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to the policies/practices that are concerned with the management and regulation all relationships in a positive working environment; these programs/policies contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation and morale (University of Cape Town [UCT], 2007). The term “employee relations” was conceived as a replacement for the term “industrial relations”, but its precise meaning needs some clarification in today’s workplace (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2005). Nevertheless, employee relations policies are now seen primarily as a philosophy which involves ideas such as “employee voice” and “psychological contract”. Moreover, the ER function is of critical importance because: • It helps to foster a safe and efficient work environment, which is created and maintained by anticipating and defusing conflict wherever possible, instead of waiting for these problems to escalate which would lead to a decrease in productivity. This can be done by encouraging staff to articulate concerns and conflicts to seek resolution of underlying issues (UCT, 2007). • It helps to promote effective productivity within organisations. This can be achieved within organisations, by providing equitable programs which focus on recognising and rewarding employees for their outstanding contributions. Moreover, it is imperative that management communicates openly to all employees, the specifics of how and why they would be rewarded for particular actions. This also assists with increasing effective productivity (UCT, 2007). • It seeks engagement from each member of an organisation via commitment and employee citizenship. This strengthens communication and participation since it entails team work. It is here that individuals learn to deal with and prevent conflicts before they affect productivity. Management
can even further endorse this by identifying and expanding common areas of interest between all staff paving the path for commitment and motivation (UCT, 2007). • It is essential to organisations operating in competitive industries, since employment based programs/policies have a considerable influence on a company’s ability to attract highly sought after employees. An example of these programs is a work-life balance. This is a management support program that: Is about people having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved when an individual's right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society (The Work Foundation, 2005). According to the literature provided on employee relations, a strategic approach to employee relations is characterized by the integration of employee relations policies or considerations into the organization’s plan to facilitate and maintain a competitive advantage. The management approach also has a considerable impact on employee relations. The informal management approach is advantageous to good relationships in the workplace. Employers using this style tend to be friendly and caring, which leads to relaxed work environments without formalities. This improves work communications crucial to smooth and effective work. On the other hand, mixed management is less flexible but has been proven to be strategically more practical in growth-oriented firms. The major downside to this approach is that it causes some degree of polarization in the workplace which results in some amount of hostility, as well as loss of communication. As stated earlier, employee relations policies include ideas such as psychological contract and employee voice. Recent research has found that high performance derives from a relational psychological contract and that transactional contracts impact negatively on performance. Furthermore, key issues for development are the internal dynamics of the employment relationship and their impact on outcomes, such as performance. To ensure mutuality between both parties in the psychological contract, its content and perception should be
g. In other words. A failure to fulfill both types leads to decreased performance. while those using mixed management use transactional. the various types of employment based programs are the managerial tools. and providing training and development in generic employability skills. motivation and morale which are all elements/aspects of the ER function.considered to make sure all implied obligations are fulfilled. Businesses using informal management use relational contracts. and loyalty is no longer a guarantee of ongoing employment. Guest and Conway (1998) suggests that the extent to which these obligations are fulfilled will determine employee outcomes such as individual performance. Individuals are thus expected to take primary responsibility for their own employability rather than relying on the organization to direct and maintain their careers. Programs/policies and their contribution to the effectiveness of the ER function Programs/policies are important to the ER function because they are the managerial tool. In order to achieve this one must consider the various types of programs/policies. while relational contracts focus on emotional involvement and financial reward. compensation. (Therefore) employers can assist their employees by clarifying changes to the psychological contract. and the role each type of program/policy plays in the fulfillment of the aspects of the ER function. In light of this realization. As stated in the journal article The new covenant of employability: The written and psychological contracts between employer and employer have become more transactional and less relational. highlighting the benefits of career selfmanagement. there are 2 types of contracts – transactional contracts focus on providing monetary remuneration e. which is used to facilitate this function. . According to Rousseau (1995). which help to sustain satisfactory productivity. it necessary to consider exactly how do these programs contribute to the effective facilitation of this function.
caring for dependents programs such as onsite child care programs. are brought about through work life policies). satisfactory productivity and motivation (aspects of the ER function). telecommuting. such as flex-time. paid and unpaid time off programs such as paid vacation off. morale and job satisfaction.Examples of various types of employment based programs/policies include: workplace flexibility programs. part-time-schedules. health insurance policies. it is understood that there is a relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction (which as stated earlier. job sharing. retirement policies and employee assistance plans. Other types of programs include pension policies. and compressed work week. if an individual is satisfied with their job. it can be inferred that because these programs increase employee morale. In particular. work family policies refer to part-time work. phased retirement. In light of this understanding. flexible hours arrangements and compressed work weeks (Ministerial Task Force on Work and Family 2002 cited in McDonald et al 2005). In particular reference to the link between job satisfaction. they would be motivated to increase . These policies help employees to “simultaneously fulfill their responsibilities at work and at home” (McDonald et al 2005) because they have a positive influence on employees’ perceptions of their level of control over work and family matters (Thiede and Ganster 1995 cited in McDonald et al 2005). it is important to consider the following example: According to Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation and hygiene). Additionally. these programs are referred to as work life programs/policies or employee benefit programs/policies. if all the necessary elements which would lead to satisfaction are present. These programs contribute to the effectiveness of the ER function and they also encompass workfamily policies. they contribute to the effectiveness of the function as a whole. motivation and satisfactory productivity. parental leave. and paid maternity leave. which is an aspect of the ER function. In general. sabbaticals. that is. According to Mc Donald et al (2005). the provision of work-family policies contribute to an increase in employees’ organizational commitment. career break schemes.
it is ironic that although these programs exist to benefit employees. satisfactory productivity. some employees fear that they will be marginalized. In relation to organizational commitment. Once again.480) cited in McDonald et al (2005) found that: part-time workers (both men and women) were more likely to be subordinates rather than supervisors as compared to their full-time counterparts. there are instances . than those who worked more hours per week. According to Mayer (1992. It is therefore understood that because these programs influence job satisfaction and by extension motivation. Tam (1997. by providing work-family policies through the ER function. we see that the provision of work family policies contribute to the effectiveness of the ER function because they influence organizational commitment and motivation. it may be possible for organizations to achieve their goal of satisfactory productivity in part.672) organizational commitment entails “the willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization” and “belief in and acceptance of the goals of and values of the organization” and is directly linked to an individual’s motivational drive to produce effort. These disadvantages have been evidenced by the occurrence of actual organizational “events” where these policies exist. while work and family policies impact positively on both employees and organizations. there are several disadvantages that are associated with the usage of work and family policies. which in turn influences productivity. to be put at a disadvantage. As stated earlier.work output/ individual productivity. This therefore shows that it is possible for employees. motivation and morale are aspects of the ER function. This increase in individual productivity would lead to an increase in organizational productivity. if they take advantage of these policies. which can be effectively achieved through the provision of work family policies. Thus. p. it is understood that it is linked to motivation and satisfactory productivity. For instance. with those working fewer hours being worse off in terms of promotion prospects and other entitlements. p. However. they contribute to the effective execution of the ER function. Thus. In particular. who participate in these programs.
grievance resolutions and communications. it has been clearly shown that these programs have a positive impact on the aspects of the ER function (employee motivation. therefore. To bring further evidence to the notion that employment based programs/policies contribute to the effectiveness of the ER function.where they are skeptical about participating in work and family programs/policies. they are much happier and more productive” (Marshall et al 2006). is exceptionally important to individual performance as it speaks to the level of involvement in daily activities. the effectiveness of the function in itself. This function. yet efficiently. morale and productivity). In light of the research information to which reference has been made. and hence. p. found that employee benefits programs impact on motivation and productivity (aspects of the ER function). Several other studies have also supported this occurrence. the extent to which employees are receptive to communicated expectations of them.14). among other things. it was found that “employee benefits programs have a greater impact on work-motivation than on productivity” (Hong et al 1995. This study was based on data collected from eighty-nine corporations and covered an extensive range of benefits. they contribute to the fulfillment of the purpose for which the function was created and by extension. It is relevant that an organization conceptualizes and quickly. a study done by Hong et al (1995) on the impact of employee benefits on work motivation and productivity. conflict. programs/policies and their link to individual and organizational productivity Employee Relations relates to employee participation in management decisions. The ER function. . and the structure of decision making within the organization. implements programs which not only encourage employee involvement but also boost employee morale because “when employees believe that their ideas matter. due to fear of marginalization. In particular.
Therefore. It is believed that employee outcomes depend on particular aspects such as absenteeism and employee turnover. and thereby seeks to remedy any of their concerns before they even arise (e. the rationale behind providing ‘employee wellness programs’ is highly justified. It is important to understand that in order for the . Employee Relations also seeks to assure the workers within the organization that management has considered the value of its employees. Cornell University (2001). the outcomes of an organization would differ from the outcomes of the employees within that same organization. whereas organizational outcomes would more depend on the operations within the company such as productivity. hence it is vital that they participate in the established strategic programs/ policies made available to them. This can be simply done through programs/policies which clearly outline the responsibilities of the workforce and relinquish previously centralized management decisions. According to the Department of Human Resource Studies. customer satisfaction and output quality.g. “Organizations expect several benefits when establishing employee wellness programs: reduction of the costs associated with employee health plans. safety and health issues). … and enhanced employee productivity which can add to the organization’s productivity” (Howard et al 1979).It is also stated that not only must the employees be involved but they must be recognized or rewarded for their contribution and subsequently empowered by management. The health issue of an organization’s workforce is a major concern for an organization as it links directly to the individual performance of any given employee in the workplace. Although some emphasis is placed on the productivity of the organization further on in the literature. increased employee retention by providing an additional benefit. it is taken into account that the well being of the employees do play an important role because their performance accounts for much within the organization.
thereby creating high organizational performance. The crucial element in maintaining a harmonious balance between creating a high-performing organization and improving work-life balance is the work done by HR practitioners linking the two with successful employee relations strategies. planning. may be defined as “the process for identifying an organization’s current and future human resource requirements. according to the Braham Model. The analysis between The ER . A critical analysis of the ER function and its programs/policies The ER function and its programs/policies impact on and are impacted by the Human resource planning (HRP) function of Human Resource Management. according to People Management (2006) the employee relations practice is itself ‘the black box’. They suggest that high-performing and highly successful organizations are those which utilize HR practices effectively with as little conflict as possible. are investigation and analysis. University of Bath 2005). The stages of Human resource planning (HRP). While some may consider the employee relations function to be only one critical ingredient in the HR ‘black box’. 159). p.” This is emphasizing the point that organizations which have implemented employee programs and policies display more positive performances. forecasting. the individual performance of employees must first be positive.organization’s performance to be a positive one. developing and implementing plans to meet these requirements and monitoring their overall effectiveness” (Beardwell et al 2004. implementation and control. The HRP function. The ‘black box’ issue refers to the questions and variables to be considered when attempting to guide HRM into successful organizational performance (Paauwe & Farndale 2005 cited in School of Management. People Management (2006) suggests that there is a “clear need to distinguish those companies that introduce policies and practices in response to a clear and unequivocal business case from those that have drawn on a more ‘intangible’ business case. This basically states that HR managers are responsible for implementing effective ER programs and policies which would result in high employee performance.
The investigation and analysis stage sets the ground work for the succeeding stages. a number of options can also be considered as a means of equilibrating the imbalance between supply and demand. Examples of workplace flexibility programs include part-time schedules. if the future supply exceeds the future demand for human resources. job sharing. terms and conditions can be changed by providing more flexible working arrangements. compressed work week. and if supply exceeds demand a specific plan of action is also devised. one way in which internal supply can be increased is through improving retention. career breaks and . which are geared towards providing more flexible working arrangements. Based on this assessment. In particular reference to decreasing supply. predicting the supply and demand for human resources is done at the next stage. they are the tools that are used to execute the ER function. In particular reference to the one of the options associated with increasing external supply.function and its employment based programs. by providing more flexible working patterns. corporate capability and corporate strategy. which is the forecasting stage. These programs are work-life/benefit programs and as indicated earlier. work-life/benefit programs such as sabbaticals. It is clear therefore that at this stage plans may be crafted. Additionally. it is understood that the HRP function impacts on the ER function in the sense that it determines the type of employment based programs. Similarly. and the HRP function lies in part. According to Rothwell (1995) cited in Beardwell (2004) if future demand exceeds supply a number of options can be utilized to bring equilibrium to this ‘condition’. which organizations will use as part of their corporate strategy. in the Planning stage of HRP because this stage impacts on the type of employment based programs that organizations implement. In light of this realization. through the use of workplace flexibility programs. so that if demand exceeds supply a specific plan of action is devised. It is at this stage that organizations assess the current business environmental situation in terms of the internal and external labor market. The planning stage relies on the results of the investigation and analysis stage and the forecasting stage. and telecommuting programs. The planning stage is then based on these predictions.
which in turn causes organizational productivity to suffer. Furthermore.early retirements can be utilized.” It is said that industrial relations come about as a result of unsatisfied and frustrated workers who need some form of rescue and who lack harmonious relations with management. consequently reducing labor turnover within organizations. healthy employee relations can be used to measure the extent to which industrial relations would have cause to intervene and ‘disturb’ management’s existing operations. On the other hand. fair and conscientious employee relations can either prevent employees from feeling the need to be protected by a union or result in smooth and cooperative relations between the union and the business. 1999). good. Jenh (1995) suggests that “Conflict is a significant cause of damaged work relationships causing both loss of productivity and loss of employee satisfaction. as it may be an indicator of a relationship breakdown within it. Furthermore. Once again. which organizations use as part of their corporate strategy. The ER function is linked to the IR function since they both are driven towards the satisfaction of workers. yet industrial relations acts as a means of displaying the need for a more participative system that encourages employee participation through the use of programs/policies. IR is defined as the dealings that exist between unions and management to discuss and decide what is best for the employees. the Employee Relations (ER) function also affects and is affected by the Industrial Relations (IR) function. This therefore implies that organizations should “fear” the strong presence of unionization within their firm. ER is said to be dedicated to creating a positive work environment through programs/policies. It is understood that poor employee relations leads to poor industrial relations. These special programs demonstrate that management values the contribution of its employees and is willing to resolve any work. Increased participation gives management the insight as to what . Moreover.related issues. Although this may be true. we see that the HRP function influences the type of employment based programs. since there would be few issues on which employees feel mistrusted (Fisher et al.
also impact on recruitment. 2007). if possible (Webb. but to show that programs/policies are essential for the development of corporate industrial relations (Hong et al 1995). Specifically. Furthermore. by far. Finally. not only because it provides significant feedback relative to decision making. As a result. Management therefore.e. managers face the task of creating a balance between the stability necessary to allow development of strategic planning and decision processes. It is therefore understood that employee relations is very vital in this aspect. commitment and cohesion (Hitt et al. employee resistance). Poor employee relations could result in a giant hurdle to success for the organization (i. development and selection). management must develop a culture that promotes loyalty. thereby demanding an internal assessment. must be motivated to address possible changes to employee expectations and needs (job satisfaction. the ER function and its work and family programs/policies.employees want and what’s the best way to give it to them. there is a correlation between the (ER) function and that of Continuous Environmental Scanning and Analysis. the utilization of these programs/policies improve .g. The latter speaks to management’s duty to keep abreast with activities taking place in the external environment that affect the organization. 1998). hiring and re-training costs and retention. higher wages and better benefits(e. 1965). thus creating a hindrance for management. the greater number may be highly resistant (Windsor. training. profitable and equipped for the ever-changing business environment. but because the employee-employer relationship must be one that encourages employees to be receptive to any form of changes expected of them in the future. and the instability that results from continuous change and adaptation to a dynamic work environment. This is not necessarily meant to mitigate the need for industrial relations. better health and insurance plans). highlighting the need to secure good employee relations. industrial relations can be quite costly because the unions push for job security. In short. Also. It is vital that this is done if the business desires to be competitive. Whilst some employees welcome change.
it also offers a competitive advantage to organizations. These studies therefore show that work and family programs/policies assist in improving employee retention within organizations.retention (National Council of Jewish Women [NCJW] 1993 cited in McDonald et al 2005). Furthermore. reduce absenteeism (Russell 1993 cited in McDonald et al 2005). an organizations’ ability to attract prospective employees is an important factor that influences the success of the recruitment process. This is because these types of programs/policies can be used to attract job candidates to organizations (World at Work. organizations provide part-time and flexible programs/policies in order to reduce the turn over costs which are associated with poor retention (McDonald et al 2005). Several studies have found that these programs are especially helpful where increasing the probability of mothers returning to work after childbirth is concerned. As indicated earlier. In particular. In relation to retention. Solihull and McRae (1994) cited in McDonald et al (2005). . reduce hiring and retraining costs (Labich 1991 cited in McDonald et al 2005) and provide for easier recruitment (Hunt and Russell 1993 cited in McDonald et al 2005). found that the absence of part time programs influences mothers’ decisions to go to different employers. work and family programs/policies facilitate easier recruitment. 2007).
medical and vision plan. handsets and ADSL (internet services). Employees are able to access this online learning system freely. Moreover. St. which was once active within in the branch. benefits were not specified/defined. In the defined benefit plan. In particular. a fifty percent discount is offered to employees on rental services. 2004. These services include: telephone services. This plan provides full coverage for employees and allows for a portion of the insurance cost to be subsidized for employees’ immediate family members. it was discovered that there are a number of employment based programs which are actively functioning within the Cable and Wireless company. The company also has a pension plan and a dental. Human Resource Officer of the Cable and Wireless branch located in Windsor Lodge. In addition. Firstly. This program was started in the year 1999. The company also has an online learning system. the branch has a defined benefit contribution plan which was started in December. All employees are required to participate in the dental. This defined benefit contribution plan replaced a defined benefit plan. and are able to take any courses which are offered. which was conducted with Mr. There is also a discount program within the company. When they have completed the course. Welch. subsidized rates are also offered on international services such as broad band. The company also organizes departmental games at the end of each year for their employees. and allows employees to receive discounts on all services that are provided to Barbadian nationals. Lastly.PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS The findings of this research project are based on a semi-structured interview. called My-Learning system. but in the defined benefit contribution plan benefits are specified/defined and employees have a greater say regarding the benefits that are outlined in the plan. fixed lined and mobile services. they are granted with certificates by the company. Pedro Welch. Michael. there is also a sports club which is partly subsidized by the company’s HR department. medical and vision plan which both commenced in the early eighties (80’s). On conducting the interview with Mr. the company has also established an .
The positivity associated with this low turn over rate was attributed to the fact that it signifies that the company is retaining talent. For the competition. The negativity associated with this low turnover rate was ascribed to the fact that employees with a level of thinking that is unsuited for the competitive environment. a less than one percent turn over rate was recorded. Discount plan and on-line learning system. and on the other. Welch stated that the company’s low turn over rate could be regarded as a positive on the one hand. He also stated that every organization should implement such programs for the benefit of their employees and that the company was a market leader in terms of the provision of benefit policies. are being retained. It was also reported that the annual cook-off competition encourages team work. the full course meal and the desert category. In relation to retention. Additionally. and by extension is saving money where hiring and training new staff is concerned. Medical and Vision plan. for which employees are required to choose a telecommunications theme. friendly rivalry and boosts the companys’ internal spirit. This less than percent turn over rate was mainly attributed to the movement of temporary staff. The judging panel for the competition is selected from members across the organization. participants are trained by a professional chef. However. Lastly. Welch described these employees as “having a monopolistic mindset”. only permanent staff members are allowed to participate in the companys’ Dental. (One must consider the fact that in the past.annual cook-off competition. they are judged in the following categories: the starter. . In preparation for the competition. within which the company now operates. Mr. It is interesting to note that Mr. Mr. it could be deemed as a negative. it was reported that that the company’s programs assist in employee retention. Welch reported that these programs were implemented by the organization in order to benefit their employees. This statement was evidenced by the fact that in the year 2007. the company has created an annual Christmas decorating competition. Employees are then rewarded at the companys’ annual Christmas party.
. Furthermore. Welch also stated that good employee relationships lead to good industrial relationships. good employee relations within the organization. it was discovered that the company’s programs are used to attract prospective employees to the organization. but also adds value to the company’s image. He stated that selling the company’s programs not only demonstrates to employees the potential quality of the experience they can gain. Mr. Moreover.the company operated as a monopoly). medical and vision plan as well as their discount policy. their dental. It was also stated that selling the company’s discount policy makes prospective employees aware of how they could save money. and that the company’s Vice President is pressing for a manger of employee relations to be brought on board next year (2009). the company’s ER programs contributes to the sustainment of a harmonious working environment and thus. the second reason that was given for the disadvantages of a having a low turn over rate was that it signifies that employees who are under performing are being retained. Finally. he sells their online learning system. Mr. Welch reported that in his efforts to attract prospective employees. He also indicated that Cable and Wireless was a market leader in terms of the provision of benefit policies. it was reported that in spite of recent industrial action.
in order to determine whether or not these programs/policies contribute to satisfactory productivity and motivation within the Cable and Wireless Company. The findings have been analyzed as follows. 2007). individual and annual vacations. this study shows that the type of employee benefits within organizations have different degrees of impact on motivation and productivity. a dental. In the study these were classified as physical-demand benefits based on Maslow’s Hierarchy theory. However. a pension plan. a discount program. According to a study by Hong et al (1995) to which reference has been made in the literature review. This assertion is based on the fact that programs/policies help to maintain a positive work environment (UCT. an annual cook-off program and an annual Christmas decorating competition. national holidays. Further more. to the sustainment of a positive work environment within the company. The Cable and Wireless Company has a number of employee relations programs. one has to consider the type of programs which impact motivation and productivity in organizations. friendly rivalry and high internal spirit created by the annual cook off program. and daycare services have the second greatest impact on motivation and . pension. In particular. Based on the programs that exist within the company. (See Appendix 1). namely: a defined benefit contribution plan. employee benefits programs impact on employee motivation and productivity (in the study these were collectively termed as performance). medical and vision plan. to some extent. an online learning system called “My-Learning system” a sports club. as indicated in the literature review. and paid leave have the greatest impact on motivation and productivity. it can be confidently asserted that these programs are contributing. Evidence of a positive environment within Cable and Wireless is indicated in the findings by the team work. employee benefit programs such as year end bonuses.ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS The analysis of the findings of this research project is based on the research information compiled in the literature review. The study also shows that programs such as insurance. discounted goods supply.
These programs were classified as security-demand benefits. Cable and Wireless’ annual cook-off program. because literature suggests that the presence of programs/policies within organizations’ contribute to morale (McDonald et al 2005). It is implied therefore. which are both security-demand benefits. to such a large extent. The study by Hong et al (2005) therefore. usefulness and purpose (Wordnet. implies that this program may not be impacting on motivation and productivity. annual Christmas decorating competition and sports club may not be impacting on motivation and productivity. 2006). to increased motivation and productivity with in their organization. It is therefore reasonable to assert that the absence of these programs/policies would negatively affect morale within the company. based on research by Hong et al (1995) that Cable and Wireless’ pension plan and discount program maybe contributing.productivity. and programs which offer opportunities for further education and training as self-actualization-demand programs. which falls into the category of self-actualization-demand programs. Hong et al (1995) suggest that social-demand benefits which include entertainment equipment and activities (such as clubs and foreign travel). Whether these inferences are substantial are not. The results of the findings of this research project show that the Cable and Wireless Company has a dental. medical and vision plan. . Additionally. This is so. which defined as the spirit of a group that makes the members want to succeed/a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence. In addition. to some extent. Thus. an occurrence that organizations do not wish for. Thus. the study by Hong et al (2005) categorized flexibility programs. the fact remains that the company’s programs do contribute to morale in the organization. have the least impact on motivation and productivity. to the degree that the pension and discount programs may be. a pension plan and a discount program. it is imperative that organizations implement these programs/policies because morale clearly affects work attitude. Within the Cable and Wireless Company there is an online learning system called “My Learning system”.
They also show that the company is market leader in terms of benefit policies.In relation to employee retention. The Cable and Wireless Company does not have participation programs and so. the findings show that the company uses its programs to attract prospective employees by selling these programs in the recruitment and selection stages. (Others factors may also have played a role in the low retention rate). the findings indicate that there was industrial action earlier in the current year (2008). it is reasonable to infer that the movement of temporary staff may be due to the fact that they are not allowed to participate in the company’s most beneficial programs. 1965). It can be stated therefore. the findings show that the low turn-over rate was due to the movement of temporary staff. the recent industrial action could . that the company’s low turn-over rate may be due. thereby facilitating easier recruitment(Hunt and Russell 1993 cited in McDonald et al 2005). bearing in mind that it is has a competitive edge where the attraction of employees is concerned. in part. studies have shown that ER programs/policies improve retention within organizations (NCJW 1993 cited in McDonald et al 2005). the findings indicate that the company’s turn-over rate was less than one percent in the year 2007. Furthermore. if possible (Web. Finally. According to the literature review. 2005). since it is a market leader in terms of the provision of benefit programs/policies. Moreover. based on the literature that the company’s programs/policies provide for easier recruitment. Thus. It is therefore reasonable to assume. the literature states that programs/policies provide a competitive advantage because they have a considerable influence on a company’s ability to attract highly sought after employees (WK. to the provision of programs/policies. management is able to have an insight into what employees want and what’s the best way to give it to them. In this way. According to the literature. it is assumed that if these programs existed within the company. industrial relations acts as a means of displaying the need for a more participative system that encourages employee participation through the use of programs and policies. (See presentation of findings). In terms of the attraction of prospective employees.
and what is the best way possible to give it to them (Web. due to a lack of these type of programs the company would not be able to have an insight into what employees want. 1965). . as indicated earlier. In addition.have been possibly avoided.
Additionally. In this way. since these programs are classified (according to research) as physical-demand programs. . the company should also consider the implementation of work life benefit programs/policies such as flexible work programs. It is also recommended that the company should conduct a research study to determine employee perceptions.RECOMMENDATIONS/CONCLUSION In light of the findings of this research paper. However. which they already have. Furthermore it is also recommended that the company should consider implementing paid leave programs. they should consider implementing it because it is also classified as a program that has the greatest impact on motivation and productivity. It is also recommended that the company should consider implementing participation programs in order to stem the likelihood of the occurrence of industrial action. Having an ER “expert” on board would definitely help the company with the strategic integration of programs/policies into their organizational plans. in relation to the type of programs that they consider beneficial to them. Moreover. This would help employees in terms of achieving a work life balance. In this way. the following recommendations have been made. It is recommended that the company should go ahead with employing an ER manager as suggested by the Vice President of the company. in the event that they do not have this policy. It is uncertain whether or not the company has year end bonuses. and sabbaticals. which have the greatest impact on motivation and productivity. management would have a continuous insight into employees’ needs and would be able to make an attempt to deal with them before industrial action arises. this would help to further increase the competitive advantage. the Human Resource Department would be better able to provide programs/policies that would be best suited for both employers and employees.
. who helped to guide the scope of this research paper. In conclusion. the members of the group for their team work. and the course facilitator. the research objectives of this paper have been successfully met. We therefore thank Mr. This allowed a satisfactory analysis to be completed and useful recommendations for improvement to be made to the company. the company should consider the extent to which any new programs/policies would fit into their strategy plan. as is evidenced in the findings.Finally. In this way they would be able implement the ones that would best help to achieve organizational goals. This statement is asserted with confidence because relevant responses to all of the research questions were obtained. Pedro Welch for his contribution to the completion of this research paper.
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(The points above the bars are the average impact points of each type of benefit on performance) . Relationship between the type of employee benefit and impact on job performance (motivation and productivity).APPENDIX 1 Figure 1.
(Hong et al 1995.13) SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS . p.
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