her mother in preparing fried plantains and “red red”. The mother sold the prepared food to customers mostly at noon. The girl was able to peel the plantains, wash the dishes, run errands such as buying beans and firewood and call the mother if customers arrived. However, even though many efforts had been made to help the girl distinguish different kinds of coins and bills in order to make change, she was not able to learn these skills. Since the parents unrealistically expected the girl to master all the necessary tasks for selling prepared food, the mother broke off the vocational training and sent the girl back to school and could not be convinced that her expectations were not matched to the adolescent’s abilities.

Vocational activities Vocational activities can be classified in different ways either as an alphabetical listing or grouped as to activity areas such as: • • • • • Animal rearing Crop farming Food and drink preparation Crafts and manufacturing Services and commerce

As we will later see, most of the activities that belong to a common vocational field are based on similar skills, which can be analyzed and used as a basis for prevocational training. We will discuss this point in a later chapter.

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The list of vocational activities - which is by no means exhaustive - is structured as follows: • • • • • • • • Job title and brief description of duties Main activities Analysis of prerequisite skills that make it likely that a person can be successful at this job Description of main task areas Take home share (expected earnings) Necessary equipment and investments for working in this job Risks involved and safety measures Gender factors and seasonality of work

These brief descriptions of job activities for mentally handicapped youths will enable the reader to select certain areas which could be a future way of earning a living for a specific young school leaver if the following conditions are given: • Opportunity, i.e., this is a job activity that is common in the region, and a family member is working in this field and willing to let the young person help on the job • • Interest, i.e., the school leaver has demonstrated interest in this or similar areas of work in school or at home Ability, i.e., the pupil has the necessary prerequisite skills such as physical strength and ability or communication skills that make it likely that he will be able to master the tasks that make up the job. Again let it be understood that not all elements of the job must be mastered in order that a person can work in this field, but a minimal competence must be achieved in order for a mentally handicapped youth to become active in a certain job area. All these job descriptions are based on an analysis of different vocational areas by students of Education of the Mentally Handicapped at the University of Education in Winneba in the years 2003 to 2006 7 and, of course; do not cover all possible activities. In addition, some elements may be erroneous as teachers and the author are not professionals in these job areas.

7

Without naming each individual student I would like to thank them for their work which was achieved as an assignment in the course „Vocational Training and Transition“.

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The reader is therefore encouraged to add new job activities which are within the reach of mentally handicapped youths to this collection, as well as revise and correct some of the job descriptions where it is necessary. The job catalog is meant to serve as a stimulus to generate ideas about what a young person could do to earn a living and not as a definite list of jobs for the mentally handicapped. In fact, as the reader will observe, the majority of these simple activities are performed by average Ghanaian citizens and are by no means unique to persons with a mental handicap. It would make no sense at all to focus prevocational training in special schools on a selection of these activities as they can only be learned in the field and by actually performing the duties involved. However, as we shall see in a later chapter some common elements of most job activities can be trained in school by a careful selection and monitoring of prevocational projects.

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V. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS
As has already been explained in detail, vocational choice for mentally handicapped school leavers needs to take in account: • • • the interests of the person leaving school the abilities he has shown during the school years as well as the job opportunities that exist among members of the extended family and the community in which he lives or where he will return. The following selection of job activities can serve as a guide as to what common vocational activities are accessible to mentally handicapped school leavers if they have the necessary prerequisite skills and are trained on the job. As was explained before, vocational activities have been selected, if • • • • the tasks are simple and repetitive the risk of accidents and injury is low there is low time pressure involved they can be performed in a group so that help and supervision are possible. In addition, since the majority of parents of mentally handicapped children are not affluent, we have also made an effort to give information as to the necessary investments and tools important for working in this job and estimated possible earnings, so that parents could decide if they have the means to set up their child in this type of work. Also some information is given as to risk of injury and possible safety measures. As we are looking at vocational activities in the informal sector where the majority of young Ghanaians find work, we have divided these jobs into groups according to the areas the different jobs focus on. The following areas have been selected: • • • • Farming (animal rearing and crop farming) Crafts (involving heavy or light physical labor) Food preparation and processing Services and Commerce

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Information is also given as to the customary performance of certain jobs by males or females and if the job can be performed all year round or is limited to certain seasons. It goes without saying that the majority of the jobs presented in this handbook is not restricted to a single sex and contain information about work that is regular and maintained throughout the year. The main tasks of these activities have been analyzed in order to help parents and teachers decide, if the school leaver has the necessary skills that make it likely that he or she can master this vocation. Again we need to underline, that not all tasks that make up a helper’s role need to be mastered in order to work in a certain vocation: certain selected tasks can be performed by the mentally handicapped school leaver in order to make a valuable contribution to the family income.

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FARMING
About 60% of the work force in Ghana is involved in farming, which includes growing vegetables or raising animals. In addition, many families in Ghana may raise goats and chicken or plant vegetables or maize in order to supplement their diet. In our job analysis we will concentrate on the most common types of food production without attempting to provide an exhaustive list. Since farming is usually a family enterprise and depends on the amount of arable land, the investment in seeds and livestock etc. no exact statement about expected income can be given. Again we would like to underscore that in most cases the helper is likely to get a “take home share” and not regular wages or a steady income. The amount earned can be quite low just as a large percentage of the Ghanaian population is forced to exist on less than one US $ a day.

ANIMAL FARMING Snail raising helper

CROP FARMING Nursery bed helper

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5.1.

ANIMAL REARING

In Ghana, we find a wide range of activities related to animal rearing. Work in this area can include being a feeding attendant on a poultry farm raising hundreds of chickens or attending to large herds of cattle, as well as to caring for a small number of chicken or goats for home consumption. Even though many activities in rearing different types of animals are similar in nature we have included them in order to show what a wide variety of possible jobs in this field exist for persons with a mental handicap.

SNAIL RAISING HELPER

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5.1.1.

Animal manure maker

Prepares fertilizer which needs little cash input. He collects manure and prepares it for decomposing in four to six months by adding plant waste and water. Main activities • • • collecting animal manure storing the manure preparing the manure

Prerequisite skills An animal manure maker needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures) but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. The person needs only a very limited self-care skill as the job itself is not clean. However, the person needs to be able to wash carefully after work. The only safety hazards could be encountering wild animals or snakes. Orientation and travel skills are important as he needs to roam about searching for manure. Functional academics are of no importance. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Collecting animal manure • • • • • distinguishes between animal manure and other waste matter mixes manure of different species if possible uses shovel or scraper to put it into a bucket puts leaves on top, when the bucket is full carries the manure to a storage place

Storing the manure • • • locates site on a solid surface digs a shallow pit provides shade either under a tree or by providing a roof

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Preparing the manure • • • • adds leaves and grass and mixes it with the animal manure stirs the manure heap to let air in waters lightly to speed up decomposition process checks the heat and moisture level by placing a stick in the middle

Necessary tools and investments Bucket, gloves, shovel or scraper. The total investment amounts to less than 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Take home share Manure is usually not sold but used for own farming, so no figures can be given. Risk of injury Low, but animal manure can be a health risk if the manure contains diseased organisms or is allowed to contaminate ground or surface water resources. Safety measures During collection, transport and application, the helper should avoid direct contact and inhalation of manure by wearing gloves as well as mouth and nose protection (wet rag) and wash carefully after work The manure heap should not be stored close to water sources to avoid contamination. Gender factor This job could be done by both sexes. Seasonality Collecting and preparing manure is an all year round job.

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5.1.2.
selling it. Main activities • • •

Beekeeping assistant

Helps in the production and extraction of honey, bottling the product and

setting up of beehives for the production of honey extraction of honey packaging and marketing the product

Prerequisite skills A beekeeping assistant will need only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures) if not dealing with the public but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. However since he is involved in food production the person must be clean when preparing and selling honey. Safety awareness can be limited to safely using a cutlass and using fire for generating smoke. Orientation and travel skills, as well as functional academics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given, and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Setting up beehives for the production of honey • • • • carries wooden boxes (beehives) to the site and places them on stands captures swarms on flowering plants during the swarming season in February and March places the swarms in the beehives which have been treated with wax checks after two to three months to see if combs are ready for harvesting Extraction of honey • • • • smokes boxes to drive away the swarm retrieves the combs with a clean sieve or cloth collects and strains the honey by squeezing it through a cloth removes dirt and impurities from the strained honey

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Packaging and marketing the product • • • fills the honey into bottles or other containers using a funnel 8 carries the honey bottles in a container to the sales point assists in selling the honey

Earnings Depend on the amount of honey harvested and sold Necessary tools and investments For buying catcher and hiving boxes, metal stands, smokers, bucket, strainer, wax and insecticide and bottles for filling with honey investment costs of about 700 000 Cedis can be expected. However the assistant would only need some protective clothing and a cutlass and a knife with the cost not exceeding 50 000 cedis. Risks of injury The assistant can be stung by bee swarms or step on snakes in the bush. He risks being cut while weeding and burns from fire while smoking the bees. Safety measures The helper should learn to work carefully with a knife or cutlass. Protective clothing can be worn when working with the bees. Gender factors Customarily bee keeping is a male occupation but of course it is also possible for females. Seasonality Keeping of bees and harvesting of honey is a year round occupation but has its peak in the Harmattan season with hot weather.

8

The empty combs can be heated for extracting bee wax used for making candles or other purposes

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5.1.3.

Feed attendant

Animals such as pigs, sheep and goats are kept in a pen to prevent accidents or stealing. The caretaker feeds these animals three times a day. Main activities • • • • collecting feed watering and feeding the animals cleaning the pens carrying out additional tasks as needed

Prerequisite skills A high level of communication skills is not important, but the attendant must be able to accept some criticism and be willing to help. Self care skills can be limited as the feed attendant does not deal with the public. He needs to be able to use sharp objects such as a cutlass and a knife safely; and orientation and travel skills are essential in collecting animal feed. Functional academics and social behavior can be quite rudimentary, but good motivation and work behavior with a certain degree of physical strength and agility is a must. Main task areas Collecting feed • • • • • looks for grass for the animals cuts grass using a cutlass or a sickle removes sticks and inedible material collects husks and peels from houses and chop bars in the locality carries the feed home for the animals

Watering and feeding • • shares the feed proportionally into the troughs or the containers for the animals makes sure there is always water for drinking.

Cleaning the pens • • • cleans the pen, the feed and water troughs throws left-over feed (grass, cassava, peels ) away stores feed in the appropriate place

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Additional tasks • • helps in carrying out periodic repairs of the pen. helps separate sick and pregnant animals from the others

Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, wheelbarrow, sickle, basket, broom, Wellington boots. The necessary equipment costs below 200 000 Cedis at present prices. Take home share Can earn up to 250 000 Cedis a month. Risk of injury The assistant can hurt himself with a cutlass or a sickle while cutting grass but, in general, risk of injury is low. Safety measures A first aid kit should be available. The attendant should wear Wellington boots and gloves when necessary. After work the attendant should wash carefully to avoid infection. Gender factors This job can be performed by both sexes. Seasonality The activity of a feed attendant does not depend on a season.

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5.1.4.

Fisherman’s assistant

Helps prepare the boot for fishing, unloads the catch and brings it to the market and assists in small repairs of the equipment. Main activities • • • preparation for fishing fishing at sea small repairs and marketing

Prerequisite skills A fisherman’s assistant needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. The person needs only very limited self-care skills, as he is not working in public. Safety skills include being able to swim and not getting to close to the outboard motor. Orientation and travel skills as well as functional academics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given, and a good degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Preparation for fishing • • • • • carries ropes, nets and container to the boat stores them in their proper place carries the outboard motor to and from the boat on instruction goes to buy fuel for the motor helps push the boat into the sea

Fishing at sea • • • • assists in casting the net helps in pulling in the net removes fish from the net drains water from the boat with a tin or bucket

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Small repairs and marketing • • • • • • • loads the catch into pans for carrying ashore cleans and bundles the nets carries nets, ropes and containers to the storage point removes the outboard motor and stores it cleans the boat mends the nets when torn helps transport fish to the selling point

Take home share Depending on the skill on the job a helper can earn between 150 000 and 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Investments for an outboard motor, nets and a boat can be quite high, but the assistant himself does not need any money to become a helper Risks of injury Are given because of the heavy work and the dangers of the sea involved. Safety measures The helper needs to be careful near the outboard motor and taught to stand or sit steadily in the boat. He should be able to swim and if possible wear a life jacket. Gender factors Traditionally fishing is a male occupation. Seasonality Fishing is a year round regular activity except for those days when traditionally no one goes to sea.

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5.1.5.

Helper in grass cutter rearing

Helps to feed and care for the grass cutters and prepares them for sale. Main activities • • • • preparing the feed feeding the grass cutters cleaning the pens or cages preparing the mature animals for sale

Prerequisite skills A helper in rearing grass cutters needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. The person needs only very limited self-care skills, as he is not working in public. Since there are no specific hazards except for working with sharp objects (knife and cutlass), his safety awareness can be relatively low. Orientation and travel skills as well as functional academics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given, and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Preparation of food and cleaning • • • • • • • • • cuts green cowpea and fresh grass using a cutlass slices the nodes of leftover sugar cane with a knife cuts and peels some food containing carbohydrates such as yam and cassava boils these peeled carbohydrate foods until they are soft adds a quantity of salt to the food items mixes the various food items using a stirring stick removes leftover food daily sweeps the pens or cages scrubs with disinfectant once a month

Preparing the grass cutters for sale • • selects the mature grass cutters on instruction removes them from the pen by holding them by the neck and legs

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• • • • • • •

holds them down for slaughter removes hair from carcass by immersing it in boiling water scrapes off the hair using a knife slits the stomach and removes the intestines applies salt and rubs it into the meat smokes the meat brings the meat to the selling point

Take home share A helper can earn up to 150 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, knife and shovel which demand investments of less than 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risks of injury Are low, but the person can hurt himself with a knife or cutlass while preparing the feed. Safety measures The helper needs to be careful in using a knife for peeling yams, sugar cane and cassava and in handling boiling water. In addition to that, no special safety measures are needed. Gender factors Both sexes can be employed in raising grass cutters. Seasonality Raising grass cutters is a regular, year round activity.

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5.1.6.

Herdsman’s helper

A herdsman’s helper assists in taking care of the cattle. Main activities • • • • preparing the feed feeding the cattle watering the cattle cleaning the ranch

Prerequisite skills A high level of communication skills is not important, but the attendant must be able to accept some criticism and be willing to help. Self care skills can be limited, as the feed attendant does not deal with the public. He needs to be able to use sharp objects such as a cutlass and a knife safely. Orientation and travel skills are essential in collecting animal feed. Functional academics and social behavior can be quite rudimentary but good motivation and work behavior, as well as a certain degree of physical strength and agility is a must. Main task areas Preparing the feed • • goes to the bush in the vicinity to cut grasses for the cattle collects other tubers and cereals from the farm for the cattle

Feeding the cattle • • • removes old feed from their trough replaces with new feed takes them out to the near by grassland to graze

Watering the cattle • • takes them to a water source to drink fills their water containers in the ranch with water

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Cleaning the ranch • • • cleans the area where the cattle rest overnight collects their manure in bags for sale as fertilizer transfers the animals from unclean areas to unspoiled areas

Take home share May earn up to 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments A sickle and cutlass with investments of less than 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risks of injury Are low, but the person must be able to deal with sharp objects, such as a sickle or cutlass. Safety measures No specific measures are necessary except training in dealing with animals and handling sharp objects. Gender factors It is possible for both sexes to do this job. Seasonality Cattle herding is practiced all year round.

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5.1.7.

Poultry feeder

The poultry feeder feeds the birds and waters them every morning, afternoon and evenings. He collects the eggs and stores them so they do not break. He keeps the birds’ water, feed, drinkers and troughs under hygienic conditions. Main activities • • washing drinkers and filling them with water feeding the birds and collecting eggs

Prerequisite skills A poultry feeder needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. In terms of self care skills, attractive appearance is not necessary because the person is not in contact with the public. However, he must be clean in order to avoid infection of the birds. The feeder must be able to use sharp objects carefully in scraping the troughs, whereas working with open fire and dealing with electrical hazards or wild animals is not an element of this job. Orientation and travel skills, as well as functional academics are not important for this job. Reactions to instruction and responsibility, as well as good work motivation are essential. Bending and balancing, grasping and holding, as well as moderate physical strength are important prerequisites of this job. Main task areas Washing drinkers and filling them with water • • • • • • • turns the drinker upside down unscrews the lid of the container pours out the dirty water washes the inner and outer parts with soap, water and sponge rinses the container and its lid half fills the drinker with clean water overturns the drinker and carries it to the birds

Feeding the Birds • • mixes the feed removes the leftovers from the trough

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• • • • • • •

fetches the required quantity into the troughs in the coops and adds feed (mash) into the trough spreads the mash to cover the whole part of the feeding trough observes weather conditions in relation to the quality of feed to give the birds leaves the scene to allow the birds to come around the feeding trough stirs the mash to revive the appetite of the birds leaves the scene to allow the birds to draw closer to the feed again collects eggs from the pens into a basket if there are layers which are laying

Take home share The earnings of a poultry feeder can amount up to 250 000 Cedis depending on his skill and the success of the venture. Necessary tools and equipment Cutlass, knife, Wellington boots with a necessary investment of less than 100 000 Cedis. Risks of injury Are low, but there is a possibility of being hurt when using a knife or a cutlass. Safety measures: Supervision is needed in order to check that appropriate quantities of food are given and the birds are kept in hygienic conditions. The person should be taught to wash his hands carefully and clean himself after work. Gender factors This job can be performed by women as well as men. Seasonality This is a year round job.

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5.1.8.

Rabbit rearing helper

Helps to feed and care for rabbits and prepares them for marketing. Main activities • • • preparing the feed and cleaning the hutches keeping the animals healthy preparing the mature animals for sale

Prerequisite skills A helper in rearing rabbits needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. The person needs only very limited self-care skills, as he is not working in public. Since there are no specific hazards except for working with sharp objects (knife and cutlass), his safety awareness can be relatively low. Orientation and travel skills as well as functional academics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given, and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Preparation of food and cleaning • • • • • • • • collects left over food such as pieces of bread, kenkey, peels of plantain and cassava, leaves of potatoes, cabbage and lettuce gives feed according to the size of the animal cuts green grass as feed gives tablet or pellet food when it is available gives clean water to drink removes leftover food daily sweeps the hutches and removes the droppings scrubs with disinfectant once a month

Keeping the rabbits healthy • • observes when the rabbits are not active, when eyes are dull, skin not smooth and shining reports these observations to the owner

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• • • •

keeps pregnant rabbits in a separate hutches and supplies them with clean dry grass ( guinea grass) and clean fresh water gives plenty of fresh water and greater quantities of food to the doe in order to stimulate breast milk keeps bunnies after they are eight weeks old in separate hutches helps the veterinary officer when vaccinating and disinfecting the hutch

Preparing the rabbits for sale • • • • selects the mature rabbits on instruction after about 160 days removes them from the pen by holding them by the loose skin at the neck places them in a wire net basket helps transport them to the selling point

Earnings Depending on the skill on the job a helper can earn between 100 000 and 400 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Depending on the number of rabbits the owner will need water troughs, hutches, feeding troughs. But the assistant will only need a cutlass, Wellington boots and a knife with investments of less than 100 000 cedis at present prices. Risks of injury Are low, but the person can hurt himself with a knife or cutlass while preparing the feed. Safety measures The helper needs to be careful in using a knife or cutlass and avoid prolonged exposure to the sun. Hands need to be washed after coming into contact with rabbit droppings. Gender factors Both sexes can help in raising rabbits.

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Seasonality Raising rabbits is a regular, year round activity.

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5.1.9.

Snail raising helper

Feeds and prepares the mature snails for sale. Snails must be fattened for about 6 months before they are ready to be eaten. Main activities • • • • • preparing the snails’ feed feeding the snails arranging the snails into groups according to size cleaning the snail’s dugout-hole packaging the snails for sale

Prerequisite skills A snail raising helper needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. The person needs only very limited self-care skills, as he is not working in public. Since there are no specific hazards, his safety awareness can be very low. Orientation and travel skills, as well as functional academics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given, and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Preparation of food and cleaning • • • • • • • • • prepares the snails’ feed from locally available foodstuff and materials such as yam, banana, kitchen leftover, most types of soft leaves etc. waters the pen every morning and evening and provides drinking water for the snails in a dish mixes the food and distributes it well all over the pen clears old feed and feces from the boxes or pen replaces the boxes and fills them with the new feed sorts out older and bigger snails away from the newly hatched sorts out the snails into various size groups sends the sorted snails into their appropriate compartment covers the various compartment in the pen

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Preparing the snails for sale • • • removes and cleans the mature snails with water sorts the snails into a basket or sack carries the baskets or sacks of snails to a point of sale.

Take home share A helper in snail keeping receives an estimated amount of ¢2,000 a day and receives approximately ¢ 60,000 per month. Necessary tools and investments A cutlass and knife with the necessary investments not exceeding 50 000 Cedis Risks of injury Are low, but there is a possibility of being hurt when using a knife or a cutlass. Safety measures The helper needs to be cautioned to handle the snails with care as they are delicate. But no special safety measures are needed. Gender factors Both sexes can be employed in snail keeping. Seasonality Snail keeping is a regular, year round activity.

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5.1.10.

Tilapia raising assistant

Helps in preparing the site for pond construction, in filling and stocking the pond in feeding and harvesting the fish catch. Main activities • • • preparing the site and constructing the pond assuring the water supply stocking and managing the fish pond harvesting and marketing the fish

Prerequisite skills A Tilapia raising helper needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. The person needs only very limited self-care skills, as he is not working in public. Since there are no specific hazards, his safety awareness can be very low. Orientation and travel skills, as well as functional academics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given, and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Preparation of the site and construction of the pond • • • • clears the land for the fish pond with a hoe or cutlass help dig the fish pond about 4 feet deep to a given size digs a water inlet and outlet assists in filling the pond with water and adding lime to correct acidity of the water Assuring the water supply stocking and managing the fish pond • • • • • places the fingerlings ( small fish) into the pond feeds the fishes with a mixture of tapioca flour, boiled lettuce of cabbage leaves feeds fish with fish pellets bought in the market removes weed when there are too many in the water adds water in the dry season when too much has evaporated

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Harvesting and marketing the fish • • • traps the mature fish with a net and puts them in a bowl carries the fish to the market helps in selling the fish

Earnings Depending on the skill level a helper can earn about 200 000 cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments A cutlass and knife with the necessary investments not exceeding 50 000 Cedis Risks of injury Are low, but there is a possibility of being hurt when using a knife or a cutlass when preparing feed. Safety measures The helper should learn to work carefully with a knife or cutlass. After liming and weed control hands should be washed thoroughly. Gender factors Both sexes can be employed in tilapia raising. Seasonality Tilapia raising is a regular, year round activity.

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5.2.

CROP FARMING

As mentioned before, work can be found on large farms specializing in growing cocoa, pineapples or citrus fruits and other cash crops as well as tending to small plots of land where vegetables are planted for own consumption. Depending on the circumstances, the work done can be limited to only a few specialized tasks or involve many separate activities. Many task involved in raising different types of fruits and vegetables and cash crops are quite similar. In order to demonstrate how many jobs can be handled by persons with a mental retardation in this area we have presented a task analysis of growing quite a number of different fruits and vegetables even though the tasks involved may be quite similar.

NURSERY BED HELPER

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5.2.1.

Citrus orchard assistant

Helps in preparing seedlings, planting trees, weeding and harvesting fruit and bringing it to the market. Main activities • • • sorting seedlings according to the scent and shape of the leaf transplanting seedlings and tending them so they grow into fruit trees plucking the fruit and carrying it to the house and the market

Prerequisite skills An orchard assistant does not need a high degree of social competence or self help skills, as he will not be dealing with the public. Safety awareness can be limited to working with farm tools, such as a hoe and cutlass as well as reacting appropriately to the dangers of wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be quite limited. However, the person must be able to work in groups (social behavior), have good motivation and work behavior. He must also be able to lift and carry weights up to 15 kg, walk for some distances, grasp and hold objects firmly, and work in a bent position for up to half an hour at a time (physical strength and agility). Main task areas Sorting seedlings according to the scent and shape of the leaf • • • sorts orange, grapefruit and lemon seedlings according to size puts them under different shading sheds waters them daily

Transplanting seedlings and tending them so they grow into fruit trees • • • • • weeds the area around the future site of the tree digs a hole around 5 cm deep into the ground using a measuring stick places the seedling into the hole tamping the earth around the roots firmly so the plant stands firmly places sticks or a basket around the plant so animals cannot eat or uproot it. weeds around the young tree so it can grow

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Plucking the fruit and carrying it to the house and the market • • • holds the branch with one hand and plucks the fruit with the other puts the ripe fruits in a basket and carries them to the house assists in loading the vehicle that brings the fruits to the market

Take home share Can make about 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Wellington boots, cutlass, hoe. The investments being below 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Job risks Are low, although the person can hurt himself by weeding with a cutlass or stepping on scorpions. Safety measures The person should wear boots and sometimes gloves, as well as be aware of danger when the trees are sprayed. Gender factors This is an activity for both sexes. Seasonality An orchard tree attendant can work during the whole year.

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5.2.2.

Cocoa farmer’s assistant

Helps grow, harvest and prepare cocoa beans. Main activities • • weeding and assisting in spraying the trees harvesting cocoa pods and drying cocoa beans

Prerequisite skills In order to help in cocoa farming communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite limited as the person is not dealing with the public. Safety awareness must be given for dealing with sharp objects such as a cutlass and being able to react to wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low but good motivation and work behavior as well positive social behavior and a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary prerequisites of this job. Main task areas Weeding and assisting in spraying the trees • • • • uses a cutlass to weed and prune the cocoa trees removes all the parasites on and around the trees fetches water from a source on the farm or near the farm assists in mixing water and chemicals for spraying

Harvesting cocoa pods and drying cocoa beans • • • • • plucks mature and ripe cocoa pods and carries them to the house in a basket cracks the cocoa pods open to put the beans into a basket spreads mats for drying the cocoa beans on an even surface dries cocoa beans by turning them as often as necessary in the sun stores the dried beans in sacks for transport to the cocoa company

Take home share A cocoa farmer’s helper may earn up to 250 000 Cedis a month.

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Necessary equipment and investments A cutlass, a sickle and Wellington boots with an investment of about 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risks of injury Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass or stepping on a scorpion, or snake. As spraying chemicals are dangerous for eyes and respiration, the assistant should not be involved. Safety measures The helper should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, and wash hands after coming in contact with chemicals. Gender factors Both male and females could do this job. Seasonality The majority of work occurs in the dry season.

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5.2.3.

Cotton farming assistant

Helps in preparing the land, sowing the cotton, weeding, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting, as well as preparing the cotton for selling. Main activities • • • • preparing the land and placing seeds pricking the seedlings and fertilizing weeding and spraying harvesting and separating cotton from the seeds

Prerequisite skills Communication (social behavior) and self help skills can be quite low and safety awareness can be limited to handling sharp objects like a cutlass and knowing how to react to wild animals. Orientation and travel skills and functional academics can be very limited. However the person must be able to work in a group (social behavior), have good motivation and work behavior, be physically strong and able to bend over for long periods of time. Main task areas Preparing the land and placing seeds • • • removes large stones and roots after the land has been plowed with a tractor digs holes in a distance of about one foot by using a measuring stick puts four seeds in each hole and covers it with soil

Pricking the seedlings and fertilizing • • • removes small plants after about two weeks when seeds have germinated so that only two remain in each hole after about three weeks removes weeds and applies fertilizer about 10 cm from each plant using a measuring stick fetches water for spraying the plants with insecticide

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Harvesting and separating cotton from the seeds • • • • • • holds a sack firmly in one hand and walks from one mature cotton plant to the next in a row plucks the cotton bud from the stem with one hand and puts it into the sack plucks all the mature and burst cotton pods until the sack is full ties the sack closed with a strong thread and carries it to the house separates the cotton from the seeds and places these in different containers helps in packaging cotton and seeds and in transporting them to the scale and collection and sales area Take home share A cotton farming assistant can earn about 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Wellington boots, gloves, cutlass, hoe with investments below 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risks of injury Are low, although sun stroke or hurting yourself while weeding is a possibility. Safety measures The helper should wear boots, avoid getting fertilizer or insecticide in eyes, nose or mouth and wash hands carefully after use. He should not be directly involved in plant spraying. Gender factors Depending on the individual’s strength and agility, cotton farming can be done by men and women. Seasonality Main activities are in the rainy season and up to harvesting in October, November. Then other crops are planted.

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5.2.4.
other occasions. Main activities • • • •

Flower garden helper

Assists in planting, watering and preparing flowers for sale for weddings and

building a shady roof for the plants preparing the flower pots with soil planting the seedlings and watering removing weeds and drying leaves

Prerequisite skills For this job communication (social competence) and self help skills can be very limited. As the person is neither dealing with fire, electrical appliances or sharp objects, safety awareness can be elementary. This also applies to functional academics, social behavior and travel and orientation skills. However, good motivation and work behavior is important, and medium physical strength for carrying water cans. Also important is the ability to work in a bent over position for some time. Main task areas Building a shady roof for the plants • • • digs holes for forked sticks as corner posts uses long sticks to connect these corner posts covers the structure of crossbars with palm leaves to create a shady roof Preparing the flower pots with soil • • • uses hands of a trowel to scoop up the soil fills the pot with loamy soil up to the brim without spilling places the pots under the shaded area

Planting the seedlings and watering • • places the seedlings or cuttings in the middle of the pot tamping them down firmly without disturbing the roots uses a bucket or watering can to carry water from a well, a tap or other source of water

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• • •

sprinkles water on the soil of the flower pots so that it is moist but not waterlogged waters twice daily in the dry season and as needed, in the rainy season removes weeds and dry leaves and buds of the flower as needed

Take home share A flower garden helper can earn between 80 000 and 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipments and investments Hoe, hand trowel, bucket, cutlass. For the needed equipment about 140 000 Cedis must be invested at present prices. Risks involved Are low, the person can hurt himself with a cutlass and should be taught to watch out for scorpions and snakes when working with the soil. Safety measures The helper should wear Wellington boots and learn to watch out for scorpions and snakes. Gender factors This job can be performed by men and women. Seasonality Flower gardening is a year round job.

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5.2.5.

Garden eggs farming assistant

Helps prepare the seedlings, weeds and fertilizes the soil, plants the seedlings, harvests the garden eggs and assists in bringing them to the market. Main activities • • • preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying harvesting and marketing

Prerequisite skills In order to help in growing garden eggs, communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite reduced. Safety awareness can be limited to dealing with sharp objects such as a cutlass and being able to react to wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low, but good motivation, work behavior as well positive social behavior and a medium degree of physical strength and agility is a necessary prerequisite of this job. Main task areas Preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed • • • clears the land for the nursery bed with a hoe and removes weeds, sticks and stones spreads the seeds on the soil and under plantain leaves to keep it moist for germination removes the plantain leaves after about five days and waters the seedlings daily Planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying • • • • after about five weeks the seedlings are transplanted to the main land which has been ploughed digs holes in a distance of about 9 cm using a measuring stick places the seedling in the hole and tamps the soil around it making sure not to harm the roots so the plant stands firm in the ground removes all weeds around and under the plant about three weeks after planting

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two weeks after first weeding, scoops a handful of fertilizer from a bowl and places it about 10 cm from the plant using a measuring stick and mixes it into the soil

assists in spraying the plants every week by fetching and carrying water

Harvesting and marketing • • • grasps the mature fruits firmly with one hand, plucks them and places them in a basket Carries the full basket from the farm to the house helps carry or transport the garden eggs from the house to the market

Take home share Depending on the persons usefulness at the job the assistant can earn between 100 000 and 300 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Basket, bucket or watering can, hoe, Wellington boots, cutlass with an investment of a little over 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass or stepping on a scorpion or snake. As spraying chemicals are dangerous for eyes and respiration, the assistant should not be involved. Safety measures The assistant should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, wash hands after coming in contact with chemicals such as fertilizer and insecticides. Gender factors Both men and women can work at this job. Seasonality

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Garden eggs are planted in the rainy seasons. If there is irrigation water then garden eggs can also be grown during the dry season.

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5.2.6.

Mushroom farming helper

Waters, weeds, harvests and sells mature mushrooms. Main activities • • • preparing the land and planting the seeds watering and weeding the young mushrooms harvesting and selling the mature plants

Prerequisite skills Communication can be limited but the person must be willing to assist and accept criticism (social competence). Self care skills can be very reduced, and orientation and travel skills can be quite low if the person is not involved in marketing the mushrooms. Safety awareness can be limited to the use of sharp objects and dangers of wild animals. Neither functional academics nor group functioning are important in this job. However, good motivation and work behavior is essential, and medium strength and agility is an advantage. Main task areas Land preparation and planting of seeds • • • • • clears the land by removing weeds digs a pit 15 cm deep and 2 x 1,5m as measured by another person fills the pit either with saw dust (preferably wawa, onyina and kyenkyen trees) or cassava peelings with palm fruit pulp added plants the seeds pours water on the pit until well soaked

Watering and weeding the young mushrooms • • • • waters daily to keep moist uses a cutlass to remove all the unwanted weeds from the pit helps the young mushrooms grow firm by tamping earth around the roots weeds and waters every day

Harvesting and selling of mature plants • identifies the mature mushrooms and gently removes them from the soil

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• • • •

sorts the harvested mushrooms according to size washes them in clean water and fills them into bags according to size and price pricks holes into the bags to allow the air to keep the mushrooms fresh transports the mushroom bags to sales location

Take home share A helper in a mushroom farm can receive about 6 000 Cedis a day or 180 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Cutlass, pick axe, spade, watering can, boots. The investments will amount to about 160 000 Cedis at present prices. Risks of injury Are low, but the helper can injure himself while digging or weeding. Safety measures The person must be taught to be cautious when handling a cutlass, a pick or shovel. A first aid kit should be available. Gender factors Both sexes can help in mushroom farming. Seasonality Mushroom farming is a year round occupation.

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5.2.7.

Okro farmer’s helper

The okro farmer’s helper assists in planting, harvesting and bringing the produce to the nearest market. Main activities • • • helping in clearing the land and preparing the site for planting Planting, weeding and spraying harvesting and marketing

Prerequisite skills In order to assist in okro farming, communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite limited. Safety awareness can be reduced to dealing with sharp objects, such as a cutlass and being able to react to wild animals. Functional academics can be low and orientation and travel skills limited to finding the way to the farm and back home. But good motivation and work behavior, as well positive social behavior, and a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary prerequisites of this job. . Main task areas Clearing the land and preparing the site for planting • • • • goes to the farm with the master to clear the land removes dead plants and tree stumps removes weeds, sticks and stones with a hoe makes beds for planting the okro

Planting, weeding and spraying • • • • digs the ground to plant the seeds uses a watering can or a jet spray watering tube to water the okro plants removes weeds from around the crops assists in spraying the plants by fetching and carrying water

Harvesting and marketing • • grasps the mature okro firmly with one hand, plucks them and places them in a basket carries the full basket from the farm to the house

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helps convey the okro to a market

Take home share A daily wage of 5 000 Cedis and a monthly income of about 150 000 Cedis is possible. Necessary equipment and investment A cutlass, a rake, a hand trowel, a knife , a watering can and Wellington boots are the necessary equipment for this job with investments not exceeding 150 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass or stepping on a scorpion or snake. As spraying chemicals is dangerous for eyes and respiration, the assistant should not be involved. Safety measures The helper should wear boots, be careful with a hoe and cutlass. Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun and wash hands after coming in contact with chemicals such as fertilizer and insecticides. Gender factors Both men and women can work at this job. Seasonality This could be a year round job.

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5.2.8.

Onion farming assistant

Helps in raising onion seedlings, transplanting, weeding and harvesting the mature onions and preparing them for sale. Main activities • • • preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying harvesting and marketing

Prerequisite skills In order to help in growing onions, communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite reduced. Safety awareness can be limited to dealing with sharp objects such as a cutlass. Since onions are not raised in the forest there is no need of being able to react to wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low. However, good motivation and work behavior, positive social behavior, along with a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary prerequisites of this job. Main task areas Preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed • • • • • clears the land for the nursery bed with a hoe removing weeds, tree stumps, sticks and stones after three weeks spreads the seeds on the soil using either the drilling or broadcasting method waters the bed and covers it with palm leaves to keep the soil moist for germination after about five days removes the palm leaves and waters the seedlings daily Planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying • • • • transplants the seedlings after about five weeks to the main bed which has been leveled, cleared of stones and watered adds organic manure such as cow dung to enrich the soil digs holes in a distance of about 9 cm using a measuring stick places the seedling in the hole and tamps the soil around it making sure not to harm the roots so the plant stands firm in the ground

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• • •

removes all weeds around and under the plant about three weeks after planting loosens the soil around the plant for aeration by using a hand fork after turning the soil scoops a handful of fertilizer from a bowl and mixes it into the soil by hand or sprays liquid fertilizer.

Harvesting and marketing • • • • uproots the onions by firmly pulling them out of the ground puts them into a basket and carries it from the farm to the house cuts of the sprouts and fills the onions into a sack helps carry or transport the sacks from the house to the market

Take home share Depending on the persons usefulness at the job the assistant can earn between 100 000 and 150 000 Cedis a month. A bed of onions can bring about 2 million cedis. Necessary equipment and investments Basket, bucket or watering can, hoe, Wellington boots, cutlass with an investment of a little over 150 000 Cedis at present prices. The farmer may also want to use a pump to transport water from a source to the field. Risk of injuries Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass or stepping on a scorpion or snake. No insecticides are sprayed in onion farming. Safety measures The assistant should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, and wash hands after coming in contact with fertilizer and the soil. Gender factors Both men and women can work at this job. Seasonality

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Onions are planted throughout the year since they are watered. They take three months to mature. Other vegetables such as spinach, okro, lettuce and pepper are planted along side of onions.

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5.2.9.

Pepper farming assistant

Helps in raising pepper seedlings, transplanting, weeding and harvesting the mature pepper and preparing it for sale. Main activities • • • preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying harvesting and marketing

Prerequisite skills In order to help in growing pepper communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite reduced. Safety awareness can be limited to dealing with sharp objects such as a cutlass and being able to react to wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low. However, good motivation and work behavior, positive social behavior, along with a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary prerequisites of this job. Main task areas Preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed • • • • clears the land for the nursery bed with a hoe removing weeds, sticks and stones spreads the seeds on the soil and mixes them with the topsoil waters the bed and covers it with plantain leaves to keep it moist for germination after about five days removes the plantain leaves and waters the seedlings daily Planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying • • • • After about five weeks the seedlings are transplanted to the main land which has been ploughed digs holes in a distance of about 9 cm using a measuring stick places the seedling in the hole and tamps the soil around it making sure not to harm the roots so the plant stands firm in the ground removes all weeds around and under the plant about three weeks after planting

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Two weeks after first weeding, scoops a handful of fertilizer from a bowl and places it about 10 cm from the plant using a measuring stick and mixes it into the soil by hand

assists in spraying the plants every week by fetching and carrying water

Harvesting and marketing • • • • grasps the ripe pepper firmly with one hand, plucks them and places them in a basket carries the full basket from the farm to the house fills the pepper into a sack and ties it firmly with a string helps carry or transport the sacks from the house to the market

Take home share Depending on the persons usefulness at the job the assistant can earn between 100 000 and 150 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Basket, bucket or watering can, hoe, Wellington boots, cutlass with an investment of a little over 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass or stepping on a scorpion or snake. As spraying chemicals is dangerous for eyes and respiration, the assistant should not be involved (except for fetching water for mixing the chemicals). Safety measures The assistant should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, and wash hands after coming in contact with chemicals such as fertilizer and insecticides. Gender factors Both men and women can work at this job.

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Seasonality Peppers are planted in the rainy season. If there is irrigation water, then pepper can also be grown during the dry season.

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5.2.10.

Potato farming assistant

Helps in clearing the land, raising small mounds, cutting and planting potato stems, weeding and harvesting the mature potatoes and preparing them for sale. Main activities • • • preparing the land and raising small mounds cutting and planting stems, weeding harvesting and marketing

Prerequisite skills In order to help in growing potatoes communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite reduced. Safety awareness can be limited to dealing with fire, sharp objects such as a cutlass and reacting to wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low. However, good motivation and work behavior, positive social behavior, along with a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary for this job. Main task areas Preparing the land and raising small mounds • • • • • clears the land with a cutlass removing weeds, tree stumps, sticks and stones heaps the dried weeds and burns them assists in ploughing the field spreads fertilizer evenly on the ploughed soil one week after fertilizer application raises small mounds about 15 inches in diameter and 6 inches apart on the soil using a hoe Cutting and planting stems, weeding • • • • cuts fresh creeping stems of the potato plant with a sharp knife to about 12 inches length digs holes about 5 inches deep into the top of the mound places the stem into the hole and tamps the soil around it removes all weeds around and under the plant about five weeks after planting

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Harvesting and marketing • • • • • • clears the creeping stems from the mounds with a cutlass digs the mature potato tubers from the mound by carefully using a hoe collects the potatoes and carries them in a basket from the farm to the house helps to bag the potatoes in medium sized fertilizer sacks weighing about 30 kg stitches the sacks shut using needle and string helps carry or transport the sacks from the house to the market

Take home share Depending on the persons usefulness at the job the assistant can earn between 100 000 and 150 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Basket, hoe, Wellington boots, cutlass, needle and thread with an investment of a little over 150 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass, burning weeds with a fire or stepping on a scorpion or snake. Safety measures The assistant should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, and wash hands after coming in contact with fertilizer and the soil. Gender factors Both men and women can work at this job. Seasonality Potatoes are usually planted during the rainy season. However, if there is irrigation they can also be grown during the dry season.

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5.2.11.

Shallot farming assistant

Helps in weeding, raising beds, carrying farm yard manure to the site, watering and harvesting the plants. Main activities • • • preparing the beds and planting watering, weeding, fertilizing and spraying harvesting, processing and marketing

Prerequisite skills In order to help in growing shallots communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite reduced. Safety awareness can be limited to dealing with fire and sharp objects such as a cutlass. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low. However, good motivation and work behavior, positive social behavior, along with a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary for this job. Main task areas Preparing the beds and planting • • • • • clears the land with a cutlass removing weeds, tree stumps, sticks and stones heaps the dried weeds and burns them raises beds of a given size to a height of about 15 cm mixes manure with the soil soaks the soil with water

Watering, weeding, fertilizing and spraying • • • • • • prepares holes about 3 cm deep and 6cm apart using a measuring stick places seed into the holes sprinkles the bed with water twice daily during the dry season after the bulbs have germinated after about two weeks sprinkles chemical fertilizer on the beds by hand picks weeds by hand and loosens soil with a hand fork helps spray the crop with an insecticide diluted with water

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Harvesting processing and marketing • • • • • • uproots shallots by pulling the dried sprouts out of the earth places the shallot into a basket and carries from the farm to the house scatters the bulbs on the ground to dry bulbs are selected and outer skin and roots removed depending on their size ties forty or more bulbs together in a bundle helps carry or transport the shallots from the house to the market

Take home share Depending on the persons usefulness at the job the assistant can earn between 100 000 and 150 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments The assistant will need a basket, hoe, Wellington boots and a cutlass costing less than 100 000 cedis, whereas the farmer will need a garden line and pegs as well as a spraying machine in addition. Risk of injuries Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass, burning weeds with a fire or stepping on a scorpion or snake Safety measures The assistant should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, and wash hands after coming in contact with fertilizer and the soil. As spraying insecticide is dangerous for the eyes and respiration the assistant should not be involved. Gender factors Both men and women can work at this job. Seasonality Shallots are planted twice a year. The major season is between June and September with less watering. During the minor season between Decembers to February the beds need constant irrigation.

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5.2.12.

Tomato farmer’s assistant

Helps the farmer to grow tomatoes for the family’s consumption and for commercial purposes. Main activities • • • preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed planting, weeds, fertilizing and spraying harvesting and marketing

Prerequisite skills The following profile makes it likely that someone can be trained to perform the task above with little or no difficulty. In order to help in tomato growing communication skills (social competence) and self help skills can be quite reduced. Safety awareness can be limited to dealing with sharp objects such as a cutlass and being able to react to wild animals. Functional academics and orientation and travel skills can be low, but good motivation, work behavior, positive social behavior and a medium degree of physical strength and agility are necessary prerequisites of this job. Main task areas Preparing the land and raising seedlings in the nursery bed • • • • • • clears the land for the nursery bed with a hoe removing weeds, sticks and stones helps remove tree stumps from the land spreads the seeds on the soil and mixes them with the topsoil waters the bed and covers it with plantain leaves to keep it moist for germination after about five days, removes the plantain leaves and waters the seedlings daily Planting, weeding, fertilizing and spraying • • • • After about five weeks, the seedlings are transplanted to the main land digs holes in a distance of about 9 cm using a measuring stick places the seedling in the hole and tamps the soil around it making sure not to harm the roots so the plant stands firm in the ground ties plant to a stick if necessary

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• •

removes all weeds around and under the plant about three weeks after planting two weeks after first weeding, scoops a handful of fertilizer from a bowl and places it about 10 cm from the plant using a measuring stick and mixes it into the soil by hand.

assists in spraying the plants every week by fetching and carrying water

Harvesting and marketing • • • • • chooses the ripe tomatoes according to color grasps ripe tomatoes firmly with one hand, plucks them and places them in a basket carries the full basket from the farm to the house packages ripe tomatoes into a crate helps carry or transport the crates from the house to the market

Take home share Depending on the persons ability, a tomato farming assistant can earn up to 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary equipment and investments Hoe, cutlass, watering can, Wellington boots, gloves with an investment of a little over 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, except hurting oneself weeding with a hoe or cutlass or encountering a scorpion or snake. As spraying chemicals is dangerous for eyes and respiration, the assistant should not be involved except for fetching water for mixing the chemicals. Safety measures The assistant should wear boots and be careful with a hoe and cutlass, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, wash hands after coming in contact with chemicals such as fertilizer and insecticides. Gender factors 89

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Both men and women can work at this job. Seasonality Tomatoes are planted in the rainy seasons. If there is irrigation water then tomato growing can also be done during the dry season.

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CRAFTS
As industrial work is still quite rare crafts are a common form of earning one’s living in Ghana. Some crafts demand a high degree of strength and physical fitness, whereas others are focused primarily on fine motor skills. This is why we distinguish crafts involving heavy and light physical labor.

CRAFTS, HEAVY PHSYSICAL LABOUR Charcoal burner’s assistant

CRAFTS, LIGHT PHSYSICAL LABOUR Mat weaver’s helper

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5.3.

CRAFTS INVOLVING HEAVY PHYSICAL LABOUR

CHARCOAL BURNER’S HELPER

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5.3.1.

Blacksmith’s helper

Helps carry and store materials and tools, maintains the fire, and tidies the shop and its surroundings after each days work. Main activities • • • loading and storing materials setting and maintaining fire sweeping and cleaning the workshop

Prerequisite skills Self Care Skills can be limited as the person will not interact much with the public. However, a certain level of social competence in communication, as well as tolerance of criticism is a necessity. Travel and orientation skills do not need to be much extended as the person works in one place. Functional academics can be minimal but the person must be able to work with fire (safety awareness). Motivation and work behavior must be developed. The assistant must be strong to be able to carry iron and charcoal and must be agile, as he needs to stay in the same position for some time in pumping the bellows. Main task areas Loading and storing materials • • carries scrap iron and charcoal from the vehicle to the shop stacks and stores these materials in the appropriate place

Setting and maintaining fire • • • lights a fire adds charcoal as needed uses the bellows to blow air so that the charcoal glows and becomes white hot Sweeping and cleaning of the workshop • • • • sweeps and cleans the workshop after work collects the rubbish into waste bin brings the refuse to a dumping ground stores the tools where they belong

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Necessary tools and investments Bellows will usually be provided by the blacksmith so no investments are necessary. Take home share A blacksmith’s helper will earn about 100 000 Cedis per month. Risk of injuries There is a risk of injury by fire and flying sparks, as well as dropping heavy iron loads on ones foot. Safety measures The helper must be trained to be careful with fire when pumping the bellows and learn how to lift and carry heavy loads without straining the back. Burn ointment should be available in the shop. Gender factors Though they may posses the necessary strength, it is unusual for a woman to be a blacksmith’s helper. Seasonality Blacksmithing is year round work.

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5.3.2.

Block maker’s assistant

Helps make building blocks out of cement, sand and water for sale. Main activities • • • • mixing cement, sand and water filling the block moulder drying the blocks and stacking them for sale storing materials and tidying up the work place

Prerequisite skills A high level of communication skills is not important, but the assistant must be able to accept some criticism and be willing to help. Self care skills can be limited as the helper does not deal with the public. He needs to be able to use sharp objects to cut open the cement bags but needs few orientation and travel skills as he works at the same site. Functional academics can be limited to using measuring bowls for mixing, and social behavior can be quite rudimentary. However, good motivation and work behavior, as well as a certain degree of physical strength and agility are a must. Main task areas Mixing cement, sand and water • • • • fetches water and pours it into a large container carries sand to the site with a head pan or in a wheelbarrow opens cement bag with a razor blade and scoops out a quantity of cement mixes measured quantities of sand and cement with water on a level ground surface using a shovel Filling and using the block moulder • • • • fills the moulds with the mixture without spilling makes sure that the mould is completely full presses down firmly on the bar removes the moulds and carries it to the drying area

Drying the blocks and stacking them for sale • places the blocks carefully on an even surface

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• • •

sprinkles water over them from time to time waits for several days for the blocks to dry stacks them by the roadside for sale

Storing materials and tidying up the work place • • • • carries the opened cement bags to the work shed in the evening cleans buckets and shovels, so that no hardened cement remains stores wheelbarrow, head pans, shovels etc. in the shed over night sweeps and weeds the ground when so instructed

Take home share A helper can earn about 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Shovel, head pan, boots with investments below 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries As cement bags weigh 50 kg, the person must be strong enough to carry such heavy loads. Safety measures No specific safety measures are necessary. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job for men. Seasonality Building blocks are made during the whole year.

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5.3.3.

Chain saw operator’s assistant

Helps the chain saw operator who fells trees by carrying tools and petrol, clearing the ground around the tree and stacking lumber. Main activities • • • carrying tools and equipment to the site and back clearing the ground around the tree cutting off branches and stacking lumber

Prerequisite skills Main considerations for the selection of persons that could be trained for this job are a high degree of physical strength and agility, good safety awareness as well as developed orientation and travel skills as the assistant will need to roam about. Social competence and self help skills can be reduced and functional academics can be minimal. However, the person must be able to work in a team (social behavior) and demonstrate good motivation and work behavior. Because of the high risk of injury, only an extremely cautious mentally handicapped person can be selected for this job. In addition, it must be guaranteed that the team he is working with will take care that he will not be endangered and involved in accidents. Main task areas Carrying tools and equipment to the site and back • • • carries petrol can, axe and chain saw to the forest places the tools at a place where they can easily be found assists in refueling the chain saw when instructed

Clearing the ground around the tree • • • uses a cutlass to clear the ground around the base of the tree clears in a radius of about 2 feet so that the chain saw operator can work freely removes bushes and branches that can hinder the smooth felling of the tree

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Cutting off branches and stacking lumber • • removes branches of felled trees with a cutlass stacks the pieces cut by the chain saw operator for transport according to size Take home share Depending on the skill of the assistant a sum between 100 000 and 300 000 Cedis monthly could be earned. The wages are paid as a daily flat rate. Necessary tools and investments Boots, cutlass, hard hat, overall and gloves costing around 150 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries This is a high risk job that should only be entrusted to a person who is careful and can react swiftly. Not only can working near a chain saw cause serious accidents, there is also the danger of being hurt by a falling tree or of cutting oneself while trimming branches. Safety precautions The person should be trained in avoiding accidents inherent to felling trees, wear boots and a helmet, as well as gloves when doing rough work with his hands. A first aid kit should be available. Gender factors This work is customarily done by men. Seasonality Tree cutting with chain saws is a year round occupation.

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5.3.4.

Charcoal burner’s assistant

Helps gather wood and burns and bags charcoal. Main activities • • • • gathering wood for making charcoal preparing a trench and stacking wood setting fire and burning the charcoal collecting and preparing the charcoal for sale in sacks

Prerequisite skills A high level of communication skills is not important, but the assistant must be able to accept some criticism and be willing to help. Self care skills can be limited, as the charcoal burner’s helper does not deal with the public. He needs to be able to use sharp objects such as a cutlass and a knife safely; and orientation and travel skills are essential in collecting wood. Functional academics and social behavior can be quite rudimentary, but good motivation and work behavior as well as a certain degree of physical strength and agility are a must. Main task areas Gathering wood for making charcoal • • • assists in chopping down trees cuts wood into pieces using a cutlass carries bundled wood to the charcoal pit

Preparing a trench and stacking wood • • • digs a shallow trench or pit using a pick axe and a shovel heaps the soil nearby arranges the wood so that the larger pieces are at the bottom and the smaller pieces are stacked above Setting fire and burning the charcoal • • • covers the stacked wood with some leaves covers with soil leaving a small portion open sets fire through the opening and recovers that portion with soil

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• • •

leaves it to slowly burn for at least two weeks until the wood is charred and turned into charcoal visits the site regularly and checks for breaks in the mound that must be refilled with soil fetches water from a nearby stream or river to put out the fire

Collecting and preparing the charcoal for sale in sacks • • • sorts the charcoal pieces by size puts the big charcoal pieces into jute or fertilizer bags first, followed by smaller ones finally places big charcoal pieces on top of the small ones to fill the sack to the brim Take home share Depend on local prices for charcoal and the amount sold, but a charcoal burner’s helper may earn up to ¢200,000 per month. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, shovel, axe, pick axe with investments of about 150 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The person can be burnt and hurt himself with a cutlass when cutting wood. Safety measures No specific measures are necessary except training in working with fire and handling sharp objects. Gender factors It is possible for both sexes to do this job. Seasonality Charcoal is made all year round.

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5.3.5.

Firewood splitter’s assistant

Uses an axe and a chisel to cut wood into chunks of equal size for sale or for fueling an oven for example for palm oil production. Main activities • • • carrying logs and tools to the workplace splitting logs into firewood stacking or bagging firewood for sale or use

Prerequisite skills The main consideration for the selection of persons that could be trained for this job is a high degree of physical strength and agility and good safety awareness. Social competence and self help skills can be reduced and functional academics minimal. As the person will mostly be working on its own, he must demonstrate good motivation and work behavior. Main task areas Carrying logs and tools to the workplace • • • carries logs to the workplace and stacks them sets up a log for use as splitting block places axe, hammer and chisel within reach

Splitting logs into firewood • • • • • places the log on the splitting block places the chisel on the top of the wood hits the chisel firmly with a hammer so that the wood splits pulls the wood apart with his hands if it is not completely split continues until all the logs are split

Stacking or bagging firewood for sale or use • • • stacks the firewood fills bags with firewood ties the bags shut with a piece of string

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Take home share Depend on the amount of firewood sold but the person can earn about 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments An axe, a hammer and chisel with investments slightly above 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The person can cut himself with the axe or be hit by the hammer or chisel and hurt by flying bits of wood. Safety precautions This is a high risk job that should only be entrusted to a person who is careful and can concentrate on his work. Gender factors Customarily and due to the need for physical strength this job is performed by men. Seasonality This is an all year occupation.

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5.3.6.
finished product. Main activities • • •

Salt mining assistant

Helps in gathering salt, loading it on vehicles, bagging it and selling the

gathering salt and transporting it ashore bagging the salt loading and selling the finished product

Prerequisite skills A high level of communication skills is not important, but the assistant must be able to accept some criticism and be willing to help. Self care skills can be limited as the salt mining assistant does not deal with the public. He needs to be able to use needle and thread to sew close the bags but needs few orientation and travel skills as he works at the same site. Functional academics can be limited except for sorting skills, and social behavior can be quite rudimentary. However, good motivation and work behavior, as well as a certain degree of physical strength and agility (bags of 25 kg must be lifted and carried) are a must. Main task areas Gathering salt and transporting it ashore • • • • • • uses a hoe to dig up the salt shovels the salt into a pan loads a push cart with salt pushes the cart to the shore heaps the salt on an even space covers it with a tarpaulin in case it rains

Bagging the salt • • • • holds the top of the bag open for filling uses a shovel to fill the bag nearly up to the top sews bags shut using needle and strong thread carries the bags to a truck

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Loading and selling the finished transport • • • loads a truck with sorted and weighed bags of coarse and fine granules accompanies the driver to the point of sale helps in unloading and selling the salt

Take home share A fifty kilo bag can sell up to 20 000 cedis depending on the season and the scarcity. Depending on the person’s usefulness a helper could get up to 200 000 cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments The helper needs a shovel, a hoe and a head pan with investments around 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries As bags can weigh up to 50 kg, the person must be strong enough to carry such heavy loads. Safety measures No specific safety measures are necessary. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job for men but there is no reason why a woman could not do this. Seasonality Salt is mainly mined in the dry season.

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5.3.7.

Vulcanizer’s assistant

Services car tires of all sizes, types and makes. Main activities • • • loosening tires mending the inner tube remounting the tires

Prerequisite skills Clients do not expect much cleanliness (self help skills) from the helper. However, he must be able to communicate and be able to function in a group (social competence, social behavior). Functional academics can be minimal and the person needs almost no orientation or travel skills as he always works at the same place. He does, however, need some safety awareness regarding traffic hazards. A high degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as well as good motivation and work behavior. Main task areas Loosening tires • • • • removes the wheel cap loosens the nuts on the tire bolts jacks the car to raise the tire removes the tire from the vehicle

Mending the inner tube • • • • • • • • • removes the tire from the rim removes the inner tube if there is any inflates the inner tube with a hand pump immerses the inner tube into water to recognize the puncture by air bubbles marks the puncture scrapes the damaged part with sandpaper applies glue and allows to dry peels off cold patch and fixes it to the damaged part tests the inner tube by inflating it and dipping it in water again

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Remounting the tires • • • • • • replaces the inner tube into the tire fixes the tire around the rim inflates the tire remounts the tire and screws the bolts tightly on the nut lowers the car by cranking the jack handle removes the jack and the wedges or stones used to prevent the car from rolling Take home share An assistant can earn up to ¢200,000 a month. Necessary tools and investments Spanners, screw-drivers, tire iron, foot pump and jack with an investment of about 400 000 Cedis at present prices Risk of injuries Are relatively high, as the jack can slip, and removing the tire from the rim also can be dangerous. Safety measures The person must learn to be cautious when jacking up a car by placing it carefully and to use a tire iron safely when removing the tire from the rim. Gender factors Vulcanizing is a male dominated activity. Seasonality This job can be practiced all year round.

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5.4.

CRAFTS INVOLVING LIGHT PHYSICAL LABOUR

MAT WEAVRER’S HELPER

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5.4.1.
design. Main activities • • • • •

Batik maker’s assistant

Helps in coloring local fabrics using wax and dye according to the master’s

helping to buy and prepare materials assisting in applying wax according to the design dyeing and drying fabric according to instructions folding, ironing and storing the fabric for sale keeping the workshop clean

Prerequisite skills A batik maker’s assistant needs to be relatively clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance. If she has dealings with customers, she must show some social competence such as in communicating and greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire for boiling the wax (safety awareness) and to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the market. Functional academics, except for the use of a measuring bowl, or if dealing with customers, making change, is of slight importance. A medium degree of physical strength and agility and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Helping to buy and prepare materials • • • accompanies the Madam to buy the needed materials carries the fabric and dye to the workplace spreads the fabric on the surface of a table and uses pins to fasten it to the table Assisting in applying wax according to the design • • • • lights a kerosene stove or a small fire melts wax in a container uses a stick or a brush to spread the hot wax on the fabric following instructions spreads or hangs up the fabric to dry in the shade

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Dyeing and drying fabric according to instructions • • • • • helps in mixing color in a can folds fabric following instructions and design and dips it into the mixture for a few minutes wearing a glove removes the fabric from the mixture to dry in the shade dewaxes when fabric is dried by boiling in a container applies the same procedure for additional colors following instructions

Folding, ironing and storing the fabric for sale • • irons and folds the fabric when dyeing is completed helps store the fabric for sale

Keeping the workshop clean • • • • • arranges after work all tools and materials in their proper places sweeps the workplace removes spilled wax and dye collects pins gathers rubbish and brings it to the dump

Take home share The assistant earns about 5 000 Cedis a day or 150 000 Cedis a month depending on the amount of fabric sold. Necessary tools and investments A table, some containers, design tampons. The assisstant is not expected to buy these objects but only needs a pair of rubber gloves and an apron with investments at less than 70 000 Cedis. Risk of injuries Consists of being burnt by fire or pouring hot wax on oneself. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to deal carefully with fire and in pouring the hot mixture and wearing rubber gloves working with dye. 109

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Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Batik cloth can be dyed all year.

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5.4.2.

Bead maker’s helper

Assists in making beads out of clay and broken bottles and moulding them in different sizes, colours and shapes. Main activities • • • • fetching and preparing clay fetching and pounding of bottles colouring and baking the beads stringing and preparing the beads for sale

Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal, but orientation and travel skills must be so developed that the person can find his way from digging clay or fetching bottles. Since the person works near an oven, he must be aware of fire hazards. A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Fetching and preparing clay • • • • • • goes to the site where clay is found uses spade, pick axe or Indian hoe to dig the clay places the clay with a shovel into a container and carries it to the work place pounds the clay in a mortar until it becomes very fine and sticky mixes the clay with water into a paste cleans working implements after use

Fetching and pounding of bottles • • • collects or buys empty bottles of different colors pounds the bottles with a stone mortar and pestle and grinds them with a grinding stone until they become a smooth powder sieves the glass shards from the powder

Colouring and baking the beads

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• • • • •

takes some of the clay mix with the ground bottle powder and forms them into the desired shape of the beads creates a hole in the middle of each lump by inserting a straw lets the beads dry for a while sets fire in an oven at a temperature of 850 Celsius bakes the beads until they are hardened and removes them from the oven to cool

Stringing and preparing the beads for sale • • • strings the beads following a desired pattern uses different lengths of string for a necklace, anklets and bracelets packs the beads into boxes according to weight and size and arranges them ready for sale Take home share A helper in this vocation earns ¢100,000 to ¢ 200,000 a month. Necessary tools and investments Pick axe, hoe, spade/shovel, mortar and pestle costing about 200 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The bead maker’s helper can be hurt by glass splinters while pounding bottles and burnt when removing beads from the oven. Safety measures The helper needs to be trained to deal with fire safely and to be careful when pounding bottles. Gloves should be worn when removing the beads from the oven. Burn ointment as well a first aid kit should be available.

Gender factors Bead making is suitable for both men and women. Seasonality Bead making is an all year round work.

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5.4.3.

Body pomade maker’s helper

Assists in preparing local body cream using a raw jelly, colorant and oil. Main activities • • • buying ingredients preparation of the pomade filling of pomade into small containers

Prerequisite skills A body pomade maker’s helper needs to be clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance. If she has dealings with customers, she needs some social competence such as in communicating and greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire (safety awareness) and to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the market. Functional academics are not necessary, except for the use of a measuring bowl. If dealing with customers, making change is of importance. A medium degree of physical strength and agility and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Buying ingredients • • follows instructions to go to the market with a list buys the necessary materials for the preparation of the pomade (jelly, oil, scent, colors, containers, rubber bags) Preparation of the pomade • • • • • • • divides the jelly into different jars according to the number of colors to be used. sets a fire and puts oil on the fire in a pan adds the jelly in the required quantity (more oil leads to softer pomade) lets the jelly melt in the oil adds the color and stirs to get the desired thickness (for white pomade, there is no need to add any color) removes the pan from the fire adds drops of scent to give the pomade a good smell

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Filling of pomade into small containers • • • • While the mixture is still liquid pours it into small pomade containers cuts small triangles of plastic to sell the rest in small quantities pours what remains over from filling the pomade containers into plastic triangles for sale carries pomade containers to the market for sale

Necessary tools and investments Spoon, ladle, saucepans, coal pot with necessary investments around 100 000 Cedis at present prices without the cost of raw materials. Take home share Depend on the amount of pomade sold but can be 200 000 Cedis a month. Risk of injuries Consists of being burnt by fire or pouring hot oil on oneself. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to deal carefully with fire and in pouring the hot mixture. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Body pomade can be manufactured all year.

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5.4.4.

Book binding assistant

Helps to bind books and bundle them at a printing press. Main activities • • • . Prerequisite skills A medium level of social competence and self help skills is desirable, as the person will need to deal with the public. As he will be working with others, he needs to be able to function in a group (social behavior) and needs good motivation and work behavior. As for safety awareness dealing with sharp objects is essential and he needs to be able to find familiar environments (orientation and travel skills). The helper should be able to count up to 20 and sort objects according to size (functional academics). Not a great amount of physical strength and agility is needed; however, fine motor skills must be developed. Main task areas Sorting and arranging materials • • • • receives and sorts unbound materials opens cartons uses knife, scissors and blade to take off wrappers and cut cello tape stacks paper in bundles for the bookbinder to use sorting and arranging materials cutting book covers and binding or stapling papers packing and storing books in cartons and shelves and keeping the workshop clean

Cutting book covers and binding or stapling papers • • • cuts cardboard to make book covers with a knife along a ruler or a guillotine glues or staples paper that has been sorted and arranged by the bookbinder glues paper on covers for decoration

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Packing and storing books in cartons and shelves • • • packages books into cartons orders them into shelves fetches them and brings them to the owners when needed

Take home share Depend on the amount binding done but can go up to 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and equipment Paper cutter, scissors, knife, guillotine, a ruler, pen and pencil, pliers with investments up to 400 000 Cedis. Risk of injuries Consist of being cut by a knife or scissors but are quite low. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to deal carefully with sharp tools. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Book binding is an all year occupation.

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5.4.5.

Broom maker’s helper

The broom makers’ assistant helps to produce brooms for sale. Main activities • • • collecting palm fronds preparing the material for binding shaping and tying the brooms and transporting them to the point of sale Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal but orientation and travel skills must so developed that the person can find his way to look for palm trees from which to cut branches as well as finding his way home. as to awareness of safety hazards, the person must be able to work with sharp tools; and since he will fetch palm fronds from the bush, he must be mindful of snakes and other harmful animals. A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Collecting palm fronds • • • goes to the bush to look for mature palm trees uses a cutlass to cut off some (but not all) of the branches bundles the branches and carries them to the workplace

Preparing the material for binding • • • removes the leaves from the main stem scrapes off the leaves with a razor blade or a knife to get the thin risps (broom sticks) cuts the brooms sticks to equal size

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Shaping and tying the brooms and transporting them to the point of sale • • • • • selects a quantity of brooms sticks sufficient to make a sweeping broom cuts a length of string or rag sufficiently long to wrap around the base of the broom ties the broom sticks together and makes a knot to fasten bundles the finished brooms so that they can be carried brings them to the point of sale

Take home share A broom maker’s helper could earn 50 000 to 80 000 Cedis monthly depending on the sales. Risk of injuries The only risk in this activity is working with sharp objects and possibly being bitten by snakes while searching for palm trees in the bush. Safety measures The helper must be trained to handle a knife or razor blade carefully and to be careful of wild animals. Gender factors Brooms can be manufactured by male or female helpers. Seasonality Brooms are made and sold throughout the year.

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5.4.6.

Calabash maker’s helper

Helps make calabashes out of gourds and prepare them for sale. Main activities • • • • collecting gourds cutting and scooping out the flesh cleaning and polishing the calabash keeping the work area clean

Prerequisite skills Self Care Skills can be limited as the person will not interact much with the public. However, a certain level of social competence in communication as well as tolerance of criticism is necessary. Functional academics can be minimal; however, the person needs a level of travel and orientation skills to find the way home from collecting calabashes. Motivation and work behavior must be developed and the person must be able to work with sharp objects (safety awareness).No great amount of physical strength and agility is needed, but the person needs the fine motor skills in order to paint and decorate the calabashes. Main task areas Collecting gourds • • • looks for gourd trees in the neighborhood plucks the mature gourds brings them home

Cutting and scooping out the flesh • • • cuts the gourd into two using a knife or a saw scoops out the flesh and seeds from the calabashes with a spoon scrapes the inside neatly with a knife so no flesh or seeds remain

Cleaning and polishing the calabash • • • fetches lemons from the market or from a tree washes the calabashes with water and clean sand rinses the calabashes

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• •

squeezes the lemon into them and distributes the juice evenly on the surface dries the calabashes

Keeping the work area clean • • • collects broken and unwanted calabash pieces sweeps the ground around the work area collects the rubbish in a bin and brings it to the refuse dump

Take home share The helper can earn up to 8000 Cedis a day and about ¢200,000 a month. Necessary tools and investments A hack saw, a knife, a cutlass, a spoon for scooping with investments not over 120 000 Cedis at present prices. Job risks The helper can hurt himself with the saw or knife, so he must be trained to use them safely. Safety measures Supervision is necessary in the beginning to make sure that the helper learns to cut the calabash in half properly. Gender factors This job can be performed by both sexes. Seasonality Calabash making is only possible when the gourds are available.

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5.4.7.
off his hands. Main activities • • • •

Carver’s helper

Assists the master carver in making wood sculptures by taking simple tasks

stacking wood and preparing the work site sandpapering and polishing of carved sculptures arranging and shelving finished products sweeping and cleaning the workshop

Prerequisite skills Self Care Skills can be limited, as the person will not interact much with the public. However, a certain level of social competence in communication as well as tolerance of criticism is a necessity. Functional academics can be minimal, but the person needs to be able to sort objects as to size, weight and color. Motivation and work behavior must be developed, and the person must be able to work with sharp objects (Safety awareness). Some physical strength and agility are necessary, as the person has to carry heavy wood and needs to stay in the same position for some time while sanding and polishing. Main task areas Stacking wood and preparing the work site • • • carries the raw wood from a lorry to the shop arranges the wood on instruction as to size and quality brings out and arranges tools and stools for carving

Sandpapering and polishing of carved sculptures • • • • sandpapers the finished sculpture until the surface is smooth wipes off the surface until no wood dust remains spreads lacquer on the surface evenly with a brush dries polished wood in the sun for about 20 minutes and takes it back upon instruction Arrangement and shelving of finished products • sorts the finished products from the unfinished ones

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• •

arranges the finished wood objects on shelves displays some of the sculptures in front of the shop and brings them into the shop at night

Sweeping and cleaning of the workshop • • • • sweeps and cleans the workshop after work collects the rubbish into waste bin brings the refuse to a dumping ground dusts the finished products and the furniture in the shop

Necessary tools and investments Chisel, hammer, axe, knife, hatchet, scissors, and a gouge which would necessitate investments up to 400 000 Cedis at present prices if the helper is engaged in the sculpting itself. Take home share The helper can earn between 200 000 and 300 000 Cedis per month. This depends on the market demand for the products and how well they are sold. Risk of injuries Depend on the type of work done. Sanding and polishing are not risky but, if the helper also shapes the wood, he can cut himself with an axe or an chisel. Safety measures The helper must be trained to deal with sharp objects. A first aid box should be available. Gender factors This job is customarily performed by men, but there is no reason why a woman could not also help in a carver’s workshop. Seasonality Wood carving is an all year round activity, although sales are more frequent in the tourist season.

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5.4.8.

Chew stick maker’s assistant

Helps make chew sticks for cleaning teeth out of the wood of the charpia tree Main activities • • • • gathering and carrying wood from the forest to the house cutting and splitting the wood into short pieces bundling the sticks for sale tidying the workplace

Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal, but orientation and travel skills must be developed in order to gather and transport the wood from the forest. As the person will go out in the bush, he must be aware of the dangers of wild animals and also be able to use sharp object safely. A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Gathering and carrying wood from the forest to the house • • • bundles the pieces of wood that has been cut ties them together for transporting carries the pieces home

Cutting and splitting the wood into short pieces • • • • cuts or saws the wood into pieces of about 4 inches length places a knife or short cutlass on the length of this piece hits the back of the knife with a piece of strong wood so that the charpia wood splits continues to split lengthwise until he has small pieces about one half inch in diameter Bundling the sticks for sale • • groups the chewing sticks in bundles of ten ties a string around each bundle

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places them in a basket or container for sale

Tidying the workplace • • • brings the wood back to the storage place stores the cutlass or knife in its proper place sweeps the floor and burns the rubbish

Take home share The assistant is paid for the number of chew sticks he has manufactured and can earn up to 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, knife and scissors with investments below 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself with a cutlass or a knife. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle a knife and cutlass safely. Gender factors Making chew sticks is suitable for both men and women. Seasonality Chew sticks can be made during the whole year.

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5.4.9.

Door mat weaver’s helper

Assists in making doormats for sale using corn husks. Main activities • • • gathering and sorting corn husks preparing and dying the husks for weaving cleaning the shop and its surroundings

Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal, except for being able to distinguish equal length. Orientation and travel skills must be developed so that the person can go out to gather the husks. The person must be able to work with hot water and to use sharp object safely (safety awareness). A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Gathering and sorting corn husks • • • • goes from house to house to collect the corn husks from neighbors carries the husks home and sorts out the straight and unblemished ones separates the husks into individual leaves places the leaves into a large bowl

Preparing and dyeing the husks for weaving • • • • • • pours water on the leaves in the bowl to soften them after some time removes and dries them on a clean surface boils some water for mixing the color adds salt and starch to the mixture for dyeing soaks the leaves in the color mixture until they are completely dyed removes leaves and dries them on a clean surface

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Cleaning the shop and its surroundings • • • sweeps the waste husks from the shop and its surroundings stacks the woven mats in bundles helps carry them to the market for sale

Take home share The helper can earn around ¢100,000 each month, depending on the number of mats sold. Necessary tools and investments If the helper is directly involved in weaving he needs scissors, pins, awl, (bent needle) needles, thread, nails, board, knife with investments not over 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself while placing or removing leaves in the boiling coloring solution. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle knife, scissors and needles safely as well as to deal with fire and boiling water. Gender factors Both sexes can weave doormats. Seasonality Door mats of varied materials are manufactured all year round.

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5.4.10.

Dressmaker’s helper

Hems, helps with alterations and irons both new and old dresses as well as helps maintain the shop. Main activities • • • • undoing stitches and hemming and sewing precut clothing ironing dresses cleaning and oiling sewing machines keeping the shop clean and going on errands

Prerequisite skills A dressmaker’s assistant needs to be relatively clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance. If she has dealings with customers, she must show some social competence such as in communicating and greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle an electric or box iron and a razor blade (safety awareness). She also needs to be able to find and walk to familiar places, such as the market, when sent on errands (orientation and travel). Functional academics except for the use of a measuring tape are of slight importance as is physical strength and agility. On the other hand, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Undoing stitches and hemming and sewing precut clothing • • • • undoes the stitches on old dresses which need to be altered with a razor blade treads needles for the mistress and for herself hems finished dresses for the mistress stitches materials cut by the mistress by hand

Ironing dresses • • • • • plugs in the electric iron or puts and lights charcoal in box iron regulates the heat according to the type of fabric first irons the collar, then other parts, making sure to avoid wrinkles puts dresses on hangers to avoid crumpling makes sure the iron is switched off or box iron set on a safe surface

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Cleaning and oiling sewing machines • • • uses a dry duster to clean the machines each evening picks up and removes pieces and threads of material adds a small drop of machine oil on the screw areas as instructed

Keeping the shop clean and going on errands • • • • • sweeps the shop every morning and evening removes cobwebs from the ceiling and walls dusts the chairs and tables in the shop weeds and sweeps around the shop when instructed goes on errands to buy thread, needles and buttons

Take home share A dressmaker’s helper could be paid about ¢5,000 per day so at the end of the month, the assistant will receive about ¢150,000. Necessary tools and investments Scissors, thimble, needles, a razor blade with investments of less than 50 000 Cedis at present prices. If the assistant needs and uses a sewing machine, investments of up to 500 000 Cedis will be necessary. Risk of injuries Consist of being burnt while ironing or pricking or cutting oneself while using a needle or a razor blade. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to be careful with an iron and while sewing and undoing stitches. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Dresses are sewn all year round.

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5.4.11.

Envelope maker’s helper

Assists in making pharmaceutical and postal envelopes. Main activities • • • assisting in buying and preparing materials cutting, folding and gluing paper sorting and storing envelopes for sale and keeping the workshop clean

Prerequisite skills A medium level of social competence and self help skills is desirable as the person will need to deal with the public. As he will be working with others he needs to be able to function in a group (social behavior) and needs good motivation and work behavior. As for safety awareness, dealing with sharp objects is essential and he needs to be able to find familiar environments (orientation and travel skills). The helper should be able to count up to 20 and sort objects according to size (functional academics). Not a great amount of physical strength agility is needed; however, fine motor skills must be developed. Main task areas Assisting in buying and preparing materials • • • goes to the market with the master to buy the necessary materials for the envelopes carries the materials to the workshop gets the workshop ready for the day by arranging tools and material

Cutting, folding and gluing paper • • • uses a cardboard form to cut the papers to the correct size for an envelope folds the paper as directed by the master along lines to arrive at the right shape applies glue at the edges to stick the flaps together

Sorting and storing envelopes for sale and keeping the workshop clean • • sorts envelopes according to size and color bundles them in groups of 10 or 20 and puts bands around them

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• • • •

stacks the envelopes into boxes picks up the litter, sweeps the floor washes the glue brushes with water brings the rubbish to the refuse bin

Take home share Depend on the amount of envelopes sold but can go up to 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Paper cutter, scissors, knife, guillotine, a ruler, pen and pencil, and a glue brush with investments up to 400 000 Cedis. Risk of injuries Consist of being cut by a knife or scissors but are quite low. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to deal carefully with sharp tools. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Envelope making is an all year occupation.

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5.4.12.

Leather bag maker’s helper

Assists in curing hides and in cutting, sewing and gluing of leather bags Main activities • • • • fetching necessary materials for fabrication curing hides and dyeing leather cutting leather by using a cardboard pattern gluing and sewing leather into bags

Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal but orientation and travel skills must be so developed that the person can go on errands. The person must be able to deal with chemicals (saltpetre) and to use sharp object safely (safety awareness). A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Fetching necessary materials for fabrication • • • goes to the market to purchase animal hides carries or transports them to the shop goes on errands to buy needles, thread, glue etc.

Curing hides and dyeing leather • • • • • fetches water in a basin soaks skin for three days in water and saltpeter solution removes skin and scrapes hairs off with a blunt knife or a sharp stone dyes leather by soaking it into a dye mixture dries leather and kneads it so it remains smooth

Cutting leather using a cardboard pattern • • helps the master in the cutting of the hide into the desired shape by holding it in place for cutting cuts along the outline of the cardboard shape provided using a pair of scissors

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cuts leather in fine strips for sewing

Gluing and sewing leather into bags • • • • scrapes the portion that will be glued and applies glue glues parts together as directed by the master punches holes into the leather with an awl or pins for sewing sews pieces of leather together

Take home share The helper can earn between ¢100,000 to ¢200,000 each month. Necessary tools and investments A pair of scissors, a knife, needles and a flat hard board with investments around 20 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself while cutting or stitching. In addition, saltpeter and super glue need to be handled with care. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle knife, scissors and needles safely. Gender factors Bag making is customary for men, but there is no reason why women could not work in this trade. Seasonality Leather bags can be manufactured all year round.

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5.4.13.

Mat weaver’s helper

Assists in weaving mats made of raffia (keti). Main activities • • • cutting and gathering of raffia preparing and dyeing the raffia for weaving preparing the frame and weaving

Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal, except for being able to distinguish equal length. Orientation and travel skills must be developed so that the person can go out to gather the raffia. The person must be able to work with hot water and to use sharp object safely (safety awareness). A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Cutting and gathering of raffia • • • • distinguishes between raffia and other grasses wades into the water and uses a sharp knife to cut the raffia at a low point bundles the cut raffia and brings it to the shore ties the raffia with a string and carries it home

Preparing and dyeing the raffia for weaving • • • • • sets a fire and fetches water boils water and adds color solution using a measuring cup adds salt and starch to the mixture for dyeing soaks the raffia in the color mixture for about 15 minutes removes raffia and dries it on a clean surface

Preparing the frame and weaving • sets up the rectangular frame (6 by 4 feet) with 16 equidistant nails at the top and bottom crossbar

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ties string between the bottom and top frame nails pass three or four lengths of raffia through the strings so that they will appear on the front and back passes colored raffia through the mat at given distances to make a pattern after weaving half way turns the frame upside down and continues joins the strands of raffia together by pressing and trims the edges with a sharp knife ties the bottom and top strands tightly

Take home share The helper can earn up to ¢200,000 each month, depending on the number of mats sold. Necessary tools and investments Knife, frame, stool, colors with expenses not exceeding 100 000 cedis. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself while placing or removing raffia in the boiling coloring solution and wading in the water can lead to disease if it is contaminated. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle knife, scissors safely as well as to deal with fire and boiling water. Use Wellington boots to wade in the water. Gender factors Both sexes can weave mats. Seasonality Mats are mostly woven in the dry season.

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5.4.14.

Paper flower maker’s helper

Assists in making flowers out of paper for decoration. Main activities • • helping buy the required types of paper and coloring it cutting, papers into the required shapes and sizes, binding and gluing them into a flower Prerequisite skills A medium level of social competence and self help skills is desirable, as the person will need to deal with the public. As he will be working with others, he needs to be able to function in a group (social behavior) and needs good motivation and work behavior. As for safety awareness, dealing with sharp objects is essential, and he needs to be able to find familiar environments (orientation and travel skills). Not a great amount of physical strength agility is needed; however, fine motor skills must be developed. Main task areas Helping buy the required types of paper and coloring it • • • • goes on instruction to the nearest stationery shop or store to buy the required papers and colors brings the papers and colors home colors them as instructed allows the colored paper to dry in the shade

Cutting papers into the required shapes and sizes, binding and gluing them into a flower • • • cuts the papers into the desired shapes glues paper shapes together to form flowers binds them together with string or wire

Necessary tools and investments A pair of scissors, a knife, paintbrush, needle, paper cutter. Some of these will be furnished by the master so personal investments will not be above 50 000 Cedis at present prices.

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Take home share Depend on the amount of flowers sold but can go up to 200 000 Cedis a month. Risk of injuries Consist of being cut by scissors or stuck with a needle but are quite low. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to deal carefully with scissors. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Paper flowers can be manufactured all year.

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5.4.15.

Polythene bag maker’s helper

Assists in sorting and distributing bags as well as keeping the shop clean. Main activities • • sorting and packaging the bags keeping the shop clean and going on errands

Prerequisite skills If the person is in contact with customers, he must be to be relatively clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance as well as show some social competence in communicating and greeting. The person needs to be able to work around machines (safety awareness) and to find and walk to familiar places such as the market when sent on errands (orientation and travel). Functional academics in counting up to 10 and distinguishing colors are necessary. No particular physical strength and agility are needed, but good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Sorting and packaging the bags • • • • • sorts the polythene bags into different groups according to size and color counts 10 bags for packaging binds them in bundles with a string packs them into cartons distributes the cartons and bags to clients as instructed

Keeping the shop clean and going on errands • • • • • • • sweeps the shop every morning and evening removes cobwebs from the ceiling and walls dusts the chairs and tables in the shop removes spoilt polythene bags carries the refuse to the rubbish dump weeds and sweeps around the shop when instructed goes on errands when asked

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Take home share A polythene bag maker’s helper could be paid about ¢5,000 per day so at the end of the month, the assistant will receive about ¢150,000. Necessary tools and investments Scissors or a razor blade for cutting the string which cost between 1 000 and 15 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, if the person is careful working around the machines (cutting machine). Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to be careful around the machines. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Polythene bags are produced all year round.

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5.4.16.

Pure water bag packer

Assists in opening the plastic sacks in which pure water bags are packed well as keeping the shop clean Main activities • • • opening the big plastic sack in which the pure water bags are packed stacking the sacks of pure water on the ground and lifting them into a truck keeping the shop clean and going on errands

Prerequisite skills If the person is in contact with customers he must be relatively clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance, as well as show some social competence in communicating and greeting. The person needs to be able to work around machines (safety awareness). In addition he must be able to find and walk to familiar places such as the market when sent on errands (orientation and travel). Functional academics in counting up to 25 is necessary. As pure water bags weigh around 25 kg, some physical strength and agility are needed. The person needs to be able to work in a group and good motivation and work behavior is essential. Main task areas Opening the big plastic sack in which the pure water bags are packed • • • holds the open end of the plastic sack between the thumb and forefinger of each hand shakes the bag and blows air into it until it unfolds brings the opened bags into the pure water production room for filling

Stacking the sacks of pure water on the ground or lifting them into a truck • • • carries the sacks to the storage area and stacks them carefully lays each bag on the side and stacks only about 5 bags on each other so they cannot burst carries the bags from the storage area and lifts them on the back of the truck

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Keeping the shop clean and going on errands • • • • • • sweeps the shop every morning and evening removes cobwebs from the ceiling and walls removes spoilt bags carries the refuse to the rubbish dump weeds and sweeps around the shop when instructed goes on errands when asked

Take home share A pure water bag packer could be paid about ¢5,000 per day so at the end of the month, the assistant will receive about ¢150,000. Necessary tools and investments No equipment or investments are necessary. Risk of injuries Are low if the person is careful in lifting and carrying so he does not strain his back. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to in how to lift without back strain. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Pure water is produced and bagged all year round.

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5.4.17.

Rope maker’s assistant

Helps make ropes out of the fibre of jute and raffia plants. Main activities • • • gathering and preparing fibre twisting ropes dyeing ropes and preparing them for sale

Prerequisite skills As the helper will not be in contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal but orientation and travel skills must be so developed that he can gather fibre plants. As the person will go out in the bush, he must be aware of the dangers of wild animals. He also must be able to use sharp object safely. A certain degree of physical strength and agility is necessary as well as good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Gathering and preparing fibre • • • • • • • • • goes to the bush or farm cuts down mature fibre plants and branches or stalks with cutlass gathers the cut fibre stalks and branches to tie them together for transporting carries them to a water source soaks them in the water for about five days to make them soft cleans jute or kanaf fibre by rubbing the fibre and removes the hard and rough parts of the fibre rinses the clean jute or kanaf fibre in water splits raffia to the desired thickness for twisting into ropes dries cleaned fibre and bundles it for storage and use

Twisting ropes • • sprinkles a little water on the fibre to prevent it from breaking grasps a small quantity of fibre depending on the thickness of the rope to be made

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• • • • • • • •

twists the fibre between fingers and thumb winds the twisted fibre around a firmly fixed strong stick to prevent it from unwinding joins fibres bit by bit so that the joint area will be of the same thickness as the rest of the twisted fibre fixes two poles firmly in the ground at a distance of his choice ties one end of the twisted fibre to one of the poles and connects it with the other pole twists additional fibre firmly along the first fibre adds fibre until he obtains the desired thickness of the rope ties knots in the rope end and cuts them with a knife

Dyeing ropes and preparing them for sale • • • • measures a given quantity of water and dye in a deep container and mixes it thoroughly dips the ropes in the dye until they have taken the colour completely removes the ropes from dye and dries them sorts ropes according to colour, thickness and length

Take home share One locally made rope costs from 1 000 Cedis to about 2 000 Cedis depending on the length and thickness as well as the colour and durability of the rope. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, knife and scissors with investments below 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself with a cutlass or a knife. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle a knife and cutlass safely. Gender factors Rope making is suitable for both men and women. 142

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Seasonality Rope making is an all year round work.

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5.4.18.
shea-nuts. Main activities • • • • •

Shea butter extractor’s helper

The shea-butter extractor’s helper assists in preparing shea-butter out of

collecting shea nuts pounding and roasting the nuts carrying the nuts to the mill mixing and whipping the paste removing the butter and preparing it for sale

Prerequisite skills Even though the job has to do with cosmetics preparation, only limited cleanliness is needed (self help skills). Social competence as well as functional academics can be minimal, as the assistant will as a rule not deal with the public. However, she needs a level of travel and orientation skills to find the way home from the mill or collecting shea nuts. Motivation and work behavior must be developed, and she must be able to work with fire and hot water (safety awareness). No great amount of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Collecting shea nuts • • • goes round to the shea-trees in the vicinity collects the shea-nuts from under the tress carries them home in a basket

Pounding and roasting the nuts • • uses a mortar and pestle or a stone to pound the nuts into a paste sets a fire and roasts the pounded nuts in a pot

Carrying the nuts to the mill • • • • waits for the roasted nuts to cool puts them in a basin carries the roasted nuts to the mill grinds it into flour

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brings the flour home

Mixing and whipping the paste • • • • • adds water in a bucket mixes the flour into a paste whips and kneads the paste until it foams adds more water collects the foam from the paste into a bowl or pot

Removing the shea butter and preparing it for sale • • • • • • starts fire under the pot boils the collected foam scoops the oil waste water away stores in a cool wet place to harden or coagulate stores the shea butter in a calabash takes it to the market for sale

Take home share May earn about ¢200,000 a month. Necessary tools and investments Mortar, pestle, whisk, basket/colander, basin, ladle and iron pot with investments of about 500 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The helper can be burnt by hot water or oil and can hurt himself while cracking the nuts. Safety measures The helper needs to be trained to deal with fire safely and to be careful when cracking the nuts. Gloves should be worn when removing the pot from the fire. Burn ointment and a first aid kit should be available.

Gender factors This job is customary for women but can also be performed by men.

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Seasonality Preparing shea butter is a seasonal occupation.

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5.4.19.

Soap maker’s helper

Assists in preparing local soap made of palm oil and ash. Main activities • • • preparing the ingredients preparing the soap cleaning the site and marketing the finished product

Prerequisite skills A soap maker’s helper needs to be clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance. If she has dealings with customers, she needs some social competence such as in communicating and greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire (safety awareness) and to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the market. Functional academics are not necessary, except for the use of a measuring bottle. If dealing with customers, making change is of importance. A medium degree of physical strength and agility and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Preparing the ingredients • • • prepares soda by burning dried cocoa pods and plantain peels until they turn to ashes pours about 5 liters of water on the ash in a big bowl and stirs until well mixed strains the ash solution into another bowl with a strainer to serve as soda Preparing the soap • • • • • • • sets a fire pours twelve beer bottles of palm oil in a big pot and allows it to boil pours three beer bottles of soda water into the boiling oil consistently stirs the mixture until it becomes almost solid removes the pot from the fire pours the contents into a bowl to allow it to cool molds the soap mixture into orange size balls

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Cleaning the site and marketing the finished product • • • washes and scrubs the cooking utensils sweeps the site and throws away trash carries soap in a basin to the market and assists in selling

Necessary tools and investments For manufacturing local soap two big aluminum bowls, two baskets a strainer, wooden ladles are needed with a cost of about 600 000,- cedis at present prices. However the assistant would only need a basket for carrying the soap and a rag for handling the pots. Take home share Depends on the amount of soap sold but could be up to 250 000, - cedis a month. Risk of injuries Consists of being burnt by fire or pouring hot oil or soap on oneself. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to deal carefully with fire and in pouring the hot mixture. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Local soap can be manufactured all year round.

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5.4.20.

Thatch weaver’s helper

Collects and uses straw to weave roofing mats. Main activities • • • cutting and collecting grass for weaving using dried straw to weave roofing mats preparing the mats for sale

Prerequisite skills As cutting straw and mat weaving is a more or less solitary occupation there is not great need for advanced social competence or a very clean and neat appearance (self care skills). However, since the person handles sharp knives and cutlass and can encounter dangerous animals in the bush, safety awareness is a prerequisite. Orientation and travel skills are necessary for these excursions. Functional academics are not important in this job and social behavior can be rudimentary but physical strength and agility as well as good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Cutting and collecting grass for weaving • • • sharpens a cutlass or a sickle goes to the bush in the environment to cut suitable grass bundles the grass and carries it home

Using dried straw to weave roofing mats • • • dries the grass to turn it into roofing straw weaves the straw into roofing mats knots the end of the weaving

Preparing the mats for sale • • • rolls the mats into bundles cleans the area intermittently and after work carries the bundles to the market for sale

Take home share

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Depending on the number of buyers, a thatch weaver’s helper can make between 100 000 and 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass and sickle with investments below 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself with a cutlass or a knife or step on a scorpion or a snake. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle a knife and cutlass safely and be attentive when gatherings grass in the bush. Gender factors Both males and females can perform this job. Seasonality Collecting grass is usually done in the first half of the rainy seasons.

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5.4.21.

Yarn spinning assistant

Helps spin ropes for kente weaving. Main activities • • • • • arranging tools and material for spinning opening the yarn package for placing the hanks operating the spinning wheel sweeping and cleaning the workshop going on errands

Prerequisite skills As the helper does not have much contact with the public, only a limited amount of cleanliness as well as communication skills are necessary (social competence, self help skills). Functional academics can be minimal, but social skills must be developed so that the person can work in a group. Orientation and travel skills must be developed so that the person can go to the market to buy yarn without getting lost. No specific safety skills are needed, but the person should be able to use sharp objects safely. If he is sent on errands, the assistant needs orientation and travel skills. A relatively low degree of physical strength and agility is necessary, as well but the person needs good motivation and work behaviour. Main task areas Arranging tools and material for spinning • • • mounts the spinning wheel places the spindle in the hole of the bobbin tightens the framework

Opening the yarn package for placing the hanks • • • opens the yarn package places the hank of the yarn around the skein winder cuts the strings attached to each end of the yarn

Operating the spinning wheel • • places one end of the yarn on the bobbin holds bobbin and string steady

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• •

rotates the handle of the spinning wheel removes the bobbin when all the yarn has been wound on it

Sweeping and cleaning the workshop • • • brings and stores all implements for weaving such as spinning wheel, yarn etc. when asked sweeps the floor and burns the rubbish weeds around the workshop, when necessary

Going on errands • • goes to market to buy yarn as instructed delivers kente cloth to customers

Take home share The helper can earn up to 120 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments A seat, spinning wheel, spindle and skein winder with investments below 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can hurt himself while cutting the string. Safety measures The person must be trained to handle a razor blade or scissors safely. Gender factors Yarn spinning is suitable for both men and women. Seasonality Kente weaving is an all year round work.

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5.5.

FOOD PREPARATION AND PROCESSING

As many people in Ghana buy food at the roadside food preparation and processing can be a good way to earn a living. It is clear that any person working in this type of job must be clean and if dealing with customers have a neat and pleasing appearance and be able to communicate effectively.

FUFU POUNDING HELPER

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5.5.1.
cake. Main activities • • • • •

Bean cake preparation helper

Assists in preparing the beans for grinding and in frying and selling the bean

soaking and sieving the beans carrying the beans to and from the mill for grinding setting and maintaining the cooking fire frying the bean cake washing pots and pans and keeping the environment tidy

Prerequisite skills A helper in food preparation needs to be clean (self care skills) and, if she deals with customers, needs some social competence such as in communicating, greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire (safety awareness) and to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the grinding mill. Functional academics relate to the use of a measuring bowl. If dealing with customers, making change is important. A medium degree of physical strength and agility, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Soaking and sieving the beans • • • measures the beans into a basin with a bowl covers the beans with fresh water and lets them soak for two days adding water when necessary removes the beans from the water with a ladle and puts them on a sieve to drain off fluid Carrying the beans to and from the mill for grinding • • • puts the beans into a container and carries it to the mill assists in grinding the beans and returns the bean flour to the container covers the flour with a cloth and carries it home

Setting and maintaining the cooking fire

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• •

collects wood in the forest or buys it lights a fire and adds wood as needed

Frying the bean cake • • • • pours oil into the frying pan so the bottom is covered and puts it on the fire forms a small ball with clean hands and places it into the pan turns the cake frequently until it is brown on all sides removes the bean cake from the oil and frying pan with a ladle and places it into a dish Washing pots and pans and keeping the environment tidy • • • • scrubs pots and pans washes dishes sweeps the ground carries away rubbish

Take home share The helper will earn around 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Bowl, ladle, sieve, frying pan will demand investments of slightly more than 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The principal risk consists of working with fire and touching a hot frying pan or being burnt by drops of hot oil. Safety measures The skillet should only be handled using a rag for hand protection, and the body can be protected by an apron. A first aid kit with burn ointment should be available. Gender factors

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Customarily, this is a job performed by females, but there is no reason why males could not assist in this task too. Seasonality Bean cake can be made and sold all year round.

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5.5.2.

Biscuit baker’s assistant

Helps prepare biscuits for baking and for sale. Main activities • • • • • carrying flour mixture to the mill for kneading preparing pans for baking removing biscuits from the oven packing biscuits into boxes sweeping and keeping the baking shop neat

Prerequisite skills A biscuit baker’s assistant needs to be clean (self care skills) and, if she has dealings with customers, show some social competence such as in communicating, greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to work with a hot oven (safety awareness) to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the mill. Functional academics except for the use of a measuring bowl is of slight importance whereas a medium degree of physical strength and agility and good motivation and work behavior is essential. Main task areas Carrying flour to the mill for kneading • • • • places biscuit ingredients in a large basin and covers it with a cloth transports it to the mill for kneading helps pour it into to kneading machine helps remove the mixed dough and carries it back to the shop

Preparing pans for baking • • • • • cleans the surface of the table and sprinkles it with flour rolls out dough cuts the dough to size arranges biscuits in a baking sheet places the baking sheet into the oven so that all the space is used

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Removing biscuits from the oven • • • removes the baking sheets from the oven when instructed by the master allows them to cool removes the biscuits from the baking sheet making sure not to break them Packing biscuits into boxes • • • places a specified number of biscuits into a container (a counting form can be used to make sure the number is correct) closes and seals the box with cello tape carries the boxes to the point of sale or customer

Sweeping and keeping the baking shop neat • • • • • • removes leftover flour from the table surface sweeps the floor cleans the baking sheets removes spilled dough from the oven when it is cold brings trash to the refuse dump stacks boxes neatly

Take home share A helper can earn up to 10 000 Cedis a day and about 250 000 cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Necessary equipment includes an apron (30 000 Cedis) and gloves (23 000 Cedis) with investments of less than 60 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The primary risk consists of burning the hands by touching hot baking sheets or the hot oven, so they must be protected. Safety measures

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Baking sheets and oven should only be handled using gloves for hand protection. The body can be protected by an apron. A first aid kit with burn ointment should be available. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job performed by females, but there is no reason why males could not assist in this task too. Seasonality Biscuits are made and sold all year round.

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5.5.3.

Blackberry drink seller’s assistant

Helps prepare this local drink, in bottling and selling. Main activities • • • • sorting and soaking the blackberries mixing and bottling the drink cleaning the site and washing bottles and containers transporting and marketing

Prerequisite skills An acceptable level of cleanliness (self help skills) is mandatory as well as social competence to permit limited communication. The helper needs to be able to light and use a fire under supervision (safety awareness) and find familiar locations such as the point of sale (orientation and travel).Social behavior must be acceptable, but functional academics can be quite limited. Good motivation and work behavior, being able to lift weights up to 5 kg and fine motor skills for filling bottles without spilling are necessary. Main task areas Sorting and soaking the blackberries • • • • sorts good blackberries which are firm to the touch without holes or wrinkles in the shell removes the shell from the fruit with her nails fetches water for soaking soaks the blackberries that are completely covered by water in a basin for 24 hours Mixing and bottling the drink • • • • • • stirs the soaked fruits for about an hour with a spoon to remove the seeds sieves the soaked fruits to remove the chaff adds one part sugar to 10 parts of water using a measuring cup adds two drops of lemon juice and vanilla essence for taste stirs the liquid to allow ingredients to mix well pours 500 ml of the drink into each bottle and corks the bottle

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Cleaning the site and washing bottles and containers • • • washes bowls and bottles sweeps up the blackberry shells and throws them in the trash sweeps and tidies the work space

Transporting and marketing • • • puts the bottles into a case carries the case to the point of sale assists in the selling of the drink

Take home share The helper can earn up to 150 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and equipment The assistant herself would need no specific equipment. The owner would need to dispose of mixing bowls, measuring cups, bottles and corks a wooden ladle and a sieve as well as a case for transporting the bottles. Investments would be in the range of 100 000 to 200 000 Cedis. Risk of injuries This is a job with a very low risk of injuries. Safety measures Specific safety measures are not needed Gender factors Although it is customary for women to manufacture blackberry drinks, both males and females could help in this job. Seasonality This is a seasonal activity as the fruit is harvested during the dry season

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5.5.4.
flour. Main activities • •

Coconut flour preparation helper

Assists in cracking coconuts, removing and grating the fruit and preparing the

removing and grating the dry coconut preparing the flour

Prerequisite skills As the job has to do with food preparation, cleanliness and a neat appearance are essential (self help skills).Social competence, travel and orientation skills as well as functional academics can be minimal, as the person will as a rule not deal with the public or change locations. Motivation and work behavior must be developed and the person must be able to work with sharp objects (safety awareness).No great amount of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Removing and grating the dry coconut • • • • • cracks the coconut by hitting it with the knife held firmly by the handle holds the shell down firmly with one hand scrapes out the dry fruit with the knife washes the removed pieces of coconut fruit with clean water holds the grater with one hand in a basin and rubs a dried coconut fruit against until only a small piece remains Preparing the flour • • • • fills the grated coconut into a clean white (flour) sack and ties the end with string places large stones on the sack and presses down to remove liquid sprinkles the grated and dried coconut on a mat and places it in the sun stores the grated coconut in containers for sale after it is dry

Take home share The helper can earn up to 80 000 Cedis a month.

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Necessary tools and investments Grater, knife, basin, mat, sack, kitchen stool. The cost of necessary investments is below 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries There is a risk of being hurt with the knife or grater. Safety measures The person needs to be trained to use a knife and grater safely. A first aid kit should be available. Gender factors This job can be performed by both sexes. Seasonality Preparing dried coconut flour is a year round job.

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5.5.5.

Coconut seller’s helper

The coconut seller’s assistant acquires and sells coconuts by the roadside. Main task areas • • Collecting and bringing coconuts to the stall preparing coconuts for drinking and keeping the stall clean

Prerequisite skills As the assistant is involved in offering drinking coconuts and dealing with customers, good hygiene and communication skills are indispensable (social competence, social behavior and self help skills). The helper needs to be able to use a knife and cutlass and have good orientation and travel skills because of working by the roadside. Functional academics except for making change are of low importance. However, like for all professions, good motivation and work behavior are essential. If the person is involved in climbing trees to get ripe coconuts, he needs strength and agility. . Main task areas Collecting and bringing coconuts to the stall • • looks for mature coconuts on trees to pluck or buy stores them in a sack and brings them to the stall or helps transport them on a push cart Preparing coconuts for drinking and keeping the stall clean • • • • peels off the husks of the coconut chops of the top of the shell and serves for drinking splits open, if the customer demands this for scooping out the fruit sweeps and collects the husks after the days work is done.

Necessary tools and investments A cutlass which can cost up to 30 000 Cedis at present prices. Take home share On the average, a helper takes home about 6 000 to 8 000 Cedis a day.

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Risk of injuries If the helper needs to climb coconut trees to pluck the fruit, there is a high risk of falling. Also, the helper can cut himself with the cutlass while opening coconuts for the customers. Safety measures The helper needs to be well trained to use a cutlass with care and to place the coconut so the risk of cutting oneself is low. Gender factors Both males and females sell coconuts in Ghana. Seasonality This is a year round activity

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5.5.6.

Corn dough preparation assistant

Helps in drying, shelling and grinding corn. She assists in cooking, packaging and selling the finished products. Main activities • • • preparing the corn for grinding and cleaning leaves for wrapping preparing the dough packaging and selling

Prerequisite skills As the helper also deals with the public, the trainee needs some social skills such as being able to make herself understood or greeting people. The person needs to present a neat and clean appearance (self help skills), as she is preparing food. She needs to be able to use a knife safely without excessive supervision, light and use a fire (safety awareness).Also must she be able to move to and find the point of sale (orientation and mobility). Good motivation and work behavior, as well as physical strength and agility (weights up to 15 kg must be carried) are essential to be able to perform this job. Main task areas Preparing the corn for grinding and cleaning wrapping leaves • • • • • • • • • uses a ladder to climb up the corn in the barn removes the corn and brings it to the ground separates the leaves from the shell removes the corn from the cob and places it into a basket separates good from bad kernels in two baskets as to quality brings the corn to the grinding mill and waits his turn returns with the ground corn cleans leaves with a wet rag cleans both sides

Preparing the dough • • covers the corn with water in a pan lets it soak for one day

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• • • • • • • • • •

adds salt according to the quantity of corn and waits for about 20 minutes for it to dissolve packs ten table spoons of soaked corn into a leaf tightens it well, so the packed corn cannot leak stacks the larger quantities at the bottom the smaller at the top adds water and puts the pot on the fire when it is half full sees to it that the fire is located directly below the pot boils till tender lifts the pot from the fire and allows it to cool removes the wrapped corn dough with a ladle cleans the pot

Packaging and selling • • • packs the corn dough in a container carries it to the market assists in selling the finished product

Take home share A helper can earn up to 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Cooking utensil, ladle, leaves and thread, container for transport to the market with expenses lower than 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Medium, with the greatest risk of being burned or scalded by boiling water or falling off a ladder when retrieving the corn. Safety measures The helper needs to be careful near the fire and boiling water and use a rag to hold a hot pot. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job performed by women but of course males could also do it.

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Seasonality Preparing corn dough is a year round activity.

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5.5.7.

Corn mill assistant

Is an attendant helping in a corn mill. He mills grains into flour to prepare dough for his customers. Main activities • • • keeping the room and corn mill clean charging the mill with grain and keeping the flour safe for the customers helping with maintenance of the corn mill

Prerequisite skills Since the assistant will be dealing with customers, he needs a relatively high skill level in social competence (communication and reaction to criticism), a neat and pleasing appearance (self help skills) and should be able to deal with electrical hazards and sharp objects (safety awareness).As to functional academics, he needs to be able to use a measuring bowl and, if possible, give correct change. Orientation and travel skills can be quite low but, as with all jobs, good motivation and work behavior, as well as medium physical strength and agility are important for succeeding at this job. Main task areas Keeping the room and corn mill clean • • • sweeps up spilled grains wipes the machine clean mops the floor

Charging the mill with grain and keeping the flour safe for the customers • • • • measures the grains in a special bowl for charging purposes follows the instructions of the owner into what form the grains should be ground mills the maize into flour or dough keeps the milled items safe until their owners come for them

Helping with maintenance of the corn mill • is able to check the oil gage, insures that the belt is in place before starting the machine to grind

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• •

informs the owner about shortage of oil or other problems detected informs customers in the case of breakdowns

Necessary tools and investments Spanners, screwdrivers, hammer, file and metal brush with a necessary investment at present prices at less than 100 000 Cedis. Take home share Up to ¢250,000 a month. Risk of injuries If the person has learned to clean or reach into the mill, when it is not in operation, the risk of injury is low. Safety measures The person must be cautioned not to reach into the mill while it is in operation. He should be aware of electrical hazards and only clean the machine when it is shut off. Gender factors This job could be done by both sexes. Seasonality This is an all year round job.

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5.5.8.

Fish descaler’s helper

Removes scales from the fish brought in from the sea for smoking and frying. Main activities • • • fetching the fish after the shares have been distributed removing the scales with a knife washing the fish and carrying it to the point of sale

Prerequisite skills The person can perform this job with limited communication skills (social competence) and reduced orientation and travel skills, functional academics and social behavior. Except for the use of sharp objects (knife), safety awareness can be limited. An awareness of the dangers of the sea is necessary, whereas self help skills can be quite elementary. Medium physical strength and agility are needed while good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Fetching the fish after the shares have been distributed • • • walks or wades to the boat carrying a basin places the fish in the basin and carries it to the shore sits on a stool in a clean and shady location and places the basin next to herself so it can be reached easily Removing the scales with a knife • • • • holds the end of fish with one hand and places it on an even surface grasps the handle of the knife firmly scrapes the side of the fish with the sharp edge of the knife (moving away from the body) to remove the scales cuts off unwanted parts such as the tail

Washing the fish and carrying it to the point of sale • • • • fetches water from the tap or a bucket washes fish thoroughly and removes scales he has missed throws dirty water away carries cleaned fish to the point of sale

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Take home share With this job she can earn about 2 000 Cedis a day or 60 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Knife, stool, basin. The total investment will be below 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The only danger in this job is the risk of cutting oneself with a knife. Safety measures The person should be taught how to use a knife safely by descaling and cutting away from the body. A first aid kit is recommended. Gender factors It is customary for women to perform this job even if there is no reason why men could not do it. Seasonality Fishing and removing fish scales is a year round activity.

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5.5.9.

Fish smoking assistant

Helps in the preparation of fish for smoking and selling. Main activities • • • fetching and preparing the fish preparing the fish oven and smoking the fish arranging the smoked fish for sale

Prerequisite skills Since the helper will be dealing with the public she should be able to make herself understood to customers and be able to greet and respond to greetings of the people she interacts with. A relatively neat and pleasing appearance is necessary in dealing with food. Safety skills such as using a knife and dealing with fire is necessary element and as the job includes moving from one are to the other and carrying loads, some orientation and travel skills as well as medium physical strength and agility are a must. If the helper is involved in selling she must be able to make change. Good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Fetching and preparing the fish • • • • goes to the seashore to buy fish carries the fish to the fish smoking site in a basin removes dirt from the fish by washing with salty water throws away the dirty water

Preparing the fish oven and smoking the fish • • • • • • • • cleans the grill by scraping it with a knife wipes palm leaves and arranges them on the grill arranges fresh fish on the grill so that they cover the whole expanse places about six grills with fish one over the other in the oven lights a fire that does not burn strongly pulls wood back leaving only the embers and place coconut musk on top to produce smoke covers the top grill with cardboard to capture heat and smoke regulates fire for even and constant heat and smoke

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turns fish over to smoke them on both sides Depending on the size of the fish allows it to grill for at least four hours until it is brown and well smoked allows the fish to cool and removes it from the grill

Arranging the smoked fish for sale • • • • places the fish carefully in a basket caries it to the market or point of sale arranges the smoked fish into quantities of three or four depending on the size and price assists in selling the fish

Take home share A fish smoking helper can earn about 80 000. - Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments The owner of the fish smoking oven may need quite a number of implements such as smoking grills, basins, firewood, polythene bags for wrapping the smoked fish etc. However the helper will need only a knife, a tray for carrying the fish and some rags with costs of about 45, 000 cedis. Risk of injuries There is the risk of being burnt by fire or in handling the hot grill or being cut by the knife. Safety measures The person should be taught how to use a knife safely by cutting away from the body. A rag or napkin is recommended when handling the grill and the person should be instructed to position herself in a way that avoids standing in the smoke or near open flames. A first aid kit is recommended. Gender factors It is customary for women to perform this job even there is no reason why men could not do it.

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Seasonality Fish smoking is a year round activity even though the catch can vary seasonally.

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5.5.10.

Groundnut paste maker’s helper

The helper assists in roasting groundnuts and extracting the oil. Main activities • • • • preparing the groundnuts for roasting roasting the groundnuts and removing the shells milling the roasted groundnuts into paste packaging and preparing for sale

Prerequisite skills Despite the fact that job has to do with food preparation only a limited amount of cleanliness is required. Depending on the tasks assigned, the person may need some social competence and travel orientation skills. The person may need to move around and communicate for example from the preparation site to the mill. Even though only a minimal amount of physical strength is needed he must develop safety precautions since work with fire is involved. Main task areas Preparing the groundnuts for roasting • • picks out rotten nuts, stones and other unwanted materials from the groundnuts washes fine sand, removes stones and sticks and places the clean sand in a shallow basin Roasting the groundnuts and removing the shells • • • • • • sets a fire heats the sand in the basin to a required temperature pours a quantity of groundnuts to be roasted into the shallow basin and stirs to prevent burning stirs to get brown roasted nuts within 25 to 30 minutes spreads the sand and groundnuts on a flat tray to cool and sieves the contents of the basin to separate the groundnuts from the sand removes the peel from the nuts and lets the peels blow off by the wind

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Milling the roasted groundnuts into paste • • • pours the roasted and peeled groundnuts in a container and carries it to the grinding mill mills the groundnuts in the grinding mill adds a quantity of groundnut oil to soften the paste to the desired texture Packaging and preparing for sale • • • • mixes the paste until it becomes smooth and creamy by stirring vigorously washes containers carefully fills the required amount into a screw top container brings the containers with groundnut paste to the point of sale.

Take home share The helper will earn between 80, 000 to 100, 000 Cedis depending on the sales. Necessary tools and investments Broad shallow basin, sieve, ladle with current prices below 100 000 Cedis. Risk of injuries The main risk consists of working with fire and touching the hot pan during the roasting Safety Measures The basin should only be handled with a glove or rag when on the fire and the person should use and apron to protect the body. A first aid kit with burn ointment must be available as well. Gender factors Both males and females could assist in the preparation of groundnut paste. Seasonality

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Groundnut paste can be prepared for sale all year round.

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5.5.11.

Groundnut chips ‘Kulikuli’ preparation helper

Assists in drying, shelling roasting and milling of the groundnuts and in preparing and packaging the finished product. Main activities • • • preparing the groundnuts for milling preparing the groundnut paste packaging and selling of Kulikuli

Prerequisite skills As the helper also deals with the public the trainee needs some social skills such as being able to make herself understood or greeting people. The person needs to present a neat and pleasing appearance (self help skills) as she is preparing food. She needs- without excessive supervision- to be able to use a knife safely and light and use a fire ( safety awareness).Functional academics can be limited except for money skills but she must be able to find the point of sale ( orientation and travel skills). Good motivation and work behavior as well as medium physical strength (weights up to 10 kg) need to be carried) are essential in order to perform this job. Main task areas Preparing the groundnuts for milling • • • • • • • • cuts open a bag of groundnuts and pours the contents into a container shells the groundnuts and removes unwanted material sets a fire places a pan with clean sand mixed with groundnuts on the fire roasts groundnuts until they are an even brown color uses a sieve to separate groundnuts from the sand allows the roasted nuts to cool brings the groundnuts to the mill and awaits own turn

Preparing the groundnut paste • • • • sets a fire and pours hot water on the paste to cook it stirs gradually until oil comes to the surface skims oil from the pot until it the contents form a paste uses a clean board to roll paste into rings with the hands

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puts oil in a frying pan and fries the rings until they are hard removes the chips with a sieve and drains the oil cleans the board and frying pan and saves oil in a container

Packaging and selling of Kulikuli • • • • puts quantities of chips into white polythene bags uses a measuring cup or counting board to assure even numbers carries the bagged chips in a container to the market assists in selling the finished product

Take home share The helper can earn up to 150 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Frying pan, chop board, ladle and container for transport to the market will demand investments of slightly less than 200 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The principal risk consists of working with fire and touching a hot frying pan or being burnt by drops of hot oil. Safety measures The skillet should only be handled using a rag for hand protection, and the body can be protected by an apron. A first aid kit with burn ointment should be available. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job performed by females, but there is no reason why males could not assist in this task too. Seasonality Groundnut chips can be made and sold all year round.

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5.5.12.

Kenkey seller’s helper

Helps prepare kenkey for sale. Main activities • • • • • accompanying the madam to the market to buy the necessary materials for preparing kenkey soaking and sieving the corn and bringing it to the mill for grinding preparing the dough and letting it ferment removing the kenkey and preparing it for sale washing pots and pans and keeping the environment tidy

Prerequisite skills A kenkey seller’s assistant needs to be clean (self care skills) and, if she has dealings with customers, needs some social competence. Examples include communicating and greeting and good use of social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire (safety awareness), to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the grinding mill. Functional academics can be limited except for the use of a measuring bowl. If dealing with customers, making change is of slight importance. A medium degree of physical strength and agility, and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Accompanying the madam to the market to buy the necessary materials for preparing kenkey • • • goes to the market to buy corn and transports the corn home assists in buying firewood and carries it home helps to buy corn husks and brings them home

Soaking and sieving the corn and bringing it to the mill for grinding • • • • • selects and removes bad corn out of the lot soaks the rest for 2 or 3 days sieves the corn from the water washes corn well to avoid foul odor carries the corn to the mill and brings it home after milling

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Preparing the dough and letting it ferment • • • • prepares the dough leaves it to ferment prepares the porridge mixes the porridge with fresh dough to make a paste

Removing corn husks into singles and molding paste into the husks • • • • removes the corn husks into singles selects the best ones and washes them soaks them in water moulds the paste into the corn husks

Setting a fire and boiling the kenkey • • • • • stacks the kenkey into a pot adds water to so that the kenkey is covered sets fire under the pot helps to put the kenkey on the fire covers the pot and feeds the fire

Removing the kenkey and preparing it for sale • • removes the pot from the fire when it is well boiled carries the kenkey to where it will be sold and helps to sell the kenkey

Washing pots and pans and keeping the environment tidy • • • • scrubs pots and pans washes dishes sweeps the ground carries away rubbish

Take home share The helper will earn around 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Bowl, ladle, sieve, iron pot will demand investments of slightly more than 150 000 Cedis at present prices.

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Risk of injuries The principal risk consists of working with fire and touching a hot pot or being scalded by hot water Safety measures The pot should only be handled using a rag for hand protection, and the body can be protected by an apron. A first aid kit with burn ointment should be available. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job performed by females but there is no reason why males could not assist in this task too. Seasonality Kenkey can be made and sold all year round

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5.5.13.

Local corn drinks preparation helper

Assists in preparing for fermentation, making and marketing the corn drink (Yorkshire cooling Nneda). Main activities • • • preparation of the corn for fermentation preparation of the Yorkshire cooling Nneda packaging and selling the drink

Prerequisite skills A helper in food preparation needs to be clean (self care skills) and, if she deals with customers, needs some social competence such as in communicating, greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire (safety awareness) and to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the grinding mill. Functional academics relate to the use of a measuring bowl. If dealing with customers, making change is important. A medium degree of physical strength and agility, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Preparation of the corn for fermentation • • • • • • • • fetches the corn from the barn with a ladder separates the leave and removes the corn from the cob sorts the good from the bad kernels and places them in separate baskets cleans the platform on which corn is fermented with soap and water measures the quantity of corn ( one American tin) sprinkles water on the corn to make it sprout and covers it leaves the watered corn to sprout for one week spreads the wet corn on the platform to dry and for aeration

Preparation of the Yorkshire cooling Nneda • • • puts the dried sprouted corn into a container and carries it to the mill assists in coarsely grinding the corn, cover the container with a cloth and carries it home mixes the ground corn with four gallons of water in a big pot

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• • • •

lights a fire and adds wood as needed boils the desired quantity of the mixture for about 30 minutes until it turns brown strains the mixture and allows it to cool cleans the pot and tidies up the work place

Packaging and selling the drink • • • • • washes a gourd and pours the drink in it adds ice cubes and covers the gourd with a lid carries the gourd to the point of sale uses a measuring cup for filling the drink into rubber bags adds milk to the chilled drink for sale

Take home share The helper will earn around 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments The assistant’s tools will usually be provided by the owner and include aluminum pots, ladle, wooden spoon, strainer, an ice chest and a big gourd for the drink. The cost of manufacturing the drink will be about 200 000, Cedis for one batch. Risk of injuries The principal risk consists of working with fire and touching a hot pot or being scalded when pouring the hot drink. Safety measures The pot should only be handled using a rag for hand protection. A first aid kit with burn ointment should be available. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job performed by females, but there is no reason why males could not assist in this task too. Seasonality

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Yorkshire Nneda can be made and sold all year round.

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5.5.14.

Palm oil preparation helper

Assists in extracting palm oil from the palm fruits. Main activities • • • • removing fruits from the stock and cracking of palm kernels washing and drying nuts boiling and pounding of palm kernels mixing paste and extracting the oil

Prerequisite skills Even though the job has to do with food preparation, only a limited amount cleanliness is needed (self help skills).Social competence, travel and orientation skills, as well as functional academics can be minimal since the person will generally not deal with the public or change locations. Motivation and work behavior must be developed and sshe must be able to work with fire and hot water (safety awareness).No great amount of physical strength and agility is needed. Main task areas Removing fruits from the stock and cracking of palm kernels • • • • places the kernel on a firmly fixed flat stone on the ground hits the kernel with a heavy stone gripped in the stronger hand repeats process until all the kernels are cracked removes all the nuts from shell

Washing and drying nuts • • • • fetches water in two containers places nuts into one of the containers and washes them with water transfers nuts into second container for thorough and final washing dries nuts in the sun on a cemented ground

Boiling and pounding palm kernels • • lights a fire and places an iron pot on it puts the kernels in the pot and adds some water almost to the brim for boiling

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when the kernels are soft takes the pot off the fire and sieves the kernels out of the water pounds the boiled kernels into a paste using mortar and pestle

Mixing paste and extracting the oil • • • • • • • • • pours a small quantity of water on the paste in a basin uses a whisk to stir the mixture until it is well distributed and soft pours more water on until the oil forms above the water removes the oil from the top of the mixture with a ladle into a pot places the iron pot on the fire and allows it to boil for a short time uses a small basket to sieve the oil and removes particles after sieving places the pot on fire again for about 45 minutes adds salt and spices to taste and allows the oil to cool pours the oil into containers for sale

Take home share Depending on the skill of the person on the job and the amount sold earnings can be between 100 000 and 200 000 cedis monthly. Necessary tools and equipment Mortar, pestle, whisk, basket/colander, basin, ladle and iron pot with investments of about 500 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The helper can be burnt by hot water or oil and can hurt himself while cracking the nuts. Safety measures The helper needs to be trained to deal with fire and boiling oil safely. Gloves should be worn when removing the pot from the fire. Also burn ointment and a first aid kit should be available. Gender factors This job is customary for women but can also be performed by men.

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Seasonality Palm Oil preparation is a year round occupation.

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5.5.15.

Palm wine tapper’s assistant

Helps in preparing and distributing palm wine to distillers and sellers. Main activities • • • felling palm trees and preparing them for tapping assisting in the tapping of palm wine assisting in the distribution and selling of palm wine

Prerequisite skills The following skills make it likely that a person can be successfully trained for this job: a relatively high level of physical strength and agility for chopping down trees and good motivation and work behavior. Social competence as to language and interaction with others can be quite low, but the person must be ready to respond to criticism and instructions. A neat appearance (self help skills) is only desirable if the person is involved in meeting clients. If he helps with marketing the product, he must have good travel and orientation skills. Safety awareness is important as to dealing with sharp objects (cutlass and axe) and reaction to dangers in the bush. Functional academics are of no importance to becoming a palm wine tapper’s assistant. Main task areas Felling trees and preparing them for tapping • • • • cuts the roots of a palm tree using an axe aligns the tree so it falls in the desired direction leaves the trunk for about a week and then removes the branches cleans the pots used to collect the palm wine when it is dripping

Tapping the palm wine • • • inserts bamboo tubes in the holes drilled by the palm wine tapper sets the pots beneath the palm trees so that the bamboo tubes can directly drip fluid into them after about two days heats the surface of the holes with a burning torch to make way for more fluid Assisting in the distribution and selling • cleans and prepares the collection barrel for storage and distribution

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• •

carries fresh palm wine to local customers for sale transports palm wine to a distillery.

Take home share The tapper’s assistant can receive up to 150 000 Cedis at the end of the month. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, axe, knife, chisel, hammer, drill with investments amounting to about 150 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Medium. the person needs to be able to judge the direction in which a tree will fall and be able to deal with sharp object such an axe and cutlass. Safety measures Sturdy boots should be worn when felling trees. Gender factors Tapping is a male dominated occupation in Ghana. Seasonality There is no particular time for palm wine tapping so it can be a year round occupation.

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5.5.16.

Pito brewing assistant

Helps prepare this local alcoholic drink from malt. Main activities • • • • preparing material necessary for brewing soaking grain and bringing it to the mill setting and tending fire cleaning the site and washing the calabashes

Prerequisite skills An acceptable level of cleanliness (self help skills) is mandatory as well as social competence to permit limited communication. The helper needs to be able to light and use a fire under supervision (safety awareness) and find familiar locations such as the mill (orientation and travel).Social behavior must be acceptable, but functional academics can be quite limited. Good motivation and work behavior, as well as good physical strength and agility are necessities. Main task areas Preparing material necessary for brewing • • • • • • • • • goes to the forest or market to gather or buy firewood and carries it home fetches water for soaking and brewing soaks grain and brings it to the mill covers grain in a bowl with clean water allows it to soak and germinate for several days adds fresh water when necessary so the grain is always well covered removes the germinated grain puts it into a container and carries it to the mill helps pour the grain into the mouth of the mill and places basin underneath for collecting the powder covers the basin with a cloth and carries the milled germinated grain home Setting and tending a fire • lights and feeds a fire

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• • •

places pot on fire and fills it with fresh water stirs the powder into the boiling water and continues to stir pours the brewed pito through sieve into a container to cool

Cleaning the site and washing the calabashes • • • washes the pot for brewing washes and dries the drinking calabashes sweeps and tidies the drinking bar

Take home share The helper can earn up to 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and equipment Pots, basins, calabashes, seats for customers Investments would need to be in the range of 100 000 to 500 000 Cedis. Risk of injuries There is a risk of being burnt by fire or scalded by hot water. Safety measures The helper must be trained to be cautious with fire, grip the hot pot with a rag and pour carefully. A first aid kit and burn ointment should be available. Gender factors Although it is customary for women to brew, both males and females could help in this job. Seasonality Brewing is a year round activity.

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5.5.17.

Plantain griller’s helper

Assists in preparing plantains for sale at the roadside. Main activities • • • • fetching charcoal and plantains setting and tending the fire peeling and grilling the plantains sweeping and cleaning the workplace

Prerequisite skills As the assistant is involved in food preparation and dealing with customers, good hygiene and communication skills are indispensable (social competence, social behavior and self help skills). She needs to be able to use a knife and deal with fire safely (safety awareness). And if she works in front of the house, limited orientation and travel skills are possible. However, she needs to find familiar places for buying charcoal or plantains. Functional academics except for making change are of low importance but, like for all professions, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main tasks Fetching charcoal and plantains • • carries charcoal and plantains to the workplace sorts and store plantains

Setting and tending the fire • • • lights fire fans the embers adds charcoal when needed

Peeling and grilling the plantains • • • • • peels the ripe plantain using a knife throws the peel into a dustbin cuts the ripe plantain into smaller and required sizes with a knife puts the peeled plantains onto a mesh for grilling removes grilled plantain from the mesh and hands it to the customer

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Sweeping and cleaning the work place • • • • sweeps the sales area gathers up the rubbish in a dust bin cleans the grilling mesh with a rag carries the refuse to a refuse dump

Take home share Earnings vary between 2 000 Cedis and 4 000 Cedis each day so that the helper can earn up to 120 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments A knife or cutlass costing less than 30 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries There is a risk of burns from the fire and of cutting oneself with a knife while peeling or slicing. Safety measures The helper needs to be trained to work with a grill and a knife. A first aid kit should be available. Gender factors It is customary for females to work in this profession. Seasonality As plantains are available all year round there is no specific season for this occupation.

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5.5.18.

Porridge making assistant

Prepares the millet and helps cook and sell porridge. Main activities • • • • preparing millet and bringing it to the grinding mill preparing flour for fermentation cooking porridge cleaning dishes and sweeping the grounds

Prerequisite skills As this job has to do with customer service and food preparation, a neat and pleasing appearance and good social skills are essential (social competence, self help skills).Orientation and travel skills can be limited to finding familiar environments such as the flour mill and the location where the porridge is sold. If the person is to participate in selling, she must be able to make change. Measuring the quantities for porridge is another functional academic skill. The person must be able to function in a group and have good motivation and work behavior. Besides being able to deal with a cooking fire, there are no specific safety hazards involved. Medium physical strength and agility are necessary prerequisites of performing this job. Main task areas Preparing millet and bringing it to the grinding mill • • • • uses a bowl to measure the quantity of millet fills the bowl with water so that the millet is completely covered soaks in the water for two days and drains in a basket pours the dirty water away

Preparing flour for fermentation • • • • • carries the soaked grains to the flour mill pours the millet into the grinding pan puts the basin under the mouth of the mill to collect the flour pays the mill owner covers the basin of flour with a cloth to prevent the wind from blowing it away and carries it home

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Cooking of porridge • • • • starts a fire and fetches water puts a pot filled with water on the fire pours a measured quantity of flour into the boiling water while constantly stirring keeps stirring until the porridge is ready for eating

Cleaning dishes and sweeping the grounds • • • washes dishes and spoons after use cleans and scrapes pot keeps the area were porridge is sold tidy

Take home share Can earn up to about 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Cooking pot, spoons, dishes, bowl with investments amounting to about 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries The assistant can be burnt by fire or scalded by hot water if she is not careful. Safety measures Must be well trained to work with fire. Burn ointment and first aid kit should be available. Gender factors Customarily this is a job for females Seasonality Porridge is prepared and sold all year round

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5.5.19.

Soya bean kebab seller’s helper

Helps prepare soya bean kebab for sale. Main activities • • • preparing the beans for grinding preparing the kebab packaging and selling

Prerequisite skills A kebab seller’s assistant needs to be clean (self care skills) and, if she has dealings with customers, needs some social competence. Examples include communicating and greeting and good use of social behavior. She needs to be able to handle fire (safety awareness), to find and walk to familiar places such as the point of sale and the grinding mill. Functional academics can be limited except for the use of a measuring bowl. If dealing with customers, making change is of slight importance. A medium degree of physical strength and agility, and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Preparing the beans for grinding • • • • • • • • goes to the market to buy soya beans and transports them home assists in buying firewood and carries it home removes pebbles and dirt from the beans washes the beans and covers them with water in a pan soaks the soy beans for one day removes the soaked beans from water and puts them in a bowl brings the beans to the grinding mill returns with the ground beans

Preparing the kebab • • • • • mixes the ground beans with water strains the mixture through a flour sack pours the resulting soy milk into an iron pot sets a fire and boils the milk adds strained Epsom salts solution by sprinkling it on the boiling milk to make it curdle

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• • • • • • • •

strains the mixture with a colander and puts the curdled milk in flour sack and ties the sack with a thread and places the a stone one the sack over night to remove excess fluid removes the curdled soy bean milk paste and cuts it into pieces of the same size grinds spices and mixes them with fresh water soaks the soy bean pieces into watery spices for half an hour sets a fire and fries the pieces in oil until golden brown removes the fried kebab and presses and shapes it onto kebab sticks with clean hands sprinkles kebab powder on the Soya kebab

Packaging and selling • • • places the Soya kebab in a closed plastic container carries the kebab to the different points of sale assists in selling the product

Take home share Depends on the number of kebabs manufactured and sold but can go up to 200 000 cedis a month Necessary tools and investments The usual cooking utensils will be provided by the owner and include a big pot, colander, grinding stone for spices, cutting board etc. The assistant may have to own a knife for cutting the soya bean paste and a flour sack for straining the milk with investments lower than 50 000 cedis. Risk of injuries The principal risk consists of working with fire and touching a hot pot or being scalded by hot water Safety measures The pot should only be handled using a rag for hand protection, and the body can be protected by an apron. The helper will need to learn to use a knife

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carefully when cutting the kebab pieces. A first aid kit with burn ointment should be available. Gender factors Customarily, this is a job performed by females but there is no reason why males could not assist in this task too. Seasonality Soy bean kebab can be made and sold all year round

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5.5.20.
thoroughfares. Main activities • • • •

Tea seller’s helping hand

Assists in preparing breakfast for travelers on the roadside of busy

carrying utensils for roadside catering to location setting and tending to fire for boiling tea water assisting in preparing breakfast for customers washing dishes and keeping the environment tidy

Prerequisite skills As the assistant is involved in food preparation and dealing with customers, good hygiene and communication skills are indispensable (social competence, social behavior and self help skills). The helper needs to be able to use a knife and deal with fire safely (safety awareness) and have good orientation and travel skills because of working by the roadside. Functional academics except for making change is of low importance. As is the case for all professions, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Carrying utensils for roadside catering to location • • carries table, benches, pots, pans and dishes to the location fetches water and charcoal for cooking

Setting and tending to fire for boiling tea water • • • lights and feeds fire puts the pot on the fire and boils water pours hot water into a thermos

Assisting in preparing breakfast for customers • • • • washes and chops tomatoes and onions slices bread spreads margarine on bread slices cracks and stirs eggs in a bowl for making omelets

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Washing dishes and keeping the environment tidy • • • scrubs pots and pans washes and dries cups and plates sweeps the ground and carries away rubbish

Take home share A tea seller’s helping hand can earn up to 100 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Water bucket, pots and pans, a knife, plates and cups, stove, table and seats for customers. The necessary investments can range from 100 000 to 500 000 Cedis depending on the amount of equipment bought. Risk of injuries There is a risk of burns from the cooking fire and being scalded by hot water or cutting oneself with a knife. Safety measures The helper needs to be trained to work with a stove and a knife. She should wear an apron when working and use a rag to lift a hot pot or skillet off the fire. A first aid kit should be available. Gender factors The helper could be female or male. Seasonality Selling breakfast by the roadside is a year round activity.

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5.6.

SERVICES AND COMMERCE

Almost every Ghanaian woman is involved in trading so there are a lot of activities in this sector where a person with a mental handicap can help in the family business. Services are another activity area where a school leaver can be useful.

SERVICE/COMMERCE Housegirl

SERVICE/COMMERCE Cobbler

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5.6.1.

Bookman’s assistant

Helps at a Lorry Station where tickets are being sold to passengers, helps charge luggage and loads goods onto the vehicle. Main activities • • sorting luggage according to size and collecting the charge loading goods onto the vehicle

Prerequisite skills The main consideration for the selection of persons that could be trained for this job is a high degree of physical strength and agility. Good safety awareness is necessary to avoid getting hit by moving vehicles. Since the assistant will be dealing with customers, he needs a relatively high skill level in social competence (communication and reaction to criticism) and an acceptable appearance (self help skills). Functional academics should be at the level of giving correct change to small amounts of money. He must be able to work in a team (social behavior) and demonstrate good motivation and work behavior. Since this job is performed under time pressure, good money skills and flexible dealing with customers are important, only few graduates will be able to perform this activity. Main task areas Sorting luggage according to size and collecting the charge • • sorts passengers’ luggage and estimates size and weight charges luggage that does not exceed 6 000 Cedis

Loading goods onto the vehicle • • • • • loads goods into boots of cars and onto carriages of lorries puts heavy and bulky goods on the bottom and lighter goods on top makes sure that they fit into the space and that other goods are not crushed carries loads from passengers to the vehicle lifts the load up to the driver’s mate on top of vehicles

Take home share He takes home about 10 000 to 12 000 Cedis a day.

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Necessary tools and investments No equipment or investments are needed. Risk of injuries The person can strain his back and tear muscles when lifting heavy weights. In addition, he must be able to recognize badly packed goods so their content will not spill. Safety measures The bookman’s assistant should be taught how to lift heavy goods (squatting down and moving upward with the whole body instead of bending over). Also the bookman and driver’s mate should be instructed to help with heavy goods. Drivers must be careful when driving inside the station, so that accidents can be avoided. Gender factors This job could be done by both sexes but is customary for men. Seasonality It is an all year round job.

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5.6.2.
and tires Main activities • • •

Car washer’s assistant

Helps in a car washing bay in cleaning the car’s interior and washing the body

cleaning the inside of the car cleaning the tires washing the body of the car

Prerequisite skills A car washer’s assistant needs to be relatively clean (self care skills) in order to attract customers. As he has dealings with customers, he must show some social competence such as in communicating and greeting and good social behavior. As there are no electrical appliances involved, the person does not need a high degree of safety awareness (unless a pressure hose is being used). He needs to be able to attain familiar places (for example for buying soap and sponges) and, if involved in errands, (orientation and travel). Functional academics, except for the use of a measuring bowl for washing powder, are of slight importance. On the other hand, medium physical strength and agility and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Cleaning the inside of the car • • • • • • takes out removable objects such as cushions, plastic flowers, rubber mats etc. places them in a safe place and on a clean surface dusts the interior and wipes plastic surfaces with a wet rag brushes out the carpet and cleans rubber mats cleans the car windows from the inside with soapy water and rinses and dries them when the car body and the tires have been washed brings all the objects from the interior to their proper place Cleaning the tires • • prepares soapy water in a bucket wipes tires and rims with a sponge and soapy water

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• •

uses a brush to rub out dirt if necessary rinses with clean water and lets tires dry in the sun

Washing the body of the car • • • • • • prepares soapy water in a bucket uses a sponge to clean the car body rinses the body with clear water wipes the sides with a rag polishes the metal parts if necessary cleans the car windows and car lights with soapy water, rinses and dries them Take home share Are on a daily basis and between 15 000 and 30 000 Cedis per day depending on the number of customers. Necessary tools and investments Brushes, bucket, Wellington boots, duster, sponge with investments below 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but he can slip and fall on wet ground. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed but he must learn to be aware if the vehicle is not securely parked. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job, but it is customarily a male occupation. Seasonality Cars are washed all year round.

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5.6.3.

Chop bar assistant

Supplies water for the customers, cleans the table, washes dishes and helps keep the chop bar clean. Main activities • • • • helping carry and stock supplies providing customers with water to wash their hands as well as water to drink clearing the table and washing the dishes sweeping the bar and the surroundings

Prerequisite skills As the assistant is involved in food preparation and dealing with customers, good hygiene and communication skills are indispensable (social competence, social behavior and self help skills). The helper needs to be able to work around sharp objects, fire and electrical appliances safely (safety awareness). But orientation and travel skills can be limited, as he works in a constant environment. Functional academics are of low importance, except for being able to match the number of persons to the number of objects such as bowl or sachets of water. However, as for all professions, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Helping carry and stock supplies • • • transports the foodstuff bought from the market into the chop bar stacks them in the appropriate place fetches supplies as needed

Providing customers with water to wash their hands as well as water to drink • • • • fetches water from a tap in a bowl for hand washing hands them soap and a towel serves drinking water in a bottle with a clean glass fetches chilled water (pure water) for customers upon request

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Clearing the table and washing the dishes • • • clears the table after the customers have finished their food washes cups, plates and cutlery stacks dishes in their appropriate places

Sweeping the bar and the surroundings • • • • • sweeps the bar early before work starts weeds around the location removes cow webs from wall and ceiling stores all objects in their appropriate place in the evening collects the rubbish in a bin and brings it to the refuse dump

Take home share A chop bar assistant earns a monthly allowance between ¢150,000 to ¢ 200,000 depending on the income of the owner. Necessary tools and investments None. Risk of injuries Low. Safety measures No specific safety measures are necessary. Gender factors This job can be performed by both sexes. Seasonality This is a year round occupation.

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5.6.4.

Clothes washer’s assistant

Helps collect dirty clothing form the customer’s homes and in washing, ironing and bringing them back Main activities • • • collecting soiled clothing for washing washing and drying clothing ironing clothing and returning it to the customer

Prerequisite skills A clothes washer’s assistant needs to be relatively clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance. If the person has dealings with customers, she must show some social competence such as in communicating, greeting and good social behavior. She needs to be able to handle an electric or box iron (safety awareness). Also important are abilities to find and walk to familiar places such as the customers homes when sent on errands (orientation and travel). Functional academics, except for the use of a measuring bowl for washing powder, are of slight importance. However, medium physical strength and agility and good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Collecting soiled clothing for washing • • • accompanies the washman to the customer’s houses carries clothing to the wash place in a basket or a bundle sorts clothing as to colour

Washing and drying clothing • • • • • fetches water from a stream or the tap soaks the white clothing in an omo solution or bleach to remove stains washes clothing with soap vigorously rubbing the dirty parts together rinses in a separate bowl until all traces of soap are removed dries rinsed wash on a clothes line or placing them on bushes

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Ironing clothing and returning it to the customer • • • • • • plugs in the electric iron or puts and lights charcoal in box iron regulates the heat according to the type of fabric first irons the collar then other parts, making sure to avoid wrinkles folds clothing neatly avoiding wrinkles makes sure the iron is switched off or box iron set on a safe surface bundles the washed clothing and returns it to the customer

Take home share Depend on the number of clients, but the assistant can earn about 10 000 Cedis on a working day. Necessary tools and investments Water bucket, washing bowls, clothes line and clothes pegs with investments of less than 50 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Consist of being burnt while ironing. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed except training to be careful with an iron. Gender factors Both sexes can be trained to do this job. Seasonality Clothing must be washed all year round but normally, this is a weekly task.

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5.6.5.

Cobbler’s helper

Helps to mend and polish old and damaged shoes and other leather wares for a fee. He can either walk around soliciting customers or be seated at the same location at the roadside and accomplish repair tasks as instructed by the cobbler. Main activities • • repairing shoes and sandals polishing shoes, sandals and belts

Prerequisite skills In order to attract customers, the helper must have a neat and pleasing appearance (self help skills) and communicate well (social competence). He must show good social behavior and needs some skills in travel and orientation as he will need to move around in his job. There are almost no safety risks in this job and functional academics relate to dealing with money and making change. Physical strength and agility can be limited but good motivation and work behavior is a must. Main task areas Repairing shoes and sandals • • • • uses hammer and nails to fix the loose sole or leather uses needle and strong thread to sew damaged leather roughens leather with sandpaper and applies glue to stick pieces of leather or a sole together cuts out pieces of leather of the same size and shape to replace those that need to be repaired Polishing shoes, sandals and belts • • • • uses a brush to remove dust and dirt from shoes and other leatherwear applies shoe polish with a rag and spreads it evenly works shoe polish into to leather by rubbing vigorously uses a rag to shine the leather so it gleams

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Take home share The persons earns from 1 000 to 5 000 Cedis per small repair so that monthly earnings can come to about 150 000 cedis. Necessary tools and investments Needle, thread, hammer nails and anvil, shoe polish and rags, shoe soles and pieces of leather, glue. The investments amount to a little over 70 000 Cedis at present prices. Risks of injuries Very low except for pricking fingers with a needle or hitting the hand with a hammer. Safety measures No specific measures except supervision. Gender factors Although this is a male dominated occupation, there is no reason why a female could not work in this profession. Seasonality This is an all year round job.

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5.6.6.

Cocoa bean dryer’s assistant

Helps to dry cocoa beans bought by the company, bag them and load them onto the company’s cars or truck. Main activity • • • • drying cocoa beans in the sun bagging cocoa beans and sewing them shut loading and unloading company’s vehicles keeping the cocoa shed and surroundings clean

Prerequisite skills Even though the assistant does not deal directly with customers, he needs a relatively high skill level in social competence (communication and reaction to criticism), an acceptable appearance (self help skills) and the ability to work in a group (social behavior). Except for dealing with needle and thread when sewing shut bags, safety awareness can be quite low. Only a minimal level of functional academics is needed. Orientation and travel skills can be quite low but, as with all jobs, good motivation and work behavior and medium physical strength and agility are important for succeeding at this job. Main task areas Drying cocoa beans in the sun • • • • • spreads the drying mats in the sun carries beans from storeroom in a basket or container spreads beans evenly on the mats stirs beans every now and then to ensure all parts of beans are dried brings beans back to the storeroom at the end of the day or in case of bad weather Bagging cocoa beans and sewing them shut • • • • • fills sacs with the dried beans threads a needle with a coarse string holds bag end in one hand passes needle and thread through the bag’s top until it is sewn shut stacks the closed bags in the storeroom

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Loading and unloading company’s vehicles • • • with the help of another employee, carries the filled bags to the truck heaves the bags up on the back of the truck unloads vehicles that bring the fresh cocoa pods

Keeping the cocoa shed and surroundings clean • • • • sweeps the shed and the drying area shakes out and stores the drying mats throws away the rubbish burns the trash or brings it to the refuse dump

Necessary tools and investments Sacks, needles, thread, drying mats are supplied by the company so no investments are needed. Take home share The assistant can earn up to 500 000 Cedis a month during bumper harvest and 300 000 Cedis during the lean season. Risk of injuries Are low, except for straining ones back while lifting and carrying or pricking ones finger while sewing. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed, but the person must be taught how to lift and carry without straining his back. Gender factors This job is usually reserved for men, although there is no reason why women could not do it. Seasonality As varieties of cocoa beans are now being grown that can be harvested three times a year, this can be a year round job.

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5.6.7.
of the children. Main activities • • • • •

Female house helper

Cleans the house and assists in preparing the family’s meals and taking care

sweeping the house and its surroundings dusting of furniture and making beds going to the market and helping to prepare the family’s meal washing, drying and ironing clothes washing and feeding the children and getting them ready for school

Prerequisite skills As the house helper is working in an environment which must be clean and deals with family members, good hygiene and communication skills are indispensable (social competence, social behavior and self help skills). The helper needs to be able to deal with electrical hazards (safety awareness), and needs to be able to find and return from familiar places such as the market (orientation and travel skills), even though she works mostly in the same environment. Functional academics are of low importance but, like for all professions, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Sweeping the house and its surroundings • • • sweeps the yard and entrance of the house sweeps the floor mops up the bathroom and kitchen floor

Dusting of furniture and making beds • • • dusts the furniture in the living room removes cobwebs from the ceiling and the walls changes sheets and pillow cases and makes the beds

Going to the market and helping to prepare the family’s meal • • • goes to the market and buys required foodstuff as instructed washes and slices vegetables grinds pepper and tomatoes

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• • •

sets fire and put pots to boil assists in cooking as needed washes pots, pans and dishes after the meal has been served

Washing, drying and ironing clothes • • • • • • • • • • fetches water from the tap soaks the white clothing in an Omo solution or bleach to remove stains washes clothing with soap vigorously rubbing the dirty parts together rinses in a separate bowl until all traces of soap are removed dries rinsed wash on a clothes line or placing them on bushes plugs in the electric iron or puts and lights charcoal in box iron regulates the heat according to the type of fabric first irons the collar then other parts, making sure to avoid wrinkles folds clothing neatly avoiding wrinkles makes sure the iron is switched off or box iron set on a safe surface

Washing and feeding the children and getting them ready for school • • • • • fetches water in a bucket helps small children to wash and dry themselves helps the smaller children get dressed feeds smaller children with a spoon and gives them water to drink accompanies smaller children to school and fetches at closing time

Take home share A household helper can earn between 60 000 and 100 000 Cedis a month and gets meals and sometimes old clothing as well as a place to sleep. Necessary tools and investments None as all the implements are provided by the family which she serves. Risk of injuries Minimal but the person can cut herself while peeling or chopping vegetables or burn herself when cooking or ironing. Safety measures Supervision is needed, and a first aid kit should be available.

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Gender factors Both sexes can work as a household helper, but this occupation is more common for women especially when it concerns caring for smaller children. Seasonality It is an all year round job.

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5.6.8.

Garden boy

Takes care of a garden. He cuts, shapes and waters hedges and flowers and helps grow vegetables. Main activities • • • weeding and sweeping the compound pruning and watering the hedges and flowers making seed beds for nursing of seedlings

Prerequisite skills For this job communication (social competence) and self help skills can be very limited. As the person is neither dealing with fire, electrical appliances or sharp objects, safety awareness can be elementary. This also applies to functional academics and social behavior as well as travel and orientation skills. However, good motivation and work behavior is important and medium physical strength for carrying water can and the ability to work in a bent over position for some time is necessary. Main task areas Weeding and sweeping the compound • • • • weeds, rakes and sweeps the compound rakes the leaves and burns them when necessary sweeps the compound and throws away the rubbish burns the trash or brings it to the refuse dump

Pruning and watering the hedges and flowers • • • • • uses a cutlass or pruning shears to cut the hedges to equal height collects the cuttings and carries them to the dump uses a watering can or a hose to water hedges and flowers sees to that the ground is moist but not waterlogged uproots unwanted growth to avoid competition for nutrients

Making seed beds for nursing of seedlings • • • digs nursing beds to specific sizes as instructed manures and mulches beds plants seeds in given distances using a measuring stick

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• •

waters the beds with a watering can or with a hose transplant the seedlings from the nursing beds after some weeks onto the designated spot

Take home share A garden boy may earn a monthly allowance of about ¢150,000 to ¢250,000. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, hoe, knife, watering can, garden fork, hand trowel with expenses at current prices not over 200 000 Cedis. These tools could also be supplied by the master. Risk of injuries Are low, but he can hurt himself with a cutlass and should be taught to watch out for scorpions and snakes when working with the soil. Safety measures He should wear Wellington boots and learn to watch out for scorpions and snakes. Gender factors This job can be performed by men and women Seasonality The garden boy can work throughout the year

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5.6.9.

Hairdresser’s assistant

Washes customers´ hair, helps in braiding, keeps the place clean and maintains the objects used in a hairdressing place. Main activities • • • • washing hair washing towels and rollers helping in braiding and combing out old weave keeping the shop clean and going on errands

Prerequisite skills A hairdresser’s assistant needs to be clean (self care skills) and have a neat appearance. As she has dealings with customers, she must show some social competence such as in communicating, greeting and good social behavior. In order to use a hair dryer, she must be aware of electrical hazards (safety awareness). Also important are the abilities to find and walk to familiar places such as the market when sent on errands (orientation and travel). Functional academics except for distinguishing colors and length of objects are of slight importance, as is physical strength and agility. However, good motivation and work behaviors are essential. Main task areas Washing hair • • • • • • • • positions the head of the client so that no water or soap can get into the eyes or face pours some water on the hair pours some shampoo on the hair and rub gently with the finger tips until it is well lathered rinses and removes foam if necessary, repeats several times adds conditioner and rubs it into hair and scalp combs hair gently rinses with water and dries with a towel

Washing towels and rollers • fetches water in a bucket

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• • • •

soaks towel in water rubs soap on the towel and rubs dirty parts against each other until they are clean rinses in a separate bowl until all traces of soap are removed dries rinsed towels on a clothes line, a rack or placing them on bushes

Helping in braiding and combing out old weave • • • • • holds strands of weave in left hand firmly uses a comb to part the weave removes weak or split strands of artificial hair divides strands of weave into three equal parts braids by passing one strand over the other in a regular pattern

Keeping the shop clean and going on errands • • • • • sweeps the shop every morning and evening removes cobwebs from the ceiling and walls dusts the chairs and tables in the shop weeds and sweeps around the shop when instructed goes on errands to buy soap, weave and other items

Take home share A hairdresser’s helper could be paid about ¢5,000 per day so at the end of the month, the assistant will receive about ¢150,000. Necessary tools and investments As the equipment is provided by the Madam, the assistant needs a uniform and apron with the cost not exceeding 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries Are low, but by constant immersion of the hands in water and chemical products the skin may become irritated. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed. Gender factors 222

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It is customary for females to work in this job. Seasonality Women go to the hairdresser all year round.

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5.6.10.

Houseboy

Helps take care of the immediate surroundings of the house and generally makes himself useful. Main activities • • • • weeding around the house and watering the garden sweeping the compound opening and closing the gate washing the car

Prerequisite skills Since the houseboy interacts with visitors and family members, he needs a relatively high skill level as concerns social competence (communication and reaction to criticism), a neat and pleasing appearance (self help skills), and he needs to be able to deal with electrical hazards and sharp objects (safety awareness). Orientation and travel skills can be quite low as he mainly works around the house. But, as with all jobs, good motivation and work behavior, as well as medium physical strength and agility are important for succeeding at this job. Main task areas Weeding around the house and watering the garden • • • removes weeds around the path and flower beds with a cutlass waters the flowers with a watering can uses a water hose to sprinkle the grass

Sweeping the compound • • • rakes the leaves and burns them when necessary sweeps the compound and throws away the rubbish burns the trash or brings it to the refuse dump

Opening and closing the gate • • • welcomes and announces visitors opens and closes gates for the master’s car keeps a watchful eye on the house

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Washing the car • • • • • fetches water and adds soap washes the body of the car with soapy water removes rubber mats and brushes the interior washes the car windows and wipes off the interior scrubs the tires with a brush

Take home share A house boy may earn a monthly allowance between ¢100,000 to ¢300,000 depending on the wealth of the family he serves. Necessary tools and investments Cutlass, hoe, rake, bucket, brush watering can and hose are supplied by the master, so there is no need for investments. Risk of injuries Are low, except for possible accidents while weeding. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed but, in general, a first aid box should be available in the house. Gender factors The job of a house boy, as the name suggests, is an occupation for boys or for men. Girls or women also work in this field but are more occupied in helping with cooking and the children (see house girl). Seasonality It is an all year round occupation.

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5.6.11.

Refuse collector’s helper

Moves from house to house and from street to street to collect refuse into a cart and transports it to a suitable site for dumping. Main activities • • collecting refuse from house to house and from street to street depositing trash at a refuse dump

Prerequisite skills A refuse collector’s helper can have only limited social skills (ex. can communicate by gestures) but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. He needs only limited self-care a skills, as the job itself is not clean, but must be able to wash carefully after work. The only safety hazards could be cutting oneself with sharp objects such as broken glass. Orientation and travel skills are important, as the helper roams about gathering rubbish. Functional academics are of no importance, however, responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given and a certain degree of physical strength and agility is needed for pushing or dragging the cart. Main task areas Collecting refuse from house to house and from street to street • • • pushes a wheelbarrow round in the community to collect refuse or pulls a cart from house to house lifts the dustbin and empties the trash into the cart makes sure there is no refuse left in the trash bin and sweeps the ground around the dustbin Depositing trash at a refuse dump • • • • when the vehicle is full wheels it to the refuse dump empties the refuse into the dump making sure there is none left in the cart pushes or pulls the cart to the next house where trash has not yet been emptied collects his fees at the end of the week or month

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Take home share Depends on the number of houses served but can go up to 200 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments Wheelbarrow or cart, shovel, broom, nose mask, refuse pincher, hand gloves with investments of up to 350 000 Cedis at present prices Risk of injuries Low, but collecting refuse can be a health risk if it contains diseased organisms or broken bottles and glass. Safety measures During collection and transport he must avoid direct contact with refuse by wearing gloves. In the case of strong odors or extreme dust he should wear mouth and nose protection and be instructed to wash thoroughly after work. Gender factors This job could be done by both sexes. Seasonality Collecting rubbish is an all year round job.

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5.6.12.

Sales assistant

Helps in unpacking boxes, storing wares on the shop’s shelves, carrying customers´ packages to their cars, sweeping and cleaning the store. Main activities • • • unpacking and storing goods in the shelves putting items for customers into bags and carrying them to a taxi keeping the store neat

Prerequisite skills Since the assistant deals with customers, a neat and pleasing appearance (self help skills), good communication (social competence), and positive social behavior are a must. As there are no specific hazards, the need for safety awareness is low, except for being able to deal with sharp instruments such as razor blades or knifes. A medium level of functional academics, such as picture reading and counting quantities up to 20 is an advantage. Orientation and travel skills as well as physical strength and agility can be moderate. But, as in all occupations, good motivation and work behavior are a must in order to find work. Main task areas Unpacking and storing goods on the shelves • • • • carries boxes and bundles into the store uses a razor blade or a knife to slit open the cello tape seal removes the content of the box and stacks it into the appropriate shelves brings the empty boxes outside and stores them in a designated place

Putting items for customers into bags and carrying them to a taxi • • • stands beside the cashier and places items into a rubber bag avoids packing too many items into a bag, so it will not tear carries the bags to the customers car or a roadside taxi

Keeping the store neat • • sweeps the shop every morning and evening removes cobwebs from the ceiling and walls

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• •

dusts the shelves and tables in the shop weeds and sweeps around the shop when instructed

Take home share A sales assistant could be paid about ¢5,000 per day so at the end of the month, the assistant will receive about ¢150,000. Necessary tools and investments All the equipment, such as broom, duster or ceiling brush as well as a razor blade or scissors is provided by the shop owner. Risk of injuries Are low, but the person can cut himself when opening boxes with a sharp tool. Safety measures No specific safety measures are needed. Gender factors Males and females can work in this job. Seasonality Shops operate all year round.

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5.6.13.
market. Main activities • • •

Second hand shoe seller’s helper

Washes, dries and polishes imported second hand shoes for sale at the

washing and drying shoes in the sun polishing the shoes exhibiting shoes for sale and storing them for the night

Prerequisite skills In order to attract customers, the helper must have a neat and pleasing appearance (self help skills) and communicate well (social competence). He must show good social behavior and needs some skills in travel and orientation as he will need to move around in his job. There are almost no safety risks in this job, and functional academics are only important as concerns dealing with money and making change. Physical strength and agility can be limited but good motivation and work behavior is a must. Main task areas Washing and drying shoes in the sun • • • fetches water from a tap in a bucket cleans the shoes with a rag dipped in soapy clean smelling water sets the shoes on a clean surface to dry

Polishing the shoes • • • • applies shoe polish and when necessary leather die with a rag spreads the polish smoothly all over the surface leather rubs the polish into the leather with a rag uses brush or rag to polish shoe leather until it shines

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Exhibiting shoes for sale and storing them for the night • • • • puts the shoes in rows on the pavement in the market stuffs the shoes with newspaper to smooth out the wrinkles in the leather sets them up in pairs and categories: children’s, women’s and men’s shoes bundles the shoes in bags for the night and stores them in a safe place

Take home share Monthly earnings can come to about 150 000 Cedis. Necessary tools and investments Bucket, soap, polish, brush, rags, a chair. The investments without the cost of used shoes amount to a little over 100 000 Cedis at present prices. Risk of injuries No risks. Safety measures No specific measures necessary except being attentive. Gender factors Both sexes can sell second hand shoes. Seasonality This is an all year round job.

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5.6.14.

Ward assistant

Keeps a hospital ward or community centre clean by making beds, sweeping and mopping floors and dusting the furniture. Main activities • • • • sweeping and mopping the floor dusting and cleaning furniture dressing beds weeding and keeping the surroundings tidy

Prerequisite skills As the assistant is working in an environment which must be clean and deals with customers or patients, good hygiene and communication skills are indispensable (social competence, social behavior and self help skills). The helper needs to be able to deal with electrical hazards (safety awareness). However, his orientation and travel skills can be quite limited, as he will be working in the same environment. Functional academics are of low importance, but, like for all professions, good motivation and work behavior are essential. Main task areas Sweeping and mopping the floor • • • sweeps the wards rooms and surroundings of the centre scrubs gutters and floors mops the floor

Dusting and cleaning furniture • • • dusts the furniture and the louvers washes the louvers with soap and water when needed removes cow webs from the ceiling and walls

Dressing beds • • • makes the beds removes the dirty linen carries the soiled bed sheets to the laundry

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Weeding and keeping the surroundings tidy • • • • weeds around the building sweeps the paths to the ward empties rubbish bin carries the trash to the refuse dump

Take home share A ward cleaner in a hospital or community centre can earn up to 300 000 Cedis a month. Necessary tools and investments The following implements are provided by the hospital or community centre so no investments are needed: broom, rags, plastic buckets, disinfectant, mop, rubber gloves and soap. Risk of injuries The person can slip on a wet floor or hurt himself weeding but, in general, risks are low. Safety measures Supervision is necessary and the ward assistant must learn to be careful around wet and slippery surfaces. Gender factors Both sexes can become ward cleaners. Seasonality This is an all year round job.

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VI. ORGANIZING TRANSITION AND SUPPORT
Following the American example, there have been numerous descriptions of setting up a transition team and developing a written Individualized Vocational Transition Plan (IVTP) (Thressiakutty & Rao, 2001, 41-45).In these publications, emphasis is put on the multidisciplinary composition of the transition team and a written plan, which specifies long t and short-term objectives. In frequent meetings, these persons are to work out and follow up a plan for individual transition, a strategy which sounds compelling. However, under the given circumstances on the ground in Ghana, this can lead to cumbersome and ineffective procedures. Arranging meetings for a large number of persons and demanding written documents can be time consuming. Often the persons chosen to attend will not actually give any practical support for solving the problems at hand. Medical, therapeutic, special education and social services as well as vocational training options or employment opportunities from local businesses are usually quite limited for mentally handicapped school leavers in the community. In addition, some of these persons will want compensation for their time as well as travel expenses. Typing and distributing a written transition plan can be an extra burden. This is why we suggest a pragmatic procedure that reduces meeting time and written documents to a practical minimum.

6.1.

Transition Team

The people discussing the vocational options of the handicapped school leaver should obviously be those who know the person best and who have a real stake in his future. Ideal core team members include: • • • • the special educator who has taught the person for some time the parents or guardians the young person himself and, if possible the person who will guide the graduate on the work site. In some cases advice must be sought from professionals, i.e. what type of work is not dangerous for a person with epileptic seizures, what technical aids

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can help a person with low vision in performing a specific job, etc. In many cases, however, this information can be organized before the meeting by the special educator so that the professional person will not need to spend time and money to attend the meeting. This book is written with the assumption in mind, that the person with a disability visits a special class in a regular school in the community and has continued to live with his family. This implies that the special educator is in relatively frequent contact with the family and is aware of the job opportunities in the community. Transition from a segregated boarding school is a different and complex issue, especially if the parents live far away, do not see their child often and meetings with additional travel costs are involved.

6.2.

Information needed

The process of transition starts from the special class in which the graduate is being taught. The special educator can bring in specific information: • Results of the assessment of interests and abilities based on the students performance in the classroom as well as varied vocational activities. • What support the person needs when working ( see check list in the annex) The parents or guardians of the child can add their contribution to this assessment and give additional information as to: • • What kind of work is available in the extended family setting (see check list in the annex) which the handicapped school leaver could fit into. Which person could be asked to train and supervise the individual on the work site The handicapped school leaver himself can express his own point of view if possible and describe his preferences, hopes and dreams.

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6.3.

Results and discussion

If all persons concerned agree on the interests, abilities and opportunities available for the handicapped school leaver, a stepwise procedure for transition can be arranged. This could be done according to the following schedule: • • The special educator visits the future job site- if he has not already done so before- to look at the tasks that must be accomplished. Using task analysis, he carefully analyses the different main activities (see the procedure for task analysis in this handbook and look at the examples given for different vocational options). • In his analysis he concentrates on core work routines that occur very frequently or daily in a job in order to see which of these skills must still be trained. • In addition, he notes which work behaviors expected from a worker such as punctuality, getting along with co-workers, being able to stand time pressure, etc. are necessary for the job at hand. • Also work related skills associated with successful performance but not directly linked to the job itself must be analyzed. For example, as already mentioned, someone working in agriculture must be able to find his way to the outlying fields where yams are being planted (orientation and mobility skills), must be capable of identifying labels that signal “Poison” when spraying plants (functional academics), etc. • After this visit and an analysis of the job, a suggestion can be made as to which specific tasks the young person can handle and a person identified who will monitor and support the job activity. • It is especially important to emphasize that the tasks assigned should be within the ability of the person so that he will achieve success. Also, the work should not be too heavy or unpleasant so the person will not lose heart. If only extremely heavy and dirty work is assigned, and the person is frequently scolded and criticized, we need not be surprised, if he gives up easily.

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The individual transition plan Just like a weekly lesson plan which teachers are accustomed to, the individual transition plan outlines: • • • where the training takes place what skills are being trained and who is responsible for the training

Again the intention is to sketch out a framework that eliminates unnecessary paperwork but makes clear: • • • • what should be done by whom where and in which amount of time.

Let us take the example of a young girl, who is going to learn how to help her mother with grilling plantains (see Plantain griller’s helper in the chapter 5.5. FOOD PREPARATION AND PROCESSING).A simple Individualized Vocational Transition Plan could look like this: Name of Trainee: Training duration: Comfort 1 Year Age: Job site: David Mother Agatha
2nd Term

Person responsible at school: Person responsible at work site:
Training site Schedule 1st Term

16 Years Before House No 3 Chartey street

3rd Term

Remarks

School

Four days a Two days a One day a week week week Objectives Safety Equal length Safety measures, length, measures and money equal money skills skills Job site Duration One day a Three days a Four days a week week week Objectives Lighting fire, Tending fire, Tending fire, fanning the peeling and peeling plantains, embers, cutting grilling plantain adding plantain to and dealing with charcoal equal pieces customers * * These activities do need to be accomplished simultaneously. It is desirable that the trainee masters all these skills but, in order to be useful in this job, one or two skills could be sufficient.

Duration

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It is obvious that such a schedule will only work, if there is communication between the school and the job site in order to deal with any problems that come along. In community based schools this is relatively easy to achieve as the distance between the home and the school is not great. Basically the job of the school consists of checking if the prerequisite skills which the young person needs on this specific job have been acquired for each task. These skills can be reinforced by discussing proper behavior for example safety skills, by setting tasks at school that practice these skills and finally by observing the person on the job to give additional hints and feedback. Very often people expect a young person not to learn a task in small steps such as we have shown in task analysis but to grasp the whole procedure in one complete process. If there is no immediate success even teachers of mentally retarded children often conclude: “This person cannot learn anything at all!” It is the job of the teacher to demonstrate to the coworkers that through teaching a skill step by step complex tasks can be learned. In addition the teacher can introduce simple techniques for learning some of the skills. For example the trainee can be taught to cut pieces of plantain of equal length by marking a given length on the cutting board. The child is then shown how to align the peeled plantain to the cutting board and use the marks to measure the desired length of plantain. An empty tin can be used to measure the amount of charcoal to be added to the fire etc. etc. Last not least there still exists a tendency to believe that by frequent criticism, shouting and even caning a person will acquire skills. Children are seen as inherently lazy that must be forced to learn. This is obviously not true. The teacher should be a model of patience, of being able to judge, how big a step a child can learn and what techniques can be used to give assistance to the acquisition of a skill. He should demonstrate by his behavior the respect for the efforts of the pupil and show optimism for the trainee’s ability to learn and do worthwhile work.

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Finalizing transition In the preface to this handbook we stated, that decent work was the goal of transition. This can be achieved by carefully guiding young mentally handicapped school leavers in analyzing their abilities, their interests and the opportunities open to them. As we spend most of our waking hours at work, integration into society is to a large extent defined by actively pursuing some activity which is of use to the people around us. Being active in whatever small way and helping with the tasks at hand increases the self esteem of the person and the acceptance by others. Only those persons familiar with the school leaver and the person himself can decide at what point in time transition from school to work has been achieved. Usually a period of one year should be sufficient to reach this goal. In some cases the time could be shorter and in a few cases where a lot of back up and support is needed time could be extended. However, a regular contact and follow up of former pupils by the school should be the norm. In a community-based school, this can be achieved by casual encounters at the market in the streets or just passing by the parents’ home. In addition, a school could invite former pupils to certain events such as game activities, festive occasions such as Christmas or Easter etc. It is not the task of a school to keep mentally handicapped adults in special schools forever. However, schools do have a responsibility for seeing to it that their former pupils live a decent life.

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VII. AN OUTLINE OF PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING
It has been underlined many times over, that a school for mentally handicapped children in Ghana should not attempt to train pupils in specific professions in which they must perform independently after graduation. Units or schools for mentally handicapped children have neither the resources nor the skilled personnel who would be able to train for specific professions. This training cannot be done in a school environment .A real life situation is needed where goods are produced and sold to customers in a competitive market or services rendered in a community setting. It does not seem feasible to train for the role of a helper in all the numerous activities we have described. We need to take into account the setting in which these jobs will be performed and the persons with whom the school leaver will work. This is especially true for residential schools that have very limited contact with parents and the community of origin. After leaving school, the graduate will necessarily go back to the community and will need to be fitted into his family’s economic activities. However, quite a number of prerequisite skills for many of the job activities that have been listed can be trained at school as well as the majority of basic skills that are the core elements of many of the simple jobs we have described in the preceding chapter. The procedure of identifying these prerequisite, readiness skills and core skills for many vocational activities will be explained in the following chapter.

7.1.

An analysis of basic vocational skills

In the description of job activities available to persons with a mental handicap we have distinguished between prerequisite and task skills. Prerequisite skills are those which make it likely that a person can be trained for a certain job. Examples include physical strength and communication skills. It has been the experience of many teachers and parents that there are limits to development. A person who is quite frail in his physical build will not be able to work as a blacksmith’s helper. A person who has speech difficulties will not be able to succeed in a job in which

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communication with customers is essential. This applies to any human being whether handicapped or not and is probably the reason why some have decided to become a teachers and not nuclear scientists or professional football players.

Prerequisite skills The Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale (Kniel, A. & Kniel-Jurka, C. 2006) that is modeled after the work of Cornelius & Ruckman (1998) contains a list of eight subscales that measure the extent of readiness in areas that are prerequisite for many practical vocational activities in the informal sector in Ghana. This scale can be used to assess the level of readiness of an individual pupil in different skill areas as well as in defining objectives which should be achieved so that the future graduate can follow a certain vocation. It can also be used to eliminate vocational activities for which the young person does not have the necessary prerequisite skills and where even when trained is not likely to achieve the necessary level of competence. For example, no matter how much we train a pupil with cerebral palsy it is not likely that this child will be able to perform well in a job that demands accelerated fine motor skills. No matter how well we educate a mentally handicapped school leaver with an additional hearing impairment, a job which demands constant verbal communication with customers is not suited for this person. All the vocations we have looked at are characterized by specific demands on readiness skills which make it likely that a person can be trained on site for this activity. But we can still generalize as to those prerequisite skills that are common for the six vocational domains we have described in detail: • • • • • • Animal rearing Crop farming Crafts involving light physical labor Crafts involving heavy physical labor Food preparation and processing Services and commerce

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• • •

those abilities where a low level of skill is possible and which are not so important those skills that are important for some but not for all jobs, and those abilities which are important in any type of animal rearing and where a sufficient skills level is necessary.

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7.2.

Prerequisite skills in animal rearing
Important for some but not all jobs Important sufficient level necessary Social interaction (willingness to help and social behavior) Self care (personal hygiene) Safety awareness (use of sharp objects, threats by animals) Orientation and travel (orientation in the community, traffic hazards) Functional academics (money skills) Functional academics (measurement) Motivation and work behavior (perseverance, willingness, punctuality, remaining in workplace) Physical strength and agility (lifting and carrying, walking and running, holding and grasping, bending and balancing) Task behavior (responsibility, reaction to instruction, criticism)

Not so important low skill level possible Social interaction (communication and greeting) Self care (toileting, eating, grooming) Safety awareness (electrical & fire hazards) Orientation and travel (direction and signboards, public transport) Functional academics (reading & writing, number skills)

Quite simply, we can conclude that those persons will probably succeed in working with animals that: • • • • • show good motivation and work behavior, have the necessary safety awareness for dangers associated with the job, are of medium physical strength and agility, have a grasp of numbers and are willing to help, follow instructions and show responsible behavior and accept criticism.

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Formal academics skills, verbal competence and sociable behavior as well as a pleasing, neat appearance and good hygiene are desirable but not essential for this type of job.

7.3.

Prerequisite skills in crop farming

As the following table shows, the prerequisite skills for vegetable farming are identical to those of animal rearing. Not so important Important for some low skill level possible but not all jobs
Social interaction (communication and greeting) Self care (toileting, eating, grooming) Safety awareness (electrical & fire hazards) Orientation and travel (direction and signboards, public transport) Functional academics (reading & writing) Orientation and travel (orientation in the community, traffic hazards) Functional academics (money skills) Functional academics (number and measurement skills) Motivation and work behavior (perseverance, willingness, punctuality, remaining in workplace) Physical strength and agility (lifting and carrying, walking and running, holding and grasping, bending& balancing) Task behavior (responsibility, reaction to instruction, criticism) Self care (personal hygiene) Safety awareness (use of sharp objects, threats by animals) Important sufficient level necessary Social interaction (willingness to help and social behavior)

We can conclude that in the majority of cases, those pupils that are likely to be able to do farm work can learn to raise animals and grow vegetables as well.

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7.4.

Prerequisite skills in crafts: light or heavy physical labor

We can easily see the difference in prerequisite skills as they relate to crafts which involve light or heavy physical labor: Prerequisite skills in crafts involving light physical labor

Not so important low skill level possible Social interaction (communication and greeting) Self care (toileting, eating, grooming) Safety awareness (electrical hazards) Orientation and travel (direction and signboards, public transport) Functional academics (reading & writing) Social Behaviour

Important for some but not all jobs

Important sufficient level necessary Social interaction (willingness to help and social behavior)

Safety awareness (fire hazards, threats by wild animals) Orientation and travel (orientation in the community, traffic hazards) Functional academics (measurement and number skills)

Safety awareness (use of sharp objects) Task behavior (responsibility, reaction to instruction, criticism) Functional academics (numbers) Motivation and work behavior (perseverance, willingness, punctuality, remaining in workplace) High degree of physical strength and agility (lifting and carrying, walking and running, holding and grasping, bending& balancing)

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Prerequisite skills in crafts involving heavy physical labor

Not so important low skill level possible

Important for some but not all jobs Social competence (communication and greeting) Self care (toileting, personal hygiene, eating, grooming) Safety awareness (fire hazards, threats by wild animals)

Important sufficient level necessary Social interaction (willingness to help and social behavior)

Orientation and travel (direction and signboards, public transport) Functional academics (reading & writing, addition, subtraction)

Task behavior (responsibility, reaction to instruction, criticism)

Motivation and work behavior (perseverance, willingness, punctuality, remaining in workplace) Physical agility (holding and grasping, bending and balancing)

Most crafts involving light labor feature some contact with the public so that some social competence in communication and greeting, as well as a neat and acceptable appearance, seem necessary. These aspects do not seem very important for most crafts involving heavy physical labor. In addition, there are a variety of safety hazards of which a person in these jobs must be aware, whereas in most forms of light physical labor workers only need to be alert to one type of hazard. It is quite obvious that the main distinction between these two forms of work lies in the area of motor skills demanded. Crafts involving heavy physical labor demand a high degree of physical strength and mastery of gross motor

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skills. In crafts which involve light physical labor, fine motor skills are more in the foreground.

7.6. Prerequisite skills in food preparation and processing
Not so important low skill level possible Important for some but not all jobs Social competence (communication and greeting) Self care (toileting, personal hygiene, eating, grooming) Safety awareness (fire hazards, threats by animals) Orientation and travel (direction and signboards, public transport) Functional academics (reading & writing) Orientation and travel (orientation in the community, traffic hazards) Functional academics (measurement and money skills) Motivation and work behavior (perseverance, willingness, punctuality, remaining in workplace) Physical strength and agility (lifting and carrying, walking and running, holding and grasping, bending and balancing) Functional academics (number skills) Important sufficient level necessary Social interaction (willingness to help and social behavior) Self care (toileting, personal hygiene, eating, grooming Safety awareness (use of sharp objects, fire hazards) Task behavior (responsibility, reaction to instruction, criticism)

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In contrast to the other vocational areas we have analyzed up to now, the prerequisite skills that have to do with self care are most important when preparing food. The person needs to be clean and have a pleasing appearance in order to attract customers. This area involves using a knife or scraper, setting and cooking on a fire, as well as lifting and carrying medium weights. Only pupils who have a certain degree of competence in these areas could be oriented towards working in food preparation and processing.

7.7.

Prerequisite skills in services and commerce
Important for some but not all jobs Important sufficient level necessary Social interaction (communication and greeting, willingness to help and social behavior) Self care (toileting, personal hygiene, eating, grooming

Not so important low skill level possible

Safety awareness (threats by animals) Orientation and travel (direction and signboards, public transport) Functional academics (reading & writing)

Safety awareness (use of sharp objects, fire & electrical hazards Orientation and travel (orientation in the community, traffic hazards) Functional academics (measurement and money skills)

Safety awareness (use of sharp objects, fire hazards) Task behavior (responsibility, reaction to instruction, acceptance of criticism) Functional academics (number skills) Motivation and work behavior (perseverance, willingness, punctuality, remaining in workplace)

Physical strength and agility (walking and running, bending and balancing)

Physical strength and agility (lifting and carrying, holding and grasping)

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As commerce and services for the most part includes dealing with the public, social competence and good self care skills are important in order to attract clients. Physical strength and agility again is mainly important in the fine motor domain. The areas of functional academics that are especially important concern, dealing with money and making change, as well as measuring skills. This, by the way, is exactly the same for the majority of those Ghanaians who are illiterate and are working successfully in commerce and services in the informal sector.

7.8.

The school curriculum and prerequisite skills for vocations

If one of the primary goals of school is to prepare pupils for a productive life, we can draw some interesting conclusions from our analysis of prerequisite skills for those jobs that are accessible for mentally handicapped school leavers. It is evident, that for any type of job the following three prerequisite skill areas seem very important: Task behavior • • • Responsibility, i.e. being careful with equipment that is used for the job Following instructions Tolerance of criticism, i.e. accepting criticism and correcting work behavior as instructed Motivation and work behavior • • • • Perseverance, i.e. being able to work without stopping for longer periods of time Willingness, i.e. being open to take up any assignment given Punctuality Remaining in the workplace

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Social Interaction • • Offering help when asked either when prompted or spontaneously Showing age and culturally appropriate behavior towards others

Those children who have learned these skills at school have the best chances of satisfying their employer at work. So any activities offered at school that foster these skills are of great benefit for the future. In fact in the aforementioned study of Suresh & Santhanam (2002), it was found that a strong positive relationship exists between these work traits and success at given tasks in a vocational setting for mentally handicapped persons in India. This is not to say, that other prerequisite skills should not be developed in the school context. Good communication skills, physical strength and agility, travel and orientation skills , safety awareness and functional academics ( numbers, measurement and money skills) are also important as prerequisites for certain jobs. But given the competition for simple jobs in the Ghanaian labor market, the most obvious advantage a mentally handicapped person would have are willingness to work hard and continuously, carefully following instructions and being ready to help whenever asked. In fact, these are the traits which encourage employers in industrialized countries to hire mentally handicapped workers for simple jobs. They seem to be more dedicated to their work if treated well than some of the nonhandicapped competitors. In order to prepare pupils in units or schools for the mentally handicapped, we should select elements of the curriculum that fit the demands of their future life situation. This means that instead of copying letters, we would need to concentrate on reading common sight words which the pupils will encounter in the community. Instead of attempting to teach formal written number work, counting and sorting objects as to size and shape as well as money skills should be in the foreground. In sports and physical education building strength and agility is a priority. In the following chapter we will attempt to show how these skills can be developed in a two year pre-vocational training program. This program does not aim to train for a specific profession but tries to develop interests and abilities by offering a variety of different projects in the last two school years.

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VIII. AN OUTLINE OF A PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM
Not much has changed since Hayford (2001) studied pre-vocational activities offered in four schools for mentally handicapped children in Ghana. Schools are still mostly active in the following areas: basketry, farming, batik and envelope making. Let us first look at the basic skills involved in the activity areas we have just analyzed: farming (animal rearing and vegetable growing), crafts, food preparation/processing, commerce and services. After looking at the basic skills in these five work areas we will present a selection of activities for prevocational training. These are basic work processes which could be inexpensively offered at every unit or special school for mentally handicapped children in Ghana in a two-year pre-vocational program. Please look carefully at the table to judge, what basic elements all these vocational activities have in common even though different specific skills are necessary to perform each job.

8.1.

Task skills common to all vocational areas

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AN OUTLINE OF A PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM Animal Rearing Sorting and distinguishing different materials (foodstuff, leaves, etc.) Measuring and mixing materials (feed, manure etc.) so that they are evenly distributed Carrying, fetching and storing feed, water and products, i.e. eggs Carrying and storing tools and crops, watering plants Carrying, loading, storing and stacking bundling, finished products and raw materials Cleaning and sweeping and bringing away waste materials Cutting grass and other feed Planting seeds, seedling in an even distance and depth of hole Setting and using a fire for preparing feed Clearing the land and weeding Cleaning and sweeping and bringing away waste materials Cutting, splitting, sanding, polishing shaping materials to a given size Setting and using a fire for burning charcoal or for boiling oil, water, wax etc. Setting and using a fire for frying, cooking and bringing water to a boil Using a charcoal or electric iron Lighting charcoal for a box iron Cutting, peeling, chopping, scraping, cracking food materials Carrying materials to a specific location, i.e. the grinding mill. Packaging, stacking, bundling, storing finished products and raw material Cleaning and sweeping and bringing away waste materials Cleaning brushing, sweeping, weeding, dusting mopping and bringing away waste materials Washing, rinsing, and drying Carrying, loading, storing and stacking bundling, finished products and raw material Vegetable growing Sorting seeds and plants according to type, size, maturity etc. Identifying plants ripe for harvesting Measuring and mixing quantities and assisting in fertilizing Measuring and mixing quantities of material Measuring and mixing using a measuring bowl, to add specific quantities Measuring sewing, gluing, braiding, cutting out shapes Crafts Sorting materials as to size, color, length shape and quality Food preparation Sorting food materials as to quality, soaking and sieving grains, flour Services/ commerce Sorting materials as to size, color, length, shape and quality

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It seems clear that even though specific task skills make up each occupation, some generic task skills that are common to the different vocational areas can be identified. Sorting, for example, refers to distinguishing different materials depending on whether the person is engaged in: • • • • farming (seedlings, grains, etc.), crafts (i.e., pieces of glass in different colors in bead making), food preparation (good from spoilt corn) or services (dirty or clean clothing) .

This skill seems to be necessary for task success in most jobs. So in practicing these skills by being exposed to a number of different activities in the pre-vocational phase of schooling, the pupil not only can test his abilities and interests in different fields but also learn to generalize skills over several areas. However the reader should be aware, that one of the specific traits of mentally handicapped persons is that learning is situation specific. Generalization, i.e. transferring learning from one setting to the other for example from the classroom to the home that we do easily in most cases is not accomplished naturally (for a detailed discussion see Berkson, 1993, 149172, Graziano, 2002, 204-214). That is why the same skills must be practiced over and over again in different settings such as those different vocational activities which we suggest should be included in the prevocational program.

8.2.

Criteria for selecting pre-vocational activities in the Ghanaian setting

If we select a number of pre-vocational activities to be offered on a regular basis in units and schools, we need to select these according to the following criteria: • • • Low cost of materials and tools Local raw material easily available No specific skill or knowledge necessary for teachers

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• • •

Relatively easy tasks which can be subdivided into specific tasks for children of all ages and abilities Products can be used in the school or consumed by the children themselves Several basic skills can be acquired in each activity

Units or schools for the mentally handicapped receive almost no subsidies from the government, and in the majority rely on funds from NGOs or donations. It is not an easy task to offer a variety of activities which can develop those generic skills which are important for future jobs. In addition activities that can be offered depend on the location and amount of land, the availability of water etc. in the unit or school. Following the criteria we have outlined, the following activities could be considered for a two- year pre-vocational training program: • • • • • Crop raising (tomatoes, beans, peppers) Animal husbandry (snails, rabbits) Crafts: (broom making, soap making) Domestic services (clothes washing and mending, regular cleaning of the classroom and compound) Food preparation (groundnut roasting, preparing a simple meal once a week with the older children) All these activities are simple, and the materials can be gathered for free or bought at low cost. Most teachers know how to teach these skills and will not require specific training. Parents could be encouraged to contribute some of the necessary materials. Some of the skills taught in each of these activities are listed in the following table:

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Activity Growing tomatoes, beans, pepper

Task Skills Sorting seeds and plants according to type, size, maturity etc Measuring size of nursery bed, distance and depth of planting seeds. Mixing top soil and fertilizer, manure or black earth Carrying watering can and tools Clearing the land and weeding Cutting branches for making a shade roof

Raising snails or rabbits

Sorting different types of feed (grass, leaves, peels, kitchen left-overs) Measuring of pit, quantity of feed and water Mixing feed Carrying water and feed Cleaning washing food trays, removing feces and old food Cutting grass and collecting leaves

Broom making

Sorting branches as to length and strength Measuring length of risps, length of string for tying Carrying branches from the bush, brooms to the market Cleaning work area, sweeping the floor Cutting length of broom sticks, length of string

Groundnut roasting

Sorting groundnuts as to quality Measuring Necessary amount of sand, of groundnuts to be roasted Mixing sand and groundnuts for roasting Carrying sand, charcoal, groundnuts for roasting Cleaning removing groundnut shells, burnt charcoal, sweeping the worksite Setting fire for roasting

Class clothes washing, mending and ironing day

Sorting dirty and clean clothing, clothing that is in order or must be mended Measuring the amount of water and soap, the length of thread, size of buttons etc. to be used Carrying water to the wash site Cleaning rubbing clothing until it is clean Setting charcoal aglow for ironing

Depending on the school facilities, the geographical location of the school, as well as the available ground for gardening or farm work, other simple activities could also be chosen for pre-vocational training.

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A possible schedule with increasing levels of difficulty could be as follows:
Clothes washing day Beginners Washing and drying Intermediate Washing and ironing Planting and weeding Watering and feeding Watering Vegetable growing Raising snails or rabbits Cleaning a).Groundnut roasting b).Meal cooking a).Shelling groundnuts b).Cleaning pots and pans a).Preparing fire, roasting b).Working with fire Before graduation Washing, ironing and mending Making nursery beds, selecting plants, harvesting etc. Mixing feed etc. watering, feeding, mending fences etc. a).Preparing paste, whole cycle b).Preparing a complete meal Removing sticks form the palm fronds Cutting branches in the bush, removing branches Measuring, shaping, tying the broom Crafts: broom making

All pupils independent of their age should participate according to their level of skill in the weekly clothes washing and mending day. All other pre-vocational activities could follow a sequence. Vegetable growing, animal raising, crafts and food preparation and crafts such as broom making could be offered to a small group of pre-vocational students. These students could move on to another area after three to four months so that at the end of these two years, their interests and abilities in these different occupations would be quite clear to them, their families and the teachers. It should again be underlined that the goal of this pre-vocational phase is not to make the pupils proficient in all these skill areas and then send them on the job market to work independently. The intention is to train the basic skills common to most vocational activities and help parents and the pupils themselves test their abilities. By this method, the choice of a future occupation will be based on experience.

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8.3.

Time Frame

A pre-vocational training program with the intention of fitting the child into the available job structure of the family and community environment should consist of several steps: 1. A two- year period where the majority of school time is devoted to the projects previously outlined (School based vocational project phase). 2. A job shadowing program, where children are attached for a short period to real life activities in the community to see what they are capable of and where their interests lie. 3. An onsite training program where in the third year, future graduates are trained in a vocational skill in a real life situation in the community and slowly progress from part-time to full-time work.

8.4.

School based vocational project phase

In this phase, all the children age 15 and above would successively be introduced to the activities described above. The goal consists of training them in the basic skills that are at the root of most vocational activities. Depending on the individual school setting, other activities could be introduced. For example, if palm oil is cheaply available in the region, soap making could be practiced in the school and the soap cakes used for the school washing day. The area used for growing vegetables or raising snails or rabbits needs to be fenced in order to prevent theft and destruction. In this, case pupils could learn to make fences out of sticks or erect a compound wall with mud bricks. It is clear, that the school based vocational project phase depends on local circumstances. Parents can also be asked to make a contribution of their knowledge and skills as well as donate the necessary materials. In addition, in the school-based vocational project phase on-site visits with small groups of pupils to different jobs locations in the community should be

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organized. The pupils could spend some time watching parents or other community members at work to get an idea of different professions. Parents and other community members could be asked to explain their work to the pupils so that other activities than those in the vocational projects of the schools would be experienced.

8.5.

Job shadowing program

Job shadowing permits an individual student to spend one or two days observing (shadowing) a person or a team at work. Depending on the level of difficulty, the student may even be given an opportunity to try his hand at specified tasks. The person to whom the student is assigned must be willing to supervise these activities. Job shadowing can be used as a method to improve decision-making when choosing among several alternative jobs. By observing the pupil’s interest and abilities on the job site, the student himself and his environment can come to a conclusion as to what is suitable for the individual. As individual job shadowing will usually take place among members of the extended family it will also be possible to observe with whom the pupil gets along well. Job shadowing also allows one to note which family member understands and is able to deal with the future graduate. Job shadowing therefore serves a triple purpose: • • • it is an additional opportunity to assess abilities and interests it increases the number of job options available and enables real life experience outside of the classroom, and it permits us to observe who gets along with the pupil and to whom the pupils relates well.

8.6.

Onsite training program

In the onsite training program, the pupil works full-time for a progressive number of days at a selected job for one year. At the end of the third year, the graduate will leave school and work full-time in the chosen field.

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As McDonnell, Mathot-Buckner & Ferguson (1996) underline, job training needs to focus on three main objectives: establishing a level of performance that is acceptable to the people who are working together on the job creating a support system that deals with problems arising in the course of work seeing to it, that the graduate observes informal and formal rules that apply to the job at hand. As stated before, the expected level of performance should be clear for the trainee as well as his co-workers. Care should be taken, that the person should not be limited to unduly heavy or dirty work that no one else will to do. On the other hand, the trainee should be able to work at a certain level of speed and the accuracy necessary for this type of work in order to be accepted as a co-worker. This means that in the beginning, following the principles of behavior modification, praise and reinforcement, as well as prompts for “good work behavior” should be frequent. This can be faded out over time, as the trainee progressively masters the task. In some cases job modifications will be necessary. As we have seen in our task analysis of jobs available in the community, these can be broken down into main task areas. A job modification could consist of limiting the task of the person to one area for example, watering and weeding the nursery beds in plant growing. Or a modification could be limiting the work to pounding broken glass bottles for bead making instead of expecting the person to do the whole sequence of tasks. Another strategy would be to think of adaptations that would reduce the difficulty of the task. Again taking up the same example in the beginning, the area that should be watered with one filling of the watering can could be marked. The person could be taught to distinguish earth that is sufficiently wet from that which is too dry or too wet, by touching the earth and observing its color. It is the job of the teacher to think of such adaptations to make it easier for the person to learn to do the job properly. Creating a support system involves finding persons on the job site who will be friendly and help the trainee when needed. If the work is in the extended family context, as is usually the case, such a “guardian angel” will probably already have been identified. Prinstain & Aikins (2005) studied how friendships of mentally retarded adolescents can benefit psychological

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adjustment and Turnbull, Pereira & Blue-Banning (2000) examined how teachers can facilitate friendships of mentally handicapped pupils. Asher & Gottman (1981) have identified three conditions under which friendships develop: • • There must be a shared interest; for example, the persons involved may like the same type of music, be interested in sports, etc. There must be frequent contact with the potential friend, which means that friendship is more likely if you work together, live in the same neighborhood, etc. • Last not least, you need the social skills to initiate and maintain the relationship, which means the person needs to be able behave in the way that is expected by others, i.e. joking with peers, share typical topics of conversation, offer assistance, be polite and aware of others feelings, etc. Preaching to the co-workers and outlining the deficits of the individual: “He is mentally retarded, sometimes forgets to bathe and does not speak clearly but you have to love him as a human being” is not recommended. Giving lectures on mental retardation and showing that you are an expert serves only to underline the distance between the co-workers and the new person who is going to join them in their job. We should focus on solving existing problems instead of creating new ones. The teacher should be available and easy to reach whenever there is a problem and use his ideas and experience with former pupils to solve them. For example, if the person shows up regularly late at work the teacher can talk to the people where he lives, find out why he is often late and get them to send him to the work site on time, etc. Observation of formal and informal rules on the job by the trainee can be monitored by visits to the job sites and conversations with co-workers and the trainee himself. The most important aspect here again is that the teacher who is responsible for the onsite job training of his pupil is in loose informal contact with the work site and is easily available for any necessary discussions.

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IX. A FINAL WORD
This handbook cannot pretend to have an answer to the employment problems of persons with an intellectual disability in Ghana. Even in industrialized countries, a large number of persons with a disability are without jobs.

However, • • • by analyzing existing job opportunities, assessing abilities and interests of mentally handicapped pupils job matching and job training on site in the community

we can take a decisive step towards our goal. With our support despite a handicap young school leavers can contribute to their family’s well being. Through decent work they can become an accepted member of the community Hopefully the reader will take up the procedures outlined in this handbook. As more community based schools for mentally handicapped children are created in Ghana transition from school to work will also increase.

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X. ANNEXE 10.1. WINNEBA VOCATIONAL READINESS SCALE (WVRS)
Kniel, A. & Kniel-Jurka, C.

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10.2.

WINNEBA SUPPORT NEEDS CHECKLIST
Adrian & Christiane Kniel-Jurka

With this informal list, the job coach can analyze and determine in which areas the school leaver with a mental handicap needs assistance for succeeding on the job. In the list please check why and in what area the person needs support, and then identify who could help and what should be done. 9
Why and in what area is support yes needed? Needs help to improve work quality Needs help to improve work quantity (speed) Needs help in being regular and punctual at work Needs help in safety skills Needs help in making himself understood (communication) Needs help in cooperating with coworkers (working together) Needs help with money (making change, getting his share) Needs help in presenting a neat and pleasing appearance Needs help with in taking medication and medical checkups (seizures, skin disease etc.) Needs help in adapting to changes and stress no Who can help? What should be done?

9

The following example can illustrate the procedure yes no Who can help? Co worker Needs to learn to use a rag to lift a hot skillet X AMA Mother off the fire. Needs to stand away from the direction of the wind near a fire Needs to take medication before going to work. Pill box with one compartment for every X day of the week must be made, so that regular intake can be checked What should be done?

Why and in what area is support needed? Needs help in safety skills

Needs help with in taking medication and medical checkups (seizures, skin disease etc.)

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10.3.

WINNEBA ACTIVITY LIST OF FAMILY MEMBERS (WALFM)
Kniel, A.& Kniel-Jurka, C.:

The purpose of this list is to identify those members of the extended family that could use extra help in their activities and to describe briefly what tasks would be involved. In a second step in talking with the teacher who knows the child best, it could be ascertained if abilities and interests of the child match the tasks that would be performed as a helper. What additional training on the job site/ home and community setting would be necessary if any? 1. Name of Child: 2. Name of Father: Self-employed: Could additional help be used in this occupation? What tasks would the additional help consist of? ................................................................................................ Address of father:........................................................................ Precise location: .......................................................................... 3. Name of Mother: Self-employed: Could additional help be used in this occupation? What tasks would the additional help consist of? ................................................................................................ Address of mother: ...................................................................... Precise location: .......................................................................... 4. Name of Guardian: ............. Self-employed: Could additional help be used in this occupation? What tasks would the additional help consist of? ................................................................................................ Address of guardian:.................................................................... Precise location: .......................................................................... Occupation: ................................ Yes Yes no no ............. Occupation: ................................ Yes Yes no no ............. ............. Age ....... Occupation: Gender: ..................... ................................ Yes Yes no no

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5. Siblings /Aunties/ Uncles/ Grandparents etc.
Name Occupation Selfemployed? y/n Additional help necessary? y/n What tasks would the additional help consist of?

6. Churches / \NGOs Is church/ NGO undertaking any project in which the trainee could be integrated? Yes no If yes, please specify.................................................................... 7. List of activity areas of family members helping role of the trainee is possible ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ 8. According to family member interviewed which of these persons could be approached or can they approach to discuss a helping role in their job activities? ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ 9. Other observations and comments gathered from the chat with the parents or person who brought the future graduate to school. ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ Date, Signature...........................................................................

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XI. REFERENCES 10
African Economic Outlook2004/2005: Ghana (www.oecd.org/dev/aeo) Asher,S.R.& Gottman,J.M. (1981): The development of children’s friendships. New York (Cambridge University Press) Berkson, G. (1993): Children with handicaps: A review of behavioural research. Hillsdale, New Jersey, Hove and London Chadsey-Rusch, J., Gonzalez, P., & Tines, J. (1987). Social ecology of the workplace: A study of interactions among employees with and without mental retardation. (www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n1_v58/ai_12382047/pg_9) Chant S & Jones, G.A. (2005): Youth, Gender and livelihoods in West Africa: Perspectives from Ghana and the Gambia. Children’s Geographies, Vol. 3 No 2, 185-199, August (http://personal.lse.ac.uk/chant/ChantPublications.htm) Cornelius, J.K & Ruckman, S (1998): An instrument for assessment of vocational readiness of persons with mental retardation. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1 also available under (http://aifo.it/english/apdrj/apdrj.htm) DeFur, S. (2000): Designing individualized Education Program (IEP)

Transition Plans. ERIC EC Digest #E598. (http://ericec.org/digests/e598.html) Dragoo,K.(2006): NICHCY Connections to transition for students with disabilities. National dissemination Center for children with disabilities. (http://www.nichcy.org/resources/transition_disab.asp)
10

To make these references accessible to the reader every effort has been made to select books and articles that are available in the World Wide Web. This is why literature has been chosen which can be downloaded instead of material that is not commonly available even in university libraries in Ghana

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Economic Commission for Africa. Youth and Employment in Africa.2002 (www.uneca.org/eca_resources/Conference_Reports_and_Other_Documents/ espd/2002/YouthandEmployment.PDF) EFA Global Monitoring Report: Literacy for life. Regional overview SubSaharan Africa 2006 (portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.phpURL_ID=43289&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html) Elwan, A. (1997): Poverty and disability. A survey of the literature. Washington (siteresources.worldbank.org/.../Resources/Poverty/Poverty_and_Disability_A _Survey_of_the_Literature.pdf) F. Fluitman: Working but not well. Notes on the nature and extent of employment problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Training Centre of the International Labour Organisation. Occasional Papers.2001 (www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/skills/informal/gpe/download/brief/6 .pdf ) Ghana Statistical Service (1999): Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 1998 Graziano. A.M. (2002): Developmental Disabilities. Introduction to a diverse field. Boston etc. Hagner,D. (1992): Facilitating natural supports in the workplace: strategies for support consultants. Journal of Rehabilitation, Jan-March (www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n1_v58/ai_12382047) Hayford, S.K. (2001): An Evaluation of vocational programmes of special schools for individuals und Dritte with Welt mental retardation of in Ghana. and Zeitschrift Behinderung (Journal Disability International

Development) 3, 90-93 (also available under http://www.uni-kassel.de/ZBeh3Welt)

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Heron,R. (2005): Job and work analysis. Guidelines for identifying jobs for Persons with disabilities. ILO Skills and Employability Department. (www.ilo.org/publns) Heron,R.&Murray,B. (www.ilo.org/publns) Inge, K.J, Strobel, W. & Shepherd, J. (1998): Transition from School to work: facilitating employment using assistive technology and supports. (http://www.vcu.edu/rrtweb/techlink/iandr/art/ref.html) International Session. International Labour Organization (2004): Achieving Equal Employment Opportunities for People with Disabilities through Legislation. Guidelines Kniel, A. (1995): The present situation of former pupils from schools for the mentally retarded: experiences from four countries in western and central Africa. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 18, 357-361 Lattimore, L.P., Parsons, M.B & Reid, D.H. (2006): Enhancing job site training of workers with autism. A reemphasis on simulation. Journal of applied Behaviour Analysis. 39(1): 91–102 (http://seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba/toc/2006/jabaSpring06.php) Levinson,E.M. & Palmer, E.J ( 2006): Preparing Students With Disabilities for School-to-Work Transition and Post school Life. Principal leadership, January 2006 (http://www.iseek.org/sv/81002.jsp?textOnly=Y) McDonnell,J.,Mathot-Buckner,C. & Ferguson,B.(1996): Transition programs for students with moderate/severe disabilities. Pacific Grove etc. (Brooks/Cole) Labour Office (1998): Vocational Rehabilitation and the (1997 ):Assisting disabled persons in finding

employment: A practical guide. International Labour Organization

Employment of Disabled Persons. International Labour Conference, 86

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Dr Adrian Kniel is a professor at the Faculty of Social Services, University of Kassel (Germany) and the Department of Special Education, University of Education, Winneba. He has been active in the education of children with a mental handicap in Africa for 20 years. As initiator and educational director of the system of integrated schools for children with an intellectual disability in Togo he organised and chaired the first meeting of teacher of schools for the mentally handicapped in West and Central Africa. Together with teachers from schools in Togo and Ghana he developed the first curriculum for mentally handicapped children in this region and organised and taught sandwich courses for specialist teachers from the francophone countries. Prof. Kniel served as senior expert in the development of a program for transition from school to work for mentally handicapped school leavers in Algeria. Presently Dr. Kniel is attached to the Special Education Division of Ghana Education Service as an integrated CIM expert. He is responsible for the partnership program of the German Technical Cooperation (gtz) “Support to Special Education” with the goal of increasing access of children with an intellectual disability to education, improving specialist teacher education and enhancing transition from school to work.

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