Nanyang Technological University / Technische Universität München [Division of Aerospace- School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering] MA 6621 Aerodynamics

(Continuous Assessment 1)

Assignment 1- Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk)
Name: Ashraya B Mathema / Ritvik Dobriyal [MSc AE] Supervisor: Prof. Daniel New 2011-2012 Session

1. Objective: The objectives of the assignment are as followed; · · · · · · To study the overall aerodynamic characteristic of a military plane (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) To understand the concepts about control surfaces and physical airplane design To gain knowledge in aerofoil characteristics and calculation of their profiles To comprehend influence of symmetric aerofoils used in some of the earlier military aircrafts To study the relationship of lift characteristics, acting forces and moments during flight mode To gain knowledge about application of A-4 Skyhawk airplane in modern airplanes design and the differences

2. Introduction: A fighter aircraft is a mark of air defense/attack capabilities possessed by a country. With it a country not only proves its dominance but also seems formidable to its foes thus reducing any possibility of attack. Since world war one, designers have struggles to make fighter aircrafts to serve these purposes, and some of their designs have been milestones in the history. They were so remarkable that they were manufactured and used even decades after their design. This report is dedicated to the study of one such aircraft, called A4 Skyhawk. Its superb performance can be matched even to the modern day jet fighters. This report tries to probe into the superb aerodynamics considerations of this aircraft which render it so capable. Through a series of questions and answers investigation has been made on the wings, fuselage and other control surfaces and how these factors contribute to better aerodynamics. As it is said that design evolves over time, the understanding of good jet fighter aerodynamics and airframe derived from this study can be employed for designing aircrafts for future which will surpass their predecessors. Studying this old plane can prove to be source of good knowledge which will broaden our vision. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) - Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal

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It was designed in the post world war II era. Israel being the biggest export customer.100 kg.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 2 . Brief Background and Theory: A4 Skyhawk is a carrier capable ground attack fighter aircraft designed primarily for the U. It is also equipped with two 20 mm (.3. Argentina. one in each wing root. it has a maximum takeoff weight of 11. longer than any war plane [5]. Brazil and Singapore (as advanced jet trainer) are still using it. navy demanded for a jet powered small carrier capable aeroplane as an advancement over their previous Douglas A1 – Skyraider (which was a piston powered propeller driven aircraft. later Mc Donnell Douglas came up with this small size. and six hard points to support a variety of ammunitions. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . As a result Douglas Aircraft Company. and a single turbojet engine in the rear fuselage. It has a top speed of over 970 km/hr.A. Coming to its performance. Main features of the aircraft include low mounted delta wings. It has stayed in production for 25 years.79 in caliber) Colt Mk 12 cannons. tricycle undercarriage. with 200 rounds per gun [1]. The U. It has served eight nations in the past including United States.S.A. less weight and compact wing aircraft. The power plant is a 41 kN Pratt and Whitney J52 [1]. with two air intakes on the fuselage sides. navy.S.).

Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 3 .4. A-4SU Super Skyhawk Design (a) Identify the wing and various flow control devices incorporated on the airframe Fig 1: Overall View of Douglas A-4 Skyhawk Fig 2: Wing Components Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . Questions and Discussions: 1.

The requirements are made to the wing according to its purpose:  The least aerodynamic drag as possible  The greatest increment of a lift co-efficient with application of high-lift devices  Providing stability and controllability characteristics on all flight phrases  The character of changing aerodynamic and controllability characteristics and supercritical angles of attack should be gradual. The internal volumes of a wing are used for accommodation of fuel in tanks. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . smooth but not abrupt in any way  The moving if a wing aerodynamic center at increase of flying speed should be as small as possible Wing geometrical characteristics Wing geometrical characteristics are determined by airfoil geometrical parameters.Fig 3: Vertical Stabilizer and its Parts Fig 4: Horizontal Stabilizer and its Parts (b) Describe their physical design. The wing of the A-4SU Skyhawk is designed based on NACA008 and NACA005 aerofoil profiles at the wing root and wing tip respectively.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 4 . lateral controllability. the wing provides lateral stability and with the help of ailerons. Airfoil shape is determined by upper and low outlines. mechanisms involved and the principles upon which they work during flight Wings The wing is intended for creation of aerodynamic lift. Airfoil is the wing cross section by plane perpendicular to its span and parallel to the basic aircraft plane. Except for this main purpose. which represent pressurize sections of wing design. which are located in the wings.

it is inherently unstable. Such a deflection increases the downforce produced by the horizontal tail causing the nose to pitch upward. aircraft need some additional components that give the pilot the ability to control the direction of the plane. Aircraft control surfaces and axes of motion Elevator: The elevator is located on the horizontal stabilizer. It can be deflected up or down to produce a change in the downforce produced by the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail is essentially a miniature wing since it is also made up of an airfoil cross-section. [9] Vertical stabilizer The vertical stabilizer provides stability for a disturbance in yaw. we say that an aircraft is in its trim condition. It can be deflected to either side to produce a change in the side-force produced by the vertical tail. Horizontal stabilizer If an aircraft consists of only a wing or a wing and fuselage. It is rational to use a delta wing at supersonic speeds. [9] Rudder: The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer. [9] Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . As we know. The wave drag depends to considerable extent on airfoil thickness ratio. The vertical tail produces a force pointed to one side of the aircraft. wave drag is of a great importance in such flight conditions. [9] 2) Basic Control Surfaces: In addition to the wing and tail surfaces.Delta Wings The delta wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. The angle of deflection is considered positive when the trailing edge of the elevator is deflected upward. This force is called side-force.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 5 . If some disturbance forces the nose up or down. The angle of deflection is usually considered positive when the trailing edge of the rudder is deflected towards the right wing. Stability is defined as the tendency of an aircraft to return to its initial state following a disturbance from that state. When in equilibirum. so if a disturbance causes the nose to deflect to one side. Such a deflection creates a side-force to the left which causes the nose to yaw to the right. Yaw is the side-to-side motion of the nose. the horizontal stabilizer produces a counteracting force to push the nose in the opposite direction and restore equilibrium. It produces a force similar to lift that balances out the lift of the wing to keep the plane in equilibrium. the vertical tail produces a counteracting force that pushes the nose in the opposite direction to restore equilibrium.

the other trailing edge down) to produce a change in the lift produced by each wing. The wing with more lift rolls upward causing the aircraft to go into a bank. The greater lift generated on the left wing causes the aircraft to roll to the right. The angle of deflection is usually considered positive when the aileron on the left wing deflects downward and that on the right wing deflects upward. the lift increases whereas the lift decreases on the other wing whose aileron is deflected upward. During landing increasing CD is even desirable Fig 5: Influence of Split Flap onto Cya = f(α) Fig 6: Rear View of Skyhawk as pilot makes a final check of the flaps prior to take off Fig 7: Split Flap and other common flaps Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . They are extended while taking off and landing.Aileron: Ailerons are located on the tips of each wing.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 6 . and during landing up to 50o. They are deflected in opposite directions (one goes trailing edge up. On the wing with the aileron deflected downward. Difference in deflection angles us caused by increasing the coefficient CD at high angles to unacceptable values while taking-off. The lift grows due to increase of wing camber. Split flap is a rigid panel arranged on the lower surface of the wing rear portion. Split Flap Flaps are applied to increase the lift of an airplane at keeping of its position (keeping the angle of attack). It may occupy that portion of the wing span which is not occupied with an aileron. It is deflected during take-off up to 25o.

Hence. a thickness ration equal c=cmax/b.(c) Describe their advantages and disadvantages when used in the design and operations of the A-4 Skyhawk aircrafts Advantage of delta wing a) A delta wing has considerably greater chords b and compared with a sweptback one. d) The ailerons and high-lift devices of a wing trailing edge are arranged perpendicularly to the airflow which results to high efficiency. will be rather less. b) The presence of large inner volumes in a wing root which can be used for fuel storage. units and landing gear struts c) Delta wing has both great torsion and bending stiffness. c) Not a great value of a lift coefficient CL (hence high landing speed which reduces landing safety and high landing angles) Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . And the aeroelasticity characteristic become high. e) The presence of large chords enables the multispar load-carrying structures to be used which increase survivability f) Critical angle of attack is of great importance. Most part is occupied by aileron. Therefore at the same values absolute maximum thickness of the airfoil Cmax.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 7 . therefore reduces the probability of entering the spin Disadvantage of delta wing a) Effectiveness of a leading edge high-lift devices is reduced because the angel of a wing sweep Is large b) Short span of the trailing edge high lift devices as delta wing span is not ling. drag will be reduced too. It is the first advantage of a delta wing as compared with a sweptback one.

5 4 Both the profiles were calculated at the root of the wing.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 2. 1.2 0.5 2 2. Aerofoil profiles (a) Calculate and plot the NACA0008 and NACA0012 aerofoil profiles using their profile Equations Profiles for NACA 0008.5 4 NACA 0005 at tip 0. The cord length at the root of the wing was approximated by scaling the sketch of the top view of the aeroplane in Fig.3 0. below picture shows the upper part of the profile for the two airfoils.5 1 1.05 0 0 0.5 3 3. The formula used for plotting was [8] NACA 0008 airfoil at root 0.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 8 . 0005 and 0012 were calculated and plotted.2. The lower part is not drawn as the airfoil is symmetrical. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .15 0.1 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.

.04 0.076 0.96 0.0975005 0.08267238 0.05924476 ….00056256 0.05379538 0.289382324 0..95 0..3438E-07 ….82E-05 3.. 3.1015(x/c)^4 0 1.1260(x/c) 0 0.. ….00252 0.34460316 0.19 ….5984E-07 6.015E-09 1.2969(x/c)^.5 0 0.8 .Fig1.2969 .1197 0.00126 0.041988001 0.051424588 0.04733574 0.762 3.090052037 …..000879 ….02969 0.043160587 0.05938 0.12096 0.01344265 0.006724664 0.0021 final term y 0 0.020432831 0.29541177 0. …. 0.00504 0.1015 combined term 0 0.00003516 0..292412588 0.038 0.68E-06 1.25153 0.32403456 0.. ….2843(x/c)^3 0 2.08620868 0.624E-08 8.. ….61 3.99 1 x 0 0.02839512 0.02 is .84E-07 2. 0. ….293916005 0.2843 .071950328 0.290901402 0.3516(x/c)^2 0 0.. 0. NACA 0012 airfoil at root x/c 0 0.059781021 0.114 0.09362037 0.12474 0.12348 0.00898786 0.059 for NACA 0008 and .275856 0.066388858 ….648 3..081768971 0.2215E-08 2.724 3.01366155 0. 0.00671988 0.02 0. …. 1 we see that length of the aeroplane is given as 39feet and 8.3516 .Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 9 . (b) Show the calculated values in tabulated form at x/c=0.33767664 0. ….010214221 0.33082044 0. ….152 0.02 intervals for both aerofoils The y values for the calculation of these profiles at x/c values .97 0. 0. Top view of A4 Skyhawk[7] From Fig. 0.317319 0.686 3. Using this scaling and keeping the picture in correct aspect ratio other dimensions were calculated.98 0.243752 0.00014064 0.. 0.017067488 0.126 . 0..01 0.00378 0..089 for NACA 0012.01122861 0.. ….259473 0.00442412 0..0063 ….55E-05 ….267581 0.03 0.00031644 0.27E-06 7.12222 0.03932962 0.003192 Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .. Complete tables showing all the calculations are also attached in the end.05 ….5 inches..08985722 0. which corresponds to certain distance on the screen in terms of pixels.

1574E-06 6.. 0.0536 0.00378 0.13 0.33767664 0.2843 .624E-08 8. 0.00056256 0.00301093 0.3132 1.051424588 0..00126576 0. The first digit describes the maximum camber as percentage of cord.290901402 0.26758089 0.8989E-05 3.8195E-05 3. ….02281504 0.32403456 0.008987862 0.085322395 0. ….99 1 x 0 0.29541177 0.25947293 0.2843(x/c)^3 0 2.02924536 0.01008 0.111089808 0.09362037 0.437E-06 4. The aerodynamic moment is negative (it tries to pitch down) and nearly constant with angle of attack.00756 0.00062461 0. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .00506304 0.000879 0.5538E-05 6.015E-09 1..25153044 0.3266 1.00049127 0.00031644 0. …..2215E-08 2.02785068 0.2864 1.028395123 0.1608 0.02 0.3438E-07 1.01585747 0.12348 0..04 0.843E-07 2.292412588 0.059244761 0. 0.041988001 0. 0.08313636 0.083976001 0..039329619 0.2969 .09 …. ….0240487 0.01134 ….00951237 0..01764 0.053795375 0..00172284 0.00014556 0.00284796 ….02142649 0.1015 combined term 0 0.01802145 0. This was one of the earliest attempts to rationalize the design and testing of the airfoils.0975005 0.1206 …..075082635 ….011228611 0.00020725 ….07 0.1260(x/c) 0 0.34 .004424121 0.00882 0.1047E-05 2.071787165 0.107048817 0.05 0.00689136 0.066388858 0.0021 final term y 0 0..068104594 0. The second digit multiplied by ten gives the location of maximum camber from the leading edge as percentage of cord and the last two digits indicate the maximum thickness as percentage of cord [1].Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 10 . These airfoils show a linear increase in the lift coefficient with increase in angle of attack which remains more or less same with the Reynolds number. 0.0804 0.00014064 0.047335742 0.01317542 0.. ….028583 0.00376158 0.067 0.6761E-06 1.05938 0.2998 1.01512 0.1409E-05 9.00148208 0.00126 0.00003516 0..33082044 0.102849177 0. 2.3154E-06 2.03 0.27585601 0.1742 0.00504 0..006719882 0.08907 ….96 0.12 0.98 0.08620868 0. NACA four digit profiles came up in the 1930s [2]. The drag coefficient follows a U shape curve with a minima at lower angle of attack and rises quickly afterwards.2969(x/c)^. 0.3516(x/c)^2 0 0.5984E-07 6. ….00225024 0..0063 0.NACA 0005 airfoil at tip x/c 0 0. ….00078012 0.97 0. 0.8992E-05 0.2744E-06 7.14 0.1072 0.1015(x/c)^4 0 1.087299575 0.00225116 0.0938 0.078552356 0.0402 0.0134 0.063959684 0..08 0. The maximum lift angle is close to 15˚.08985722 0. 0..6594E-06 ….12474 0.01638 0.01 0.0007035 (c) Describe the definition of NACA 4-digit type aerofoil designs and comment upon their expected aerodynamic characteristics NACA four digit airfoils are defined as follows.126 .06 0..019847 0. ….12096 0.02515268 ….12222 0.02969 0.7515E-05 0.1876 1.3516 .0268 0.00252 0.293916005 0.34460316 0.07272535 0..00594204 0.5 0 0. ….

014 Fig.01 2 0. Assume the influence due to the rest of the airframe can be neglected (i.586 Max CL angle: 11.164 Max L/D angle: 3. and since we know lift is zero for zero angle of attack (symmetrical airfoil). Show how you arrive at your results step-by-step with detailed descriptions and assumptions made.Max CL: 0.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 11 . 2 which gives us the drag coefficient for angle of attack of 0˚ and 2˚.0 Max L/D CL: 0.0 Max L/D: 23.3.586 at an angle of attack of 11˚.513. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .0 The drag data was approximated by careful examination of fig. consider only the two wings. by using straight line equation passing through origin the lift coefficient for 10˚ angle of attack was calculated to be 0. For the angle of attack of 3˚ we see that L/D is given and also CL is given.012 3 0. Lift coefficient for NACA0008 For the NACA 0008 airfoil we were able to find some data [3].045 as shown in the graph below. An A-4SU Skyhawk is flying at an angle-of-attack of 10with a speed of 250km/h.0 Zero-lift angle: 0. NACA 0008 Angle of Attack Drag Coefficient 0 0. Maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil was given to be . therefore using these three points the following table was made.e. graph of the drag performance of airfoil was drawn and extrapolated using Microsoft excel. Assuming the variation to be linear.332 Stall angle: 3. Drag coefficient for NACA0008 The following data for the airfoil was obtained [3]. 2 Drag coefficient for different airfoils [6] Using the table. The drag coefficient for 10˚ angle of attack was found to be approximately . determine the lift and drag forces exerted upon the wings at that flight configuration.

Drag cofficient for NACA 0008 0.0003x2 + 0. To estimate the lift coefficient for NACA0005 the average of the lift coefficient of the two profiles was taken.0003x + 0.450. The following figure was used to obtain data points. Fig. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .6 the lift coefficient for the NACA0004 was taken to be .514 [3]. The average comes out to be . 3 Graph showing extrapolation of Cd Lift coefficient for NACA 0005 Data for the NACA0005 airfoil was not available so instead data for NACA0006 and NACA0004 was averaged. 6 coefficient of lift for different airfoils including NACA0004 [4] From fig. Drag coefficient for NACA0005 For the drag coefficient NACA0006 airfoil was only considered.04 0.01 0 0 5 10 15 Drag cofficient for NACA 0008 y = 0.617 at 12˚ so at 10˚ it is .Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 12 .05 0.482.03 0.06 0.01 Fig.02 0. For NACA0006 Cl max is .

008 0.025 0.0175 0.04 0. 5 Graph showing extrapolation for the estimation of drag coefficient for NACA0006 Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .1 0.Fig.08 0.06 0.0125 0.0008x2 + 0.12 0.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 13 . NACA 0006 Angle of Attack 0 1 2 3 4 5 Drag Coefficient 0.005 0.035 Drag coefficient for NACA 0006 0.14 y = 0.02 0 0 5 10 15 Drag coefficient Fig.0017x + 0.0052 0. 4 Drag coefficients for NACA0006 [6] In the similar way as for the previous airfoil the table was made and the drag coefficient was approximated by extrapolation.

3 ao (in radians) = (.303 ᴦ Estimation for the wing The following graph for the estimation of ᴦ was used. 1. The value could not be exactly due to limited resolution of the graph. Average lift coefficient of airfoils at root and tip The lift coefficient for combined airfoils is taken to be average of that acting on the tip and root.482)/2 =0.98m2.28 Rate of increase of lift coefficient with angle of attack Rate of increase of lift coefficient in radians-1 is calculated as below ao (in radians) = ((average CL at 10˚)/10)*57. Wing area is known to be 24. CL (average of tip and root at 10˚) = (. Effect of fuselage on lift can be accounted by neglecting the fuselage and considering also the area of the wing inside it [5]. both of which are previously calculated. The area of the wing inside the fuselage can be calculated by adding the area of the triangle and the trapezoid as shown in fig.513+.4 = 0. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .3 and taper ratio of 0.38/3.4975/10)*57.312/29.4975 Wing plan form area calculation After dealing with the airfoils we look at the aeroplane. Taper ratio = Ct/Cr = 1.This gave an approximate value of 0.85 Aspect ratio Aspect ratio for the wing is calculated considering the total plan area as calculated before Wing span is 8.31m [7].28 is minimum. Drag coefficient of NACA0004 was not available so we have used the drag coefficient of NACA0006 only.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 14 . We approximated the value to be 0.15m2 [3]. AR = b2/area AR = 8.98 = 2.11 for this airfoil. From the graph we find that its value for a wing of low aspect ratio of 2. The total area comes out to be 29. Taper ratio Taper ratio for the wing is calculated by dividing the cord at the tip with the cord at the root.3 ao (in radians) = 2.0001.

356 Wing Span efficiency e Wing span efficiency is calculated as [2] e = 1/(1+ ᴦ) using ᴦ as .Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 15 . Induced drag coefficient Induced drag coefficient was calculated as CDi = CL2/ ᴨ*e*AR Using the values of these parameters as found out before we calculate the value to be . a = ao/1+(ao/ᴨAR)(1+ᴦ) a = 2.999. CL(wing) = a*angle of attack = 0. 7: ᴦ values as function of aspect ratio and taper ratio [2] Rate of increase of lift coefficient with angle of attack for the wing Rate of increase of lift coefficient with angle of attack for the wing was estimated using the formula general formula.034.Fig.044 Lift coefficient for wing Lift coefficient for the wing at 10˚ is calculated by multiplying rate of increase of lift coefficient with angle of attack for the wing with angle of attack in radians. value of e is calculated to be 0.001. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .

44 m/s lift force is calculated as 31.22 Kg/m3 and V∞ is given 69.11 Lift force on the wing FL = ½ *density of air * V∞2 * CL * Area of wing Taking density of air to be 1. CD = (CD1 + CD2)/2 + CDi = (.034 = 0.97N. Drag force on the wing FD = ½ *density of air * V∞2 * CD * Area of wing Using the already known data drag force is calculated to be 9.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 16 .933.61N.718.045)/2 + 0.Total Drag coefficient Total drag coefficient is found out by adding the average drag coefficient of the two profiles to the induced drag coefficient. For Comparison of our result and more information we used the software Hanley innovations 3D Foil For airfoil NACA 0005 For airfoil NACA 0008 Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .11+.

Fig 11: Snapshots of NACA 0005 and NACA 0008 Analysis in 3D Foil Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) .Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 17 .

com/douglas-a-4skyhawk. Consider the design of the A-4 Skyhawk against a modern multirole fighter aircraft such as the Dassault Rafale.howstuffworks. Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics. The McGraw Hill International Editions. Wikipedia. 3. Universite` De Lie`ge 7. A-4 Skyhawk pdf < www. These profiles can be traces conveniently to any scale just by knowing their four digits. This is a very systematic approach which saves a lot of time and effort. < We see that the wing used taper ratio and aspect ratio such that the value of ᴦ is minimum [2]. Comment and discuss in detail their aerodynamic design differences.4. Leishman. F-16 or Eurofighter.mod. Airfoil investigation database.worldofkrauss.htm > 6. Aircraft Performance and Design.pdf > 8. which gives highest value of span efficiency factor ‘e’ thus giving us lowest possible values of induced drag.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 18 . NACA Airfoil.wikipedia.wikipedia. Gordon < http://science. 2000 5. Douglas A-4 > Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . therefore there is no need to keep a database of the profile shape in case there is a need to reproduce it. Reference 1. We have also calculated the lift and drag forces on the aeroplane’s wing at given flight conditions. Cambridge university press. Experimental Aerodynamics Lecture < http://en. Douglas A-4 6. < http://en. howstuffworks. experimental characteristics of wing sections. 5. wikipedia. 1999. the rationale behind these differences and how they enable these modern fighter aircraft to achieve distinct flight performance gains over the A-4 >> 4. Anderson J D. Include sketches and diagrams to illustrate your descriptions and explanations. Conclusion We have seen how the whole profile of a NACA four digit airfoil can be recovered by its digits and using given formula for these profiles [8].

The McGraw International Editions. Anderson J D. Rardon. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. 10.9. Aerodynamic Design of an Aircraft (Douglas A-4 Skyhawk) . 7th edition. Aircraft Basic Science. 1993. The McGraw Hill Companies.Ashraya B Mathema/Ritvik Dobriyal Page 19 . 2007. 4th edition. Kroes.