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Business Communication

Managing information in an organization

Submitted To:

Submitted by:

Course Code # 5530

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are really humble persons and would unable to complete this presentation without the help and grace of almighty Allah. We would like to acknowledge the efforts of our parents they made for our education and it is their continuous encouragement and support that we are able to complete our presentation successfully. We would like to acknowledge the efforts of our teacher Sir who provides us the opportunity to explore the nuts and bolts of Business Communications. Only that education deserves emphatically to be termed cultivation of the mind which teaches young people how to begin to think. (Mary Wollstonecraft)

ABSTRACT

This topic is basically about that organization which used different technologies to manage the information among their staff. In this topic I have discussed about the different communication technologies like telefax, teleconference, groupware, email, intranet and video conferencing used to communicate people each other within the organization and explain the different ways of communication, process of communication in which discussed about the ways of message that how receiver obtain message through different process. Then discuss its forms i.e. external and internal communication it can be use within the organization as well as outside the organization. Besides this the direction of communication flow from top management to employees and vice versa. Then types of communication incurred in which tell about the methods of communication. It may be in written form, say to anyone orally or may communicate through postures, gestures, appearance and body language etc. After this I took the review of organization NLC (National Logistic Cell) its strong, weak, opportunities and threats described and talk about the different technologies used within the organization. In the end I gave the recommendations that is positive due to their effective communication and the converted system of organization from manual work system to computerized system.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................................4
SWOT ANALYSIS.........................................................................................................................13 STRENGTHS OF ORGANIZATION..............................................................................................................13 WEAKNESSES OF ORGANIZATION...........................................................................................................13 OPPORTUNITIES OF ORGANIZATION........................................................................................................14 SUGGESTIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................................................................15 REFERENCES:.......................................................................................................................................16

Introduction:
Today we must know as a business manager about the rapid changes in information technology to manage the people and products. Before introduction of Information technology all categories of life were facing problems to launch the product or manage people but now it has become quite easy to manage them through latest technology. An organization can manage information and exercise control through proper communication. In the development of an organizational structure, communication channels possess an important consideration. The manager in a hierarchical system becomes a link in the communication chain. It is the hierarchical system that gives direction to and imposes restrictions upon the flow of communications. Management decisions and directions flow from higher to lower levels in the organization. Responses and reports from the lower level managers flow upward in the organization. Managers also spend time communicating with their peers. Therefore, we see from the outset that communications must function effectively in a lateral direction, as well as downward and upward. Internal communication consists of sending and receiving messages inside an organization. In addition it also consists of gathering and maintaining the proper information within the organization. If we want to check the effective control of organization then we can check its management. Because management plays a role like back bone in any organization. And thats management also used the technology to maintain that control which is used in organization. Technologies are also used to manage the information within organization. Through these technologies an organization earn high revenue and as well as maintain their goodwill among customers.

Communication: According to Keith Davis The process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. According to Professor Rudolph F.Verderber The process of creating or sharing in informal conversation group interaction or public meeting. Process of Communication: Effective communication process consists of the following stages. In absence of any one of these the process of communication remains incomplete. These are i. ii. iii. iv. v. Encoder Message Medium Decoder Feed back Communication Process

Encoder Encoder:

Message

Medium

Decoder

Feed back

Encoder is that person who wants to share information to the others. That person has to select the next to features which is include in process for effective communication. Message: Message is the idea which the sender conveys to the receiver. Before the sender transmits the message, he must be satisfied that he has included all the important contents in it and the receiver will easily and clearly understand.

Medium: There are two main ways to communicate messages to others. One way is to convey the message in written form i.e. in the form of letter, telegram, report etc. Another main way is use of electronic media i.e. telephone, fax, emails etc. The sender has to decide what type of medium he should use to send the message. Decoder: Receiver of message is its reader or listener. Since the message is meant for him, he is termed as decoder also. Sometimes the message is sent to several readers. If the message is not clear then this type of situation incurred. Feed back: Feed back is the reply that is received by the sender. It is the reaction and response given by the receiver. It may be favourable or not. It depends on the sender message if he writes clearly and to the point and interested for reader then he will give him reply otherwise ignore him. Forms of Communication: i. ii. Internal Communication External Communication Forms of Communication

Internal

External

Downward

Upward

Lateral

Diagonal

Internal Communication: This kind of communication is basically used in within the organization and as well as used for effective control in an organization for the sake of Profit and achievement of goals. It is the vital part of an effective business. Internal communication also elaborates in different portions like downward, upward, lateral and Diagonal communication. Direction of Communication Flow: There are different ways of communication which is used in an organization. i. ii. iii. iv. Downward Communication Upward Communication Lateral Communication Diagonal Communication

Downward Communication: Information that flows downward from management to employees. It is used to inform, direct coordinate and evaluate employees. When management assigns goals to their employees they are using downward communication. It is also used for job descriptions of employees, share information about policies and procedures as well as pointing out problems that need attention, or evaluating their performance. Upward Communication: The communication that flows upward from employees to management is called upward communication. It keeps management aware of how employees feel about their jobs, their co-workers and the organization in general. It is two way process in which employees communicate to superiors if they face any problem otherwise they failed to achieve their goals. Lateral Communication: The communication takes place among employees on the same organizational level known as lateral communication. It is also known as horizontal communication. This communication is frequently needed to save time and

facilitate coordination. If some conflicts created in an organization and employees do not keep their management informed about decision they have made or actions they have taken then this kind of communication is much useful and supported for them. Diagonal Communication: It is the communication that cuts across both work areas and organizations level. Diagonal communication makes an organization more flexible by allowing faster communication of information in both directions, from the lower levels of the company to the top, and vice versa. External Communication: This communication can be held with people outside the organization for the sake of different purposes. It is also very important communication because we can communicate different people to persuade them about our product and objective to get high revenue. The success of business circulates on its ability to satisfy customers needs and wants. An organization also link with different businesses, customers, suppliers and competitors which is outside the world then it can manage with external communication. Types of Communication: There are two major types of communication i. ii. Verbal Communication Non Verbal Communication

Verbal Communication: Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language and speaking. Language is said to have originated from sounds and gestures. There are many languages spoken in the world. The bases of language formation are: gender, class, profession, geographical area, age group and other social elements. Speaking is an effective way of communicating and is again classified into two types. Interpersonal communication and public speaking. Good verbal communication is an inseparable part of business communication. In a business, you come across people from various ages,

cultures and races. Fluent verbal communication is essential to deal with people in business meetings. Also, in business communication self-confidence plays a vital role which when clubbed with fluent communication skills can lead to success. Non Verbal Communication: Non-verbal communication involves neither written nor spoken words but occurs without the use of words. It also involves physical ways of communication, like, tone of the voice, touch, smell and body motion. In this communication our all things consider our appearance and surroundings, body language, time, silence and space and many other things. Our Creative and aesthetic non-verbal communication includes singing, music, dancing and sculpturing. Symbols and sign language are also included in non-verbal communication. Body language is a non-verbal way of communication. Body posture and physical contact convey a lot of information. Body posture matters a lot when you are communicating verbally to someone. Folded arms and crossed legs are some of the signals conveyed by a body posture. Physical contact, like, shaking hands, pushing, patting and touching expresses the feeling of intimacy. Facial expressions, gestures and eye contact are all different ways of communication. Reading facial expressions can help you know a person better. Review of theoretical and practical situations Introduction to the NLC National Logistics Corporation was raised on 6th August 1978 to reduce the congestion at Karachi Port which had resulted in a waiting time of 50 days for the ships and was costing the Government $12.5 Million per annum in demurrage. In the process NLC introduced in the country the concept of containerization and became the largest multi- model freight handler in the region. NLC also serves as the Crisis Management Arm of the Government to handle and diffuse logistics emergencies. In recognition of its services, the Government of Pakistan has awarded Gold Mercury Award to NLC.

Core Lines of Businesses: NLCs core line of businesses includes:


i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Transportation and Logistics Engineering and Construction Dry Port and Freight Management Tolling Tyre Retreading and Rubber Parts Manufacture Technologies Used: NLC manages these SBUs (Strategic Basic Unit) through latest technology and their main campus is in Sowan. But they are every time keeping in touch through information technology. Different technologies which are used in NLC are as follows:

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Email Faxes Teleconference Groupware Voice mail Intranet

Electronic mail: Email which refers to messages sent over computers and includes every thing from casual notes to friends, to multimedia presentations sent across the world as well as sharing the snaps or many other purposes. Its big advantage is that we can receive email anywhere in the world. NLC also used this technology for sending data or inform the directors. Faxes:

Faxes have been available for many years and are popular in many organizations. Newer faxes machines are digital, allowing communication via computer rather than telephone. It is much faster than the old ones. It is also used in NLC to exchange the data. Teleconference: It is the electronic exchange of information through telephone, telexes, faxes and now high quality video images and personal conferencing system that operate on individual PCs. NLC used these technologies in different places at different occasion. Groupware: Groupware allows a supervisor to manage the work flow of a department via computers. Different software used in NLC organization to create documents or at the same time or share the work flow. Voice Mail: Voice mail is familiar in many offices. Its function is to record the message on computer disks for later retrieval by the receiver. NLC also used this technology to maintain the information. Intranet: Intranet is also used in this organization. It shares the data on the computers which are connected in a network.

SWOT ANALYSIS
Strengths of Organization
High Security Generated Maximum Revenue Working in different Fields Monopoly in the field of Freight Logistics NLC Engineers

1,200

1,000 800 Net Profit Rs. In Million

600

400 200

Years 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

This is the profit of last five years of NLC earned.

Weaknesses of Organization
The following are the weaknesses of the organization that I have observed: Lack of Information Technology Staff Lack of Qualified Staff

Problems in collecting data from manual system

Opportunities of Organization
NLC has joined hands with a Qatar based company for construction

work in Dubai. NLC is enriching its human resources by inducting people with

professional qualifications and experience in the private sector to handle specialized jobs. In addition to this, the organization is also making improvements in

its internal operations through ERP. In this regard a number of accounting operations have been fully computerized at Head Quarters level and work is progressing in the other areas.

Threats of Organization
PEST Analysis Political Factor:
Political factor include government regulations and legal issues and define both formal and informal rules under which the firm must operate. They can be the following: Tax Policy Political Stability Environmental Regulations

Economical Factor:
Economic factors affect the purchasing power of potential customers and the firms cost of capital. Economic growth Interest rates Inflation Rate

Social Factor:
Social factors include the demographic and cultural aspects of the external macro environment. These factors affect the customer need and the size of potential markets. Age Distribution Emphasis on safety Population Growth Rate

Technological Factor:
Technological factors can lower barriers to entry, reduce minimum efficient production levels, and influence outsourcing decisions Technology Incentives Rate of Technological change

Suggestions / Recommendations
National Logistic Corporation is new in the era of information technology. As the Organization is recently converted from manual work system to computerized system. There is need better qualified staff so that the communication can be carried out quickly and efficiently.

References:
1. 2. 3. Types of communication on Google Business Communication by Professor M. Hafeez ur Rehman Business communication (Varinder Kumar, Bodh Raj) 3rd Edition 2004) published by Kalyani Publishers New Delhi India