“Mihai Viteazul” National College


Coordinating Teacher,



Witchcraft, like any science or philosophical system, must be approached from a liberal point of view. When looked at objectively, we see that Witchcraft is just another theoretical body of knowledge. It is a process, not a person. Therefore it is neutral, incapable of being either good or evil. Like all belief systems, Witchcraft is only as good or evil as the people using it.

LADY SABRINA, Secrets of Modern Witchcraft Revealed


1 Spell casting • 2.1 Wicca Chapter 4: Modern Day Of Understanding The Witches Chapter 5: Trials Against Witches Chapter 6: Laws Against Witchcraft in England Chapter 7: Witchcraft in England The Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries Chapter 8: Witchcraft in America • 8.3 “White witches” Chapter 2: Alleged practices • 2.2 Conjuring the dead Chapter 3: Neopaganism • 3.Table of contents Foreword Chapter 1 : Terminology • 1. Massachusetts Chapter 9: Books and Movies Inspired By Witchcraft Conclusion Bibliography -3- .1 Social anthropology • 1.2 Witchcraft historiography • 1.1 The Witches of Salem.

since its beginnings.The novelty of the paper draws attention upon the manner in which the society was affected by this concept. Consequently. some of the chapters emphasize the trials of witches and the alleged practices. My paper is structured on nine chapters. Some other aspects fascinated me. a controversial one. -4- . each of them being focused on the history of witchcraft and the persecutions of this practice at different periods of time.Foreword The theme of my paper is “Witchcraft”. such as the laws and the trials against the practitioners. my purpose is to underline some of the basic information on witchcraft. and the famous practitioners that influenced the history. even if many pleaded that it does not involve evil at all. one which deals with evil powers. The main argument for choosing this theme is the fact that this subject has been. the cruelty against innocent people who were tortured without reasons. a subject that remains a paradox for many and it has made me curious to discover more things of probably one of the most ancient practice of all times. Also. as well.

and accusations of witchcraft led to large-scale witch-hunts. The concept of witchcraft is normally treated as a cultural ideology. religious and mythological contexts. is the use of certain kinds of supernatural or magical powers to inflict harm or damage upon members of a community or their property. who claimed a religious tradition of Witchcraft with pre-Christian roots. are found in many cultures worldwide. In many societies.) is a practitioner of witchcraft.Chapter 1 TERMINOLOGY Witchcraft. where witchcraft came to be seen as a vast diabolical conspiracy against Christianity. people distinguish between bad witchcraft and good witchcraft. A witch ( from Old English wicce f. especially in Germanic Europe. anthropological. The "witch-cult hypothesis". and plants. and by consequence witch-hunts. Belief in witchcraft. a means of explaining human misfortune by blaming it either on a supernatural entity or a known person in the community./Wicca m. crystal. was popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. especially in the Wicca tradition following Gerald Gardner. From the mid-20th century on Witchcraft has become the self-designation of a branch of neopaganism. -5- . the latter involving the use of these powers to heal someone using herbs. today mostly in Africa and historically notably in Early Modern Europe. a controversial theory that European witchcraft was a suppressed pagan religion. in various historical.

persecution of witches such as witch hunts and witchcraft trials took place. witchcraft accusations are send as a means of explaining human misfortune and regulating community conflicts. whereby calamities are blamed on someone within the community believed capable of causing harm by supernatural powers. The stereotypical witches are commonly portrayed as wicked old women who have wrinkled skin and pointy hats. often a woman. -6- . Those individuals who consciously performed some physical ‘bewitching’ act (positive or negative) are normally termed ‘sorcerers’ rather than ‘witches’. who practices witchcraft. so it might really mean warlock.1 Social Anthropology Social-anthropological inspirations were published in E.E. They also have warts on their noses and sometimes long claw-like fingernails. A man that practices witchcraft is often called a warlock. “ Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live”. They wear clothes that are black or purple. the punishment for witchcraft is death (Exodus 22:18. Evans-Pritchard’s 1937 study of ‘Witchcraft. Oracles and Magic Among the Azande’. This model identifies a web of functional relationships between malefactor. In the Bible . bewitched. According to this.1. in the early modern period. “Witch” in the Bible means summoner of spirits. the question of whether the accused person performed such an act or had any awareness of being a ‘witch’ is generally treated as irrelevant. meaning “you should not let a witch live”). for the remainder of cases. witch identifier and healer. A witch is a person. In Europe.

well-meaning sorcerers or healers who lost their clients' or the authorities' trust.Witchcraft historiography Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European and British witchcraft. due to neighbourly or community rivalries and the ambiguity between positive and negative magic. To these Christina Larner adds a fourth category: those reputed to be witches and surrounded with an aura of witch-beliefs. or a person who has through magic increased their fortune to the perceived detriment of a neighbouring household. witchcraft is seen by historians as an ideology for explaining misfortune. Éva Pócs in turn identifies three varieties of witch in popular belief: • The 'neighbourhood witch' or 'social witch': a witch who curses a neighbour The 'magical' or 'sorcerer' witch: either a professional healer. seer or following some conflict. and a few types of people accused of witchcraft for different reasons. sorcerer. • midwife. There were a few varieties of witch in popular belief. they can become labelled as 'witches'. and those did nothing more than gain the hostility of their neighbours. however this ideology manifested in diverse ways. Richard Kieckhefer places the accused into three categories: Those caught in the act of positive or negative sorcery. and some of the accused really had attempted to cause harm by mere ill-wishing. As in anthropology. -7- . • The 'supernatural' or 'night' witch: portrayed in court narratives as a demon appearing in visions and dreams. The presence or absence of magical techniques seems to have been of little concern to those participating in witch trials. which doesn't match African models.

2 “White Witches” In England. sorcerers. roughly equivalent to shamans. wizards. 'vampires' or 'witches' to win fertility and prosperity for the community. Throughout Europe many such healers and wise men and women were convicted of witchcraft (Éva Pócs' 'sorcerer witches'): many English 'witches' convicted of consorting with demons seem to have been cunning folk whose fairy familiars had been demonized. often involving out-of-body experiences and travelling through the realms of an 'other-world'. public perceptions of them were often ambivalent and a little fearful. but could also indicate cunning folk. the term 'witch' was not used exclusively to describe malevolent magicians." The contemporary Reginald Scott noted “At this day it is indifferent to say in the English tongue. Some of the healers and diviners historically accused of witchcraft have considered themselves mediators between the mundane and spiritual worlds. While cunning-folk could command a lot of respect. Beliefs of this nature are implied in the folklore of much of Europe. and participation in battles against evil spirits. blessers.1. Such people described their contacts with fairies. often presided over by a female divinity who teaches magic and gives prophecies. ‘she is a witch’ or ‘she is a wise woman’”. ‘white’. however ‘cunning-man’ and ‘wise-man’ were the most frequent. -8- . ‘good’. for many were deemed just as capable of harming as of healing. and were explicitly described by accused witches in central and southern Europe. or ‘unbinding’ witches. "There were a number of interchangeable terms for these practitioners. Repeated themes include participation in processions of the dead or large feasts. spirits or the dead.

The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against his or her will was clearly present in many cultures. or which are believed. such as those from Egypt and Babylonia. which is strictly benevolent. sudden death. by the person doing the labelling. where malicious magic is believed to have the power to influence the mind. Many neopagan witches strongly identify with this concept. to undermine the social or religious order. and profess ethical codes that prevent them from performing magic on a person without their request. -9- . or identify the supposed evil-doer so that punishment may be carried out. such practitioners are typically forbidden by law as well as hated and feared by the general populace. The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves. impotence and other such misfortunes. Where belief in malicious magic practices exists.Chapter 2 ALLEGED PRACTICES Practices to which the witchcraft label have historically been applied are those which influence another person's mind. while beneficial magic is tolerated or even accepted wholesale by the people – even if the orthodox establishment objects to it. bad luck. body or possessions. as there are traditions in both folk magic and religious magic that have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. sickness in animals. body or property against his or her will. Many examples can be found in ancient texts. Some modern commentators consider the malefic nature of witchcraft to be a Christian projection. Witchcraft of a more benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside. malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease. There has also existed in popular belief the concept of white witches and white witchcraft.

or a ritual action. Scrying is one of the oldest techniques used to connect to one's inner knowing. a "spell" being the word used to signify the means employed to accomplish a magical action. . Spells traditionally were cast by many methods. and by many other means. this being done in a variety of ways by many different people. such as by the inscription of runes or sigils on an object to give it magical powers. Most commonly it's done with a crystal ball though anything can be used from a drop of ink in a bowl of water to cloud gazing. swords or other specula (scrying) for purposes of divination.10 - . by gazing at mirrors. A spell could consist of a set of words. a formula or verse. by the immolation or binding of a wax or clay image (poppet) of a person to affect him or her magically. but you can also practice this ancient art with common household items. by the recitation of incantations.2.1 Spell Casting Probably the most obvious characteristic of a witch was the ability to cast a spell. by the employment of magical herbs as amulets or potions. by the performance of physical rituals. There are scrying mirrors (usually black) which can be purchased. The most important part of a spell is of course the energy the practitioner puts into it. or any combination of these.

and it is among the witchcraft practices condemned by Ælfric of Eynsham: "Witches still go to cross-roads and to heathen burials with their delusive magic and call to the devil. are no longer limited by the earthly plane. Necromancy is the seeking of the spirits of the dead. Dangerous because it is alleged that when some spirits take control of the medium they are reluctant to release their control for some time. Many consider it a dangerous and repugnant practice. and he comes to them in the likeness of the man that is buried there. and whether or not a person was murdered or died from other causes.2. "necromancy" is the practice of conjuring the spirits of the dead for divination or prophecy .2 Dead Conjuring Strictly speaking. it is thought these spirits have access to information of the past and future which is not available to the living. being without physical bodies. The practice of necromancy has been compared by some to modern mediumistic or practiced spiritualism.although the term has also been applied to raising the dead for other purposes. Therefore. as if he arise from death” . The spirits are sought because they. The Biblical Witch of Endor is supposed to have performed it (1 Sam. Necromancy is not to be confused with conjuring devils or demons for help.11 - . 28). It has been used to help find sunken or buried treasure.

Some schools of modern witchcraft. are secretive and operate as initiatory secret societies. including such practices as Divination. There have been a number of pagan practitioners such as Paul Huson claiming inheritance to non-Gardnerian traditions as well.12 - . as forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins. and spiritual healing is also common. More recently a movement to recreate pre-Christian traditions has taken shape in polytheistic reconstructionism. Seid and various forms of Shamanism. as are alternative medical and New Age healing practices. these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. such as traditional forms of Wicca. magic. The practice of natural medicine.Chapter 3 NEOPAGANISM Modern practices identified by their practitioners as "witchcraft" have arisen in the twentieth century which may be broadly subsumed under the heading of Neopaganism. folk medicine. and working with the classical elements and unseen forces such as spirits and the forces of nature. Contemporary witchcraft often involves the use of divination. . However.

Interest was intensified. however. Wicca is now practised as a religion of an initiatory secret society nature with positive ethical principles. There is also a large "Eclectic Wiccan" movement of individuals and groups who share key Wiccan beliefs but have no initiatory connection or affiliation with traditional Wicca. Both men and women are equally termed "witches. The Wicca that Gardner initially taught was a witchcraft religion having a lot in common with Margaret Murray's hypothetically posited cult of the 1920s. Since Gardner's death in 1964 the Wicca that he claimed he was initiated into has attracted many initiates. Aleister Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis and pre-Christian religions. inspired particularly by Margaret Murray's theory of a pan-European witchcult originally published in 1921. . Wiccan writings and ritual show borrowings from a number of sources including 19th and 20th century ceremonial magic. organised into autonomous covens and led by a High Priesthood.13 - . since discredited by further careful historical research." They practice a form of duotheistic universalism. in effect putting her stamp of approval on it.1 Wicca During the 20th century interest in witchcraft in English-speaking and European countries began to increase. Indeed Murray wrote an introduction to Gardner's Witchcraft Today.3. the medieval grimoire known as the Key of Solomon. and has influenced other Neopagan and occult movements. becoming the largest of the various witchcraft traditions in the Western world. by Gerald Gardner's claim in 1954 in Witchcraft Today that a form of witchcraft still existed in England.

Some of the rites have also been used as a form of protest. Witches are making positive contributions to create a healthier world. Some of it is known as Wicca. women understand this as a way to express themselves.Chapter 4 MODERN-DAY UNDERSTANDING OF WITCHES In the 20th century. demanding spiritual path based on personal growth.14 - . and an intense relationship with Divinity. Some of it is known as Shamanism. Witchcraft is a dynamic. . This has led to a new movement. Often. By working to heal the community and the Earth. Many people say that witches were in fact wise women who were hunted down by the church (mostly for their knowledge of herbs to treat certain diseases). a new attempt has been made at understanding witchcraft. natural rhythms. Sometimes feminists have also spoken about it.

in Germany. In many parts of Europe people accused of witchcraft were tortured until they 'confessed’. In Western Europe the first witch hunts (in which large numbers of people were tried and convicted of witchcraft) were held in France and Germany in the 15th century.15 - . Spain and Portugal). Russia and Southern Europe (Italy. (which is probably one reason why there were fewer executions for witchcraft there). Switzerland and what is now Belgium. In England witches were hanged not burned. Furthermore the frequency of witch trials varied over time. In recent years a number of people have falsely confessed to murder. Scandinavia and Poland. the (Hungarians disbelieved in witchcraft but trials were imposed by the Austrians). In Western Europe witch trials reached a peak in the late 16th and early 17th centuries then declined. Executions for witchcraft were much less common in England. Hungary escaped witch trials and executions until the early 18th century. In the 16th century the witch mania spread to England and Scotland. France. Vulnerable people may confess to serious crimes . In the rest of Europe witches were usually burned but normally they were strangled first.Chapter 5 TRIALS AGAINST WITCHES Witch trials were most common in Central Europe. Obviously if one was tortured they would probably 'confess' to anything to stop the torture. Witch trials were somewhat less common in Scotland. (Both the English and Scottish parliaments passed laws against witchcraft in 1563). However torture was not used in England and after 1594 it was not used in Holland. Some people confessed without torture but that does not mean they were guilty.

each reflecting the political and intellectual position of the monarch on the English throne..Chapter 6 LAWS AGAINST WITCHCRAFT The development of a secular legal code dealing with the crime of witchcraft in England was dependent upon the inheritance of intellectual and judicial trends from the Continent. sorcery and related crimes were primarily the responsibility of the ecclesiastical courts in England. in order to find treasure . to declare what happened to stolen goods. felonious witchcraft or magic (a capital offense) was".witchcraft. limbs. or 'for any other unlawful intent or purpose. The language of the law made it clear that the nature of the crime of witchcraft was the malicious intent and effect of the act.16 - .. enchantment or sorcery. Witchcraft or Sorcery. Each new law represented an updated English understanding of the crime of witchcraft and the punishments appropriate for such an offense. to provoke to unlawful love. members or goods. not the antiChristian heretical nature of invoking spirits or making a diabolical pact. The often turbulent periods surrounding the passage of these laws led to reinterpretations of the legality and punishments appropriate for the various forms of witchcraft and sorcery. but was also quite unique in its language and application. not in the diabolical pact with Satan. or to provoke any person to unlawful love.. Three major laws criminalized witchcraft in the early modern period.to waste or destroy a person's body.". or goods. to get money or to consume any person in his body. witchcraft. According to the law. at the height of the Reformation..'" The antisocial nature of the felonious acts was the focus of the law. Prior to the reign of Henry VIII. . "It shall be Felony to practice or cause to be practiced Conjuration. He declared. Enchantment. The secular law and courts were not interested in witchcraft and magic until 1542 when Henry passed a law making the crimes a felony.

Under English law burning was the penalty for treason and those witches who were burned in England suffered this fate because they were convicted of the crime of "Petty Treason". the Wise Woman of Walkern. nor were witches burned at the stake as was the universal practice elsewhere. but did not really become fully developed until the reign of James I. The first person definitely known to be hanged for witchcraft in modern times was Agnes Waterhouse at Chelmsford in 1566. much later than elsewhere in Europe. She was reprieved. such as those used by the Inquisition.Chapter 7 WITCHCRAFT IN ENGLAND IN THE SIXTEENTH & SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES Witchcraft persecutions really began in England in 1563 with the statute of Elizabeth I. The largest groups in England were nineteen witches hanged at Chelmsford in 1645. the last was Alice Molland at Exeter in 1684. The last person to be found guilty of the crime of witchcraft was in 1712 when Jane Wenham.17 - . usually for murdering their husbands. In England there were generally no elements of extreme torture.000. . and the nine Lancashire witches sent to the gallows in 1612. English witchcraft trials took a different direction from those of Europe. Various estimates have been given of the number of persons hanged as witches in England during the period of laws against witchcraft (1542-1736) but the probable number is around 1. Nor were there mass executions in England such as those in France and Germany.

The relative simplicity of English trials and the absence of many of the satanic features of their continental counterparts were probably due to the absence of a centralized persecuting body such as the Inquisition.18 - .Peculiarly English features of witchcraft trials were the concepts of "pricking" to locate the devils mark and the use of "possessed" children as accusers. Chapter 8 . a feature that was to recur in the Salem trials in America.

he talked about an "army of devils" ready to strike New England at any moment. or thunderbolts. and said that the Native Americans were sorcerers and evil magicians. However. but did not think about it as demonic conspiracy. many of whom came from crowded cities. The settlers. Cotton Mather. years of failed crops and starvation. They just wanted to stop the witches from harming pigs. about 95 percent of all American Witch executions were in New England. but an intelligent. Some they brought from Europe. and children. Experiencing nature for the first time had its threatening side despite the beauty. deep woods and magnificent countryside. And yet. These poor people used fasting and prayer to relieve the fear and the sense of helplessness. But unlike the Europeans. but not as threatening to life and society. diseases and pirates were always there. they believed that evil witches followed them to their new home. Hostile native population. was neither a monster nor a lunatic. the settlers were kinder. except later in Salem. To one he appeared as a short black man with . The fear of the supernatural did not disappear just because the people moved to a new country. with some medical as well as religious knowledge. cattle. the settlers were not interested in complicated religious discussions. Penalties for Witchcraft were the same as in Europe. crops. the settlers were more careful about destroying human lives. many of the settlers brought their old superstitions. The most famous clergyman. suddenly encountered open land. To the average man and woman of the seventeenth century the Devil was very much alive. educated man. They saw "signs" in any natural event such as meteorites. In addition. written by people who knew nothing about the Old Religion. comets. Many claimed they saw him in person.WITCHCRAFT IN AMERICA The Colonial experience was entirely different from the European one. They had books about sorcery. Perhaps because of the sparse population. some they wrote in America. Unfortunately. In other parts of the country. the hysteria and mass executions did not occur. They viewed witches as annoying. They accepted witchcraft as a reality.19 - . As a result.

So the torture and hanging of old women on those ship was commonplace whenever a storm happened at sea. was a good way to get rid of her. This is because a social gathering of any nature was frowned upon by the Puritans. given by an accused witch at Salem. and exposed to the horrible gale and huge waves for the entire night. scars. For some reason. The Sabbats didn't exist in America. Killing her directly was even better. Endless fights arose among the people of Salem. No gatherings were mentioned until the Salem incidents. The older the person was. Age spots and warts made the older women doubly suspect. to another he came as a well-dressed gentleman. and the attempt to create a social gathering among the girls started the rumors about the Witchcraft. But even then. a third saw him as a white bird which promptly turned itself into a black cat. Somehow she didn't die. Also. where she would soon die from neglect. In one well-known case. The settlers believed that when a witch was on board. an old woman denied causing the storm. or skin discolorations. tied to the mast. She was stripped naked." Supposedly. Unlike the Europeans. in a new settlement. could not produce. An old woman. she often caused a storm to sink the ship. despite the demonic plan to overthrow the Puritan settlements. In the . was that he came to her as a little deer. moles.cloven feet. The marks could be anything . the Americans believed the witch operated alone.20 - . they did not wonder why the witch would not be afraid of drowning herself when the ship sank. A result of such a lifestyle was that the people never learned to get along.birthmarks. One wonders how she knew that the harmless animal was the Devil! He was said to leave a mark upon the body of the victim. strong resentment existed against people who could not work very hard. many were ready to point at her as a witch. and had to be insensitive to pain. The biggest ceremony ever described involved no more than twenty-five witches. the witch could control the winds at sea. but the only way to prevent a mutiny was to allow the crew to have their fun. Throwing her in jail. Often it was against the captain's wishes. If she had any property that could be confiscated. worn out by years of suffering and toil. The most feared was the "sea witch. the easier it was to find marks on her. no matter how little. The most surprising description. the gatherings were just a few witches getting together.

21 - . 8. to end the torture and humiliation.morning. she confessed to being a witch and was immediately hanged.1 The Witches of Salem. Massachusetts .

was not so under Puritan regime. that suicide was caused by possessing demons. while the old witch. saw it as a grave sin. She had many years of hard work in front of her. or Huntington disease. and two former ministers resigned. young persons. But as the circle included the Reverend Parris' nine-year-old daughter and eleven-year-old niece. Some young women were in their teens. It's incredible how little investigation was made into the character of the accuser. She wanted to amuse the girls by playing with a bit of magic from her Island home.perhaps epilepsy. Or they could have been simply lying in order to get attention . outlived her usefulness. which causes the same contortion of the body and convulsions as cases of "possessions. the . And yet. However. the marriageable young woman became a valuable asset. it was not restricted to this age group. who tortured the victim beyond endurance.common behavior for frustrated. two were twenty years of age. it seemed harmless enough. This was Tibula. lonely. The notion of a social gathering for girls. The Puritans believed that witches ordered demons to enter the bodies of their victims and torture them. The inhabitants were constantly fighting and squabbling. Eventually. It was in this household that a group of young girls started to meet regularly. a West Indian slave. In a society where men outnumbered women. and the insane. and one was much older.Possession roused the greatest fear. they played with more magic tricks with Tibula. Just before the outbreak of terror. brought up with an intense fear of the supernatural. They had to keep it as a secret. Reverend Samuel Paris. no one questioned their motives. The only gathering allowed was in Church. As the winter progressed. But the girls. and even the youngest told nothing to their families. particularly if she was a young girl." They may have had some mental illness based on their fear of Witchcraft. so obvious and normal to us. Salem had a new minister. She put the white of one egg in a cup to simulate a crystal ball. who was disliked by many of his congregation. said some charms. These girls could have had an unknown disease .22 - . that demons possessed all the mentally handicapped. unable to control the people. and supposedly could see the face of your future husband in it. the physically deformed. as mentioned above. This explains why the people in Salem were so eager to believe the hysterical girls who accused the witches.

even allowing ghosts that came back to report who murdered them. Reverend Parris leapt into action. In other words. He decided it was caused by the evil eye of a witch.strain of hiding such a horrible sin showed. and an alibi was. The crowd went wild. Most important was his decision to use "spectral evidence" in court. who was the uncle of one of the afflicted girls. . They could be lurking anywhere. If the vision of a witch appeared to the suffering victim. fainted. The paper was called "The Return of Several Ministers. the girls howled that they felt she bit them. pointed out new witches. admitted that she had bewitched the girls. but if a girl said you came to her in a vision and bewitched her.23 - . this was as good evidence as if you came to her in person. then that witch was guilty as charged. lived among them. William Griggs. therefore. and probably enjoyed their power tremendously. was. said that the sickness had no physical and natural explanation. and suggesting legal procedures. while the guilty treated decisively and harshly. useless. The first suspects were Tibula and her husband. ignored." It insisted that the possessed persons be treated with all consideration and support. Mather suggested extreme care in the conduct of the trials and the avoidance of noise and distractions. He started rousing the villagers against the powerful witches who. They were also encouraged in the "doctrine of fascination" which claimed that the witch could harm her victims by various acts done from a distance. Mather's request that silence and good behavior be maintained in court. was requested to prepare a document explaining the position of the church on sorcery. and two of the girls went into seizures. so many arrests were made and other villages joined the Witch hunt. watching all of it from Boston. You could be in jail for months. The doctor. for some reason. Cotton Mather. of course. hallucinations were admitted as court evidence. For example. The possessed girls shrieked. if the witch bit her lip. Everyone who saw them immediately assumed it was demonic possession. So the courts eagerly adopted spectral evidence as valid. Tibula. he believed. and named other conspirators. directly. Parris decided that a body of witches stood ready to destroy all the good Puritans of Salem.

It took him two full days to die. Brave people like Robert Pike. Eventually. a member of the Governor's Councils. It was all an exercise in ignorance. He wanted. while in reality there were no witches there at all. They questioned the motives of the girls and particularly the validity of spectral evidence. he made it seem as if witches were working in the area. Fortunately. Sarah Good. and a theory was put forth to pacify the population. and only requested that care and moderation should be the style of the future. began to change. including accusers. judges. And so the good residents of Massachusetts regained their clear conscience. Twenty-four inhabitants of Andover organized a petition. absolved them of all responsibility. acted not out of malice but were controlled by the Devil. One old man was pressed to death . Therefore. who was consulted. After all. as suspected before. the madness stopped. Chapter 9 . including old Rebecca Nurse and the new mother. the entire nightmare was not their fault. joined him. some "witches" escaped. particularly the spectral evidence. wrote against it. Judge Nathaniel Saltonstall resigned in disgust.his tormentors put heavy weights on his body to crush him and make him confess. always volatile in America.24 - . The Devil made them do it. and jurors. stupidity and gullibility of a deluded population. to destroy Puritan settlements. John Foster. Queen Anne of England. Public opinion. It said that all the participants. frustrated by harsh living and a religion that offered no comfort or compassion. Other states joined in the opposition. but the town hanged twenty people. Moreover. A group of New York clergymen denounced the Salem courts.There is no point in describing each act and every trial. who had also objected to the Puritans' harsh treatment of Quakers. No one took responsibility for the horrors.

aka Miss Bat (The Worst Witch) • Katie Bell (Harry Potter) • Belladonna (Which Witch?) • The Broom Witch.BOOKS AND MOVIES INSPIRED BY WITCHCRAFT Books: Hannah Abbott (Harry Potter) • Tiffany Aching (Discworld) • Alice (The Adventures of Tweeny Witches) • Amanda Anderson (Wicked Series by Nancy Holder and Debbie Viguie) • Nicole Anderson (Wicked Series by Nancy Holder and Debbie Viguie) • Jaenelle Angelline (Black Jewels Trilogy) • Arachne Gorgon (Soul Eater (manga)) • Ariadne .25 - “Charmed” • “Harry Potter” • “Hocus Pocus” • . (Ophelia Learns to Swim) • Lavender Brown (Harry Potter) • Charity Burbage (Harry Potter) • Millicent Bulstrode (Harry Potter) • Chocolat Meilleure (Sugar Sugar Rune) • Ruby Cherrytree (The Worst Witch) • Marietta Edgecombe (Harry Potter) • Elphaba. the Wicked Witch of the West(Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West) • Movies: “The Blair Witch Project” • “The Witches of Eastwick” • “Little Witches” • .Theseus and the Minotaur (Greek Mythology • Baba Yaga (Fables) • Bathsheda Babbling (Harry Potter) • Bathilda Bagshot (Harry Potter) • Griselda Blackwood(The Worst Witch) • Davina Bat.

as well as the ways those who practiced it were punished. Another aspect that I wanted to underline in my paper was the manner the society was influenced by witchcraft both in England and USA.26 - .CONCLUSION I hope that I successfully reached the purpose of my paper. The people who suffered those harsh consequences inspired today's practitioners and helped bulding the concept of witchcraft. BIBLIOGRAPHY . to deal with the basic information of witchcraft and the famous practitioners that influenced the history. My purpose was also to introduce magic into our lives through the information I gathered about the magical side of witchcraft.

“Witchcraft” Encyclopedia Mythica – “Witchcraft” Booth. Carland Publishing.org/wiki/Witchcraft http://www. 6.org/areas/featured/witchcraft/bibliography. Witchcraft in Early America. Sally Smith. Encyclopædia Britannica . 5.html Corporation. .27 - . Brian P.pantheon. Woods.wikipedia. 7. 1974. The Witches of Early America.edu/~classics/news/newsletter/summer2002/witchcraft. A History of the Devil. 1975. 3. 4. New York: Berkley Publishing Levabeck.html http://www. 8. 1992. Inc. New York: Hastings House.umich. 2. New York and London: http://en. William.1.

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