WEATHER, CLIMATE & SYNOPTIC CHARTS

Complete the following questions by selecting the corresponding letter which matches the correct answer. 1. a) b) c) d) e) 2. a) b) c) d) 3. a) b) c) d) 4. a) b) c) d) 5. Which term is not an alternative name for a tropical cyclone? hurricane typhoon storm surge closed depression low A tropical cyclone is a roughly circular system of exceedingly strong winds that whirl around a centre of very low atmospheric pressure called: an eye a throat a wind tunnel a vent Which of the following descriptions is true regarding the nature of a cyclone? cyclones are only low pressure cells air flows into a cyclone in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere produces very strong winds with little rainfall air flows into a cyclone in an anti-clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere Sudden and violent movements of portions of the earth’s atmosphere are called: squalls storms twisters lightning Strikes The central plains area of the United States (such as Kansas, Oklahoma and Tennessee) experiences the greatest number of tornadoes than any other country each year. This part of the plains where tornadoes are most common has been coined: Tornado Central Tornado Plains Twister Valley Tornado Alley
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a) b) c) d)

6. a) b) c) d) 7. a) b) c) d) 8. a) b) c) d) *9. a) b) c) d) e) 10. a) b) c) d) 11. a) b) c) d)

A tornado is believed to result from: a warm and moist tropical air mass meeting a cool and drier air mass over land a warm and moist tropical air mass meeting a cool and drier air mass over the ocean a low pressure system that develops over the ocean a low pressure system that develops over the warm ocean A funnel shaped spiral is associated with which of the following storms? hurricane thunderstorm tornado tropical Cyclone Lasting for only a few seconds when a sudden increase in wind speed occurs is a: gale storm breeze gust A special scale that was developed by Admiral Beaufort in 1805 measures the strength of the wind. This scale ranges from: force 0 to force 12 force 0 to force 10 force 1 to force 10 force 1 to force 12 force 1 to force 15 A high pressure system is often associated with which weather conditions? stable, fine and clear unstable, clear and frosty unstable and cloudy rainy and cloudy Which line on a map joins places of equal atmospheric pressure? isobar isotherm isohyet isohypse

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12. a) b) c) d) 13. a) b) c) d) e) 14. a) b) c) d) 15. a) b) c) d) 16. a) b) c) d) 17. a) b) c) d)

A ridge is defined as a: an elongated area of relatively low pressure an elongated area of relatively high pressure a narrow strip of high land cold air undercutting warmer air A long area of low pressure that exists between two high pressure areas is called a: ridge trough valley front band Pressure gradient is measure by the distance apart of isobars. Which of the following statements is true? the closer the isobars are together, the weaker the winds the closer the isobars are together, the stronger the winds strong winds exist when the isobars appear further apart calm conditions exist when the isobars appear further apart Wind speed is measure by: a thermometer an airometer an anemometer a sphygoid-mometer Low pressure areas are where: warm and lighter air is rising cool and lighterair is rising warm and heavier air is rising cool and heavier air is rising When a mass of warm and light air moves over a mass of cool and heavier air, a cold front occurs hot front occurs cool front occurs warm front occurs

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18. a) b) c) d) e)

A cold front occurs when cold, moist air mass comes into contact with an air mass of a different type. This may result in: a temperature increase no change in wind direction sudden fall in wind strength a temperature drop drier conditions Questions 19-20 refer to the pressure cell diagram below:

19.

The isobar reading for the central pressure of the pressure cell below is:

1012

1016 K

a) b) c) d) 20. a) b) c) d)

1018 hectopascals 1020 hectopascals 1012 hectopascals 1024 hectopascals This increase in isobar readings indicates this pressure cell is: a cyclone a low pressure cell a high pressure cell a ridge

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21.

The weather map below would indicate which season weather pattern?

a) b) c) d)

Summer Autumn Winter Spring Questions 22- 27 refer to the Australian weather map (February) on the following page:

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22. a) b) c) d) 23. a) b) c) d) 24. a) b) c) d) 25. a) b) c) d) 26. a) b) c) d) 27. a) b) c) d)

The winds experienced at Point A are: very strong Northerlies moderate South Westerlies very strong Southerlies very strong South Westerlies Likely to receive a cyclone warning with associated gale force winds within the next 24 hours is Point: C D E A Which Point is currently experiencing light East to North East winds? B C F E The isobar reading for Point G is likely to be: 1008 Hectopascals 1003 Hectopascals 1006 Hectopascals 1004 Hectopascals There are two low pressure systems influencing Australia’s weather. The first low pressure is present near letter A. The second low pressure would be near letter: B F D C As the cold front passes over letter E, what will happen to temperatures and winds? temperatures are likely to fall and wind speed will increase temperatures are likely to increase and wind speed will decrease temperatures are likely to fall and wind speed will decrease temperatures will remain constant however wind speed will increase

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Questions 28-29 refer to the synoptic chart below:

1014

1018 1022 1026 1030 1034

28. a) b) c) d) 29. a) b) c) d)

Brisbane is experiencing: 40 kilometre winds per hour 30 kilometre winds per hour 60 kilometre winds per hour calm conditions The wind direction at Perth is: W E ESE WSW

30.

The front type that is influencing much of the United Kingdom is:
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965 970

978

986

1002

a) b) c) a) 31. a) b) c) d) b) 32.

an occluded front, which is a result of warm and cold fronts meeting a cold front where the cold air is advancing to replace warm air a warm front where warm air is advancing to replace the cold air a warm front where the cold is advancing to replace the warm air Which of the following does not correctly define climate? Climate is: general weather conditions the average of weather the long term seasonal pattern conditions of the atmosphere at a particular time the long term conditions of the atmosphere All but two of the following are elements of weather. Which two do not belong? rainfall, wind, latitude, temperature, air pressure, humidity, cloud and ocean currents.

a) b) c) d)

ocean currents & latitude ocean currents & cloud rainfall and temperature air pressure and humidity

Question 33 refers to the surface chart of the United States below:
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A

C B

33. a)

Which of the following is correct? i] ii] ii] i] ii] iii] i] ii] iii] i] ii] iii] A: B: C: A: B: C: A: B: C: A: B: C: high pressure with winds flowing counter-clockwise 1004 millibars low pressure with winds flowing clockwise low pressure with winds flowing counter-clockwise 1006 millibars high pressure with winds flowing clockwise high pressure with winds flowing clockwise 1004 millibars low pressure with winds flowing counter-clockwise low pressure with winds flowing clockwise 1004 millibars high pressure with winds flowing counter-clockwise

b)

c)

d)

34. a) b) c) d) 35.

Distance from the sea has a major influence on climates that are coastal or further inland. Which of the following descriptions does not refer to an effect based on this distance? the further the distance from the sea, the hotter the summers and colder the winters inland areas tend to be more dry than coastal areas the further the distance from the sea, the cooler the summers and the warmer the winters coastal areas tend to be more wet than inland areas The information below describes how ocean currents affect both temperature and precipitation levels at coastal regions.
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i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

a warm ocean current brings warmer temperatures a cool ocean current reduces the capacity for passing air to hold water vapour, therefore increasing precipitation air that passes over a warm ocean current will increase its capacity to store water vapour. as cool ocean currents bring cooler temperatures, they are associated with less precipitation. air that passes over a warm ocean current will reduce its capacity to hold water vapour as a warm ocean current results in more evaporation, more rainfall is likely to result Which of these changes described above are correct?

a) b) c) d) 36. a) b) c) d) 37. i) ii) iii) iv) v) a) b) c) d) 38. a) b) c) d) e) 39.

ii & v i, ii, iii & v i, iii , iv & vi i, iii, iv & v If one were reading a synoptic chart, which weather prediction description is incorrect concerning the element of air pressure? pressure systems move in an Easterly direction across Australia troughs may contribute to unstable conditions ridges may extend fine weather and block out low pressure systems pressure systems move in a Westerly direction across Australia Which elements of weather are not shown directly on a weather map, but rather inferred? temperature cloud cover air pressure wind speed rainfall i & ii i& v i i, ii & v Diurnal means: over a 24 hour period within a 48 hour period twice daily twilight hours daylight hours Which pair of statements is incorrect?
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a) b) c) d)

i] ii] i] ii] i] ii] i] ii]

winds blow in attempt to equalise air pressure winds are named according to the direction in which they originate the greater the pressure gradient, the stronger the wind a wind blowing on to the shore is named an onshore wind a wind blowing on to the shore is named an offshore wind winds are named according to the direction they blow to winds tend to follow the direction of isobars winds blow in an attempt to equalise air pressure

40.

The following diagram of the sun’s rays passing through the atmosphere illustrates:

Y

Sun’s rays

Equator

X

Sun’s rays

Y

Sun’s rays

a) b) c) d) 41. a) b) c) d) 42. a) b) c) d) e)

the sun heats up more atmosphere as it passes through to X sun’s rays are less concentrated at Y compared with X due to the earth’s curvature, the heating effect increases at Y the sun’s rays are less concentrated at X compared with Y Which definition correctly describes the term solstice? when the sun appears furtherest from the equator and is over the tropics when the sun’s rays are directly overhead equal hours of day and night when the sun appears over the equator The Summer solstice for the southern hemisphere is: December 22nd June 22nd December 16th December 21st June 16th

Questions 43-44 refer to the season diagram below:
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SU N

43. a) b) c) d) 44. a) b) c) d) 45. a) b) c) d) 46. a) b) c) d) 47.

If the South Pole is tilted towards the sun, what season will the northern hemisphere be experiencing? autumn summer spring winter Which letter represents the northern hemisphere Spring? A B C D The snow capped summit of Mt Kilimanjaro is permanently snow covered. This can be explained by the climatic factor: altitude mountain barriers latitude distance from the sea Cold ocean currents are associated with: low evaporation rates air containing high moisture levels high evaporation rates southern hemisphere oceanic regions These clouds form at the most high altitudes:
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a) b) c) d) *48. a) b) c) d) 49. a) b) c) d) 50. a) b) c) d) e) 51. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a) b) c) d) e)

nimbostratus cumulus cirrus stratus Cumulonimbus clouds are typical of: temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius hot and humid days in summer cool winter days cool summer days High, thin and feathery sheet clouds are characteristic for: cirrostratus clouds cirrocumulus clouds stratocumulus clouds altocumulus clouds Clouds are generally classified according to: form height appearance all of the above a and b only Which statements are false regarding the nature of clouds? clouds are condensation in the air stratus clouds are typical of mid to low altitudes the highest level clouds consist of ice particles cumulus clouds are fluffy and dome shaped a cirrus cloud is rain bearing 1 3 2&4 4&5 5

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*52.

When combining high humidity levels and strong convection currents cumulus clouds can extend to great heights, sometimes over 15000m. When these clouds spread out they form a thunderhead or: hammer anvil stirrup halo bank

a) b) c) d) e)

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