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MORPHOLOGY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH
Remus BEJAN Camelia BEJAN

Program de conversie profesională la nivel postuniversitar pentru cadrele didactice din învăţământul preuniversitar Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul I

2010

LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Morphology of Contemporary English

Remus BEJAN

Camelia BEJAN

2010

© 2010

Acest manual a fost elaborat în cadrul "Proiectului pentru Învăţământul Rural", proiect co-finanţat de către Banca Mondială, Guvernul României şi comunităţile locale. Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei, Cercetării, Tineretului şi Sportului.

ISBN 973-0-04113-X

Cont ents

Contents

Introduction

Objectives of the course Specific competences Presentation of content Course tasks Evaluation, assessment and testing Plan your study Summary Further reading Diagnostic test Answers to diagnostic test

2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 8 10 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 I

UNIT ONE. Basic concepts

Objectives of the unit 1.1. Grammatical units 1.2.The phrasal constituents 1.2.1.The noun phrase 1.2.2.The verb phrase 1.2.3.The adjective phrase 1.2.4.The adverb phrase 1.2.5.The prepositional phrase 1.3. Words 1.3.1. Word vs. lexeme 1.3.2. Morphological structure of words 1.3.3. Word classes 1.3.3.1. Lexical words Nouns Lexical verbs Adjectives Adverbs 1.3.3.2. Function words Determiners Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Modal verbs Prepositions Adverbial particles Coordinators Subordinators The negative particle ‘not’ The infinitive marker ‘to’ Numerals Summary Key Terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 1 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.1– 1.7

Nouns Objectives of the unit 2.5. Relative pronouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 3 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 3.1.3.3.3.3. Aero article 3.4. Determiners and pronouns Objectives of the unit 3.5. The common case 2.2. Possessive pronouns 3.1. Possessive determiners 3. Pronouns 3. 10 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 38 39 39 39 46 48 49 51 51 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 59 62 65 66 66 67 68 70 72 76 76 77 81 85 87 87 89 90 91 92 95 96 72 98 99 99 99 102 UNIT THREE.1. Quantifiers 3.1. Reciprocal pronouns 3. Compound nouns 2.2.2. Numerals 3.5. Indefinite article 3.2. The genitive case 2. Noun formation 2.1.4.3. Derived nouns 2.2.4. Lexical expression of gender 2.1.2. Case 2.1.4. Morphological expression of gender 2.1. Nouns resistant to number contrast 2.6.1. Demonstrative determiners 3.5.1. Determiners 3.2.Cont ents UNIT TWO.1.2.3.1.1.4.2. Demonstrative pronouns 3. Personal pronouns 3. Articles 3. Regular plural formation 2.3.2. Irregular plural formation 2.1 -3.1 – 2. Number 2. Reflexive pronouns 3.5.13 II .1.1. Interrogative pronouns 3.6.1. Gender 2.2.1. uncountable nouns 2.1.5.3. Foreign plurals 2. Types of nouns 2.1.2.1. Proper nouns 2.1.2.2.1.1.2. Countable vs.7. Definite article 3.2.3. Common nouns 2.5.8.2.2.4.2.3. Dual gender nouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA)2 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 2.2.1. Indefinite pronouns 3. Semi-determiners 3.3.

Past progressive 5.1.2.2. Regular lexical verbs 4.2. Modality 5.4.2.3.1.4.2.2. Future perfect 5. Past simple 5.3. Going to 5. Be to 5. Present simple 5.3. Tense 5. Irregular lexical verbs 4.1.1. The perfective aspect 5.1.4. do Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 4. Verbs Objectives of the unit 4.2. Past perfect simple 5.4.2.2.4. Present progressive 5.1. Phrasal verbs 4.2.2. have.3.3 104 105 105 105 107 109 110 110 111 112 113 113 114 114 114 114 117 118 119 119 120 125 128 128 128 131 132 134 134 136 138 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 148 150 153 155 157 157 UNIT FIVE.1 -4.2.4.4.3.3.Cont ents UNIT FOUR. Will – would 5. Multi-word lexical verbs 4. Shall – should III .2.8. The simple aspect 5.2. Single-word lexical verbs 4.4.4.2. Can – could 5.1.6. Prepositional phrasal verbs 4.4. Future simple 5.1.2.4.4.2.3. Aspect 5. Formation of verbs 4.2. Present simple 5.2.4. Prepositional verbs 4.2.2. Present perfect simple 5.1. modality and mood Objectives of the unit 5. Present progressive 5. Voice 5. voice.4.3.5.2.1.2.2.4.2.4.2.1.1.1. Idioms 4. Present perfect progressive 5.2.1. Must 5.3. Past perfect progressive 5.5.2.3.2. aspect.2. The progressive aspect 5.3.2.4.1. Means of expressing future time 5. Auxiliary verbs: be. Tense.7. May – might 5.4.3. Future perfect progressive 5.2. Future progressive 5.2.2.4.

5.5. Adverbs 6.4.1. Derived adjectives 6.5.5.4. Conditional 5.21 159 159 160 160 160 164 165 165 166 168 173 174 174 175 176 177 178 181 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 188 192 194 194 195 195 198 195 211 UNIT SIX. Formation of adjectives 6.5.2.5. Indicative 5. Imperative 5.2.1.3.3. Comparison of adjectives 6.2.2.11 Glossary of grammatical terms Bibliography IV .1.1.2.1.2. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison 6.1.1.1. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form 6.5.Cont ents 5.1.1. Adjectives and adverbs Objectives of the unit 6.1.2.5.2. Participial adjectives 6. Adjectives 6. Syntactic function of adverbs 6.2.5. Subjunctive Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5.4.2.1 -5.1. Compound adjectives 6. Comparison of adverbs 6.1. Semantic classification of adverbs 6. Order of adjectives 6.5.1 -6.3.3. Mood 5. Semantic classes 6. Order of adverbs Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6.

4. Presentation of content 1. Objectives of the course 1. Course tasks 1.5. Plan your study Summary Further reading Diagnostic test Answers to diagnostic test 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 7 7 9 1 .Introduction Introduction 1.1. Specific competences 1.6.2. Introduction 1. assessment and testing 1. Evaluation.3.

 correlate observations concerning the morphological structure of words with phonetic.Introduction 1. the adjectival/adverbial category of comparison). Introduction The study of grammar traditionally includes morphology and syntax. grammatical markers).2. It assumes a low intermediate standard of knowledge and operational ability in the language and seeks to fulfill the following aims:  to develop your knowledge of English through exploration and analysis .1. verb. determination. the verbal categories of tense. Morphology is that part of the grammar of a language that studies the internal structure of words.  to enable you to see grammar in general and morphology in particular as providing means of understanding the relation of form to meaning and of meaning to situation .  recognize grammatical categories (the nominal categories of gender. part of pack 1 (specialism). case. which will allow you to communicate efficiently in the language (orally and in writing).  produce correct sentences observing morphological rules (the use of tenses and aspect. Specific competences By the end of the course you will be able to:  recognize the main word classes (noun.). positioning of adjectives and of adverbs in the clause. The Morphology of Contemporary English is a mandatory course. at an advanced level and meet the fundamental objectives of teaching English. as well as become aware. syntactic and semantic observations. through personal experience.  carry out complex morphological analysis of sentences (identify word classes and grammatical categories). of the difficulties met in learning English. mood. 1. adjective. phonological. aspect. 1. etc. etc. 2 . Objectives of the course The course will help you demonstrate your capacity of understanding and using the basic structures of English.  to provide you with a basic terminology which will enable you to make these relationships explicit.  recognize the elements that make up the structure of the word (morphemes.). while syntax involves the study of word combinations or sentence structure.

word and morpheme). The objectives will help you monitor your own progress and decide on the work that you need to do in order to get the best possible results. voice. verb.3. which we have placed at the end of every unit. together with the glossary of grammatical terms at the end of the book are meant to reinforce the main grammatical aspects discussed. Each of the six study units which make up the course is accompanied by intensive practical work. pronoun. Units from 2 to 6 give a detailed description of the main word-classes of English (noun. We advise you to build up a portfolio of the tasks to be undertaken. Presentation of content This book will introduce you to the study of English morphology. adjective and adverb). To stimulate your interest in studying this course. to reflect upon the results and develop ideas and procedures adapted to the environment in which you work. Every unit begins with a statement of the aim and lists its main objectives. The summary and the list of key terms organized alphabetically. aspect. as follows: Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Basic concepts Nouns Determiners and pronouns Verbs Tense. determiner. We encourage you to experiment and apply the ideas and the techniques used in the course in your own activity. The units are further divided into sections. quantifier. They are designed to assist you in your preparation and offer a review for study purposes. Through its objectives. The grammatical content of the book is presented in 6 independent units. each one being conceived as a learning component with appropriate practice tasks. Reflection points (Think first!) are signaled by a question mark. modality and mood Adjectives and adverbs Unit 1 gives a bird’s eye view of the whole course and defines the basic units of grammar (phrase. They will also assist your preparation for the progress tests and the final examination. 3 .Introduction 1. each unit specifies what you will be able to do when you have finished it. each unit contains a variable number of topics for reflection and study. These and any work in English that you consider relevant to your training should be collected at any time for future reference.

1. We believe that study should not attend solely to the attainment of certain practical end-results.4. to a great extent. not only in the results themselves. amplified or omitted. in the thinking that goes in the process of ensuring results. Its value lies. The send-away assignments (SAAs) are signaled by an envelope and a mail-box. on the date set by the course map. Course tasks The different areas of grammar lend themselves to a wide variety of practical linguistic tasks limited only by the time factor.5.Introduction Note down any thoughts or experiences you consider useful in your portfolio. This coursework assessment will consist in submitting to your tutor the six obligatory send-away assignments (SAAs). adapted. and you should resist the temptation at all costs. 4 . you will find answers at the end of each unit. Self-assessed questions (SAQs) are in-text questions that break down the text in order to clarify and consolidate certain teaching points. The premature reference to a key negates the whole purpose of the tasks. For all of them. as you progress through the course. Self-assessed questions (SAQs) are signaled by a fountain-pen. This will support your learning experience and contribute to the work you need to do for successfully meeting the specific objectives of the course. according to need. 1. Evaluation. others call for the manipulation and completion of classes of words in various meaningful ways. Some involve the observation and identification of morphological elements and their semantic functions or of the relations between them. Those proposed can be selected. assessment and testing Your level of performance will be assessed periodically throughout the semester (which counts 40 % of the overall end-of-semester grade).

Your grade will be based on your ability to understand and describe the structure of English sentences (form and function). a 50% success rate should be considered as minimal. Your grammar knowledge will also be demonstrated by your ability to produce sentences. which you will find at the end of each unit. It is of utmost importance that you meet the deadlines specified in the course map. we have taken into account the relative importance of objectives covering the content of the unit. are based on the material you have studied in the units. depending on the specific learning tasks that derive from the objectives mentioned at the beginning of each unit. your knowledge of vocabulary for thinking and about and discussing grammar. your competence in the mechanics of writing (demonstrated in your writing) and in communicating grammatical concepts to others. both written and oral. You will have to spend about 60 minutes in doing each assignment. You can use extra material if you wish (you might find the suggestions for further reading at the end of each unit useful). provided you have completed all the tasks required by the unit. Once completed. the difficulty that you are likely to face in their realization. their degree of complexity and novelty. If you do not observe them. and he or she will send feedback on all of them (commentary and assessment) within two weeks. refer to the glossary of grammatical terms to revise basic definitions and other material suggested in the ‘Further reading’ and in the general bibliographic list. 5 . word/clause order. we strongly advise you to re-read the relevant sections of the course. We would prefer that you type your assignments but writing them legibly will do as well. paraphrase. modified cloze. At the beginning of each assignment you will find detailed instructions on how to do it. word changing. Every SAQ and every SAA contain a variable number of exercises and items. send them to your tutor. For each exercise. Your grammar competence will be evaluated by means of a variety of testing structures such as multiple choice. You will have to answer various questions and do exercises covering the major problems dealt with in the course (units 1-6). You will also sit a written examination (which counts for 60% of the overall mark) at the end of the semester. the time allotted by the syllabus for dealing with them. true – false. text completion. he or she may be unable to read your assignment and send feedback quickly to you. which are perceived as grammatically correct. In establishing the weight of each SAA (see table on page 5). error identification. In case you fail to solve any of the items. Remember that your tutor has planned his or her time around these deadlines.Introduction These assignments.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Week Units Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 6 Revision Revision Assignments Diagnostic test SAA 1 due SAA 2 due SAA 3 due SAA 4 due SAA 5 due SAA 6 due 40 % 6% 7% 8% 5% 8% 6% Date Summary The material for study is divided in six rather independent units. the phrase. Plan Your Study Distance learning encourages and relies on those skills and competences that allow you to work independently. whenever you can find some time to learn. Unit 2 is important in the sense that it provides the essential information about the basic units of grammatical analysis: the clause. It will take you about 28 hours to go through the whole course and accomplish all the assignments required. Throughout the book we use a number of icons to identify the main types of activities. Reflection points (Think first!) allow to link your study with your own activity. the verb.6. At the end of each unit. a Send-away assignment (SAA) tests what you have learned in the respective unit. the word and the morpheme. Each unit contains a significant number of exercises of different types (SAQs) that will allow you to practice the most important problems studied. tense. aspect. in a manner that best suits you. number.Introduction 1. case (for nouns). You can learn at your own pace. 6 . the adjective. The following units give details about the noun. mood (for verbs). the adverb and the grammatical categories associated with them: gender.

You are advised to spend not more than 15 minutes on this test. a) do b) is c) work 3) I think ……… doctor. not to believe and take for granted. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence grammatically. I’ll lend you the newspaper. remember to read critically. too. Sir Francis Bacon once said: Read not to contradict and confute. Diagnostic test This diagnostic test is designed to give you a quick way of assessing the approximate level of your knowledge of English grammar and usage. we’re all human. However. but to weigh and consider. you will find useful recommendations. not to find talk and discourse. a) her job is b) she’s a c) her job is an d) does d) she’s d) been d) I c) rare d) seldom 4) How long ……… sitting here? a) have you been b) are you c) have you 5) Would you like ……… help? a) a b) some c) me 6) They ……… go to the cinema. a) will have looked b) looked c) have looked d) look 7 . I’m sure he’d help. At the end of each unit. a) anyone b) some people c) not anybody d) someone 8) If he ……… about it. a) tomorrow b) much 7) In life ……… can make a mistake. a) had known b) knew c) has known d) knows 9) When I ……… through it. when you do this. 1) Did you ……… anywhere interesting last weekend? a) go b) going c) was d) went 2) I work as a teacher and my wife ……….Introduction Further reading We strongly encourage you to consult other works that will help you find additional information on special grammar aspects.

a) avoiding to drive b) to avoid to drive d) to avoid driving 14) You should give ………. a) would like more b) prefer rather c) theirs d) some d) d) c) had better d) would 24) I gave her ……… earrings for Christmas. but ……… of my answers were correct. We have plenty of time. a) no b) any c) none 21) George can't ……… to you now. the express to London or to Edinburgh? a) Which b) How c) Whose d) What 19) Mary takes the dog for a walk ……… the evening. a) mustn’t b) shouldn’t c) can’t d) needn’t 12) You have a terrible fever! ……… call a doctor? a) Shall I b) Do I c) Must I d) Will I 13) Please try ……… ……… at night. a) in b) up c) off d) away 11) It's all right. a) a pair of b) a set of c) two d) a 25) Would you like some more tea? There's still ……… left. a) them b) there’s their 23) I ……… drink beer than wine. we ……… hurry. a) very much b) a lot of 16) A Jaguar is ……… than a Fiat. He's busy. train are you taking. a) few b) a few c) a little d) little 8 .Introduction 10) Mum gave ……… her job when I was born. a) much b) most c) more d) few 18) . a) more expensive b) expensiver expensive c) much expensive 17) I made one or two mistakes. . . a) to your mother this letter c) letter this to your mother c) avoiding driving b) this letter your mother d) this letter to your mother c) lots d) a very lot d) 15) Marian has ……… old books. a) talked b) to talk c) talking talk 22) He's a friend of ………. a) in b) at c) on d) to 20) We haven't got ……… English friends.

12) a. 18) a. 21) d. A score of 50-70% is acceptable. 13) d. 29) c. 7) a. You will have to work hard to make significant improvements. 11) d. 23) d. 3) b. 20) b. 15) b. 10) b. 19) a. 9) c. 30) d 9 . 14) d. 24) a. 17) b. but he doesn't speak to ……… of them. 8) a. your grammar is good! Answers to diagnostic test 1) a. congratulations. If your score is higher than 75% . 4) a. 28) c. 16) a). a) would start b) would have started c) had started d) will start 29) Tom has two sisters. 2) d.Introduction 26) I didn't realize that the shop was ……… the other side of the road. a) a work b) the work c) an work d) work If your score is 50% or less. you should consider your level as elementary. a) far b) away c) distance d) long 28) Many adult students of English wish they ……… their language studies earlier. 27) b. a) by b) for c) on d) in 27) The language school that I attend is 20 kilometers ………. 6) d. a) both b) any c) either d) neither 30) George goes to ……… by car. 22) c. 5) b. 26) c. 25) c. but some areas of English grammar need to be given special attention.

1 Lexical words Nouns Lexical verbs Adjectives Adverbs 1.2.3.3.1.3.2.3. The adjective phrase 1.5.2.2. Morphological structure of words 1. Grammatical units 1.3. The noun phrase 1.3. Word vs.3.3.2.1. The adverb phrase 1. Words 1.3. The verb phrase 1.2. 7.1 – 1. lexeme 1.1. Function words Determiners Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Modal verbs Prepositions Adverbial particles Coordinators Subordinators The negative particle ‘not’ The infinitive marker ‘to’ Numerals Summary Key terms Further reading Send – away assignment (SAA) 1 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.3.4. The prepositional phrase 1.2.2. 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 10 . Word classes 1.2.Basic concepts UNIT 1 Basic concepts Objectives 1. The phrasal constituents 1.

the adjective phrase.Basic concepts Aim This unit will introduce.1. which follow a regularly repeated pattern. • analyze the structure of phrases. We will examine the constituents of the simple sentence. The clause is made up of one or more phrases. Each word can be further analyzed as being made up of one or more morphemes. 1. a predicate and usually expresses a complete thought: John works on a farm. Objectives After you have completed the study of this unit and have done all the tasks recommended. root. the verb phrase. complex or compound words. a word consist of a stem and. In English four types of units are usually recognized and hierarchically arranged on a rank scale: clause → phrase → word → morpheme Thus. each phrase is made up of one or more words. • explain how words are formed. language use is governed by rules. a complement and optional adjuncts. can be broken down into meaningful linguistic units. the morpheme being the smallest meaningful unit. Grammatical units are characterized in terms of their a) internal structure (a clause consists of clause elements. inflection. 11 . base/stem. affixes) b) syntactic role and c) meaning. the major word-classes and their characteristics. the structure of the word and will sketch the context in which any correct grammatical analysis should be carried out. a clause is the maximal grammatical unit. define and illustrate the terminology used in the grammatical analysis of English. a phrase consists of a head. Stretches of language. you should be able to: • recognize and identify the phrasal constituents of the clause: the noun phrase. possibly. Grammatical units In spite of the bewildering variety of forms. It is made up of a subject. the prepositional phrase. the adverb phrase. • give brief definitions and examples of the following terms: morpheme. either spoken or written. • define and exemplify simple. with a view to enhancing your awareness of the relationship between grammatical form and meaning. affix.

Consider the bracketed structures with the noun farmer(s) as the main part: a. • the premodifiers. 1. which provide information relating to it. [That tall hardworking farmer who is feeding the cattle in the stables] is my uncle. Depending on the head. g. it may consist in a noun only. the word around which the other components group together and which controls concord. relative clauses ( who is feeding the cattle in the stables) and non-finite clauses (feeding the cattle in the stables). adverbial phrases and prepositional phrases. adjectival phrases.Basic concepts 1. as the most important element of the phrase determines the relationships and the behavior of the phrase as a whole.2. postmodification premodification premodification premodification e. comprising all the items placed after the head. [Those farmers] are my neighbors.1. b. those). c. except the prepositional phrase. which may be accompanied by other elements. f. Thus in (c) the plural noun head farmers determines changes in the demonstrative adjective (those). Minimally. adjectives (tall. that is the agreement in grammatical form between elements in a clause or a phrase. and the predicative (my neighbors). there are noun phrases. [That farmer with a shovel in his hand] is my uncle. [That farmer] is my uncle. as in (a) below. all of which are thus marked as plural. which include all the items placed before the head: determiners (that. 12 . especially prepositional phrases ( with the shovel in his hand). [John] is [a farmer]. d. can consist of the head only. postmodification postmodification In describing noun phrases we may distinguish: • the head (farmer). and other nouns. verb phrases.2. Often. hardworking). The noun phrase The noun phrase (NP) is called so because the word which acts as its main part is typically a noun. Each phrase. the noun that is central to the phrase may be accompanied by other words. [That tall hardworking farmer] is my uncle. • the postmodifiers. The phrasal constituents The words that build up a clause can be put together in meaningful groups or phrases. in the verb (are). The head. [That tall hardworking farmer feeding the cattle] is my uncle.

many people in the developing world do not eat enough. However. The main morphological characteristics of the noun will be discussed in the following pages. indirect object or prepositional object. Object predicative: They chose him ‘Farmer of the Year’.. The noun phrase can typically act as subject. Eating a wide variety of fruit and vegetables helps ensure an adequate intake of most micronutrients and dietary fibers. premodifiers and postmodifiers. there is a class . The structure of the noun phrase could thus be re-written as: Noun Phrase (NP) (Determiners(s)) (Premodifier(s)) Head (Postmodifier(s)) The parentheses remind you that the determiners and the modifiers can be left out. in a clause: Subject: Some farmers have new machinery. says a UN agency. The only situation in which the noun phrase has no expressed determiner is when it has a ‘zero’ article. Attribute: The farmers’ meeting was postponed. Increased consumption can help avoid eating foods high in fats. 13 . Prepositional Object: We rely on farmers. Though developing countries largely contribute to the global supply of fruit and vegetables and production can still be improved. or predicative. Indirect Object: They gave the farmers all the documents. attribute. etc. Consumption is often low amongst lower socio-economic groups. The premodifiers and the postmodifiers will be treated in the next chapter of this course. Direct Object We helped the farmers.Basic concepts Within the set of noun premodifiers. sugar and salt.the determiners . Underline the noun phrases and analyze them into their determiners. direct object. Subject predicative: My neighbors are good farmers. heads.1. determiners are more necessary to the noun phrase structure than modifiers. as in the first example above. SAQ 1.which show whether the entity denoted by the noun is known or not to the speaker.

passive. (some of them may be omitted). perf. number): She went back to New York. person. passive passive . [ability] [possibility] [obligation] Auxiliary verbs (be. all finite VPs are also marked for tense (T): T T T T T T T T T 14 perf. The verb phrase The verb phrase (VP) usually consists of a head. etc. the auxiliaries and/or the modals. 1. The first has been done for you: a – determiner. This year prospects may be better. The problem must be faced squarely. cognition. Lexical verbs express both lexical meaning (motion. V V V V V V V V V V writes has written is writing has been writing will write will have written will be writing will have been writing is written has been written progr. have. wide – premodifier. modal modal modal modal perf. variety – head. perf.Basic concepts Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. [motion + past] [cognition + present] Modal verbs add to the lexical verb a special semantic component such as: ability. necessity. progr.2. They follow modals and occur in the order: perfect. progressive.2.) and grammatical meaning (tense. aspect. In addition. obligation. permission.: You can build this vacation cottage yourself. which is a lexical verb. progr. progr. perception. etc. of fruit and vegetable – postmodifier. do) carry grammatical meaning only. perf. I know no secret recipe for certainty. possibility. preceded by the optional elements.

The operator is involved in forming interrogative sentences (the operator is inverted with the subject) and negative sentences (the negative particle not is attached to the operator): He has been working as an engineer for five years. 1. The elements following the head serve to complete the meaning of the adjective and are generally called complements. 15 .Basic concepts The first auxiliary is usually called operator. a specifier and a complement. The adverb phrase Adverb phrases (AdvP) are normally composed of three elements: the head. “How do you feel?” Charlie asked me.4. He made up his mind quite independently of me. so. Hanck did not abandon his scheme. He made up his mind independently. the specifier and the complement: He made up hid mind. Complements generally take the form of prepositional phrases. Specifiers typically indicate the degree of the quality denoted by the adjective. Adjectives commonly specify the properties or the attributes of a noun referent: The house is old. too. The adjective phrase Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns. 1. etc. He is so fond of music. The adjectival phrase (AP) typically consists of a head. rather.2.). Sam is very angry with John. or may be optionally accompanied by specifiers (very. which combine to form the following basic structures: specifier very so head old angry fond complement with John of music The head of the adjectival phrase is always realized by an adjective.3. which may function alone. Has he been working as an engineer for five years? He hasn’t been working as an engineer for five years.2.

They are at odds. He was interested in what they were up to. Prepositions are semantically bound with the noun following them: He put the book right on the shelf.5. (prep + noun) (prep + prep + noun) (prep + adv) (prep + adj) (prep + gerundial clause) (prep + indirect question) 16 . He knew them from before the war. that acts as complement of the preposition. 1. At last the call came. and occasionally by adjectives and adverbs: He was taken completely by surprise. Prepositions never appear alone but in combination with a noun phrase. He insisted on being paid at once. right near here. The prepositional phrase English makes extensive use of prepositions. specifier right head on behind at complement the shelf him odds The complement of the preposition is typically realized by nouns and pronouns but also by wh-finite clauses. I know where he is. Adverb phrases are frequently optional in the sense that they can be omitted without the clause becoming ungrammatical.Basic concepts specifier quite head independently independently complement of me Complements are typically realized by prepositional phrases. gerundial clauses. Place or Time. They function as Adverbial Modifiers of Manner.2.

Although they look familiar to everyone. Words Phrases are made up of words. b) being the minimal possible unit in an utterance: John. Identify the type of phrase (NP. Words are however identifiable by such criteria as: a) a regular stress pattern. 2. 6) a small black bag. 9) rather carelessly. 3) pretty soon. 11) every bridge over the river 12) so efficient in his work. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. (in reply to a question like: Who phoned?) (in reply to a question like: When shall we meet?) c) being assigned one. 2) quite hot. the possibility of being preceded or followed by pauses in speech or separated from one another by means of spaces and punctuation marks.2. 4) the urban young. 8) very kind to Mary. Tonight. AdvP). The first has been done for you. or more dictionary meanings: boy 1. The first has been done for you: 1) NP. their definition is far from simple. in writing: The boy is reading a book. 1. a male child or a male person in general: The boys wanted to play football. AP. 10) before the war.Basic concepts SAQ 1. 7) a student of Physics. VP. 5) in a hurry. a son: How old is your little boy? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) The manner in which the above-mentioned conditions are met varies considerably and depends on the nature of each word.3. 17 . 1) anti-terrorist laws.

plays’ (genitive) SAQ 1.). Word vs. 1. However. plays. and the latter. represented by -s (/z/ in speech) signifying “more than one”.3. is identical to the word. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Morphemes are different from syllables. -ni-.3. while the noun would have other forms: verb lexeme: forms of the lexeme: noun lexeme: forms of the lexeme: play. as a verb and as a noun. a meaningful sequence of sounds which is not divisible into smaller meaningful units. Look up the entries for study and intellectual in a dictionary. playing play plays (pl. play would have two entries in the dictionary. the basic forms. 18 .3. which in this case. Identify the lexemes for each. Morphemes are classified by linguists as free morphemes or bound morphemes and as roots or affixes. yet it consists of one morpheme only. the plural form animals. play’s. can be divided into three syllables (a-ni-mal). Morphological structure of words A word is built up of smaller constituents called morphemes. which retains the original threesyllable structure. For instance. that is. for example. together with the corresponding word forms. consists in two morphemes: the former is animal. a morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning. These are the lexemes.1. lexeme A lexeme is a word in roughly the sense that would correspond to a dictionary entry. -mal) bears a meaning of its own.2. By definition. meaning “a creature”. played. None of the smaller units (a-.Basic concepts 1. The verb would appear in various forms when used in sentences. The word animal. play.

repeat Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit.Basic concepts A free morpheme is one which can stand alone (farm. used for growing crops and/or keeping animals”. There are two types of affixes: prefixes (added to the beginning of a word) and suffixes (added to the end of a word): unmis-ful -tion unnecessary. Their semantic content is more difficult to isolate. etc. dis-. reevaluate. redo. careful construction. farmer. inhuman. generate new words and. untold misunderstand. job. and the buildings on it. SAQ 1. to be more precise. Actually. being morphologically simple and carries the main portion of meaning of the words in which it appears: humanize. derivational prefixes or suffixes. A root is the portion of a word that is common to a set of derived or inflected forms. resistance. humanly humanism. task. and it typically has semantic content. together with some suffixes. 19 . for this reason. child. in our case. exploitation Prefixes. The morpheme farm. etc. humanitarian. dislike. revolution. they are called derivational morphemes. man. Decide in which of the following words re. A bound morpheme is one which cannot occur as an independent word (re-. -er. box.) and has to be attached to other morphemes to build words: replay. rest. for instance.).4. cannot be broken down into smaller bits. affixes attach to the root (of the word).is a bound root? rewrite. humans. Bound morphemes are typically called affixes. -tion. When all affixes are removed the root is not further analyzable into meaningful elements. education. “an area of land. reunification. misfortune fruitful.

Consider the word carelessness: care [root] care [root and stem 1] + less [derivational suffix 1] > careless (adj) careless [stem 2] + ness [derivational suffix 2] > carelessness (n) Care is also the stem of the verbal lexeme to care. words may have more than one stem.A. The root is always a stem. SAQ 1.Basic concepts That part of a word to which affixes are added is called a stem. whose inflectional forms are cares (present. A. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) impossible 2) cloudiness 3) childhood 4) teacher 5) development 6) peacefully 7) exceptionally 8) parental 9) friendship 10) industrialize 20 . Identify the roots for the following words. 3rd person singular). but a more complex derived word structure may also be a stem. cared (past tense or past participle) and caring (present participle). Unlike roots.5.

-ible. However. -ize. these basic errors are unforgiv____. It is difficult to explain the popular____ of a singer who cannot actually sing. Most of the mistakes can be forgiven. It is difficult to cope with the strains of single parent____. aspect. B. Complete the words in italics with the correct derivational suffix: -ness. Which assignment is your priority? I don’t know. fy.able. 21 . -ity. the bottled water is drink____.. –hood. present verb past verb progressive verb past participle verb plural noun possessive noun comparative adjective superlative adjective rd example works. The court was unable to determine the own____ of the property. case. etc. it is difficult to priorit____. The factory has been very product____ this year. Democracy is fundamental to good govern____. The most widely used inflections are given in the table below: inflection -s -ed -ing -en -s ‘s -er -est grammatical meaning 3 pers. Inflectional morphemes are endings added to noun or verbal stems to specify grammatical meanings such as number. sg. voice) and adjectives/adverbs (whose inflections indicate degrees of comparison). Yes.Basic concepts SAQ 1. Please noti____ all the students concerned about the room change. my great-aunt also suffers from forgetful____. case) verbs (whose infections indicate: tense. -ment. -ive. However.5. falls worked working.B. tense. falling fallen carts farmer’s warmer warmest It follows from this. aspect. My grandmother is very forgetful. that inflections distinguish between large classes of words: nouns (whose inflections indicate: number. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) The tap water is not safe to drink.

2) 22 . John's house looks older than this. John's. employee. capitalism. 1) John’s – genitive. jobs. John claimed that he had tried to find you. B. given. react. The boys studied longer than you. worker. A. A.6. 4. Fred may have written the longest essay. Which words contain a derivational affix and which inflectional affix? Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: eggs. The tallest student studies in Bill's class. goodness. B. singing. 5. 6. walked.6. derivational affix inflectional affix SAQ 1. 2. 3.Basic concepts SAQ 1. quickest. faster. 1. Identify and name all inflected forms. I am waiting for the student who o wns this book. The first has been done for you. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit.

(nice. fear. increase) or states (sleep. easy) Adverbs Adverbs specify the circumstances (place. and they can be heads of phrases. the negator not. prepositions 23 . teacher. frighten). book. 1. time. land.2. play).3. rain).3. adjectives and adverbs.3. characteristics and properties of objects.3. no w. There are four main lexical words in English: nouns. modals.3. manner) in which an action takes place (here. Function words Function words have little or no lexical meaning.3. 1.Basic concepts 1. Function words can be conveniently grouped according to the lexical word to which they are associated: grammatical unit clause clause/ phrase verb phrase noun phrase function words subordinators. words can be broadly grouped into: lexical words and function words. are morphologically variable. difficult. Lexical words have a complex internal structure. processes (change. develop. their role is to express grammatical relationships between lexical words or between lexical words and larger units. Lexical verbs Lexical verbs typically denote actions ( work. pronouns. people and phenomena expressed by nouns. Adjectives Adjectives typically describe qualities.1 Lexical words Lexical words are the main bearers of meaning and they form the primary vocabulary of a language. write. numerals. Nouns Nouns typically refer to concrete people and things as well as to abstract ideas and phenomena (John. Word classes According to their grammatical behavior and their main function. slowly). verbs. adverbial particles determiners. the infinitive marker to coordinators auxiliaries. wh-words. peace.

(close in time) d) Possessive determiners (my. his. our. c) Demonstrative determiners (this/these. that/those) indicates whether the referent of the noun phrase is close or remote in distance. e) Quantifiers (some. much) specify the number or amount of something: I don't have much money with me. 24 . or time: Look at that man over there. Pronouns A pronoun is a pro-form (a word. b) Reflexive pronouns (myself.Basic concepts Determiners Determiners are words that modify noun phrases. your. their) express ownership: Their parties are always fun. they/them): Tell them the news. she/her. (remote in distance) I saw her this morning (= today in the morning). herself) show coreference with the subject: She must be very proud of herself. replacing other words. her. clauses or sentences. and a third referent that is neither speaker nor addressee (he/him. b) The indefinite article (a/an) typically signals that something is mentioned for the first time and thus represents new information: She was talking to an old woman. few. a) Personal pronouns identify the participants in a communication situation: the speaker (I/me. The most important are: a) The definite article (the) specifies that the referent is known to the speaker: There was a horse in the field. The horse was black. the addressee (you). we/us). it. many. phrases. whose meaning is understood from the linguistic or extra linguistic context) which functions like a noun and replaces a noun phrase. yourself.

anybody) indicate that the referents are not identifiable: There's someone at the door. d) Demonstrative pronouns (this/that. be. theirs. (progressive) (passive] 25 . Have specifies perfective aspect: He has known Mary for two years. have and do are used to form up complex verb phrases. The auxiliary be marks the progressive aspect and the passive voice: They are taking a course in fertilizers. somebody. g) Relative pronouns (who. what. On that date Huff left his home. one another) express a mutual sentiment or action among the referents of a plural subject: Don and Susie really loved each other.Basic concepts c) Possessive pronouns (mine. For a few brief minutes they had all been part of one little drama. h) Interrogative pronouns (who. these/those) indicate a referent’s spatial or temporal location: This is the best project. f) Indefinite pronouns (one. We all try and help one another. ours) express ownership: This piece of land is mine. She was seen at the theater. and are co-referential to the word modified by the relative clause: Houses which overlook the lake cost more. which) are questions to stand for the item questioned: Which of the applicants has got the job? Who is that woman? What are your political opinions? used in Auxiliary verbs The three auxiliary verbs of English. ] e) Reciprocal pronouns (each other. what) introduce a relative clause. which.

bring about. which are used to build phrasal verbs. shall. could. Their basic meaning is of motion and result.) are invariable words that introduce prepositional phrases and connect them with other elements of the clause. The stone rolled down the hill. should. past. in. be going to are close in meaning to modal verbs. Several characteristics differentiate modals from other verbs and auxiliaries. 26 . They are closely connected with the verb: Working in the slums brought her up against the realities of poverty. need (to). forth.Basic concepts The auxiliary do is used as operator in interrogative and negative independent clauses when there is no other auxiliary present: What do you read? I didn’t meet them in London. such as: give up. necessity. down. would and must. might. The kids were playing in the street. There's nothing you can do about it now. a number of multiword verbs such as have to. have got to. off. up). Prepositions Preposition (about. may. permission. The verbs dare (to). at. etc. of. by. etc). different from adverbs and prepositions. do wn. used to can be regarded as marginal auxiliaries. obligation. Moreover. Modal verbs Modal verbs are used to build up complex verb phrases. ought to. make up. back. Adverbial particles Adverbial particles are invariable words (a way. had better. Modal verbs can express a wide range of meanings (possibility. There are nine modal auxiliaries in English: can. will.

The negative particle ‘not’ The main use of the particle not (shortened form n’t) is to negate a clause or a constituent: She did not / didn't see him. I think she's either Russian or Polish. They indicate the meaning relationship between the dependent clause and the superordinate clause: time (after. She managed to escape... It's twenty years since I've seen her. as.. comparison (as. or). either .Basic concepts Coordinators Coordinators or coordinating conjunctions link phrases and clauses that have the same syntactic function. Both his mother and his father will be there. since. (addition) (alternative) (alternative) (contrast) Subordinators Subordinators or subordinating conjunctions are words that introduce finite dependent clauses. reason (because). (clausal negation) (constituent negation) The infinitive marker ‘to’ To is often used before the base form of a verb to show that the verb is in the infinitive: I set out to buy food. but. I'll get there. They can be simple (and. It was much better than I'd expected. or) or correlative (both . Coordinators express the meanings of addition. but his father might. I did it because he told me to. Is your sister older or younger than you? Well. and. You can go swimming while I'm having lunch. 27 . even if). even if I have to walk. His mother won't be there. while). alternative or contrast.. Not everybody agrees. condition (if. than).

such as one of the following: quantity. It was the first time they had ever met. and fraction. her fifth. functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun. ordinal (the first. Identify the word classes in the following text. that expresses a number. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: Two elephants went on holiday and sat down on the beach. half): Ten people were invited but only five turned up. SAQ 1.7. There are four distinctive sets of numerals: cardinal (one.Basic concepts Numerals A numeral is a word. They go there twice a week. frequency. People arrived in twos and threes. twice. multiplicative (once. distributive (by threes. holiday Determiner: Pronoun: Adjective: Numeral: Verb: Adverb: Preposition: Conjunction: 28 . in twos) and partitive (two thirds. sequence. Her mother had just given birth to another child. It was a very hot day and they fancied having a s wim in the sea. and relation to the number. Unfortunately they couldn't: they only had one pair of trunks! Noun: elephants. four times). the second). two).

Sydney. Bucuresti: Editura Didacticã si Pedagogicã.Basic concepts Summary Grammar is a description of a language. voice. Sidney Greenbaum. aspect. Harlow. adjectival phrases. case. adjective and adverb) and function words (pronouns. England: Longman. Longman. Limba englezã contemporanã. Words can be grouped into lexical words (noun. Geoffrey Leech. prepositions. meanings and syntactic roles: clause. Morphology. Jan Svartvik (1976). Quirk. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. Angela and Philip Locke (1995). Toronto. New York. A University Course in English Grammar. adverb phrases and prepositional phrases. word and morpheme. Sidney and Randolph Quirk (1991). Levitchi. gender. auxiliaries. There are four fundamental grammatical units characterized by a specific internal structure. mood. tense. Phrases can be classified with regard to their head into noun phrases. deals with words and the changes that affect their forms to express various grammatical meanings associated with such categories as number. Greenbaum. or comparison. verb phrases. Randolph. Morfologia. Leon (1970). conjunctions). Tokyo. London. 29 . phrase. Singapore: Phoenix ELT. Key terms • • • • • • • • • • affix aspect case clause comparison determination grammatical category grammatical meaning inflection mood • • • • • • • • • modality morpheme phrase root sentence stem tense voice word Further reading Downing. as a traditional part of grammar. verb. A Grammar of Contemporary English.

Basic concepts

Send – away assignment (SAA) 1
Complete the following test to find out how much you know about basic morphology. A. How many different lexemes are there in the following list? man, men, girls, girl, mouse, work, play, walk, leave (10 minutes: 10 points) B. Each underlined word in the following passage ends with an inflectional suffix. Write beside each word the morpheme label for the inflectional suffix it contains (-pl., poss, -prs, -ed, -en, -ing, -er, -est). (15 minutes: 10 points) At a certain season of our life we are accustomed to consider every spot as the possible site of a house. I have thus surveyed the country on every side within a dozen miles (pl) of where I live. In imagination I have bought all the farms ( ) in succession, for all were to be bought, and I kne w their price. I walked ( ) over each farmer's ( ) premises ( ), tasted ( ) his wild apples ( ), discoursed on husbandry with him, took his farm at his price, at any price, mortgaging ( ) it to him in my mind; even put a higher ( ) price on it. This experience entitled me to be regarded as a sort of real-estate broker by my friends ( ).
Henry David Thoreau, Walden, Ch. 2. “Where I Lived, and What I Lived For”

C. Briefly define or explain the following terms (50-60 words): (30 minutes: 30 points) 1) grammatical meaning 2) lexeme 3) clause 4) noun phrase 5) affix 6) inflection 7) word 8) gender 9) stem 10) grammar Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. Total points for SAA 1: 50

30

Basic concepts

Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.1 – 1. 7. SAQ 1.1.
a an a det. premodifier wide adequate UN increased developing global many lower socioeconomic head variety intake agency consumption foods countries supply production people consumption groups postmodifier of fruit and vegetables of most micronutrients and dietary fibers high in fats, sugar and salt of fruit and vegetables in the developing world

the

SAQ 1.2.

1. NP; 2. AP; 3. AdvP; 4.NP; 5. PP; 6. NP; 7. NP; 8. AP; 9. AdvP; 10. PP; 11. NP; 12. AP.

SAQ 1.3.

study, studies (noun); studies, studying, studied (verb); intellectual (adjective); intellectual, intellectuals, intellectuals’ (noun) Should your answers to SAQs 1.1 – 1.3 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise sections 1.1. – 1.2. rewrite, redo, reevaluate, reunification

SAQ 1.4. SAQ 1.5.

A. 1. possible; 2. cloud; 3. child; 4. teach; 5. develop; 6. peace; 7. exception; 8. parent; 9. friend; 10. industrial. B. 1. drinkable; 2. prioritize; 3. forgetfulness; 4. unforgivable; 5. parenthood; 6. productive; 7. government; 8. owner; 9. notify; 10. popularity. A. Inflectional affix: eggs, walked, singing, John's, faster, given, quickest. Derivational affix: react, goodness, capitalism, worker, employee, jobs. B. 1. John’s (genitive); looks (simple present tense); older (comparative); 2. boys (plural); studied (past tense); longer (comparative); 3. written (past participle); longest (superlative); 4. claimed (past tense); tried (past participle); 5. am (present tense); waiting (present participle); owns (present tense); 6. tallest (superlative); studies (present tense); Bill’s (genitive). 31

SAQ 1.6.

Basic concepts

NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 1.4 – 1.6 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise section 1.3.2.

SAQ 1.7.

word class noun determiner pronoun adjective numeral verb adverb preposition conjunction

item elephants, holiday, beach, day, s wim, sea, pair, trunks the, a it, they hot two, one went, sat, was, fancied, having, couldn’t, had down, very, unfortunately, only on, in, of and

NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 1.7 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise section 1.3.3.

32

Nouns

UNIT 2
Nouns

Objectives 2.1. Types of nouns 2.1.1. Proper nouns 2.1.2. Common nouns 2.2. Noun formation 2.2.1. Derived nouns 2.2.2. Compound nouns 2.3. Number 2.3.1. Countable v. uncountable nouns 2.3.2. Regular plural formation 2.3.3. Irregular plural formation 2.3.4. Foreign plurals 2.3.5. Nouns resistant to number contrast 2.4. Case 2.4.1. The common case 2.4.2. The genitive case 2.5. Gender 2.5.1. Lexical expression of gender 2.5.2. Morphological expression of gender 2.5.3. Dual gender nouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send away assignment (SAA) 2 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs )2.1 – 2.10

34 34 34 35 36 36 38 39 39 39 46 48 49 51 51 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 59 62

33

which will facilitate your understanding of the correct use of the noun in communication. although their capitalization is strictly a matter of convention. you will be able to: • explain how nouns are formed.1. places (London). • illustrate the various meanings of the genitive constructions. There is an important semantic distinction between proper nouns and common nouns. Proper nouns Proper nouns name unique entities that are known to the speaker and the hearer in a given speech situation. institutions (The UNO. Nouns can be broadly grouped into a number of classes.Nouns Aim This unit will introduce you to the morphological characteristics of nouns. The Parliament) and rank from single words to fairly lengthy strings of words. as basic elements of noun phrases. objects. Orthographically. Proper nouns designate specific people (Bill Gates). proper nouns are marked by an initial capital letter. • classify nouns according to morphological and semantic criteria. number and case. Types of nouns Nouns refer semantically to concrete entities such as persons. 2. places but also to actions (laughter). You will study the nominal categories of gender. • distinguish between nouns in the masculine. You will learn a number of important concepts used in the analysis of nouns as well as develop practical skills by solving exercises. • identify and use classes of nouns in the plural form. 34 . • explain the difference between countable and uncountable nouns. natural phenomena (thunder) and others. Objectives After studying this unit. 2.1. abstractions (thought).1. which differ in meaning and grammatical properties. feminine and neuter.

the Suez Canal. phenomena (rain) and others. Italy. Historical events. a Democrat. the Albert Hall. places (countryside).Nouns The most familiar proper nouns are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Personal names: John. the Devil. The Washington Post. March.1. straits. Geographical names: Britain. Parliament. Political parties and their members: The Republican Party. Languages: English. law. island groups. o) Many newspapers and periodicals: The Guardian. The Declaration of Independence. the Straits of Magellan. the Metropolitan (Opera). 2. The Eiffel Tower. the Sahara. Romania. there are many proper nouns that are regularly preceded by the definite article. restaurants. gulfs. qualities (beauty). libraries: the Ritz (Hotel). Holidays. the Bahamas. and canals: the Danube. the National Gallery. Some important groups are: k) Plural geographical names (mountain groups. The Mayflower. uncountable [U] mass entity (sugar). deserts. The Industrial Revolution. the Old Vic (Theatre). l) Other geographical names such as rivers. emotions (anger). geographic areas): the Alps. the Caspian. animals (horse) but also denote actions (work). the Persian Gulf. n) Names of ships. Oxford University. New Yorker. m) Public institutions. However. persons (girl). the Middle East. periods: World War II. a Frenchman. Helen. monuments: The British Museum. the Yucatan Peninsula. Victorian. forests. museums. The referent may be perceived as a countable [C] entity (dog – dogs). Muslim. Buddhist. Persons and bodies with unique public functions: The President. a Republican. mostly those well-known in history: The Titanic. Many nouns which are basically uncountable also have countable uses with a difference of meaning: 35 . Proper nouns do not normally take any determiner because they refer to an entity whose identity is already known. Adjectives and common nouns derived from proper nouns: a Marxist. Monday. Common nouns Common nouns refer to ordinary things (book). the Black Forest. abstractions (suggestion). p) Points on the globe: The North Pole. seas. Public buildings. God. institutions. relations (friendship). Congress. the Smithsonian (Museum). Romanian and nationalities: a German. Religions. followers of particular religions and some religious concepts: Christianity. months and days of the week: Easter.2. The Equator. or as an indivisible. such as hotels. theaters. peninsulas.

2. above’ ‘distant’ ‘below. Compound nouns are formed from two words combined to form a single noun (bed + room → bedroom) [the arrow shows the direction of derivation]. (verb) (noun) 2. separate’ ‘before’ ‘false’ ‘again’ ‘half’ ‘below’ ‘more than. too little’ examples antiabortionist autobiography counterargument hyperinflation interaction minibus monotheism nonconformist outgrowth predecessor pseudo-democracy reconstruction semicircle submarine superhero teleshopping underachievement (noun) . For instance. among’ ‘small’ ‘one’ ‘not’ ‘outside. Derived nouns Most derivational prefixes have their own meanings which combine in various ways with the meaning(s) of the word to which they attach. opposite to’ ‘self’ ‘against’ ‘extreme’ ‘between.1. Prefixes usually do not change the word class: added to a noun root they form a new noun with a different meaning: neo. In addition to derivation and compounding. They have some chickens and two turkeys.+ colonialism (noun) → neocolonialism The most productive prefixes are: a) Prefix antiautocounterhyper interminimonononoutprepseudoresemisubsuperteleunder36 basic meanings ‘against.Nouns I had ham. ‘meat’ ‘bird’ [U] [C] 2. chicken and fish for dinner. no morpheme marks the change of the verb (play) into the corresponding noun (play) as below: You'll have to play inside today. Derived nouns are formed by adding affixes (suffixes or prefixes). also known as “zero derivation”. We could hear the happy sounds of children at play. there is conversion.2. Noun formation New nouns can be formed by derivation and compounding.

of good music. Latin or Greek. I’d like to speak to you in ………. used for V-ing’ amount that fills N’ ‘person concerned with N’ ‘action of V-ing’ ’doctrine of N’ ‘person believing in N-ism’ ‘state of quality of being A’ ‘state of being N’ ‘skill as N’ examples assistance assistant freedom employee farmer computer handful mathematician reading Marxism Marxist blindness friendship craftsmanship 37 .Nouns Many of the derivational prefixes in English are of native Germanic origin..... suffixes can be added to words belonging to various classes. tele- SAQ 2. Here are some examples: Germanic: Latin: Greek: for-. under-. In the example below.. up-. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in parentheses.. In contrast with prefixes.. others are of foreign origin. A …... Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) (help) (sincere) (confide) (precede) (drama) A feeling of utter …………. mis-. I don’t doubt his ……….. washed over him.. bio-. transanti-... neo-. non-. out-. the meanings of suffixes is rather vague. super-. the suffix is added to a verb to form a noun: employ (verb) + er → employer (noun). over-.. -ent -dom -ee -er -ful -ician -ing -ism -ist -ness -ship meanings ‘action/state of V-ing’ ‘person who V-s’ ‘state of being A/N’ ‘person who has been V-ed’ ‘person who V-s’ ‘smth... The derivational process may also bring about changes in spelling and pronunciation: b) Suffix -ance -ant. sub-. She shows little ……………. 6) (appreciate) While prefixes are attached to nouns to produce other nouns. pre-.. psycho-. pro-. You should give your schoolwork …………. hyper-.1... withdis-. geo-. writes plays for the theater. macro-. television or radio.

without the benefit of an affix: (verb) drink (verb) cut (verb) move (adjective) poor (adjective) young → → → → → (noun) drink (noun) cut (noun) move (noun) the poor (noun) the young Do you want me to cut the cake? (verb) A cut of 1% in interest rates was announced yesterday.2. two words. i.2. Compound nouns Compounding is the most productive process by means of which the vocabulary of the English language expands.2. combine to form new words. (noun] 2.Nouns Derivational suffixes are more productive than derivational prefixes. Some major patterns are illustrated in the following table: pattern noun + noun noun+verb-er noun+verb-ing adjective+noun verb+noun verb-ing+noun verb+particle particle+verb example database bookseller. input SAQ 2. In compounding. screwdriver housekeeping blackbird cookbook printing-press go-between. sometimes more than two. Express the following ideas using a noun + noun structure. dropout income. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 38 a factory producing paper a story about war a person training teachers the door of the garage a headline in a newspaper soup made of chicken a paste for cleaning teeth the light to the moon the waves of the sea a case for books a paper factory _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ . c) a number of nouns are formed by means of conversion or ‘zero derivation’.e.

which denotes ‘more than one’.lands box .two papers one forest . Number The grammatical category of number in nouns correlates with the notion of countability. The number system has two terms: singular. countable entities one paper .farms land . which denotes ‘one’. with separate singular and plural forms. and plural. Think first! Before reading the next section. Write your answers in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues. ‘Mountainous forested watersheds are the most important freshwater-yielding areas in the world but also the source area for landslides. Loss of forest cover threatens freshwater supplies. The singular is not marked while the plural of most nouns is marked by simply adding the –s or –es: farm .boxes bus .3. Countable v.buses 39 . torrents and floods.Nouns 2.3. uncountable nouns The vast majority of English nouns are countable.two forests substance water 2. The FAO report on forests and water stresses the need to improve environment policy in support of the management of mountain forests and upland areas.’ Food and Agriculture Organization. identify the nouns in the following paragraph and state whether they denote countable entities or amounts of substance.1.

liter of beer. bricks. quart. water foot. flowers box of chocolate. collections of things (baggage. wood There's heaps of time before the plane leaves. water. equipment) or abstract nouns (knowledge. milk. cloth ounce. milk). e) nouns ending in -ful: the suffix –ful can be added to almost any noun denoting some kind of container to form a quantifying noun: basketful. Such partitive constructions consist of a quantifying noun indicating the part or the quantity and an ofphrase specifying the type of matter referred to. wire. teaspoonful: armful of straw. gram. salt. butter. rice. they cannot change their number. pencils 40 . c) standardized measure terms pint. tone of aluminum. They are usually names of materials (cotton. blankets pile of bills. accidents dozens. pound. pocketful. Quantifying nouns vary in number like ordinary countable nouns: He drank a cup / three cups of tea. potatoes. all waiting to be checked and loaded. books There were scores of boxes and crates. flowers handful of salt. kilo(gram) of cheese. They are invariable. mail b) nouns denoting shape heap of leaves. advice). news. gallon. matches. scores of animals. fish basket of eggs. soap. plateful. bellyful. progress. fruit. mouthful. tea sack of grain. millions of dollars. books cup of coffee.e. grass. furniture. yard. The major types of quantifying nouns are: a) nouns denoting the type of container barrel of brandy. inch. rocks. sand. bricks d) plural numerals tens. gas. i. Both countable and uncountable nouns can enter constructions denoting the part of a whole. luck. hundreds. meter of material. information.Nouns Uncountable nouns refer to entities which cannot be counted. flour ton.

She’s going to buy a new pair of shoes. 9) There was not a single ……… of grass left standing. head.A. Do you want another ……… of toast? We bought Mary a ……… of cutlery for a wedding present. . f) nouns denoting two items: pair of eyes. There is an interesting ……… of news in the paper. socks couple of days. Complete each sentence with one suitable word from the list. ants ducks horses rabbits bees fish locusts sheep cattle flies mares trout chickens geese oxen turkeys cows goat pigeons wolves dogs hen pigs Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: a colony / an army of a swarm of a herd of a brood a pack of _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ 41 . boys I've seen her a couple of times before.Nouns She scooped up handfuls of loose earth. flight. set. Use a dictionary to decide what you call a group of . slice. SAQ 2. Can I have another ……… of paper. Use each word once only: blade. please? Put another ……… of coal on the fire. hands. gloves. A. A ……… of stairs takes you to the top of the house. hours.B. sheet. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Let me give you a ……… of advice. SAQ 2.3. Helen has a lovely ……… of hair. B. item. piece.3. lump. .

and –fe ? ………………………………………………………………………. How do you form the plural of nouns ending in –y. dog.……………………………………………………………………… . church. ………………………………………………………………………. bush. . 42 . fox.. .Nouns a flush / team of a shoal of a flock of a herd / team of a plague of a stud of a team / yoke of a flight / flock of a colony / bury /nest of a hover of _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Think first! Write the plural form of cat. Write the plural form of the nouns day. tomato. potato ………………………………………………………………………. -f. Write your answers in your portfolio too and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and/or your colleagues. .……………………………………………………………………… . knife. wolf. How is the plural of these nouns formed? When do you add –es instead of –s to form the plural of a noun? ………………………………………………………………………. . poppy.

Nouns

2.3.2. Regular plural formation
The regular plural is formed by means of an –s suffix which is pronounced [s] or [z]. The plural ending is pronounced /s/ when the singular ends with a voiceless consonant / p, t, k, f, θ/: /p/ /t / /k/ /f / /θ / map – maps cat – cats book – books cliff—cliffs, roof—roofs, gulf--gulfs moth – moths

The plural ending is pronounced /z/ when the singular ends with a vowel or with a voiced consonant: /b/ /d/ /g/ rib – ribs bed – beds pig – pigs

The plural ending -es , pronounced [iz], is added when the noun ends in sibilants [s, ʃ ʧ z, ʒ ] , ,, : /s / /ʃ / /ʧ / /z / /ʒ / horse – horses bush – bushes church – churches prize – prizes mirage – mirages

Attention should be paid to certain spelling points concerning nouns ending in –y, -f / -fe and –o: Nouns ending in –y: If the singular form ends in a vowel +y, add –s for the plural: boy – boys day – days If the singular form ends in a consonant +y, the plural ends in -ies: poppy – poppies factory – factories

Nouns ending in –f or –fe, have the plural in -ves: calf – calves wolf – wolves half – halves wife – wives leaf – leaves shelf-- shelves

With some nouns, both regular plurals in –s and –ves plurals are possible: scarf – scarfs/ scarves hoof – hoofs / hooves 43

Nouns

Nouns ending in –o have the plural form –s if the noun ends in vowel +o: radio – radios, or in nouns of foreign origin: kilo – kilos, photo – photos However, if the singular noun ends in consonant +o, the plural is –es: hero – heroes, potato – potatoes, tomato – tomatoes Abbreviations take the regular –s plural ending: PCs, CDs, DVDs.

SAQ 2.4.A.
A. Write the plural form of the nouns ending in –y: 1) He withdrew the key from his pocket where he had been toying with it. 2) There is a growing tendency among employers to hire casual staff. 3) He waited for the students’ reply. 4) A grand jury called 10 witnesses yesterday. 5) The Secretary of State has repeated a warning. 6) Finding a doctor can be difficult in a foreign country. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit:

44

Nouns

SAQ 2.4.B.
Write the plural form of the nouns ending in -o: 1) It was just a potato and tomato salad but it was the best John had ever had. 2) If you listen carefully, you will hear the echo coming back from the mountain. 3) In times of trouble anybody can become a hero. 4) On the piano there was a framed photo taken ten years ago at their wedding ceremony. 5) Granny was watching too many soap operas on TV and she never listened to the radio. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit:

Think first!
Simple nouns get the –s/-es marker of the plural attached at the end of the word. What about compound nouns? Underline the correct plural form: A grown-up is requested to pay all the fees. Grown-ups / growns up are requested to pay all the fees. A gentleman farmer was invited to attend the meeting. Several gentleman farmers / gentlemen farmers were invited to attend the meeting. Write your answers in your portfolio too and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues.

45

Nouns

Compound nouns form the plural in different ways: a) plural in the first element: attorney general notary public passer-by mother-in-law grant-in-aid attorneys general notaries public passers-by mothers-in-law grants-in-aid

b) plural in both first and last element: gentleman farmer manservant woman doctor c) plural in the last element: grown-up stand-by forget-me-not sit-in grown-ups stand-bys forget-me-nots sit-ins gentlemen farmers menservants women doctors

With the nouns illustrated so far, the plural form is fully predictable from the singular, i.e. they have the regular plural.

2.3.3. Irregular plural formation
Irregular plurals are by definition unpredictable. For this simple reason the plurals of the nouns that follow such a pattern have to be learned as individual lexical units. In many cases where foreign words are involved, it is helpful to know about pluralization in the relevant languages, particularly Latin and Greek. Vowel change In a small number of nouns, there is a change of vowel sound and spelling (‘mutation plurals’) without an ending, which distinguishes the singular form from the plural one: goose – geese tooth – teeth foot – feet man – men woman – women
/’w u m ə / n /wimin /

mouse – mice louse – lice

46

a) Nouns naming animals. especially when viewed as prey: They shot two reindeer. birds and fishes can have zero plurals. though this is strictly forbidden. of length. They fall into three main categories: names of animals. and terribly proud of their country. they have the regular –s plural: Aren’t those pheasants beautiful? b) Nouns of quantity. honest. 47 . These sheep have just had lambs. c) Nationality names ending in –ese (Portuguese. These nouns take a verb either in the singular or in the plural: This sheep has just had a lamb. of value and of weight to have a zero plural when premodified by another quantitative word: three dozen / hundred people many thousand / million insects eight ton of coal ten head / yoke of oxen three pound / stone of potatoes However. quantifying nouns and nationality names. Sheep. The woodcock/ pheasant/ herring/ trout/ salmon/ fish are not very plentiful this year. Thousands of people had lived in the flooded area. When these animals are not seen as a pray. Chinese. Japanese) also have zero plurals: The Chinese are friendly. deer and cod though countable have the same form for the singular and the plural. There is a strong tendency for units of number. these nouns have normal plural forms: Dozens (and dozens) of people crowded into the room. Other animals. when not preceded by numerals.Nouns Zero plural Some nouns have the same form both in the singular and in the plural.

4.Nouns 2. -ix with plural –ices /isi:z/: index matrix indices matrices f) Nouns in –is /is/ with plural –es /i:z/: analysis axis basis crisis hypothesis parenthesis thesis analyses axes bases crises hypotheses parentheses theses g) Nouns in –on /ən/ with plural –a /ə/: criterion phenomenon criteria phenomena 48 .3. there are two plurals: an English regular form used in everyday language and the foreign plural preferred in technical discourse: a) Nouns in –us /əs/ with plural –i /ai/: bacillus stimulus bacilli stimuli b) Nouns in –us /əs/ with plural –a /ə/ (only in technical use): corpus genus corpora genera c) Nouns in –a /ə/ with plural –ae /i:/ or /ai/: regular plural formula vertebra foreign plural formulas vertebras formulae vertebrae d) Nouns in –um /ə with plural –a /ə/: m/ : curriculum curricula stratum strata e) Nouns in –ex. Foreign plurals Numerous nouns adopted from foreign languages. retain the foreign inflection for plural. and Greek. especially Latin. In some cases.

3. datum. with the French zero ending in speech or. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit: bacterium. dirt. The most familiar are: concrete mass nouns: silver.Nouns h) Some nouns from French sometimes retain a French plural in writing. more usually. Nouns resistant to number contrast Number essentially involves the distinction between ‘one’ and ‘more than one’. Some nouns have two plural forms: the original one. a regular English plural: regular plural bureau plateau foreign plural bureaus /-əuz / plateaus bureaux /-əu/ plateaux SAQ 2.5. but there are singular nouns that cannot ordinarily be plural (meat) and plural nouns that cannot ordinarily be singular (binoculars). the Danube. homework proper nouns: London. syllabus. fungus. index. acoustics names of diseases: mumps. measles names of games: billiards. synthesis -us → -i -a → -ae -um → -a -ex. Write them in the corresponding row.nuclei/ nucleuses 2. and a second one following the English rules of plural formation. such nouns will be grouped into: a) Singular nouns (also known as singularia tantum) are nouns that have no plural form.5. curriculum. formula. thesis. phenomenon. -ix → -ices -is → -es -on → -a nucleus. larva. uranium abstract mass nouns: music. Mary certain nouns ending in –s: news names of sciences ending in –ics: physics. Accordingly. criterion. The following nouns have retained in English their original Latin or Greek plural forms. dominoes 49 .

Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) My family always spend / spends their Easter holiday up in the North of Moldavia. 6) The police has / have no idea about the identity of the murderer. they are followed by a verb in the plural and plural pronouns: My family are at the seaside. 8) In this village it is the community that decide / decides 9) The staff is / are arguing fiercely with their opponents. government. staff. SAQ 2. pants. 5) The whole team has / have been working on the same project since May. These trousers don’t match your shirt. family. union.6.Nouns b) Plural nouns (also pluralia tantum) are nouns with only one form. 50 . tongs). and articles of dress (jeans. the plural. If collective nouns are considered as denoting a group of individuals doing personal things or involved in performing certain activities. 7) The police is / are looking for the murderer. jury. committee. Underline the correct form of the verb. the collective noun is followed by a verb in the singular: The average British family has 3-6 members. Collective nouns agree with the verb either in the singular or in the plural depending on their meaning. They do all they can for me. My firm are wonderful. pajamas. My firm was founded in the 19th century. forceps. 10) Cattle is / are feeding on the banks of the river. shorts. 3) The press was / were asked to take their seats 4) The team has / have been working in different places since May. My children are playing and my wife is watching them. They are all on the beach now. firm. When the emphasis is on the group as an impersonal unit. party. They refer to entities which comprise two parts: tools and instruments (scissors. 2) The press was / were asked to leave the hall. ministry. trousers): These scissors are too blunt. etc. scales. an abstract entity. The set includes binary nouns (also known as summation plurals). team. c) Collective nouns are common nouns that refer to groups of people: class.

” “The girl told / wrote a story. Experiencer) The neighbors gave direct help to the farmer. Consequently. (Dative.4.” “The parents consented. Case Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic function and the semantic role of a noun. dative or accusative case. However.1. 2. The genitive case The genitive is mainly used to express possession.” “the cheeses produced in England. The common case Nouns in English have the same form when they are used in the nominative.Nouns 2.4. (Nominative. (Accusative.” “somebody supports the family” “somebody released the boy” “a college for women” “a doctoral degree / a doctorate” b) c) d) e) 51 . (Nominative. these cases are collectively known as ‘the common case’: A farmer uses fertilizers to improve the crop. Agent) A farmer loves his land. Beneficiary ) Liz married a farmer.4. besides showing possession the genitive has other meanings related to some basic sentence structure: Genitives a) possessive genitive Mary’s passport the car’s wheel subjective genitive the parents’ consent genitive of origin the girl’s story England’s cheeses objective genitive the family’s support the boy’s release descriptive genitive a women’s college a doctor’s degree Analogues “Mary owns a passport. Patient) 2.2. English nouns have two cases: the unmarked common case and the marked genitive case. Morphologically. That is why it is sometimes called the ‘possessive’ case.” “The car has a wheel.

The following four animate noun classes take the ’s genitive. etc. the similarity in meaning and function has caused the latter to be called the ‘of genitive’. Thus.. can be very similar to geographical names and are often written with initial capital letter: 52 . it is reasonable to regard the genitive as having two forms: a) the ’s genitive (the inflected genitive) indicated in writing by the apostrophe ’s suffix or apostrophe only. after the modifying noun: modifying noun head modifying noun head the boy’s toys the students’ fault b) the of genitive (the periphrastic genitive) consisting of the modifying of-phrase after the head of the noun phrase: The The toys of the children head head modifying of-phrase modifying of-phrase fault of the students Choice of the ’s genitive The choice of the ’s-genitive depends on the gender of the noun in the genitive case.Nouns The genitive constructions We frequently find a choice between using a premodifying genitive and a postmodifying prepositional phrase with of. the ’s genitive is favored by the animate nouns. Generally speaking. but the of-genitive is also possible in most cases: personal names personal nouns collective nouns higher animals George Washington’s statue the boy’s new shirt the government’s decision the horse’s neck The ’s genitive is also used with certain kinds of inanimate nouns: a) geographical names: continents: countries: cities/towns: universities: Europe’s future Spain’s immigrants London’s water supply Harvard’s Linguistics department b) ‘locative nouns’ denote regions. that is persons and animals with personal gender characteristic. institutions.

Nouns the world’s economic organization the Church’s mission the country’s population c) temporal nouns: the decade’s events a day’s work this year’s sales a week’s holiday d) nouns of ‘special interest to human activity’ the body’s needs the car’s performance SAQ 2. 4. a doll’s house at ten miles’ distance the mind’s development. science’s future Mary’s car. yesterday’s ne ws. 10. When you have finished compare your answers with those at the end of the unit: 1. with words expressing dimension or value. 8. the horse’s tail Romania’s population the sun’s rays. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) bird’s nest. 9. with words followed by sake. with some phrases connected to nature. with words expressing time. 3. d. the herd’s head 20 euros’ worth. The first has been solved for you. cow’s milk. when the first noun is a person or a big animal. 7. when the first noun refers to a group of living creatures or an organization. 2. with nouns of special interest to human activity. the bank’s clients. Match the situations when the ’s genitive is used with the corresponding examples. 5. for order’s sake 53 .7. 6. when the first noun is the user or producer of something expressed by the second. with words expressing distance. with geographical names or places.

The project lasted for two years.Nouns Choice of the of genitive The of-genitive is chiefly used with nouns denoting lower animals and with inanimate nouns. The fence is colored. The town has a name. but many inanimate nouns occur with the ’s genitive. 4. 7. Mary has a niece. A walk takes five minutes. The cottage has two windows. 15. The accident has a cause. The following nouns. 2. 3. In certain cases both options are possible. 6. 5. This word has a meaning. 14.8. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. The cow gives milk. The pupil has made a mistake. Inanimate nouns regularly take of genitive. for example. 12. 13. The newspaper was published yesterday. 11. Dad has consented to our marriage. 10. The mountain is covered with forests. The village road has an end. 9. The mayor has approved the funding. Rewrite the following sentences using ’s or the ofgenitive as appropriate. 8. will equally well admit both genitive constructions: the car’s engine the book’s title the to wn’s population the engine of the car the title of the book the population of the town SAQ 2. Mary’s niece ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… 54 .

These were female prisoners convicted of violent crimes.sister son .hind In compound nouns either the first constituent or the second one is lexically marked for the masculine – feminine distinction: a) the first constituent male nurse (male) student boy-friend Jack ass he-goat cock sparrow tom cat (female) nurse (female) student girl-friend Jenny ass she-goat hen sparrow tabby cat He was in the police you know.vixen ram .ewe boar – saw cock . 55 . Gender Gender is a grammatical category characteristic of nouns that have male and female referents. 2. They ordered the drinks from a female bartender. the corresponding nouns tend to be in separate classes.hen stallion .nun Lexical means are also used to express gender with a number of animate nouns: bull . consequently.cow fox . which are therefore classified as neuter. and he was a male nurse.aunt nephew .niece king .1.Nouns 2. Lexical expression of gender Nouns denoting family relationships (a) and social position (b) are lexically marked for gender (pair of different words): father . Judy told a story about a British female reporter. It is therefore connected to distinctions of sex and.mother brother .daughter spinster – bachelor lord – lady uncle .mare stag . Such distinctions are not normally made in the case of nouns referring to ’things’.5.5.queen monk . namely masculine and feminine.

A State Department spokesman explained the situation. Morphological expression of gender A few English nouns have gender-specific derivational suffixes.5. their Chairperson. In most cases the feminine noun is derived from the masculine one: masculine actor governor mayor mister god hero feminine → actress → governess → mayoress → mistress → goddess → heroine [the arrow → shows the direction of derivation] There are a few exceptions to this rule: masculine widower bride <= <= feminine widow bridegroom 56 . Compounds ending in -person(s) and -people are sometimes used to express reference to both males and females and to avoid sex-bias associated with the use of the corresponding masculine forms: Mrs. Most of the personal nouns refer to positions and jobs. Jane was the spokesperson for the delegation. 2.Nouns b) the second constituent: chairman spokesman businessman congressman chairwoman spokeswoman businesswoman congresswoman A spokeswoman for the company announced the decision. Moon. We have a vacancy for an experienced salesperson.2. was interviewed yesterday.

When referring to nouns of dual gender and pronouns such as anybody or nobody. sheep. Ferguson 2) The hero of this novel is a man fighting injustice.9. 3) Gavin's stallion was in the barn. Some grammarians call them dual gender nouns: journalist. etc. pig. doctor. 9) They have a she-goat in the barn. pupil. A. 5) "God save the King!” 6) She is a very high-powered businesswoman. child.Nouns SAQ 2.3. etc. deer. 7) The hunters had killed a lioness. Nobody in his right mind punishes a quarter-century-old dereliction. however. fox. 1) bridegroom (M) – bride (F). The first has been done for you: 1) Parents of the bridegroom are Mr. Traditionally. but she failed. special problems arise. 4) The old woman had a nephew from Northern Italy. 8) The Congresswoman tried hard. there are several nouns in English where the distinction male/female is neutralized. 57 . the same noun naming both. fo wl. where the sex of the referent is unidentified or irrelevant.5. student. Dual gender nouns Within personal nouns. teacher. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 2. baby. Underline the nouns marked for gender and give the corresponding masculine or feminine pairs. horse. friend. masculine pronouns have been used: The individual can deal directly with his employer if he chooses so. and Mrs.

Nouns Nowadays. did they? Everyone thinks they are in the centre of the universe. Fill in the table below. him or her may also be used): Nobody came. and ‘more than one’. a large number of nouns do not follow this pattern and use other markers: vowel change. either in the singular or in the plural). the grammatical category of gender is closely connected with sex distinctions. Animate nouns are masculine or feminine. ‘zero plural’. feminine of dual gender noun (wherever possible). and common nouns. Inanimate nouns are neuter. a plural form pronoun is preferred as a way of purposely not specifying the sex of the person referred to (although the expressions he or she. SAQ 2. In English. dative and accusative cases) and the marked genitive case. further grouped into countable and uncountable. while uncountable have only one form. 58 . which name unique entities. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: masculine ram engineer stag chairman feminine niece spinster nanny-goat widow dual pig sheep engineer goat horse hen Summary In this unit we have discussed the morphological criteria used to identify a number of noun classes: proper nouns. The choice is between a premodifying ’s genitive and a postmodifying genitive (ofgenitive) and depends on gender distinctions.10. indicating the corresponding masculine. The English case system consists in the unmarked common case (corresponding to the nominative. Although most English common nouns mark the plural by means of an –s suffix. Once you have let anybody in they'd chop you up and put you in their next stew. Such distinctions correlate with different grammatical patterns (countable nouns have singular and plural number. The category of number indicates the opposition between ‘one’. etc. which name ordinary things. the ’s genitive being favored by animate nouns.

True or false? Choose as appropriate. 16 – 95. A generative perspective. The English Noun Phrase. 11-40. T/F 3) Both proper and common nouns start with a capital letter. Iasi. Horia (2004) Syntheses in English Morphology. T/F 4) Derived nouns are formed by means of affixes. Bucuresti. Polirom. (2004). Gãlãteanu. Developing competence in English.209. 195 . English Morphology: Word Formation. Hestia Publishing House. T/F 7) All nouns in the genitive case express possession. T/F 5) Nouns in the plural always end in –s. Georgiana. Ileana (1999). Editura Spanda. Editura didacticã si pedagogicã. Vulcãnescu R. T/F 2) Some concrete nouns are uncountable. pp 71 – 93. Hulban. Hortensia (1995). Send away assignment (SAA) 2 A. Parlog. (5 minutes: 10 points) 1) Nouns may be countable or uncountable. T/F 59 . T/F 10) All nouns get either prefixes or suffixes to express gender. pp. Intensive English Practice. T/F 6) All nouns have singular and plural forms. Gramatica limbii engleze. Bucuresti: Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti.Nouns Key terms case collective noun common noun compound noun countable uncountable foreign plurals gender genitive noun number proper noun quantifier zero plural Further reading Baciu. Timisoara. T/F 9) Nouns denoting persons are either masculine or feminine. Iasi. Coser C. Ecaterina Comisel (1982). T/F 8) The ‘s-genitive is preferred for inanimate nouns.

so Jim fell when he sat down. Underline the uncountable nouns in the following text and put them into one of the categories below: (10 minutes: 26 points) substances: coffee human qualities: feelings: activities: abstract ideas: subjects of study: sports events: games: illnesses: She left her coffee on the table. 3) They were satisfied with (work / that day). She was afraid the noise would wake Joe who was lying with mumps in the other room. If everything went wrong she could still continue her career in politics. Rewrite the sentences using the correct possessive form of the nouns given in parenthesis: (10 minutes: 7 points) 1) (roof / shed) was blown off by the storm last week. A feeling of pride overwhelmed her. She headed towards the pantry to pack some food and on the way she tripped over the checkers that Marty had left on the floor when he left for the athletics class.Nouns B. they didn’t show their feelings. 6) Jane was pleased with her (holiday/two weeks) in the mountains. untouched. 60 . She had to try at least. 5) She rubbed (floor/ kitchen) clean and then continued with the ( windows / sitting room). Courage had almost left her but her patience was over. 7) The farmer bought ( worth / Euro 20) of seeds. But she didn’t stop. 4) (legs / chair) were not very well glued. 2) Although (Ann / reply) amazed her relatives. Something had awoken her from her too long sleep and suddenly she knew that she had to leave that house and try her luck somewhere else.’ C. All she felt was a great feeling of relief now that she had made the decision. or she will find some work.

Harris identified several new species of plants. Read the following sentences. Nouns that refer to single items that have two linked parts: _____________________________________ 1) During the three years he had spent in the jungle. 6) The astronaut wrote two series of numbers on the board. fork on the left. Identify the nouns belonging to the different categories a. 61 .’ Rebecca Harding Davis. Have the bill ready when they ask for it but leave the table immediately: don’t worry. 5) The sheep were grazing in the field when he came to gather them.Nouns D. 4) Women are as efficient in managerial jobs as men. 3) She taught the children to take good care of their teeth. 7) Jamie put down the scissors in front of the mirror next to the pincers. The table has to be ready with a sparkling tablecloth and a matching napkin for each person. people will leave the money on the table with a tip. and the cutlery will be on it: knife on the right. Underline the nouns in the text below and write their plural form: (10 minutes: 34 points) ‘You have to be waiting for the guest if he has had a reservation. menu in the middle. Life in the Iron-Mills guests. Irregular nouns: child – children _____________________________________ b. Nouns with the same form for both singular and plural: _____________________________________ c. c and give some more examples for each category: (10 minutes: 13 points) a. There’s always a flower or a bunch in a vase in the middle of the table. there’ll be a spoon and a special knife for the fish but no teaspoon since people might prefer a piece of fruit instead of an ice cream or a cake.___________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ E. Smoking is forbidden. No ashtray in this room. For a special event. 2) Joe put the meat on the scales before cutting it up into small pieces. you bring in the trolley so they can choose. b. If you want to have some dessert.

confidence. 4. He likes only carp. chicken soup. times. bookcase. children. please. things. dramatist. But they don't lay eggs. sincerity. a teacher trainer. money. 1. 2. 7. moonlight. Some of the nouns may not be useful. SAQ 2. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. Total points for SAA 2: 93 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 2. the garage door. 6. Fill in the blank space with a suitable word.’ 3) ‘How much ___________ would you like with your rice?’ ‘Just a little. a paper factory. 6. news. 9) They have not caught many ____________ from the river. We will basically manage alone.’ 4) He does not eat much _____________. Choose from the list below. tooth paste. fish. 5. luggage.10 SAQ 2. only a suitcase and a handbag. help. 5. 4. furniture. 10. housework. experience. coffee. fish. chicken. a war story. F. I only do the washing up.’ 2) ‘How much ________ have you received from your friend?’ ‘I haven't heard from him lately. time. a newspaper headline.Nouns 8) Tom had left his glasses on the shelf and now he couldn’t see the trout because of the sun glistening in the water. the sea waves. precedence.1 – 2. 2. wine 1) ‘How many ________ do they have?’ Six. 7) I have got so many__________ to tell you. appreciation. 5) How much ______ have we got to finish the project? 6) I do not have to do much __________. (5 minutes: 10 points) cars. 62 . helplessness. 9. 1. 10) We do not need as much ____________ as last time. 3. 8) I won't take too much ___________ with me. 3.1. 8.2. chickens.

4. 5.6. g. 9. 5. 7.criteria SAQ 2. j. goats.3 SAQ 2. 9.4. 10. 4. a team / yoke of oxen. are. echoes. authorities. 8. A. 3. 4. keys. 5.Nouns SAQ 2. turkeys. wolves. i. 3. potatoes. A. 4. h. a flock of geese. a hover of trout. a plague of locusts.5. the cause of the accident. f. 1. blade. A. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2.1 – 2. pianos. 9. 2. a pack of dogs. c. head. set. tomatoes. replies. 7. have. 4. 6. slice. item. a flush / team of ducks. a drove / herd / stable / team of horses.8. sheet. 3. sheep. 2. 2. a. 10. 2. countries. 5. the town’s name/ the name of the town. are. 10. 4. 1. spend. the color of the fence. a colony / an army of ants. has. 8. we strongly advise you to revise sections 2. 5. 3. -ex > -ices] index – indices [-a > -ae] formula formulae /formulas larva – larvae – [-um > -a] datum – data curriculum curricula bacterium bacteria – – [-is > -es] thesis – theses synthesis – syntheses [-on > -a] phenomenon – phenomena criterion . a flight / flock of pigeons. was.1 . decides. were. 6. d. a drove / herd / sounder of pigs. 7. 1. 1. 3. the pupil’s 63 . a brood of hens. [-us > -i] nucleus – nuclei /nucleuses fungus –fungi / funguses syllabus – syllabi / syllabuses [-ix. 1. B. the mayor’s approval of the funding. juries. 3. 5. flight. piece. b. SAQ 2. flies. 6. two year project. 6. 2. a swarm of bees. 8. cows. yesterday’s newspaper. a herd of cattle. a stud of mares. have. 7. secretaries.7. are. 8. clap B. heroes. 1. a colony / bury / nest of rabbits. SAQ 2. radios.3. a shoal of fish. a brood / peep of chickens.6 not be comparable to those given above. e. SAQ 2. lump.2. 6.

5. 4. a five minutes’ walk / a walk of five minutes. 6. 64 . congressman. 14. the meaning of the word. hog nephew ram bachelor engineer billy-goat widower stag stallion chairman cock sow niece ewe spinster female engineer nanny goat widow hind mare chairwoman hen pig sheep engineer goat deer horse chairperson - NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. the cow’s milk.2.7 . niece. he-goat. 13. 3. 12. bride. 11. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. mare. 7. we strongly advise you to revise section 2. 15. 9. queen.4. the mountain’s forests / the forests of the mountain. businessman.10. 9. heroine. SAQ 2.8 not be comparable to those given above. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) SAQ 2.9 .2. the windows of the cottage.Nouns mistake. lion. 1. Dad’s consent to our marriage. 2. we strongly advise you to revise section 2. the end of the village road. 8. A.10 not be comparable to those given above.5. 10.9.

2.2. Reflexive pronouns 3.1.1.1.2.1. Semi-determiners 3.1.1. Determiners 3.2. The definite article 3. Relative pronouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA 4) Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 3. Demonstrative determiners 3.2.1.Determiners and pronouns UNIT 3 Determiners and pronouns Objectives 3.3. Possessive pronouns 3.1.2.2.1.1. Personal pronouns 3.6.1 – 3.8.1. Pronouns 3.1. Quantifiers 3. Interrogative pronouns 3. Demonstrative pronouns 3.1.2. Numerals 3.1.5.2. Indefinite pronouns 3.3.2.3.1.7. Possessive determiners 3. The zero article 3. The indefinite article 3. The article 3.1.2.2.4.5.13 66 66 67 68 70 72 76 76 77 81 85 87 87 89 90 91 92 955 966 977 98 99 99 99 102 65 .6. Reciprocal pronouns 3.4.

(= now. The second section will examine various types of pronouns and their function as substitutes for nouns in appropriate contexts. The combinations of nouns with certain determiners differ depending on the type of noun.generically called determiners. numerals and semi-determiners) and explain their role in noun phrases.e. apply your understanding to the analysis of linguistic material. thing(s) or event(s) that is/are close in time or space: How long have you been living in this country? He never comes to see me these days. Among determiners. explain their role in the noun phrase or in the clause and account for their correct use.1. i. demonstrative. the entity in the real world to which a noun refers. use numerals to express dates. possessives. Determiners Determiners are words that specify the reference of a noun. as compared with the past). possessive. define quantifiers and explain how they modify nouns. This (sg) and these (pl) are used to refer to a particular person(s). these. indefinite. etc Central determiners are mutually exclusive. reflexive. your. those c) possessive determiners: my. you will be able to:      recognize different types of determiners (articles. his.e. a. with three subgroups: a) articles: the. they cannot be used simultaneously in the same noun phrase. demonstratives. measurements. i. 66 . reciprocal. define and identify three types of articles: definite. calculations. indefinite and zero and account for their correct use. Objectives After studying this unit. three sub-groups may be identified according to their position: 1) Central determiners. interrogative). quantifiers. b) demonstrative determiners: this.  3. identify different types of pronouns (personal. that.Determiners and pronouns Aim In this unit we will continue our study of the noun phrase by focusing on those items that precede the head .

Thus. that (sg) and those (pl) are used for referring to a person/persons or thing(s) that is/are not near the speaker or as near to the speaker as another/others: Look at that man over there. I was living with my parents at that time. If h is pronounced as the consonant /h/ then use a./ a hotel /həu`tel/ an hour /`auə/ 67 . with two sub-groups: a) ordinal numerals first. ten and quantifying determiners much. former.1. The article The definite article (the) and the indefinite article (a) are the most common determiners. both.Determiners and pronouns In contrast. Sometimes the written form of a noun may be misleading.1. a barn). I think you'll find these shoes more comfortable than those. Compare the initial sounds (not the letters) of the following nouns: /a / /e / an umbrella an egg / ju / a university. As their name indicates. 3. last and next b) cardinal numerals six. an orchard). definite or generic. The indefinite article is used before singular countable nouns or before nouns that begin with consonants (a cow. other. 2) Predeterminers: all. latter. a union / ju / a Euro. These two colors don't look right together. You should pay attention to nouns spelt with initial h. half and multipliers like double. use an: a horse /`hɔ: s. once. a European / wu / a woman. many Post determiners follow central determiners: The disappearance of my former partner is extremely troubling. / wʌ/ a one-time hero The choice of the correct form of the indefinite article depends on pronunciation and not on spelling. If a vowel is the first sound in the word. 3) Post determiners. and an before nouns that begin with vowels (an apple. second and the semideterminers same. predeterminers precede central determiners: There is much truth in both these charges. I'm gradually losing all my friends. an is used when the word begins with an actual vowel sound and a when the word begins with a consonant or a consonant-like sound /ju/ or /wu/. The semantic function of articles is to present the referents of a noun as indefinite.

e. … unintentional mistake. 8. … useful book. 20. She accepted the ring / it . The cat / It was black. … one-way street.1. … one-man band. because they are new information in the discourse. 11. … Australian student.1. 14. 17. … historical speech. … engineer. … wall. Laura tutored my older brother Johnny three times a week. … hare. b) in numbers. a couple of miles a day. 15. … worm. a quarter. 9. … elephant. … owl. … Ukrainian skater. 19. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the indefinite article (a. … ear-ring. 68 . … heiress to the throne. 3. 3. 5. … unilateral agreement. 10. 18. they take the definite article (or are replaced by pronouns) because they are already known information. Compare our answers with those at the end of the unit: 1. 4. i. Subsequent references to the same entity generally take the form of definite nouns or personal pronouns: He bought a diamond ring. Some special uses of the indefinite article a) in ratios (= “per”). … Englishman. When used for the second time. an) in the following noun phrases. a hundred c) to indicate jobs: He is an engineer. 2. Joan is a teacher. … honorable person. … honest refusal. 13. Mary saw a cat. … European journey.1. the nouns diamond ring and cat take the indefinite article when used for the first time.1. In these examples. The indefinite article The indefinite article is used to introduce a new entity in the discourse. 6.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. 16. instead of one: a couple. the relationship between two groups of people or things that is represented by two numbers showing how much larger one group is than the other: 16p a kilo. five times a year. six miles an hour: I take a walk at lunchtime. 12. 7.

My neighbor is a photographer [C]. I’m having … few friends […] in to … coffee […] tomorrow evening. I think I’ve got … cold […] . Write your answers in the spaces provided below. 9. make. take. go. 5. you won’t get … meat […] at his house. SAQ 3. etc. If you go by … train […] you can have quite … comfortable journey […] .Determiners and pronouns d) in idiomatic expressions with verbs like have. But I’m not going for … holiday […]. to indicate an action: have a talk / a walk / a sleep have/take a bath / a look / a rest / an interest in go for a ride / a run / a s wim / a walk make a(n) attempt / a fuss / a mistake / a speech You can have a sleep tonight. 4. … travel agent would give you … information […] about … hotels […]. let’s ask him for … advice […] about color films. 3. Decide whether the nouns are countable [C] or uncountable [U] and use the correct form of the indefinite article. 8. We’d better go by … taxi […] – if we can get … taxi […] at such … hour […] as 2 a. I’m going on … business […] . 69 . Would you like to come? 10. 7. He’ll give you … nut cutlet […] . I hope you have … lovely time […] and … good weather […]. The first has been done for you: 1. It’s not … enormous salary […] but after all you are … completely unskilled man […] . If I'm lucky I will go for a ride on my stallion. I have … headache […] and … sore throat […] .2. We had … fish […] and … chips […] for … lunch […]. 6. He is … vegetarian […] . Compare our answers with those at the end of the unit.. 2. I’ll pay you … hundred […] … week […] .m.

not milk). the horse refers to the species as a whole. as in: The horse is a domestic animal.1. Notice that the ‘zero’ article does not mean that the article has been omitted as in this newspaper headline: FARMERS CLAIM FAIR TREATMENT Reference is generic when the noun phrase refers to a whole class rather than to an individual person or thing. with singular countable nouns.1.Determiners and pronouns 3. and plural countable nouns (He hasn’t read books for years) are used without an article. The absence of the article in these cases indicates that the noun is generic. They’re in the hospital.2. (to a certain church) We are at university. while a horse refers to any member of the species. (we are students) (a certain meeting place) 70 . However. Some special uses of the zero article: Institutions In some fixed expressions indicating place. we use the zero article (the focus is on the type of institution rather than on a specific entity): at / to / from school at / to / from university (college) at / in / from / to church in / into / out / to / from hospital Notice the difference in meaning when the same noun is used with the zero article or with the definite article: They’re in hospital. (in a certain hospital to visit a patient) (they are sick) They go to church on Sunday. (to attend service) They go to the nearest church. that is why the absent article is called the ‘zero’ article. The zero article There are situations when uncountable nouns (I drink coffee. we may use either the definite or the indefinite article to express generic reference. Though close in meaning (both are generic). A horse is a domestic animal. Let’s meet at the university.

means of transport and communication Prepositional phrases opening with the preposition by take a noun with the zero article: (go) (travel) (contact) (send) by bus / car / coach / plane / taxi / train by air / horse / trail / car by radio / telephone by mail / post / satellite link a) times of the day The zero article is used especially with some prepositional phrases indicating time: at noon. days. the use of the definite article shows a certain period of the day: She sat and waited for the dawn. Jack grabbed the lunch from the table and went out.Determiners and pronouns Meals The zero article refers to the general term ‘meal’. Will the children be left alone at night? However. He was elected chairman of the committee. they will freeze. When winter comes in 12 weeks. months and seasons We use the ‘zero’ article with the names of the days of the week and months of the year: In April came a rapid thaw that produced high waters. at dawn. In contrast. He woke up in the middle of the night. but when somebody gains a unique position. a unique position Jobs and positions normally require an indefinite article. the zero article is used: Queen Elizabeth had lunch with President Bush. at night: The bell in the church tower rang before and after Mass and at noon. the definite article is used if a special meal is singled out: They had lunch at a cafe overlooking the intersection. 71 .

common one: (immediate speech situation. and notices. where communication needs strip language of all but the most information-bearing forms: CEREAL STOCKS CONTINUE DECLINE NEW BAR ON EMIGRANTS KEY WITNESS DISAPPEARS 3. (unique reference) Go to the door. particularly with prepositions: arm in arm day after day day by day from cover to cover from top to toe hand in hand shoulder to shoulder week by week He traveled from country to country. newspaper headlines. They walked hand in hand along the path. but the rod must be flexible and the line very strong.1.Determiners and pronouns double expressions The zero article is sometimes found in combinations of identical or semantically related nouns.1. It may be obvious from the situation which particular object(s) is/are being referred to.3. The use of the definite article may also reflect the situational context. Week by week he grew a little stronger. Reference may be to a unique event or to an ordinary. 72 . The definite article The definite article specifies the referent of the noun phrase. i. book titles. The entity to which the noun phrase refers is assumed to be known to the speaker. Situational reference depends on the immediate speech situation or on the larger shared context. a line and some hooks are all you need. h) block language The zero article is normal with noun phrases in block language. labels. This knowledge could be based on the preceding text: A rod.e. The hooks can't be too small. the special type of language used in public notices. both interlocut ors are in a room with one door) How do I get to the bus station? (larger shared cont ext) The sun sets in the west.

e) with parts of the body and the human make-up (mind. main. I was struck with the expression of his face. wrong. we use the possessive adjective: He broke his leg during a football match. we prefer a prepositional phrase + the: He wouldn't look Thomas in the face. b) with first. right. The majority of children will benefit by orthodontic treatment.): The second / next / best chapter was ready. whole (of). intelligence. The dog bit him in the leg. Yet in energy terms the UK is the best placed country in the whole of Europe. heart.Determiners and pronouns Some special uses of the definite article: a) to show that the person or thing referred to is famous or important. etc. last. A fragment of the tooth came off and hit me straight in the eye. Do you believe in the soul? Usually if we talk about a person’s body. c) with "superlative" nouns: majority. The pupils had used the same dictionary. will) referred to generally: Heavy drinking will damage the liver. d) with interdependent comparatives: The sooner we get a way from here. superlative and superlativelike adjectives (only. The definite article is stressed and pronounced / ði: /: Tom Cruise? Not the Tom Cruise? At that time London was the place to be. intellect. or about their possessions. Notice however that when we talk about the parts of the body as affected by some external action. next. etc. the family darling. ordinal numbers. minimum. She kissed the baby on the forehead. You look quite a sight in your red dress. Poor George! The only boy. the better. soul. same. 73 .

the Panama Canal. B. shoulder. c. hands with the host.. if necessary. the Danube Delta. shoulder. the British Isles. chin thoughtfully. the Danube. the Gobi. finger to help anyone. the French. the Pacific. 8) You’ll strain …………………… eyes if you read in bad light. face. the Black Sea. The Globe.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. the Arabian Gulf. f. knees. fill in the gaps either with an article or with a possessive determiner. he wouldn’t lift ………………. Match the statements to each set of examples: a. the Carpathians. the Far East. 7) He is a selfish man.b.. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. thumb with a hammer when I was hanging the picture. scrubbing the kitchen floor. b. 11) I saw him raise ………………. 4) He stroked ……………………. d. 6) We shook ………………………. From the knowledge you have acquired about the use of determiners with nouns denoting parts of the human body. The Sunday Times.. the Sun. 12) There was a shot and a policeman came out with ………… blood running down ………………….3.. 3) I have a pain in ……………….. the rich. right hand and take an oath. 5) The lioness bit him in …………………………. 74 . the Moon. leg.a. The Eminescu Library. A. The Odeon. the poor. 10) I hit …………………. e. The University of Phoenix. The following illustrate the use of the definite article. the Transylvanian Plateau. SAQ 3. 9) She was soon on ……………. The British Museum. the English. The Observer Magazine.3. arm. 1) The bullet struck him in ………. 2) Someone threw an egg which struck the speaker on ………. The National Gallery.

plateaus. seas. ……. the Romanian language. school. gulfs. some newspapers and magazines. island groups. the most beautiful. When …………. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. deserts. please. cinemas and theaters. 2. 6. hospitals. 9. public buildings: hotels. nouns formed from adjectives. young people want ………. ………. eldest boy is at ………… college. 4. 1. boats. Smith. the fifth.. things that are unique. 4. Insert the definite article if necessary. the English language. …………. oceans. 2. The first has been done for you: a-4. 3.. names of languages when determined by the word language. There’ll always be a conflict between ……… old and …. bays. 7. SAQ 3.Determiners and pronouns g.. museums and art galleries. same. things to stay ………. captain ordered ……… crew to help ……….… young. names of peoples. mountain groups. ordinal numbers. h. ‘I’d like to see Mr.’ ‘Do you mean ………… Mr.c. passengers into ……. the biggest. 3. Titanic was crossing ………… Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. 8. Smith?’ 75 . the second. youngest boy has just started going to ………. change but ……… old people want ………. 5. place names: geographical regions. the best. Write your answers in the space provided below. Smith who works in ……… box office or ………… other Mr. universities. the superlative of adjectives. libraries. C.3. ……. rivers.. i.

3. b) something is done or produced by a particular person and for himself or herself: She makes all her own clothes. her. its. they specify the number of the referent (singular or plural) and whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the speaker: near distant singular this book that book plural these books those books The singular demonstrative determiners combine with both countable and uncountable nouns. However.2. our). (“you can spend it as you wish”) Our children are gro wn up and have children of their own. He has to cook his own meals.1. Is the car your own? Your day off is your own. their). in addition to marking an entity as known. The set of possessive determiners corresponds to a set of personal pronouns (see 3. Which is their house? that The possessive adjective o wn is frequently used to emphasize a) something belongs to or is connected with a person: It was her own idea. Demonstrative determiners The demonstrative determiners this/that and these/those are closely related in meaning with the definite article.1.1. 76 .): Mrs. the plural demonstrative determiners combine with countable plural nouns only: This soup [U] is really delicious – how do you make it? Have you heard from that Scottish boy [C] you used to go out with? These areas [C] are frequently affected by floods. Black celebrates her birthday [C] on Tuesday. Possessive determiners Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker (my. We encourage students to develop their own ideas.Determiners and pronouns 3. the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text or given in the speech situation (his.2. However. 3.

it combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. little). 77 . Each stresses the separate individual. few. of moderate or small quantity (some. Both is used with reference to two entities with plural countable nouns: The US Government pays for all its overseas workers [C]. They combine with both definite and indefinite noun phrases. many). In the latter case. now vs. Quantifiers Some determiners specify nouns in terms of quantity and are therefore called quantifiers. then) The effects of their decision will be seen by this autumn. Frequently they also express whether something is near or distant in time (cf. each. no). (referring to a photo the speaker is looking at) Give me that photo. He’s been entirely different all spring [U]. every). many girls Quantifiers can be broadly divided into four main groups: inclusive quantifiers (all. every indicates the individual as a member of the group: Eve and I were each allotted $5000. they are generally followed by of: all money some money much money all of the money some of the money much of the money all girls.1. will you? The use of demonstrative determiners is not just a matter of physical location in relation to the speaker.Determiners and pronouns The reference of noun phrases with demonstrative determiners may be established on the basis of the situation or on the preceding or following text. It was a merry Christmas for me that year. arbitrary or negative quantifiers (any. both. He gave every patient the same medicine. Each and every refer to the individual members of a group and only combine with singular nouns. over there.4. Situational reference is very common in conversation. The demonstrative determiner reflects the speaker’s perception of distance: Who's this? A teacher in our school. a) Inclusive All refers to the whole of a group or a mass. some girls. He suffered multiple fractures of both ankles. 3. quantifiers of large quantity (much.

a great/ good deal of (with uncountable nouns). [U] A good deal of English [U] was spoken on the beach. [C. He has got plenty of money [U] / plenty of friends. pl] Other determiners specifying quantity are a great/ good many (with plural countable nouns). and a little. The business makes less money every year. [U] He has bought some aspirins. plenty of. They are typically used in questions and in negative contexts: Did you have much trouble [U] with the customs? Have you read many English books [C. as in: This is some man! Determiners specifying small quantity are a few.Determiners and pronouns Each can be used with reference to two entities. little with uncountable nouns. The last three combine with both uncountable and plural countable nouns. [C] A lot of my friends [C] are thinking about emigrating. pl. few and several with plural countable nouns. It expresses admiration or approval and it is strongly stressed. [C] Some /sʌ m/ also has other uses that need to be distinguished from the one above. every with reference to three or more: She had a child holding on to each hand. too. 78 . b) Large quantity Many and much specify large quantity. Lots of patience [U] is needed. Gymnastics requires a great deal of character. [U] He did not translate many books from English into Italian. and much with uncountable nouns. Lots of citizens [C] think it’s time for an election. a lot of and lots of. c) Moderate or small quantity Some /sə m/ usually specifies a moderate or indefinite quantity or number and is used with both uncountable and plural countable nouns: I need some medicine. They are characteristic of casual speech: A good many pages [C] of the book are an account of his life. many with plural countable nouns.] ? His performances have not attracted much attention.

Determiners and pronouns A few and a little have a positive meaning similar to some: Would you like a little (some) champagne [U]? There are a few (some) eggs [C] in the fridge. 79 . It combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. I can’t get there – there’s no bus. the former generally. but it refers to two entities and combines only with singular countable nouns: Come on Tuesday or Wednesday. There's a door at either end of the corridor. They suggest that the quantity is less than expected: He has little time to spend on writing letters. It is often used in questions and negative clauses: The decision does not discriminate against any applicant [C]. (almost no time) This theory is very difficult. few people can understand it. Neither parent realized what was happening. Either has a similar meaning. Either day is OK. (not many) d) Arbitrary / negative member or amount Any refers to an arbitrary member of the group or amount of a mass. the latter with reference to two entities: No action has been taken on such major problems. You never give me any help [U]. Few and little have a negative meaning. No and neither have negative reference.

. Hardly …………. of the new cars have acceptable prices. There isn’t __________ food left. 10) __________ of my neighbors ignore their grass. Fill in the spaces in the sentences below with some. 2. few. of John’s friends is coming to the party? 7.b. They never have ………… fun. 6.’ 2) How __________ material are we expected to read in one week? 3) I’ve had __________ headaches already because of stress. fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers: much. If there’s ……………. 8) I didn't use __________ fertilizer last spring. many. and that has made a difference. There aren’t ………… buses but you can take the train. Do you know if ………. 7) Our yard looks awful this summer. is there? – ‘There’s __________ bread and soup. 9) I'm afraid it's rained __________ times this summer. put it in the fridge. Can I offer you ………… wine? 5. little. I’ve got ………… interesting ideas if you are willing to hear them.4. 80 . a little. and the grass is turning brown and dying. 5) I know __________ instances where that proves true.a. a fe w. no. and they have better lawns this year. 6) I've paid __________ attention to how __________ rain we've had. a lot of. A. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. 4) They say __________ knowledge is a bad thing. In the following sentences. any.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3.4. 4. B. milk left. 3. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 1) SAQ 3. There are too __________ weeds.

they are formed by adding suffixes to other numbers. on the other hand.Determiners and pronouns 3. as can be seen below: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30 cardinal numeral naught. functioning most typically as a modifier of a noun that expresses quantity or sequence.5 Numerals A numeral is a word.e. with few exceptions. (cardinal numeral) Ordinals. they are used to express how many objects are referred to: There were some papers to be filled in. (quantifying det erminer) There were four papers to be filled in.1. There are two main types of numerals: cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. They designate position in a sequence and are more like semideterminers: The first paper to be filled in was on the table. specify nouns in terms of order. zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four thirty ordinal numeral first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth thirtieth 81 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 30th . English numerals are systematic in the sense that. i. Cardinals are clearly related to quantifying determiners but differ from these in providing a numerical rather than a more general specification.

nine hundred and second 1.001 1.000.000. In American English and can be dropped: 310 Br.E. two hundred and fifty fourth two thousandth one hundred thousandth six hundred and fiftyeight thousand.000 658.000. etc. prices. Am. bank accounts.000 100. dates.000th 1.000th 100.902nd fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth one hundredth one hundred and first one thousandth one thousand and first one thousand. games scores.000.254 2.000.E. measures.000.001st 1. calculations. decimals.254th 2. as shown below: a.000th one millionth Other numerals 1.000th 658. nine hundred and two one million 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 1. two hundred and fiftyfour two thousand one hundred thousand six hundred and fifty-eight thousand.902 1.000 forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred one hundred and one one thousand one thousand and one one thousand.000 British one thousand million one billion American one billion one trillion In British English they always use and before the tens in a number. telephone numbers..000.000 1. three hundred and ten three hundred ten Numerals are used in: fractions.Determiners and pronouns 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 1.000 1. Fractions Simple fractions are expressed by using ‘ordinal numbers’: 1/8 1 5/9 over: 82 ‘an eighth (or one eighth)’ ‘one and five ninths’ More complex fractions are often expressed by using the word 310/ 605 ‘three hundred and ten over six hundred and five’ .

e. Some coins have special names: one-cent coins are called pennies. 1996 ‘the second of March nineteen ninety-six’ March 2. Am.50 ‘three pounds seventy-five (pence)’ or ‘three pounds and seventy-five pence’ (more formal) There are 100 cents in a dollar.5 cm 30 cm 83 . The full stop (called ‘point’) not a comma is used before fractions: 0. 1996 ‘March the second nineteen ninety-six’ d.E. but non-metric measures are still widely used. Britain has adopted some metric measurement units. Sums of money are named as follows: 1p ‘one penny’ or ‘one p’ /pi:/ (informal) 5p ‘five pence’ or ‘five p’ (informal) £3. Sums of money are named very much as in British English.E. tencent coins are dimes. Prices in British and American money There are 100 pence in a pound. Measures In recent years. Expressing the date There is a difference between British English and American English when expressing the date: Br. twenty-five cent coins are quarters. Decimals Decimal fractions are said with each figure separate. Approximate values are given below: 1 inch (in) 1 foot (ft) = = 12 inches = 2.375 ‘five point three seven five’ c. America uses mainly non-metric units. five-cent coins are nickels. write and read write and read 2 March 1996 or 2nd March.Determiners and pronouns Fractions expressing time or distance are read: ¾ hour‘three quarters of an hour’ 7/10 mile ‘seven tenths of a mile’ b.5 ‘nought point five or point five’ (US: ‘zero point five)’ 5.

6 km 0.2 pounds (2.000 feet.4 hectares 259 ha 4. British people usually measure their weight in stones and pounds. ‘thirty meters by forty-eight meters’ A room is 12 x 12 ft. (informal) Seven take away four is / leaves three. Americans just use pounds: Br.Determiners and pronouns 1 yard (yd) 1 mile (m) 1 acre 1 square mile = = = = 3 feet = 1.55 litres 3. Three multiplied by two equals / is six.78 litres Height is measured in feet. f. (informal) (formal) Four from seven is / leaves three. ‘twelve by twelve feet’ The total area is twelve feet square. Three times two is six.E.4 kg 2. (informal) Seven minus four equals / is three.2 lb) 568 cl 473 cl 8 pints (8 pt) 4. about 500 yards on the right. (informal) (informal) (formal) (informal) (formal) 3x2 =6 9:3 =3 84 . Three(s) into nine goes three times.840 square yards = 640 acres = = = = = 1 ounce (1 oz) 1 pound (1 lb) 1 stone (British only) 1 kg 1 British pint 1 US pint 1 gallon 1 British gallon 1 US gallon = = = = = 28 g 16 ounces = 455 g 14 pounds = 6. Calculations 2x2 =4 7-4 =3 Two and two is / are four.760 yards = 90 cm 1. Areas are given in square feet or square meters: A garden is 30m x 48m. Two plus two equals / is four. Nine divided by three equals / is three. I weigh eight stone six. (formal) Three twos are six. while distance can be measured in feet or yards: We are now flying at an altitude of 28. The car park is straight on.

9th. 061-721034.089. 6/8. Both the British and the Americans use love for tennis game scores.45.427. The figure 0 In British English the figure 0 is called nought.11. Decimals: 0. 4. 30. Euro 45. In measurements (for instance of temperature) 0 is called zero: zero degrees Fahrenheit=17. When referring to team games it becomes nil: Manchester three. 5. Most semi-determiners co-occur either only with the definite article or with the indefinite article but not with both. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. Same may be added after the definite article to emphasize that the reference is exactly to the person or thing mentioned before: We were almost the same age.251.2003. 3. 23. 21st. there are some determiner-like words which are often described as adjectives.6.1978.1.341. 941. SAQ 3.09. 33.8 degrees below zero Centigrade In American English the figure 0 is called zero. 2. Phone numbers: 071-520722. In telephone numbers or accounts it is read like the letter O [əu]: My account number is 41206090. 2/3. 952nd. They differ from adjectives however in that they have no descriptive meaning. She was fifteen and I was twelve. ½. 3. Cardinal numbers: 1995. 179. 85 . 243rd. These teams carried out the same operations in different areas.90. 8th. My account number is four one two o six o nine o. 0. Read the following numbers. 5. 6. certain and such. Dates: 2. There are four major parings of semi-determiners: same and other. Prices: £10. former and latter. last and next. $ 35.1711. 2. Semi-determiners In addition to the determiners proper. Liverpool nil. Ordinal numbers: 5th. 231.Determiners and pronouns g. Fractions: 3/5.5. 4. 7.01.

Other uses of semi-determiners Apart from certain. I hate these earphones but the other ones hurt my ears. next Thursday): In the next chapter they will give attention to the style of writing. They regularly combine with the definite article or some other definite determiner. possessive determiners. 86 . after a numeral or it may occur as the only determiner in indefinite noun phrases (in which case it takes the form another): The / His / T wo other cases were also under investigation. Such refers to a person/thing or people/things of a particular kind: Certain areas are better than others in keeping bees. The town has a cinema and a theater. or they can combine like adjectives with one(s) to occupy a nominal position: Others admitted he was absolutely correct. Shirley was a former student of North Texas State University. Helen had to adjust to another approach to collaboration. Former and latter may be added after the definite article to discriminate between the first and the second of two things or people already mentioned: He presented two solutions. The committee analyzed its defeat of last autumn.Determiners and pronouns Other is the opposite of same and specifies that the reference is to an entity different from the one mentioned previously. It may be added after the definite article. Certain singles out a specific person/thing or some specific persons/things. The latter seems much better. They do our country great harm by such actions. The former was built in 1950. The views of one leader may not be the same as the views of another one. Certain and such differ from the other semi-determiners in being used only in indefinite noun phrases. except when used in time expressions (such as last week. The pigment in shells was the same one as that in mussels. Former and latter can also be used with reference to time. Last and next are like ordinal numerals in specifying items in terms of order. meaning “that used to have a particular position or status in the past”: He is married to the former Audrey Knecht. the semi-determiners can also be used as pronouns.

relative pronouns (who. which. certain as adjective (Are you certain?). she. she/her. we/us) the addressee (you). which. what). while it normally has nonpersonal reference.2. reflexive pronouns (herself. possessive pronouns and reflexive pronouns. The English pronominal system consists of: a) b) c) d) e) f) personal pronouns (I. etc.). we and us generally have personal reference. Pronouns A pronoun is a word which replaces a noun. him. theirs.2.). and it typically refers to specific individuals. as shown in the table below: personal pronoun nominative accusative possessive determiner pronoun reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them my your his her its our your their mine yours his hers ours yours theirs I. that. 3. he. Further.). these / those). interrogative pronouns ( who. ourselves. etc).Determiners and pronouns In addition to occurring as determiners and pronouns. 3. etc. me. demonstrative pronouns (this / that.’ 87 . and referents which are neither speaker nor addressee (he/him. The plural pronouns they /them are commonly used with both personal and non-personal reference: ‘Where’s Jane?’ ‘She is at the hairdresser’s.1. There are corresponding series of personal pronouns. possessive pronouns (mine. they/them). some of these forms have other uses: last and next as adverbs (When did you last see him?). Personal pronouns A personal pronoun distinguishes between the participants in communication. there is a distinction between nominative and accusative case for most personal pronouns. him. etc. they. possessive determiners. such as the speaker (I/me. you.

‘I can’t believe this! All my friends get paid more than ……. both nominative and accusative forms can be used: It is I. particularly with pets and domestic animals. is the grammatically correct form but …….’ 4. It s me.Determiners and pronouns John killed the spider by hitting it.’ 88 .6. our neighbor and ……. ‘My father. SAQ 3.’ 5. were the only ones to agree to the proposal. is the usage. Pronouns used either in the accusative or in the nominative After forms of the verb be. so in informal speech me is used instead. that ……. it seems to ……. ‘When knocking at a friend’s door.. You think it's him? (formal) (informal) After the adjectives in the comparative degree both nominative and accusative forms occur: She's as bad as me and you ! Joe was older than he and suffering from high blood pressure. my friend Thomas and ……. 'Who’s there?‘ ‘It’s only ……. do. ?’ ‘Well. Fill the gaps with the appropriate form of the first person personal pronoun. He/him or she/her may also be used with reference to animals when we think of them as having personal qualities and feelings characteristic of human beings. The personal pronoun I is considered overcorrect. ‘ 3. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. do you say ‘It’s …… ?’ or ‘It’s ……. It was he. ‘My secretary and …….’ 2. went fishing on Sunday morning. Then he’s as real as I. dad.

even when you whisper.2.. A relative of mine had a son called Rick. She is a friend of hers. My hair is very fine. We have a new tennis racket and Mary has a new one too. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. Possessive pronouns The possessive pronouns express possession. Yours is much thicker. is better quality than ……. 2. 4. (one of her friends) This construction makes it possible for a noun to be specified with both a determiner and a possessive marker. 5. but ……. 3. Several people waved theirs at Bobbie and smiled as she went by. They are typically used when the head noun is recoverable from the preceding text: Alice took my hands in hers.2. who was learning brick-laying at a local college..Determiners and pronouns 3. Please. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the possessive pronoun.. but I never mistake ……. My brother and I have bicycles but …….7. lend me a pencil. Everyone seemed to have a newspaper in their hands that morning. is older than ……. Mary and John drink coffee but ……. which is parallel to the double-genitive: She is a friend of my wife’s .. I can’t recognize his voice. He took a fancy to a cousin of mine. is stronger than ……. SAQ 3. The possessive pronoun also occurs in a post-modifying ofphrase. ‘What happened?’ ‘ Your guess is as good as mine’. I forgot ……. 89 .

90 . i. it is typically an object: So I consoled myself by reading books. they are identical in reference with the subject of the same clause.3.2. they may also be placed later in the clause and have greater positional mobility. Compare: The mayor himself spoke to me. The reflexive pronoun however carries a different syntactic role. Do pull yourself together! The reflexive pronoun oneself refers to people in general: It is only through study that one really begins to know oneself. The mayor spoke to me himself. John forced himself to smile.e. the reflexive pronouns are stressed and are usually placed immediately after (or nearby) the noun phrase they relate to. Reflexive pronouns The reflexive pronouns form a set corresponding to the personal and possessive forms and show co-reference with the subject. In this use. he ran tiptoe down the steps. They are called emphatic reflexive pronouns and their function is to underline the identity of the referent: I’ll go and see the President himself if I have to. Having reached the place himself. She cried herself to sleep.Determiners and pronouns 3. With subject noun phrases. Reflexive pronouns also show emphasis.

Both reciprocal pronouns can have possessive forms: We avoided one another's / each other’s eyes. The lights switch themselves on as soon as it gets dark. R 2.4. There are plenty of cakes. Help yourselves! … 8. … 3. They differ from the reflexive pronouns in that the reference is to more than one entity and in that there is a mutual relationship between the entities. How much time do you give yourself to get ready? … 5. We visited the gardens but the museum itself was closed. You don’t seem to feel too well. However.2.8. The first has been done for you: 1. Determiners and pronouns Are the pronouns in the following sentences reflexive or emphatic (R/E)? Write your answers in the spaces below. people were getting one another out and trying to save one another.SAQ 3. You yourself have to take this decision. 91 . You’d better check yourself. in modern English. … 4. Despite the chaos. most people make no difference between these two pronouns. One another is used when we refer to more than two people or when making very general statements: Jane and Mary talk to each other a lot. … 6. Don’t tell me to check the lights! Check them yourself. Reciprocal pronouns The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another are coreferent with a preceding noun phrase within the same clause. … 7. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. One can easily lose oneself in the woods. … 3. Her friends were talking to one another. Each other is used when only two people are involved. usually in subject position: They visit each other a lot.

... Can anybody believe stories like that? 92 . each derived from a quantifier: quantifier every some any no everybody somebody anybody nobody indefinite pronouns everyone everything someone something anyone anything no one nothing Reference is always to an indefinite person or thing: ‘I feel fine! Where is everybody?’ Mr...... There are four main sets of indefinite pronouns..……………………. Fill in the gaps with the correct reciprocal pronoun. to love ….. And nobody knew anything about aquafarming.. 10) Jerry holds his arms out and they both hug ….... 9) Europeans learn a little more about …..……………………....……………………. someone and something are usually used in affirmative sentences.……………… ..... 2) Jane and Maggie used to help …..9.. and pat .......5. 5) Dear Lord... Now no one said anything at all. 6) The two smile at ..... ….. Somebody.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3...... anything are distributed in interrogative sentences: Something or someone frightened him off..……………………. absolute freedom. help each of us to care for . with their Maths lessons... Indefinite pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to entities which the speaker cannot specify more exactly.... Kennedy always knew everything about everybody. while anybody........2....……………………... and to help…. Write your answers in the spaces below.……………………...…………………find accommodation. anyone.. 3. on the back..... 4) Ann and I allow ….. and then move to hold one hand together. 7) Everyone knew …. by name in the village... Compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) Hearing the noise the three boys became silent and looked at …...……………………... 3) The government and rebel delegations had begun to build up some trust in …..... 8) A committee of parents try to help …..

. I'll be there all day if anyone can help me. reluctant. prevent. interrogative or conditional clauses. hardly. Conversely. nor. He was reluctant to meet anyone that day. anything also occur in negative sentences generated by: a) negating the verb with the negative particle not: I opened the door but I couldn’t see anybody. They worked hard for anything they got.' (informal) Everyone held his or her breath. no. they'd rather take the money. Neither team think they're going to gain anything from that. difficult. etc. thanks. scarcely. ‘no matter what’: I enjoy cooking. I'd cook anything. words with a negative meaning: fail. hard. neither. compounds of some can be used in negative. . d) in conditional clauses If they have to take anything.e. anybody. anyone and anything can be used with stress in clauses with the meaning ‘no matter who’. Anybody can see that it's wrong. comparison with too: The problem was too difficult for anyone to solve. everyone and everything are used with singular verbs. Nor is there anyone willing to do that. When possessives and pronouns refer back to everybody or everyone they can be either singular (more formal) or plural (less formal): 'How's everything with you?' 'Fine. anyone. This was too risky for anybody to do it. (formal) I know everybody's got their own arguments but .Determiners and pronouns Anybody. i. c) the ‘implied’ negatives. Hardly anyone noticed her as she passed by. tell him or her I’m sick in bed. For all this. b) the negatives never. (informal) 93 . when the basic meaning is assertive: Why don't you just hire somebody else? (‘I strongly suggest you hire somebody else’) (‘the speaker expects that someone will call’) If somebody calls. Everybody.: Never lend money or anything else to a stranger.

......10...’s life...........................Determiners and pronouns The pronoun one has two pronominal uses.................. in addition to being used as a numeral: a) substitute one One is often used to replace or to avoid repeating a noun..... A singular noun is replaced by one..... a plural noun by ones: May I have a melon – a nice ripe one? The new designs are much better than the old ones.................... he denied ... 6) Is there .... to touch that clock........................... 94 ...........? 10) When we confronted him.............. b) generic one One may also refer to people in general (‘including you and me’)..................... Fill in the blanks with the corresponding indefinite pronouns......... who can advise me about tax? 7) Nothing is more precious than ............ to go with...... Peter? 4) I haven’t got .. 9) Should we call a doctor or .......... breathe a word about this! 2) . stand up! 3) Have you had ............................ to play with..... 5) They’ve got ................ 8) I forbid ........................ It is a rather formal and impersonal pronoun in this use: What can one do to protect oneself from these awful people? There is also a possessive one’s and a reflexive pronoun oneself: One’s family can be a real nuisance at times..... One should always give oneself plenty of time to pack. to eat.......... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) ....... SAQ 3.......

the demonstrative pronouns specify whether the referent is near (this. this is John (= when you are introducing them). What’s this I hear about you getting married? The singular forms of the demonstrative pronoun may refer to a preceding clause or sentence. Demonstrative pronouns In addition to marking something as known. Which do you want? This one or that one? The demonstrative pronouns have a number of special uses: The demonstrative pronouns are used: a) to introduce somebody or show something to somebody: Hello. Do it like this (= in the way I am showing you). c) with periods of time related to the present: this week / month / year: I saw her this morning (today in the morning). Kate. this is Maria Diaz (= on the telephone). or more vaguely to the preceding text: He doesn't want her to speak to him angrily. those) in relation to the addressee: Make up your mind. b) to refer to somebody or something that have already been mentioned: There was a court case resulting from this incident. 95 . This breaks his heart. He never comes to see me these days (now.Determiners and pronouns 3. Do you want me to come this Monday (Monday of this week) or next Tuesday?* Do it this minute (now).2. as compared with the past).6. these) or distant (that. This is the captain speaking.

‘I’m Jane. Use this/these for something that is here. which and what) are used in questions. __ These / Those shoes are expensive but I like them very much.’ ‘Whom have you asked about your assignment?’ ‘My teacher.’ ‘What is he drinking?’ ‘He is drinking lemon juice. Who.2. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Write your answers in the spaces provided below.11. whom. whom and whose have only personal reference: ‘Who are you?’. The first as been done for you: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) This / That is the best price you could ever get.’ Which and what may have both personal and non-personal reference: I can see five girls in this photo. unfinished or unwanted. __ Did you hear this / that heavy rain last night? __ This / That outcome was not in the least wanted. __ 7) Who said this / that ? __ 8) This / That guy was such a jerk. They replace the item questioned. __ Just listen. whose. Interrogative pronouns The interrogative pronouns (who. while what has indefinite reference and implies ‘what kind of’. Which is your sister? There are several umbrellas here.’ Which is selective and usually implies that the speaker has a limited number of choices in mind. P I didn’t like all these / those lies he told me. close or happening now and that/those for something that is over there. 96 .’ ‘Whose are these books?’ ‘These books are Mary’s . Choose the correct form of the demonstrative pronouns (P) or demonstrative determiners (D) in accordance with the statement. __ 9) What was this / that news you wanted to tell me? __ 3. Which is yours? ‘What is she?’ ‘She is a Chemistry teacher. this / that will make you laugh.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. distant.7.

does he think he is to speak to us like that? 10) …………. • Which is used to refer to anything except persons. whose name I have forgotten.12. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate interrogative pronouns. The people (that/whom) I spoke to were very helpful.2. has become of your old friend Martin? 8) …………. 97 . The relative pronoun whose refers to people but can also refer to things or animals: The salesman. of your brothers works on this farm? 7) …………. John. The watch (that/which) you gave me keeps perfect time. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) …………. whoever. whichever) used to join the dependent clauses they introduce to their own antecedent. is the man over there? 5) …………. did you meet at the party? 6) …………. house is that? 9) …………. which.sort of film do you like best? 3) …………. who is my brother. The choice of the relative pronoun is also conditioned by the antecedent: • Who is used when the antecedent is a person. way shall we go? By the stream or through the woods? 2) ………….8. i.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. sold Sam a car. will you have to drink? 4) …………. will be joining the school in September. • That is used to refer to either persons or things.e. umbrella did you take?’ ‘I took Jane’s umbrella?’ 3. Relative pronouns Relative pronouns are a group of noun substitutes ( who. the nouns to which the relative pronouns refer. whosoever.

its. that) are used to join the dependent clauses they introduce to their own antecedent.. specify whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the speaker... telephone numbers....... I can get some stamps? 7) They blamed me for everything .... Personal pronouns replace nouns and distinguish between the speaker (I... bank accounts. the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text (his..... these.. ours) express ownership. that.. Summary In this unit we have examined two types of noun phrase constituents: determiners (articles.. went wrong.. the nouns to which the relative pronouns refer. 5) Is there a shop nearby ...... some..... you gave the money...... The semantic function of articles (definite. ......... games scores.. decimals.. Quantifiers (fe w.... someone... 3) You'll have to speak to the person to ... all. Pronouns typically replace noun phrases.. indefinite.. Possessive pronouns (mine. measures. the addressee (you) and a third referent (he.. they) in a communicative act.. say she should not have got the job. anything) refer to entities which the speaker/writer cannot specify more exactly... we met was the happiest of my life..... possessives.. those) specify whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the addressee. we)... brother was sacked for stealing.. Indefinite pronouns (everybody. much) specify nouns in terms of quantity.. her. yourself) always co-occur with nouns or pronouns in subject position. Reciprocal pronouns (each other.... 2) The day . 10) The man ... 8) Nothing ... dates. Relative pronouns (who.. prices. The demonstrative determiners this/that and these/those in addition to marking an entity as known...13. definite or generic... our). 98 .. she said surprised me....... sells stamps? 6) Is there a store around here in ...........Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3.. career was ruined by health problems was on TV last night.........e. 4) He's the guy ..... 9) There are those ... answered the phone was rather rude.... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) The boxer . calculations... she.. yours.. it. Insert in each blank the necessary relative pronoun. one another) express a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject.. their)...... nothing.. zero) is to present the referents of a noun as indefinite. which.. Cardinal numerals provide a numerical specification and are used in: fractions... Reflexive pronouns (myself.. Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker (my..... demonstratives and quantifiers) and the nominal substitutes (pronouns)..... Demonstrative pronouns (this... i.

Syntheses in English Morphology. definite and indefi nite. England: Longman. Sidney and Randolph Quirk (1991). T/F 5) Determiners usually follow adjectives. Greenbaum. T/F 9) Demonstratives have the same form if they appear as pronouns or as determiners. T/F 3) a/an can be used with all count nouns. Ileana (2004). T/F 6) Determiners can stand in random order. T/F 8) Post-determiners stand after their noun.Determiners and pronouns Key terms           article cardinal numeral definite article demonstrative pronoun determiner generic reference indefinite article indefinite pronoun interrogative pronoun ordinal numeral            personal pronoun possessive pronoun postdeterminer predeterminer pronoun quantifiers quantifying nouns reciprocal pronouns reference reflexive pronoun zero article Further reading Baciu. 178 . Hulban. Iasi. T/F 10) Possessives have the same form if they appear as pronouns and determiners. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language.230. Bucureşti: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. T/F We don’t use the definite article with geographical names. T/F 11) Who. Functional Categories in English. Mark and Diane Hall (2003) Advanced Learner’s Grammar. Editura Spanda. 70 -128. T/F 7) The count/noncountable distinction affects the choice of determiners. T/F 12) Which always refers to things and or events. Foley.160. Harlow. whom and whose normally refer to people. T/F 99 . Horia (2004). London: Longman. 264-280. 95 . True or false? 1) 2) (5 minutes: 12 x2=24 points) English has two articles. 89 – 137. T/F 4) The shows definite meaning with all common nouns. Send-away assignment (SAA 4) A.

. tea... highest mountain in ... Everest is ... (18)___ husky red-and-green macaw is (19)___ largest.. and green as more than (8)___ thousand parrots squabble over choice perches to grab (9)___ beakful of clay. Bleating relentlessly as their parents regurgitate clay in their mouths. (25)___ juveniles are perfectly capable of biting at their own clay..? I don’t like to see . books.. Would you please make .. world... bread with their meals. (10)___ vital but mysterious part of their diet. actress.. C.. Flying on wings of royal blue with a hint of green. I’d like . On … train I met .... Put in a.. (6)___ steep bank has become (7)___ pulsing. .. more nutritious fruit: . .. Some are shepherding offspring.. fishmonger at . the or some where necessary: (10 minutes: 27 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Please put . an. He leaves . table. actor is quite well known. house without ...30... All three shake tails as long as their bodies and boast probably (22)___ most powerful bites in (23)___ bird world.. Most people eat .Determiners and pronouns B.. (20)___ slightly slimmer scarlet macaw unfurls darker blue wings with brilliant yellow shoulders. January 1994. actor and ... but … actress has only just begun her career. pampering them as they have since (26)___ day they were hatched. Excerpt from National Geographic Magazine. at 8. but this midmorning crush belongs to giants of (14)___ parrot world.. coffee after ... one of (5)___ world's most dazzling wildlife gatherings is nearing its riotous peak. I never have . home at 8 o’clock and arrives at . corner of … street always has … fresh fish. blue.. but they're spoiled.... Hidden by (16)___ blind a hundred feet away. Macaws seem to mate for life. fruit on . weighting more than three pounds and measuring more than three feet from head to tail. (21)___ blue-and-yellow macaw flasher feathers more turquoise and gold.. oranges? 10) I went to … London yesterday. so most arrive at (24)___ lick in pairs.. apples or . dinner.. 9) Which is . 100 . Fill in the necessary articles: (15 minutes: 26 points) When (1)___ morning sun clears (2)___ Amazon tree line in southeastern Peru and strikes (3)___ gray-pink clay bank in (4)___ upper Tambopata.. I watch (17)___ congregation. (15)___ macaws. More than (11)___ dozen parrot species will visit (12)___ clay lick throughout (13)___ day... 130-foot-high palette of red. ..

them) 14) Nothing will ever come between _____________ old friends now that we’ve learned how to laugh. (he or she. (its. Complete each sentence with the most suitable word or phrase. they) 12) Living on a small dairy farm. Total points for SAA 3: 102 101 . their) 8) Everybody I know around here walks around with _____________ headphones on all the time. (his or her. one can’t avoid _____________ basic responsibilities. their) 5) Their father has taught his wife and _____________ most of the accounting and management details. (his. their) 4) The rain did not bother the students because most of them have _____________ own umbrellas. she) 7) Our school board plans _____________ programs for big merged schools where the teachers and principals were responsible for the curriculum. their) 9) People ought to realize that _____________ might need to hear the sounds of traffic sometimes. a) one b) anyone c) ones d) all E. …………? a) doesn’t one b) isn’t it c) don’t you d) isn’t one 4) Please invite ………… you like to the reception. From the set of options given in parentheses. them) 6) When she is worried about something. (they. (his or her. (10 minutes: 15 points) 1) Some of these opinions about child-raising are completely new to John and _____________ . (he. us) Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. they) 10) A farmer in this area doesn’t have to worry about the rain spoiling _____________ hay. their) 11) In any boy’s life. the little ginger cat prefers Tom and _____________ to you. (she.Determiners and pronouns D. (they. (her. I) 3) Neither of the men wants to take _____________ tools all the way to the blacksmith. their) 13) The police say that Mazie and _____________ can find the tools that were scattered by the vandals. (we. us) 15) People say that _____________ young people are better educated than our parents are. (me. a time comes when _____________ must make a difficult choice. (his or her. (we. but I think that you and _____________ should probably leave separately. (his or her. her) 2) Don’t be offended. (5 minutes: 5x 2=10 points) 1) What would ………… like to do this morning? a) someone b) one c) yourself d) you 2) Did you enjoy …………? a) at the party b)the party c) yourself at the party d) with yourself at the party 3) One prefers to shop at Harrods. select the correct word or word group to write in the blank.

four. _. a. his. two thousand and eighty-nine. SAQ 3. SAQ 3. 7) many. _. f – 9. 18. an. 4) nought/zero point three four one. g – 7. the. 1) a. the ninth. _.7.Determiners and pronouns Answers to SAQs 3. I. his.1. a. ours. my. 1. 4. a. a. 2) much. 6) little/much. the. an. 3. one/half. the. 6.1. 1) one thousand nine hundred and five. 2. 3. a. a. us. a. SAQ 3. 7. 12. 3. 9. 6. the twenty-fourth. _.1 – 3. a. me. yours. your. h – 8. his. a. a. thirty-five dollars. 5) a. 5. 4) a. 3. 2. SAQ 3. nine hundred and forty-one. _. an. the. 2) _. 5) a few.1. _. any.4. the. 3) three/fifths. 7) a.. _. B. 2) the fifth. 5) The second of January/January the second nineteen seventy-eight. 19. his. 10. b – 1. 13. o-six-one-seventwo-one-o-three-four. a. _. _. 2. thirty-three. I. the. any. 4. _.3.6. a. 8. the. 3. 2. _. oseven-one-five-two-o-seven-two-two/double two. nought/zero point two five one. the thirtieth of September/September the thirtieth seventeen eleven. 1. C. 16. two/thirds. 7. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. SAQ 3. the. 10) few. _. any. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3 not be comparable to those given above. The. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. 4. e – 2. 102 1. mine. The. a. i – 3. his. B. 1) much/(a) little. the. 3) a. 11. . the two hundred and forty-third. 9) few. 4. 7. an. an. 5.2.a. 11. 15. one hundred and seventy-nine. 4. the. some. a. an. a. 9) a. 4. 1. her. _. A. I. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3. a.13. the. _. five point four two seven. 4) little. the. some. a. 1. ten pounds (and) forty-five. d – 6. hers. 3) many/few. 5. 8. mine. me. 8) much. _. an. 14.1. 5. forty-five Euros and ninety cents. any. A. the. I. the twenty-third of November/November the twenty-third two thousand and three. hers. 17.4. an. 3. the. me. 12. 20. any. SAQ 3. me. 9. an. a.4. _ 10) a.5. 2. 10. a. two hundred and thirty-one. the nine hundred and fifty-second. 5. 6. 2. the. a. SAQ 3. 6) a. the eighth. me 1. a.4 not be comparable to those given above. my. an. c – 5. the. six/eighths. an. 8) _. a .

R.8. 4. anything. 4) anyone. 6) one. 7.whose. E. 8) anyone. who/that. 5. who/that. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3. 9) one another.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. 9. SAQ 3. 3.9. SAQ 3. 9) someone. that. what. which. 5. E. 1) Nobody. 3. 6. what. 6) one another/one another/ one another. 2. 1. 4. which. 8) one another. 9. 7. 7. whose. 8.13. 6. which/that. what. 7. 8. 10. 2. who. whose. that/which. 1. this (P). 3. whom.3. 2. that (P).6 . 10) each other/each other. These (D). 4) each other.2. 4. which. That (D). E. 5. 3.12. one another. 5) nothing. 5. R. that (D). those (D). 10) whose. that (D). 2. R. who. R. that (D). 9.11. 2. SAQ 3. R. 1. 3.12 not be comparable to those given above. 103 . one another. 8. each other. 7) one another. 4. 1. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. (that). 6. whom. this (P). 2) everybody. SAQ 3. 5) one another. 1. SAQ 3. 8.10. 10) everything. 6.

Prepositional phrasal verbs 4.2.Verbs UNIT 4 Verbs Objectives 4.2. Single-word lexical verbs 4. Formation of verbs 4.2.4.1.1.1.3.1. Multi-word lexical verbs 4.1.3. Idioms 4.3 105 105 105 107 109 110 110 111 112 113 113 114 115 115 115 117 104 .1.2. The auxiliary verbs: be. have.2. Irregular lexical verbs 4. Regular lexical verbs 4.4.2. Prepositional verbs 4.1 .2.3. Phrasal verbs 4. do Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 4.

speak. i. move. prepositional phrasal verbs and verbal idioms. come. stay.  The inflectional morpheme -ing is used for present participles. together with perception (see. English verbs can be classified as activity verbs (denoting voluntary or involuntary actions (buy. talk). start. communication verbs (ask. Regular lexical verbs Regular lexical verbs have only four morphological variants. distinguish between phrasal. taste) and receipt of communication (read. you will be able to:    classify lexical verbs according to semantic criteria. continue finish. include. 105 . mental verbs including both cognitive meanings (think. stop) which characterize the stage of progress of an activity. involving three inflections added to a base or stem:  The base form is used for infinitives. Objectives After studying this unit. seem. You will use new concepts in the analysis of verbs and develop practical skills by solving exercises. do. verbs of causation (allow. the meaning the speakers tend to think of first. we discuss the morphological properties of lexical verbs and show how these verbs are classified according to semantic and syntactic criteria.Verbs Aim In this unit. 4. force. explain. help. which indicate that some person or inanimate entity brings about a new state of affairs.1. permit). let. know) and emotional meanings expressing various attitudes or desires (love. 4. hear). propositional. say. appear. want). Single-word lexical verbs Based on their core meaning.1. recognize verbal derivational affixes.  The inflectional morpheme -(e)s is used to indicate the third person singular present tense. verbs of existence or relationship (reporting a state that exists between entities (be.  The inflectional morpheme -ed is used for simple past tense and for past participles.e. You will also learn about the auxiliary verbs: be. involve) and aspectual verbs (begin. contain. live. keep.1. open). have. cause.

z. called.pushes. the final e is dropped before -ing or -ed: reduce -. f/. there is no doubling of the final consonant in most cases: order fail 106 ordering failing ordered failed . t. pushes. moved.played In addition to the spelling changes described above.watches If the base form of the verb ends in a consonant + e. -(e)s is spelt –es when the final letter of the verb is: s. stopped. push . the endings -(e)s. reduces. laughs. and -ed take the form -ies and -ied respectively: copy – copies – copied try – tries . This occurs only when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter: drop admit dropping admitting dropped admitted When the preceding vowel is unstressed or spelled with two letters. moves. ʧ/: .reducing -.tried Verbs ending in vowel + y take the usual ending –s or –ed: play – plays -. except /s. falls. attended. k. /iz/ after /s. /d/ after vowels and voiced consonants: tried. recognizes. ʃ passes.Verbs inflection -(e)s -ing -ed look looks looking looked play plays playing played lexical verbs try tries trying tried push pushes pushing pushed reduce reduces reducing reduced -(e)s is pronounced: /s/ after voiceless consonants /p. d/: waited. walks. -ed is pronounced: /t/ after voiceless consonants: watched. sleeps. watch . /z/ after vowels and voiced consonants: tries. or ch: pass . added. a single consonant letter at the end of the base is doubled before adding -ing or -ed. sh. wanted. z.reduced If the verb ends in a consonant + y. t/: hits. watches. looked.passes. /id/ after /t.

16) refer. -m or -l can be doubled sometimes when preceded by an unstressed vowel (British English only): focus program cancel focussing programming cancelling focussed programmed cancelled SAQ 4. 14) panic. 8) hurry. 2) cancel.Verbs One exception is that final -s.agreeing – agreed. 4) dye. Write in the space provided below. 7) hope. 12) offer. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… 4. Irregular verbs can be grouped as below: Class 1 verbs take a voiceless -t /t/ suffix to mark both past tense and past participle: base form build send past tense built sent past participle built sent 107 . 1) argue. 18) stop. 5) enjoy. 15) prefer.2. Irregular lexical verbs About 200 English verbs have irregular morphological variants.1. 19) travel. 11) occur. 6) hop. Irregular verbs differ from regular verbs in the formation of past tense and past participle forms. 10) live. 9) lie. Add -ing and -ed to the verbs below: agree -. 17) regret.1. 13) picnic. 3) die.

with a change in the base vowel: base form feel tell leave bring past tense felt told left brought past participle felt told left brought Class 3 verbs take the regular -ed suffix for past tense and the (e)n suffix for past participle: base form show flow past tense showed flowed past participle shown flown Class 4 verbs have no suffix for past tense forms but the suffix (e)n for the past participles.Verbs Class 2 verbs take a -t or -d suffix to mark both past tense and past participle. with a change in the vowel for one or both: base from break choose eat fall forget give past tense broke chose ate fell forgot gave past participle broken chosen eaten fallen forgotten given Class 5 verbs have past tense and past participle forms marked only by a change in the base vowel: base form come begin find get hang past tense came began found got hung past participle come begun found got hung Class 6 verbs have past tense forms and past participle forms identical to the base form: base form cut hit let shut past tense cut hit let shut past participle cut hit let shut 108 .

6) They should encourage peasant families to grow alternative crops.3. A prefix is added to a verb root. 4) He keeps his savings under his mattress because he distrusts the banks. Underline the derived verbs and comment on their structure. 109 . 2) They couldn’t raise funds needed to industrialize all the underdeveloped countries.Verbs 4. Prefixes do not generally change the word class. 8) Such a defeat is inevitably disheartening the football team. 1) They should have their children immunized against diphtheria. 10) Parliament finally legalized trade unions. 7) The conflict demoralized the whole community.2. a noun root or to an adjective root to form a verb with a different meaning: prefix dismisoverundedisendisenverb / noun root like (verb) lead cook do frost (noun) place courage content large derived verb dislike mislead overcook undo defrost displace encourage discontent enlarge Derivational suffixes are attached to a noun or an adjective base to form a verb with a similar meaning: suffix -ate -ify -ize -ify -ize -en noun / adjective root assassin class computer simple actual black derived verb assassinate classify computerize simplify actualize blacken SAQ 4. 9) His wife persuaded him to institutionalize his aged mother.1. Formation of verbs Derivational affixes can be added to existing words to form new verbs in English. 5) His decision displeased the community. 3) Pig manure has long been used to enrich soils.

give in ‘agree’. put off ‘delay’. Direct Object intransitive transitive Phrasal verbs can be replaced by single transitive verbs: bring up ‘raise’.1. The first has been done for you: 1) Adj.2. The judge delayed the verdict. Multi-word lexical verbs There are four major kinds of multi-word combinations that comprise relatively idiomatic units and function with a single meaning which is different from the meanings of the individual words: type of multiword combination phrasal verb prepositional verb prepositional phrasal verb idiom words that combine verb + particle verb + preposition verb + particle + preposition verb + NP + preposition verb + NP + PP verb + verb examples pick up look at get away with take a loot at take into account make do 4. leave out ‘omit’. immune + -ize. put off). She brought up four children. do with. They can be intransitive or transitive: Rick’s car broke down. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. which tend to be restricted the formal use of the language: The judge put off the verdict.Verbs Write your answers in the space provided below. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are combinations of a lexical verb with an adverbial particle (give up.2. 4. 110 .

prepositional verb phrasal verb c) the preposition can be fronted in wh-questions. of sth.. The verb and the preposition function as a single semantic unit. This is the normal word-order when the object is a pronoun.. for sth. whereas the adverbial particle of phrasal verbs can generally precede or follow the Object: I rely on Mary.2. with a meaning that cannot be derived completely from the individual meanings of the two parts: My decision depends on your answer. thank sb. This wine reminds me of France. the second the Object of the preposition (accuse sb. rely on sb. of sth. etc. of / about sth... He acquainted her with the facts. A few prepositional verbs are followed by two noun phrases.. congratulate sb.. Prepositional verbs Prepositional verbs are combinations of a lexical verb and a preposition followed by an object noun phrase (deal with sth. advise sb. blame sb. acquaint sb.): They blamed John for his failure. 4. He has provided for his family well. it is placed at the end: She brought them up.Verbs With transitive phrasal verbs the direct object can appear between the verb and the particle. provide for sb..). remind sb. the first being the Object of the verb.. *I rely Mary on. for sth. prepositional verb He put his hat on.. on /for sth. He put on his hat.. He put it on. Let us carry out this updated program. When the direct object is a longer noun phrase. insist on sth. etc. while the particle cannot: Whom do you rely on? What did he put on? On whom do you rely? *On what did he put? 111 . with sth...2. phrasal verb b) a pronoun follows a preposition but precedes the adverbial particle of a phrasal verbs: I rely on her. Prepositional verbs are different from phrasal verbs in that: a) a preposition cannot be usually placed after the Object. depend on sth.

…… 6) The committee will soon get round to your suggestion. 11) Have we got enough food in? . *He put quickly on his hat.. …… 8) Mind where you are walking. .. …… 10) Don’t let me keep you from going out..3. I think you'll end up with her.. a preposition and a noun phrase functioning as an object after the preposition: We've come up with a solution. b. Decide whether the following verbs are: a. …b. …… 3) The quarrel resulted in his mother leaving the house... …… 4) Why couldn't you put up with margarine for one day? …… 5) They blew the bridge up.) consist of a lexical verb combined with a particle.. put up with sth.3. prepositional phrasal verbs. are you? …… 112 . phrasal.…. 12) You didn't do that.…. 4.Verbs d) an adverb can be placed between the verb and the following preposition but not between a verb and its particle: I rely entirely on her. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.. Write your answers in the space provided below. ‘avoid’.. The first has been done for you: 1) He turned the lights off when he went to bed. . c. etc. etc. come down to sth. end up with sth. prepositional. Modern medicines have not done away with disease... 2) Raymond.2. the ground is muddy. Prepositional phrasal verbs Prepositional phrasal verbs (get out of sth.…. ‘anticipate’. SAQ 4. …… 9) No one can figure out how the fire started. catch up with sb. go out for sth. I cannot put up with your behavior any longer. prepositional object Prepositional phrasal verbs function as a semantic unit and can sometimes be replaced by a single transitive verb with similar meaning: get out with sth. look forward to sth. 7) She set about making a new dress. did you? You're not having me on. turn a way from sb.. get away with sth. look for ward to sth.

The auxiliary verb be has two distinct functions: to mark the progressive aspect and the passive voice: They are planting trees now. the creeps . have. have. are you? This idiomatic category may include combinations of two verbs such as make do (with) .: It's important to bear in mind two things. have second thoughts . make. such as do.‘be good at gardening’. keep/lose one’s head .4. Some of them can be replaced by simple lexical verbs: bear in mind .‘change one’s opinion’. 4. etc.3. to leave/do sth. the cold shoulder . do.2. or idioms. do There are three auxiliary verbs in English: be. A few verbs.‘allow sb. The auxiliary verb have is used with the past participle to form perfect tenses: I have finished my work. I don't want to make an issue of it. That house gives me the creeps.‘reject’. give sb. have green fingers . This isn't very important.‘manage’.’: We must make do with the evidence we have.‘act calmly’.‘remember’. Let him be on the tractor beside me. and take combine with noun phrases and prepositional phrases to form set verbal expressions: You must take time into account. future perfect 113 . progressive aspect passive voice The two auxiliary uses of be can occur in the same clause: Trees are being planted in the deserted areas now.Verbs 4.‘frighten’. give sb. Trees are planted in the deserted areas. You're not having second thoughts. Idioms Fixed combinations of verb plus prepositional phrase occasionally form idiomatic units. let sb go/be . have. present perfect They had left before you got there? past perfect They shall have finished their work by next week. The auxiliary verbs: be.

neutral statement emphatic statement neutral statement emphatic statement Do is inverted with the subject in negative emphatic statements when a negative adverb is moved to the front: Not only does she speak Spanish. She works harder than he does.' 'So do I. New verbs can be 114 . About 200 verbs have irregular morphological variants for past tense and past participle forms. He does look tired. doesn’t he? Did he live in a cottage? Where did he live? He lived in a cottage.' 'I love peaches. states. The auxiliary do is also used to make questions (yes/no questions. It is followed by the negative particle not which can be contracted to n’t: They did not go to Paris. Don’t forget to buy milk. but she's also good with computers. She did at least write to say thank you.' 'Neither do I. She does not work hard. I don't like fish. that is do can replace a whole verb phrase to avoid repetition: He plays better than he did a year ago. He wrote to say thank you.' As an emphatic verb. do is used to emphasize what you are saying: He looks tired. -ing and -ed. Lexical verbs can express a wide range of meanings. involving three suffixes added to a base: (e)s. 'I don't want to go back. tag questions) when the lexical verb is in the present simple or past simple: Does she write a letter every month? What does he write? He writes a letter every month. wh-questions. didn’t he? present past The verb do also serves as a pro-verb.Verbs The auxiliary verb do is used to form negative sentences. Summary The verb expresses our perception of events. and acts of consciousness. 'Who won?' 'I did. Most English verbs are regular and have only four morphological variants.

do) indicate tense and aspect. The main classes of such combinations are known as: phrasal verbs. Oxford University Press. 24 – 69. Multi-word combinations include a verb. Lazlo (2000). Longman Group.P. Mackin & I. 6) There are three main types of multi-word verb: phrasal. Randolph. prepositional and prepositional-phrasal. 3) Linking verbs are also called copulative verbs. True or False? 10 minutes: 8x2=16 points) 1) Auxiliary verbs form tenses and express modality. a particle. Cowie. Bucureşti: Teora. Sidney Greenbaum. Key terms  auxiliary  idiom  lexical verb  multi-word lexical verb  prepositional phrasal verb  phrasal verb  prepositional verb  regular / irregular Further reading Budai. Geoffrey Leech. Oxford. Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 A. 2) We invert the subject and the auxiliary to form several kinds of questions. A Grammar of Contemporary English. UK Limited. 5) Most multi-word verbs are idiomatic: their meaning cannot always be clear from the meaning of their parts.R. Quirk. R. Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. a preposition and a noun phrase. have. volume 2. Courtney Rosemary (1983). Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms. 8) Prepositional verbs are never transitive. 7) Phrasal verbs may be transitive or intransitive. prepositional verbs. Teorie şi exerciţii. Jan Svartvik (1976). Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English.McCaig (1993). Gramatica engleză. 9-12. or by prefixation from other verbs. 115 .Verbs formed by suffixation from nouns and adjectives. Longman. A. 4) Linking verbs connect their subject to the predicative. prepositional phrasal verbs. The auxiliary verbs (be.

6) He had a new car and a boat. 6) He blew the crumbs off his desk and shook them off his collar. 7) The orders were sent out yesterday. 25) do. do are used as: a. 18) bring. Decide whether in the following clauses the verbs be. 37) freeze. 22) cut. b) intransitive phrasal. 7) bear. have. 3) His vocation urged him on. 28) teach. C. 4) write. 7) He has already had dinner. 26) fight. 35) drink. 5) He got on his bike and rode off. 34) tread. 41) swear. 16) eat. 9) We will do what we can to help. 5) There are red roses in the garden. 30) ride. 3) He is being rude. 11) She doesn’t do her duty. 24) be. 6) stick. 15) buy. Classify the verbs in the sentences below as follows: a) transitive phrasal. 42) bleed. 2) We’ll drive over some time tomorrow. 44) burst. 2) weave. 14) tear. 9) seek. 45) swing. 5) hit. 3) come. 38) breed. Total points for SAA 4: 83 116 . Give the three forms of the following verbs: (20 minutes: 45 points) 1) hide. 10) weep. 23) draw. 29) speak. b. 36) wind. c) prepositional d) prepositional-phrasal (15 minutes: 10 points) 1) They rushed him off to hospital. 4) They are graduates of Portland University. 20) go. 40) tell. 33) see. D. 12) ring. 39) weep. 8) He gulped down his beer. 10) He doesn’t like hamburgers. 12) The ham had a smoky flavor. 11) sow. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. 31) dig. auxiliary verbs (10 minutes: 12 points) 1) Fred was in Italy last year. 10) Several trees were blown down.Verbs B. 2) Actually John is a good farmer. lexical verbs. 13) arise. 43) lie. 8) shrink. 9) He raced back home. 8) She had a red jacket on. 27) grind. 32) grow. 21) speed. 17) sew. 19) meet. 4) She accidentally knocked a book off the bedside table.

6) hop -. b. c.lying – lied. trust.3 not be comparable to those given above. b. 6. b.1.1. a. 13) picnic -. 14) panic -. 2. Adj. 8.hopping – hopped. 18) stop . b.hoping – hoped. moral + -ize.dying – died. 10) live -.3. please revise section 4. immune + -ize. 15) prefer -. legal + -ize. c. Adj. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. en.arguing – argued.+ N.occurring – occurred. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. 1. 8) hurry -. 9. dis. 2) cancel – cancel(l)ing – cancel(l)ed.enjoying – enjoyed. de. 11. 5.2. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. 12. 11) occur -.+ Adj.2. 7) hope -.4.1. 7.offering – offered. dis.living – lived.Verbs Answers to SAQs 4. 9. a. Institutional + ize.+ N.1 . courage. 10.panicking – panicked. please revise section 4.+ Adj. 4. b.1 not be comparable to those given above. c. 16) refer -.V. dis. 9) lie -.referring – referred. 3.2. rich. 3.stopping – stopped. Adj. 6.V. SAQ 4. please. industrial + -ize. 8.1.preferring – preferred. a. 12) offer -. 10. SAQ 4. 4. en. Adj. 1. not be comparable to those given above. 5. b. heart + -en. 7. 117 . 17) regret -. 2. 5) enjoy -.picnicked. 3) die -. please revise section 4. 4) dye -.hurrying – hurried.regretting – regretted. SAQ 4.3 1) argue -.picnicking -.5.dying – died. 19) travel – travel(l)ing – travel(l)ed.

4.5.2. May – might 5.2. Present perfect progressive 5.2. voice.Present simple 5.2. Shall – should 5.3.4.4.2. Past simple 5.2.5.4.4.2. Indicative 5. Must 5.2.1.4.2.2. Future progressive 5.Tense. The simple aspect 5. Modality 5.1. 118 119 119 120 125 128 128 128 131 132 134 134 136 138 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 148 150 153 155 157 157 159 159 160 160 160 164 165 165 166 168 .5. modality and mood UNIT 5 Tense.5. aspect.4. Means of expressing future time 5.3.4.3.2.1 Present simple 5.4. Conditional 5.1.3. Going to 5. Past perfect progressive 5.1.4. Can – could 5.2.2. The perfective aspect 5. Past progressive 5.2.4.2.4. Mood 5. Past perfect simple 5. Future simple 5.8.2. Voice 5.21.7.2.2.3. Tense 5.2. Aspect 5.4.2. Future perfect 5. The progressive aspect 5.2.5.1.5.2.1. Subjunctive Summary Key terms Further reading: Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5.4.2.4.2.1. Present progressive 5.1 Present perfect simple 5.4.4.4. modality and mood Objectives 5.1.3.2.3. Be to 5.2.1 – 5. Present progressive 5. aspect. Future perfect progressive 5.2.6.3.2.4.5.3.3. Will – would 5. voice. Imperative 5.

Tense. i.e. probability. they are recollected. The category of tense marks the order of events in time. aspect. express virtual reality by means of the subjunctive mood. modality and mood Aim Tense. voice. The normal point of reference is the moment of speaking or the speech time. on the other hand. It is a way of expressing events as occurring at points situated along the linear flow of time. voice and modality are fundamental categories in grammar. voice. necessity. The moment of speaking is the point versus which some events are anterior. Tense. i. Tense and aspect are obligatory categories. Stative verbs refer to a state of affairs. they take place before the moment of speech. or obligation. Tense Time is a basic concept that exists independently of human language. they happen at the same time.1. their being accomplished or not. i. With modality we add to our statements such subjective meanings as possibility. aspect. They have dinner at the restaurant.e. Objectives By the end of this unit you will be able to:       recognize the verbal categories of tense.e. posterior to the moment of speech. i.e. I wrote two letters yesterday. ability.e. Tense distinctions are largely dependent on whether the verb is stative or dynamic. between duration and completion of an event. they are anticipated and therefore will take place after the moment of speaking. while other events are simply simultaneous with the moment of speech. express future time in various ways. while the category of aspect marks the temporal contour of events. is the linguistic expression of time relations realized by verb forms. (stative) (dynamic) 119 . i. 5. (stative verb) (dynamic) Many verbs however lend themselves to both interpretations: The children have nice clothes. distinguish between progressive and perfect aspect. as in: I know nothing about him. while dynamic verbs refer to a sequence of separate events. express subjective meanings such as: possibility. use verbs in the present and past tense to indicate the chronology of events in time. permission and obligation by means of modal verbs. modality. and their markers. Each of them represents perspectives from which we view our experience of events. prediction. their duration. aspect.

see. think. aspect. know. it) drink milk. they) He (she.1. 5. depend. feel.' I want to go home. itch. Freddy's solution doesn’t appeal to me.' So now you know as much as I do. The auxiliary do (or does for the third person singular) is inserted in pre-subject position to form interrogative sentences: He grows vegetables. 120 . 'Will Kay come?' 'She may do.Tense. like. realize. contain. Does he grow vegetables? What does he grow? He grows vegetables. hear. he doesn’t. dislike. doesn’t he? affirmative sentence yes-no question wh-question tag-question It is also used to form negative sentences: Don’t forget to post the letter! I don't feel like going out tonight. taste ache. we.1. he does / No. drinks milk. own. understand disagrees. Present simple The marker of the present simple is the morpheme –(e)s for the third person singular: I (you. smell. wish feel.' 'So do I. resemble. modality and mood Stative verbs fall into several semantic groups: stative verbs verbs of relation verbs of cognition verbs of attitude verbs of involuntary perception verbs of bodily sensation examples be. seem. have. voice. belong. want. sound believe. tickle English verbs are inflected only for two tenses: present simple and past simple. The auxiliary do (does) replaces the whole verb phrase in short answers to yes-no questions or in order to avoid repeating a full verb: Does he grow vegetables? Yes. hurt. Most people don't have more than a vague idea what folklore actually is.

a word of what I …………………………. your brother. (teach) 2) You ever …………………………. she ………………………….you …………………………. 1. I work eight hours a day. Fill in the gap with the correct present simple forms (affirmative. 121 . endanger).B. (create. (plant) SAQ 5. (not like) 4) …………………………. clean the house and mend the clothes. They cook the meals. lay the table. I write a lot of letters every day. Read quickly in the 3rd person singular: Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. I am a secretary. B. interrogative.1. aspect. 2. modality and mood SAQ 5. not believe. 6) The foresters …………………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) Fortunately. voice. miss) 3) My neighbor…………………………. I answer the telephone. and meet people. He …………………………. your grandma? I’m sure she …………………………. I also remind him of important appointments. (visit.1. the greenhouse effect and it …………………………. a thousand saplings on the hill slopes every spring. at my school. (not trust. and wash up. I type letters and official papers.A. Sometimes they also do the washing and ironing and look after the garden. say) 5) Pollution …………………………. My name is Susan. I help my boss to plan his time. understand. I put papers away in the file cabinet. her relatives. Housewives have to work hard. to lock the gate during the day. life on the planet. negative) of the verbs in parentheses.Tense. A. me anymore? I ………………………….

habitual present The present simple refers to events which repeatedly occur over an unspecified period of time: The milkman calls on Sundays. I pronounce you man and wife. After that the farmer rakes the soil again so when he wants to plant a seed the farmer can put it there.Tense. Zidane to Ronaldo. with past or future reference. states of affairs that existed. jump. generic present The present simple refers to statements that apply to all time. including the speech time. i. c. A few minutes later the farmer waters the plant with a watering can. the simple present tense can be used. instantaneous present Sometimes the event is presented as coinciding with the speech time and without having any duration beyond the moment of speaking: Single event with little or no duration (knock. Bill spends a lot of money on bets every month. He often digs his own garden and mows the lawn. Ronaldo shoots . Then the farmer cuts the stem of the plant. 122 . I name this ship Queen Mary. a. nod. habitual or instantaneous. to ‘eternal truths’. Cows eat grass. performative verbs (that refer to actions performed while uttering the clause) In addition to these uses.) sports commentaries on radio or television demonstrations or step-by-step instructions Somebody knocks on the door. b.e. Roberto Carlos passes to Zidane. She eats vegetables every day. etc. aspect. After that the farmer sows the seeds. in certain limited ways. exist now and will continue to exist in the future: Birds fly.and it’s a goal! How to plant vegetables First the farmer rakes the soil to make sure it is soft for when the seed gets planted. voice. The sun rises in the East. Water freezes at 00 C. modality and mood The present simple tense is used to express actions or events that occur at present and that are viewed as: generic. kick. After two weeks or more the plant starts to grow.

month. d.  in reporting information. understand) to suggest that the reported information is still valid. aspect. door slamming. is used to suggest that a future event is certain to take place: The train leaves at ten tonight. every morning (afternoon. The party is an extravagant occasion with fireworks and revelry. in order to dramatize the event: Iraqi head seeks arms Two sisters reunite after eighteen years  in a narrative or an anecdote. He won't face her. which makes him invisible and runs to his house to pack his things and leave the Shire. voice. Monday). e.) LARKIN: (Quietly) Doing nothing is the brass ring in this business. Gandalf meets Bilbo back in his house and tells him . where the wizard Gandalf has come to celebrate Bilbo’s 111th birthday. usually accompanied by adverbs of future time. week. Spark Notes)  in stage directions and captions to photographs: JOAN: That's good? (Larkin moves away. summer.… (The Fellowship of the Ring. 123 . modality and mood Habitual present is often accompanied by frequency adverbs: often. very frequently in recounting plots of books and films. Joan looks up at the sound. he puts on the ring. in casual conversation or fictional narrative. In the middle of a rambling speech.Tense. even though the event took place in the past: I hear that you're real good at what you do. day. etc. in order to achieve stronger effect and render the event immediate: The movie cuts to an image of the hobbits’ peaceful Shire years later. however. historical present  in newspaper headlines. I understand that you intend to represent yourself? If past tense were used in the reporting verb. close. present for future time In main clauses. once. hear. Sound of a car. rarely. tell) or perception (see. year. Exams begin on Monday. and Bilbo entertains children with tales of his adventures. with verbs of communicating (say. seldom. the simple present. the validity of the information would no longer be emphasized: I heard that you were real good at what you did.

Dogs make better pets than cats because they are more friendly. aspect. modality and mood The present simple indicates future actions that are considered part of an already fixed program. 1) go--habitual present. enjoy the sea air and live as free as birds. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Their holidays finish in August. The park opens half and hour after sunrise and closes half an hour before sunset. but I don’t feel like it. They try to read all the news during the journey and in that way know a lot about the topics of the day. if I have time.2. start. the present simple renders a future time event: I’ll do it. but cats like to live their own life. 5. I’ll phone you.Tense. A man comes to me yesterday and asks me to sign a petition. The first has been done for you: 1. They forget their work. go. Write your answers in the space provided below. Our friends leave for the seaside at three o’clock today and arrive there about seven. they spend their holidays there every year and swim in the sea or sleep all the time. etc. voice. They stay in the train for half an hour and sit and stand there and read the newspapers. These men go to work by train every day. end. so I say no. 4. One measures the coffee into a small saucepan. They understand and obey their masters. leave or aspectual verbs: begin. Underline the verbs in the present simple and comment on their meaning using the distinctions (a–e) made above. 2. 6. The verbs used to indicate planned future actions are verbs of motion: come. In conditional and in temporal clauses. as soon as I arrive home. 124 . sprinkles the gelatin and leaves it to soak for five minutes. SAQ 5. 3.

2): They walked along the river bank yesterday. tear) The chimney … down noisily. didn’t they? affirmative sentence yes-no question wh-question tag question The auxiliary did replaces the whole verb phrase in short answers to yes-no questions: Did they grow vegetables? Yes. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.. In the narrative below put the verbs in brackets into the simple past tense. (hit) It … the bark off the tree. Past simple The past tense marker on regular verbs is –ed. (miss) 1)struck. at once and … the fire. (strike. Irregular verbs have various past tense forms (see 4. Write your answers in the space provided below.. (strike). modality and mood 5. the lightening … the tree. Did they grow vegetables? What did they grow? They grew vegetables last year. (be) The lightening … our house.1.2. The first has been done for you: Lightening … twice by our house last night. (call. they didn’t. The auxiliary did is inserted in pre-subject position to form interrogative sentences: They grew vegetables last year. kill) The second flash … another neighborhood’s chimney and … out a whole row of bricks. (not burn. (fall) The fire … immediately. voice. A. No. (tear). He drove his car to the edge of the cliff. Although the tree … . (hear.1. (start) Our neighbors … the firemen who . SAQ 5. smell) The first flash … a neighborhood tree.A.Tense. they did. 125 . We … the sound of thunder and we … the lightening in the air. put out) We … lucky. aspect. come.3.

a) definite events / states in the past The past simple is used to refer to an event that occurred at a definite time in the past. He climbed the tree. The first has been done for you: A bird made a nest in this tree. The eggs broke. last summer. etc. He put them in his mouth. He took two of the eggs. The event was completed in the past: She phoned me at 6 o’clock.B. One of the branches broke. The telephone rang as soon as I got home. after.Tense. He needed both his hands. two years ago. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. etc.) or it may be suggested by an adverbial clause of time (introduced by when. too. He held on to a branch with one hand. Tommy fell and hurt his arm. five months ago. Ask yes-no questions to the following sentences. Tommy saw the nest. Write your answers in the space provided below.3. Did a bird make a nest in this tree? The past simple basically indicates an event that happened before the present moment. He began to climb down. a moment ago. B. last week. modality and mood SAQ 5. as soon as. 126 . It laid five eggs. They tasted nice.) Questions beginning with when have the verb in the past tense because they expect an answer about the time when an event happened: When did they plant the olive trees? They planted the olive trees five years ago. The definite time in the past can be indicated by means of adverbs of time (at 9 o’clock. aspect. yesterday. voice.

a long dry period. someone tapped me on the shoulder and asked me if my name was Alfred.Tense. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. instead of the simple present when the reporting verb (tell. c) in indirect speech A way of rendering speech in writing. modality and mood The past simple is also used to indicate a sequence of past events in a narrative line: One day. Then winds (come) along and (blow) the good land away.’ => He told me he had a new camera. often (turn) the land to dust. The first has been done for you: Before modern farming methods. I often went to the theatre. 1) lost.4. aspect. He told me that we once had worked in the same office . ‘Where are you living?’ => I was asked where I was living. 127 . farmers (lose) many crops owing to dry weather.… b) habitual simple past The simple past expresses past habitual or characteristic actions. This (happen) year after year. Farmers (have) a very hard time until they (start) to use modern farming methods. ask) is in the past: direct speech indirect speech ‘I have a new camera. by rewording what somebody said as a nominal that-clause or as an indirect question. Farmers themselves (make) the situation worse. while I was waiting for a bus. SAQ 5. In the sentences below put the verbs in brackets into the past tense simple. Sometimes dry periods (last) for many years. Each year they (plant) the same crops. They never (give) the land a rest. In those days. or drought. voice. events that repeatedly occurred in the past: When we were living in London.

and modal equivalents and with the passive: progressive forms present + progressive past + progressive perfect + progressive modal + progressive present + progressive + passive past + progressive + passive example They are building a house.2. straightforward presentation of a situation.2. voice. i. while the progressive aspect is marked by some form of be + ing-participle of the lexical verb). Three aspectual distinctions are traditionally identified in English: simple. They were building a cottage. Of the three aspectual contrasts of English. A shelter is being built now.2. aspect.e. 128 . He may be building a shelter. The bird has been building a nest. The progressive aspect English has a progressive aspect realized by means of the auxiliary be and the -ing participle.1 – 5. The progressive aspect combines with both present and past tenses and also with the perfect. Aspect While the category of tense marks the order of events in time.Tense. 5.1. A factory was being built then. Write your answer in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss it with your tutor or your colleagues. Think first! McDonald’s slogan: ‘I’m loving it!’ Is this slogan correct? Why? Why not? In case you cannot find an answer. the simple aspect generates such forms as the present tense and the past tense (see 5. their duration and their being accomplished or not. modality and mood 5. the category of aspect marks the temporal contour of events. Aspect always combines with tense. By combining with tense.1. 5. with modals.1.2. The simple aspect The simple aspect in English is the one we choose whenever we make an objective. progressive and perfective. the simple aspect is the unmarked one (in contrast. read what follows for a (possible) solution.2). the perfect is marked by the auxiliary have + past participle.

measure (=have length. see. imagine. suppose. (permanent situation) Because of its dynamic character. Compare the progressive and the non-progressive uses of certain verbs: 129 . fit. I’ve been looking for my glasses everywhere but I haven’t found them. The most important are: stative verbs verbs of attitude verbs of cognition examples like. indicate temporary behavior or an attitude on the part of the speaker. consist of. weigh (=have weight) Stative verbs are typically used in the simple aspect. involve. think (=have an opinion). For the same reason. Verbs of cognition and relation take on dynamic meanings. need. One can say I like your coffee. lack. Apples are ripening in the sun. realize. I was eating dinner. guess. belong to. resemble.. seem. possess.e. the progressive aspect is compatible with dynamic verbs either durative (blow. etc). feel (=have an opinion). include. She was writing articles for a women’s magazine at the time. the progressive is incompatible with the so-called ‘stative verbs’. In addition. depend on. matter. hate. aspect. Last night at 6 p. contain. taste (=have a flavor). wish believe. understand verbs of involuntary hear. mean. This time tomorrow I’ll be flying to New York. prefer. it may imply that the situation has limited duration and is not necessarily complete (simple tenses are generally used to talk about permanent situations or completed actions): John is working in the afternoon this month. (temporary situation) John (usually) works in the morning. smell. deserve. perception sound verbs of relation appear. remember. ripen) or punctual (knock): A gale of wind from the west is blowing gently. in progress: Don’t knock – he may be sleeping. know. Verbs of perception combine with the progressive to refer to deliberate actions rather than involuntary perception. work. owe. voice.m. modality and mood The fundamental function of the progressive aspect is to indicate a dynamic action in the process of happening. doubt. dislike. love. own. but not *I am liking your coffee. recognize. be. When stative verbs are used in the progressive aspect their meaning is altered. i.Tense.

(see) 5) Paul … about the exam. voice. I see a bird! (involuntary use of senses) I heard music. modality and mood simple aspect Jane is at school.. I was considering buying a new house at the time. desire) 8) ‘Why … you rude today? You’ve never behaved like this before. 130 . The first has been done for you: 1) 2) 3) I … voices... taste) ‘What are you doing?’ ‘I … this meat to see if it is spoiled.’ (smell) 4) I . 1) hear. (I believe) Eggs are costing more these days. It smells bad. (like. your school library ? (contain) 10) Speak up. (temporary situation) I’m expecting a letter form her. (voluntary. (She is a pupil) progressive aspect Jane is being rude today. Use the stative verbs either in the simple aspect or in the progressive.5. (think) 6) You … gas? I … the new stove is leaking.. I have an appointment with him. (hear) I … this pudding. (involuntary use of senses) You will be hearing from him. deliberate action) SAQ 5. It … good. (I was thinking of) ---I am seeing the boss tomorrow. there is someone at the door.. You are our only child. he … very well (not hear). (smell. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. think) 7) Your father and I . about you. (get news) I smell gas. (care. (involuntary use of senses) She is smelling a rose.. (It was my opinion) He likes fresh milk. (It is my opinion) I’m thinking of my grandmother. (temporary attitude) How much does/did this book cost? I expect she’ll come later. Write your answers in the space provided below. (meet) I didn’t consider it wise to interfere. the dentist today.Tense. (I’m waiting to receive) I think he is a kind man. aspect. He … it was long and difficult.’ (be) 9) How many books . We … the best in life for you.

I’m standing there. voice. aspect. ‘at this moment’. Why are you being so rude? I’m seeing a lot of Mary these days.2. c) The present progressive indicates a frequently repeated action which annoys the speaker. 131 . minding my own business. Jim doesn’t like to be disturbed while he’s working. forever. Michael Swan. It indicates somebody’s immediate plans for the near future: We’re spending next winter holidays in Egypt.1. . a) A verb in the present progressive indicates an action happening at the moment of speaking ‘now’.Tense. The present progressive is also used in for ‘background’ situations in present-time narratives: So. They are complaining about their neighbors all the time. The typical adverbs are: always. Present progressive The present progressive is formed by means of the auxiliary be in the present tense and the -ing participle of the lexical verb. Practical English Usage. . Why is the baby crying? Is she hungry? How are they feeling now? b) It may also denote a temporary. limited action or behavior with an adverbial indicating present time: I live in Brasov but I’m living in Bucharest this year. all the time: My neighbor is always playing the piano at midnight. The action has duration and it is not complete: I am reading War and Peace by Tolstoy. continually. What are you doing this evening? e) The present progressive is used in temporal and adverbial clauses to indicate an action underway or in progress as some other action takes place: We will go for a walk while the baby is sleeping. He usually walks to school but today he is going by bus. when this policeman walks up to me . modality and mood 5. It is getting warmer and warmer.2. d) The present progressive may also be used with reference to future time.

2) Ann: Don’t be so sentimental. Jenny: But I (not be) sentimental.6 Comment on the use of the present progressive in the following. using the distinctions (a – e) above. 1) 5. They were playing tennis from six to seven yesterday evening. At half past seven the crowds were pouring into the subways. aspect. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Would you join us? 6) By the way I (have) some people over for dinner tonight. 5) I (dine) with Susan tonight. voice. I (work) on a project on water pollution. Put them to bed. Past progressive The past progressive is formed by means of the auxiliary be in the past and the –ing participle of the lexical verb. 8) The children (grow) tired.2. The first has been done for you: I usually study in the morning. please.2. going on precisely at a point in time or over a specified period of time: I was jogging at 10 yesterday.Tense. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple: While I was jogging a man stopped me and asked me the time. What were you doing when I phoned you? 132 . modality and mood SAQ 5. 9) How quickly you (grow)? How tall you are! 1) am studying-temporary situation. 7) Stop that noisy game you (play). 4) He always (give) me bad advice. b) A verb in the past progressive also expresses an action that began before. but I (study) in the afternoon this week. a) It expresses an action in progress.2. 3) I (go) to the library after school. Write your answers in the space provided below.

which often annoyed the speaker: She was always ringing me up late at night. 7) She (stay) with some relatives when I called on her. modality and mood c) In narratives. the past progressive frequently has the effect of providing certain ‘background’ information in order to highlight a sequence of events expressed in the simple past tense (heard. Use the distinctions (a – g) above.7. then comment on the use of the past progressive. aspect. stood up): Ann was listening to loud music on her stereo when the door bell rang. the past progressive is the equivalent of the present progressive: ‘I am staying at the Lido Hotel’ He told us he was staying at the Lido Hotel. Barton (pour) champagne and Mrs. 2) While she (eat) a sandwich. 6) He always (invite) me to parties. while the girls were watching them. When the clock struck midnight. voice. d) The past progressive may be used to indicate two actions going on simultaneously and lasting over a longer period of time: The boys were playing football. Put the verbs in brackets in the past progressive.Tense. A. Barton cheerfully (talk) to her guests. She turned the stereo down and stood up to answer the door. An old woman was standing on the steps. 1) Yesterday was December 31st. he was drinking some wine. direct speech indirect speech SAQ 5. 4) Your parents (live) in this town when you were born? 5) They (have) dinner at this time yesterday. for he was leaving the next day. Mr. 133 . 3) She (work) in a hospital when I met her. e) With the adverb always it expresses a frequently repeated past action. g) In the indirect speech after a reporting verb in the past. f) A personal arrangement or plan for the near future seen from the past: He was busy packing. turned down.

recently. for two days. I haven't really seen his car a lot lately. ever. etc. They have not yet analyzed the data yet. in the last five years. voice. yet: They have already admitted that they were wrong. 5. these days. By combining with tense.Tense. The first has been done for you: 1) was pouring – action in progress. lately. The adverbs of time refer to a period of time not yet over (up to now. perfective aspect results in two simple tenses: Present Perfect and Past Perfect. sometimes. 5. always. Adverbs that can be used with the present perfect include adverbs of frequency. which are themselves indefinite as regards time specification: already. a) anteriority The present perfect is used when the speaker does not want to refer to a definite moment in time but simply to the anteriority of the event in relation to speech time.2. since June.1.3. so far. aspect. The present perfect places the event in a period of time which extends up to and includes the speech time. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The perfective aspect The basic meaning of the perfect aspect is anteriority of the event in relation to another moment (the speech time or a past time). Present perfect simple The present perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary have in the present and the –en participle of the lexical verb. modality and mood Write your answers in the space provided below. never. The action is viewed as occurring at an indefinite or unspecified time in the past. I've always admired him.2.3. We typically use perfect tense to show a connection between the past and the present time. The perfect aspect is always signaled by the auxiliary verb have followed by the past participle of the lexical verb.). 134 .

. They have known each other since 1980. 1990). 1) Past tense expresses an event with no connection to the present moment. summer). five weeks ago. year. are: just now. winter). at two o’clock. (the result is ‘I am now well again) He has read the novel. since (Monday. 4) The typical adverbs used with ………………………. as indicated by adverbs beginning with since or for. for centuries) expresses the duration of a period of time. It has rained for a week. 2) ………………………. What matters is the fact that the result of a past event is still felt at the present moment: I have recovered from my illness. indicates an event that has just taken place and whose effects are felt at the present. year. modality and mood b) past actions relevant at present The present perfect is often used to refer to past actions which are relevant at the speech time. . A. Since + a point in time (since four o’clock. Fill the gaps to distinguish between past simple (a) and present perfect (b). yesterday morning. (we know each other) In such cases no adverb of time accompanies the verbs in the present perfect.. two weeks. for (five minutes.Tense. 6) Questions about quantity and number (How much …? How many …?) contain a verb in the ……………… . three years ago) 5) Questions about time (when …?) have the verb in ………………………. voice. three years).. for a week. The first has been done for you. SAQ 5. aspect.A. For + a unit of time (for a few minutes. 135 . since yesterday. two minutes ago. for an hour. 3) The typical adverbs used with ………………………. (now he can comment on the plot) I haven’t eaten anything.8. yet. for years.. lately). Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. today. last week (month. are: just (already. this week (month. c) continuative perfect The present perfect expresses an event or a state that extends over a period lasting up to the moment of speaking. the village is in danger. since I was in London) expresses the beginning of a period of time. August. (the result is ‘Now I am hungry’) We have already met.

aspect. result) c) With punctual dynamic verbs. The first has been done for you: 1. (not completed) (completed.. modality and mood SAQ 5.) and since (since 5 o’clock /January /1999. 2. 9. the present perfect progressive shows that the action is repeated over a period of time: I’ve been phoning you for hours! Where have you been? The typical adverbs of time are for (for many years / two weeks /a long time. The doctor ……………………… me a prescription for sleeping pills.B.... voice. result: I’ve been reading the book.. He ……………………… for ages.. Present perfect progressive The present perfect progressive is formed by means of have + been + verb -ing.. (not write) 10.. while the present perfect simple normally suggests completion. 7. Dickens wrote some very famous novels. When ……………………… you ……………………… the poem? 4.2.8.) 136 . I ……………………… her several letters but she didn’t reply. a) The meaning associated with the present perfect progressive is that of a temporal situation leading up to the present. I have been living here for the last three weeks. It also suggests a sense of a situation in progress with limited duration: You can’t go out. etc... 3. I ……………………… two letters this evening. ……………………… Mozart ……………………… the music? 8. B. Now practice using the verb write in the past simple or present perfect.. b) With durative dynamic verbs. the present perfect progressive emphasizes that the action is not completed. It has been raining for a few minutes.3. back. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. etc.2..Tense.. Who ……………………… Harry Potter? 5. I will post them tomorrow. How many poems ……………………… you ………………………? 6. I’ ve read the book.. 5. I sent them a card but they never .

he ………………. (drive) ‘How long … you … the car?’ ‘I ……………….he ………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. c) Questions with How much or How many have the verb in …………………. 1) I have been earning my own living since I finished school. (ring) 137 .B.. The first has been done for you.9. B. the hospital. He ……………….’ (earn) 3) ‘How long ………………. aspect.9...… d) Questions with How long take a verb in the ……………… . Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. b) ………………….A... (earn) 2) ‘How much ………………. uninterrupted action still going on at present. the car to work since I bought it.’ ‘How many programs ………………..?’ ‘He … a lot of money lately. just ……………….… focuses on repetition and completion of the event. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in parentheses.’ 4) I ……………….’ (drive) 5) The phone ……………….the child ………………. Fill the gaps to distinguish between the present perfect simple (a) and the present perfect progressive (b).. (ring) 6) His mother is very sick..?’ (see) ‘Three. The first has been done for you” a) Present perfect progressive emphasizes duration. SAQ 5.. voice. TV?’ (watch) ‘For two hours. the car for nine years.Tense. for the past five minutes. A... modality and mood SAQ 5.

(“I had to do it first”) She wouldn't sign the contract before she had seen it. (“she had to finish first”) As soon as I had done it. aspect.2. they left. until to show that the action is anterior to the one in the main clause (otherwise the past tense is used): After she had finished. (‘she sat down while singing’) (“she saw it first”) (‘she sang first. when it started to rain. than he went away. the past often replaces the past perfect: When she saw the mouse she screamed. The focus is on the completed activity: By two o’clock she had made some phone calls. (“she had to see it first”) d) When the time relation is not unambiguous. barely. The band had no sooner started to play.3. when. had played. before.3. voice. she sat down. she sat down. a) It is used to refer to an event in the past that happened before a past moment (by two o’clock.Tense. modality and mood 5. When these adverbs are used at the beginning of the sentence. c) The past perfect is used in temporal clauses beginning with after. than he went away. Past perfect simple The past perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary have in the past followed by the -en participle of the lexical verb: had gone. no sooner + than are often used with the past perfect to indicate a past event completed immediately before another past event. When she had sung. by January last year) or before another event in the past. by the time. Hardly had they come out of the room. they are followed by inversion of the subject with the verb: They had hardly come out of the room. I sent it to her. as soon as. when it started to rain. Compare: When she sang. No sooner had the band started to play. then she sat down’) e) The past perfect is used in reported speech instead of the past tense or present perfect tense to indicate a backshift into a more remote past: 138 . b) The adverbs hardly. till. We had moved into a new house before our boy was born. scarcely + when.

(present perfect) SAQ 5. 7) No sooner he (leave) on holiday than he (return) because his parents (ring up) him to tell him that some burglars (break) into the house. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. enter) the house when they (begin) to argue.Tense. modality and mood Direct Speech: Ann: ‘John returned from his trip two days ago. aspect. The first has been done for you: 1) Almost all the guests (leave) by the time we (arrived). He has already heard the news. 8) Betty (fill) the cake and (decorate) it with icing which she (prepare) hours before and (keep) in the fridge to harden. 6) They (be) married for seven years when they finally (have) a child. voice. 4) The teacher (ask) the boy why he (not do) his homework.’ Reported Speech: Ann told me that John had returned from his trip two days before and he had already heard the news. go) a mile when it (have) a flat tire. 5) The car (hardly. 2) John (wonder) whether he (leave) his wallet at home. Write your answers in the space provided below. 139 . 3) The couple (scarcely. I told him that he had annoyed the dog. present perfect) ‘You have annoyed the dog. 1) had left.’ (past simple.10 Use either the past simple or the past perfect of the verbs in parentheses.

.Tense. English for five months. Jim …….. SAQ 5... aspect...3....4.2.…………. Then we stopped writing and handed our papers in. is used for actions which had been going on continuously up to a past moment: It was midnight. he ……………………. (listen) 140 . (plan) 4) We …………………………………. voice. from his textbook?’ ‘He ……………………. The kids were very tired because they had been playing baseball since early this morning. usually accompanied by an expression of time beginning with for / since.’ 3) They said they ………………………………. I had been studying since noon.…… the cage before it was moved? (leave) 8) When I got to the butcher’s. (rise) 6) Aunt Berth ………………. (supply) 7) The lion ever …………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.. 15 lessons. 9) Didn’t I warn you to be careful? If only you …………. TV for an hour.……… for the last two days. I had been waiting for Tom for two hours when he arrived... The first has been done for you: 1) ‘How long has Mary been watching TV by 10 o’clock?’ (watch) ‘She ……………………………. (write) 5) 5) The waters of the river ………………….he ………………. Use either past perfect simple or progressive.’ 2) ‘How long ……. Past perfect progressive The past perfect progressive (had + been + verb-ing). Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in parentheses.…….’ ‘How many lesson …….11. English by January 2004?’ (study) ‘ He ………………. modality and mood 5.… to move to the country for a long time. The past perfect progressive often indicates a previous action whose result was obvious at a certain past moment: The grass was wet because it had been raining all day. ?’ ‘She ………………………………. two programs.. (close). for forty-five minutes when the bell rang.’ ‘How many programs ……………… she …………. The village was saved.. the town with her fresh vegetables for such a long time that even she couldn’t remember.

next week. At the feast. You'll be in time if you hurry. ‘Come out for a walk. It also refers to the future fulfilment of present cause or intention: I’m going to stay at home and watch TV.2. I’ll miss the film on TV.’ ‘We are (just) about to eat.4. going to future conveys the same meaning as be about to: ‘Why are you all sitting at the table?’ ‘We are just going to eat. Going to Going to future marks future planned activity and prediction based on fact.4. Bobbie will call you tomorrow with details about the agenda.2. next autumn. either by means of specialized future tenses or by using present tenses with future meaning. modality and mood 5. aspect.2.4.1. 5.). Means of expressing future time There are several ways of expressing future time in English. Do you think he’ll come? It is also used in the main clauses of conditional sentences: You will feel better if you take your medicine regularly.Tense.2. Look at the clouds. The future simple expresses neutral prediction and takes adverbs indicating future time (tomorrow morning. It’s going to rain. intention cause With the adverb just.’ 5. Use it when you want to ‘say what you think will happen’: It'll be cold and damp tomorrow. etc. voice. we will eat heartily. The auxiliary will serves as the ordinary marker of the future tense (shall is old-fashioned): They will meet us at the newest café in the market. Future simple The future simple (will + verb) refers to actions that will take place after the speech moment.’ ‘ No.’ 141 .

modality and mood 5.. SAQ 5.Tense.’ ‘I ………………………. I ……………………….. B. frequently in the passive: The government is to introduce new taxes.’ (plant) 2. (find) 2) Why have they got their coats on? They ……………………….2. Be to Be to refers to a fixed and inevitable event or change in the future and is used in reporting of news.B. and …………………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. (finish) 5) Put on your life-belts. Use future simple for unplanned intention and going to future for planned intention. aspect.12. it a push. get) 5. (rain) SAQ 5. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) She ………………………………. A. It ……………………. the place if she follows the map.…….… to the baker’s to get some bread.. The ship …………………….‘ (help) 142 .12.4.(sink) 6) The weather forecast is excellent.3. ‘What are you doing with that spade?’ ‘I ………………………… some apple trees. the race... ‘My car won’t start. He …………………………. and ………………. voice.’ (go.‘ ‘I ………………………….’ (come.’ (play) 4. All our vans now are to be re-fueled. A. ‘This is a terribly heavy box. 4) The horse is limping badly. Use the verbs in parentheses in the future simple or going to future. The factory is to be closed until sanitary conditions are met. ‘There isn’t any butter in the house. (leave) 3) As soon as the rain stops. ‘Why is Bob carrying his guitar?’ ‘He …………………………… it at Mary’s birthday party. give) 3. to carry it.’ ‘I ………………………. some. (walk).

I’ll be helping with the harvesting tomorrow. 5. because I'll be eating dinner then. Use the future progressive as a polite way of asking about someone’s plans or decisions: Will you be having dinner at your parents’ tonight? 143 . It is accompanied by an adverbial indicating future time: We start for Brasov tomorrow.2. We have already made the arrangement.4. The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future: He will be working on the computer system for the next two weeks. If you press this button. aspect. they’ll be still having dinner. The train leaves at 8. or occurs with reference to some other future event/time: Don't call at 6 pm.30. I’m leaving at noon tomorrow. Present simple The simple present with a future meaning expresses a future event as part of an official plan or arrangement regarded as unalterable. When you arrive. 5.4. modality and mood 5. Future progressive The future progressive tense (will + be + verb-ing) is used to describe temporary actions ongoing around a given future time: We'll be cleaning up the yard Saturday afternoon. The simple present is used in temporal and conditional clauses to express a future action: When the President arrives. voice. A longer future action that overlaps. is interrupted by. the door will open.6.Tense.4.4. the band will play the National Anthem.2.2. I have already made my plans. Present progressive The present progressive with a future meaning is used for scheduled or personally planned events: We're having a party on Saturday.5.

before a point in the future or before another action takes place.… skiing lessons for two weeks. aspect. It is usually recognized by the time adverbial phrases containing by or next: The play will have ended by 10 o’clock. (live) 6) By next month Mrs. duration completion By the time the meeting is over.13 Use the verbs in parenthesis in the future (progressive. (take) 4) She can sing so she …………………………………. (return) 144 . Future perfect progressive The future perfect progressive (will + have + been + verb-ing) tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future: I will have been studying English for three years by the end of this term.7. modality and mood 5.8. (perform) 5) The Martins ……………………………………… in this house for ten years by January the first. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) He ……………………………………… the winner at 10 o’clock tomorrow.2. The hotel people will have scoured and vacuumed the building by the time the first guests arrive.4.. (interview) 2) Nick ……………………………………. a camera before he starts on a trip around the world.2. (buy) 3) By tomorrow Alice ……………………………. perfect or perfect progressive). (work) 7) She …………………………………………. voice. the committee will have been arguing about which candidate to interview for three hours. SAQ 5.… in the school festival.Tense. Future perfect The future perfect (will + have + verb-en) is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future.. Allen ………………………………… as a librarian for twenty years. from the seaside by September the 15th.4. 5.

the participant that suffers the change occasioned by the event.though not always . In the active voice. The agent performing the action may appear in a by-phrase or may be omitted. the active voice is preferable to the passive for the majority of your sentences. The active voice is the "normal" voice.3.2). comprise. Patient Agent passive voice The passive voice has three formal characteristics:    the auxiliary be the lexical verb in the past participial form an optional by prepositional phrase containing the agent A long letter was written (by John).Tense. Compare: The pupil wrote an essay. The door was slammed shut by him. Many active sentences do not change into passive structures if the verb is ‘stative’. aspect. He slammed the door shut. Here is a brief list of such verbs that cannot passivize: agree with. the participant that causes the change occasioned by the event.2. We can say He has a new house. The house plants may have been damaged by icy winds. voice. resemble (for details see 5. lack. In most situations. look like. In the passive voice. a patient (a person or a thing which is affected) or beneficiary of an event. Agent Patient active voice The essay was written (by the pupil). Sentences in the active voice are generally . modality and mood 5. become. Compare: Icy winds may have damaged the house plants.clearer and more direct than those in the passive voice. Voice Voice refers to the semantic roles (the actual role a participant plays in some real or imagined situation) of the subject of the sentence. be by-prepositional phrase The use of tenses in English should be practiced (by the pupils). equal. 145 . but we cannot say *A new house is had by him. fit. the subject is the undergoer. It indicates whether the subject is an agent (the person is the doer of the event). the subject is the agent of the action. be by-prepositional phrase Only transitive verbs (those that take direct objects) can be transformed into passive constructions.

The effect is to lend the article the air of objectivity.Tense.14. In scientific or technical writing or lab reports. your writing may well substantiate the absurdity of this famous example. It is particularly useful when the agent performing the action is obvious. The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The victim was apparently struck in the early morning hours. voice. R. and Gregory L. A long neck was one of the characteristics of the young gentleman. Otherwise. use it sparingly. The man standing next to him was being grumbled at by the latter because of the jostling that was being inflicted on him by him. modality and mood Sentences in the active voice are also more concise and dynamic than those in the passive voice because fewer words are required to express action in active voice than in the passive. Investing money in a factory is being considered by the committee. aspect. New York: St. unimportant or unknown. Scholes. as in: The aurora borealis can be observed in the early morning hours. They were being squashed together. Writers in the sciences conventionally use passive voice more often than writers in other discourses. Ulmer. Remember: to use the passive voice effectively. As soon as a vacant seat was espied by the young gentleman. Compare: The committee is considering investing money in a factory. it was made the object of his precipitate movements and it became sat down upon. eds. Martin's Press (1988) 138-142." (From Text Book: An Introduction to Literary Language. Re-write the text and make all the necessary corrections: "It was midday. The passive voice is effective in such circumstances because it highlights the action rather than the agent performing the action. SAQ 5.) 146 . Nancy R. A hat was being worn on the head of a young gentleman. Comley. The bus was being got into by passengers. the agent is not really important but the process or principle being described is of ultimate importance: The protein concentration required to saturate the solid phase was determined and the amount of bound protein was quantified by the micro-biochoninic acid protein assay.

aspect. modality and mood Write your answers in the space provided below. How would you ask your friends for some more money? Write your answers in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues. What will you say to the person in the ticket office? Situation 2 You discover that you need two more dollars. You need tickets. It was midday. Passengers were squashing one another… Think first! Situation 1 You get to a show on time. 147 .Tense. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you. voice.

may-might. may. ought they? c) The modal paraphrases form the interrogative by means of inversion with the subject: He is able to fly a plane. The major syntactic properties of the modal verbs are: Modals do not have non-finite forms (infinitive or participles): *to can. He speaks English. would. I might be able to get there in time. vs. volition. should) no longer indicates past time: It may / might rain tomorrow. * to must. etc. be permitted. ought to. obligation and permission. voice. wh-question. Is he able to fly a plane? He was allowed to go to the party. might. aspect. modality and mood 5. can: *I will can go. tag question): Could you tell me the truth? What could you tell me? You could tell me the truth. should. I speak English. be necessary. e) Modal verbs are not marked for tense and aspect. I can speak English. need). The forms which realize these concepts are the modal verbs: can. What is historically the past tense mark (could. 148 . be likely. vs. probability. Was he allowed to go to the party? d) Modals cannot co-occur with each other but the periphrastic equivalents. He can speak English. Some modals have pairs (can-could. couldn’t you? They ought not to be here. Modality Modality is a category of the verb by which speakers express their evaluation or judgment of the situations to which they refer in their statements. necessity. would. etc. shall-should) others are single (must. *canning. Modality typically involves such notions as possibility. such as be able to.Tense. *musting a) Modals have no agreement with the subject in the 3rd person singular. dare.4. will-would.. b) Modal verbs are inverted with the subject to form questions (yes-no question. must.

passive The house could have been painted before they modal + have + been + verb -en sold it. voice. modal verbs combine with a lexical verb in:  the simple infinitive to express a modalized event at present: I can/could drive a car. The house could be painted before they sell it.  the perfect progressive infinitive (have + been + verb -ing) to suggest an activity in progress in the past: She may have been reading a book when you phoned her. aspect. He should visit his parents more often. could. g) direct speech reported speech The main modal verbs have corresponding modal paraphrases which can be used in all tenses: can – be able to. should replace the corresponding can. 149 . may . Am/ was/ will I be permitted to come in? You have to/ had to/will have to study. be allowed to. modal + be + verb -en active They could have painted the house before they sold it.  In passive sentences modal verbs combine with the simple passive infinitive (be + verb -en) to refer to an event in the present and with the perfect passive infinitive (have + been + verb -en) to indicate an event in the past: active passive They could paint the house before they sell it.  the perfect infinitive (have + verb -en) to indicate reference to the past: She could have phoned her friend but she didn’t.  In reported speech. She said she could come. would.be permitted to. might.  the progressive infinitive (be + verb -ing) to show an action in progress at present: She must be reading a book. may and shall: ‘I can come’.Tense. will. modality and mood Instead. I am/ was/ will be able to ski. must – have to: can may must. she said. ride a motorbike and sail a boat.

They are usually combined with the modal verb can to indicate a state at present: He is walking along the shore now. Can – could The pair can – could is mainly used to express ability. feel now? He lives in a small village on the shore. You can’t be hungry. Did I have to be in time for school? I didn’t have to be in time for school. (physical ability) He could read when he was five. feel every day? 150 .1. (mental ability) Don’t light a match in this chemical factory. The major semantic values of the modal verbs are given the following sections. He couldn’t have heard the news on the radio because he was sleeping then. She can’t type. aspect. hear.4. It can cause an explosion. She can’t be typing a letter now. voice. hear. Can/ Could I use your phone? (colloquial instead of may) You’ve just had your dinner. 5. Verbs of physical perception are not used in the progressive form. You can borrow my bike. modality and mood Have to is the only modal paraphrase that forms the interrogative and the negative with the auxiliary do: Do I have to finish the book by next month? I don’t have to finish the book by next month. What can he see. possibility and permission (in colloquial speech) physical or mental ability in the present in the past objective possibility permission ask for permission negative deduction (impossibility of a present event a past event) He can ride a wild horse. What does he see.Tense.

but I had to stay home and take care of my baby brother. 3) Can I have another piece of cake? 4) She can sing. 151 . but now I’ve forgotten how to. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. A. SAQ 5. modality and mood When an individual event was successfully performed in the past. aspect. She is a member of the school choir. be able to is used instead of could: Though the mountaineer was very tired. he was able to get to the top. Where artists used to be able to put on performances in their loft spaces. Jane?’ ‘I could have attended all the classes.15. voice. we use the construction used to be able to: ‘Can you play chess. They can’t be at home. now high-end restaurants want to move in. (‘he managed to get to the top’) He could swim so he was able to reach the shore. Comment upon the meanings of can or could in the following examples. The first has been done for you: 1) What are you doing right now? What could you be doing if you were not in class? 2) Everything looks deserted. 6) ‘Why didn’t you invite Margaret?’ ‘I couldn’t get her phone number. (‘he succeeded in reaching the shore’) To stress that a past ability no longer exists.’ 1) possibility.’ I used to be able to make clay pots on a wheel. Write your answers in the space provided below. 5) He could dance very well so he was able to win the dance contest.A. Betty?’ ‘I used to be able to play it.Tense.’ 7) Who can translate this paragraph into English for next time? 8) ‘You didn’t attend all the classes.

you …………………………. too. voice. aspect. The first has been done for you: I will be able to read fast when I finish this speedreading course.’ ‘Don’t worry. but now I’ve forgotten a lot of words.…… borrow umbrellas so we had to wait until the rain stopped. 7) Fortunately. speak better next month. translate fluently. sit ‘ 6) The postman ………………………… deliver the letters because the dog barked fiercely.15. 2) ‘Have you ever eaten frog legs?’ ‘No. Use be able to in the appropriate tense paying attention to the adverbs of time..’ 3) ‘I can’t speak English without an accent now.……… grow roses. 8) He told me he …………………………. modality and mood SAQ 5. 1) 5) ‘Can the baby sit in his pram?’ ‘Yes. I ……………………… face the idea.B..…… make many new friends since I arrived in this town. I………………………….’ 152 ..’ 10) ‘I wish I could grow roses in the front garden.Tense. B. he ……………… already ………………….’ ‘I’d like …………………. 9) ‘Can you translate fluently?’ ‘I ……………………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.’ 4) The children ………………………… sail across the lake last week.

You are not allowed to touch the exhibits.2. please? Might I borrow your pen. aspect. You must not smoke here. May – might The pair may – might is mainly used to express possibility and permission: possibility in the present (+ present infinitive) in the past (+ past infinitive) grant or refuse formal permission request permission politely He may be on the next bus.4. please? (less common. You must not park here. (a more remote possibility) The dog isn’t here. greater uncertainty about the answer) May expressing permission can be replaced by the modal paraphrases: be allowed to or be permitted to: You may not touch the exhibits in a museum. (refusal of permission) (prohibition) 153 .Tense. modality and mood 5. Candidates may (not) bring textbooks into the examination room. He might not know that we are waiting for him. May I borrow your pen. His letter might have given him the idea. He may have taken it with him. The negative may not (colloquially can’t) expresses a refusal of permission and is therefore less strong than must not which expresses prohibition: You may not park here. voice.

’ 6) I am not sure what I will be when I leave school. It’s cold today.’ ‘Well. but may I borrow your briefcase? 10) ‘May I open the window?’ ‘No. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Jane may not have time to come to Bill’s party.Tense. He might have signed it. voice.’ 9) I hate to bother you. you may not.’ 4) My friend is flying to Paris. 7) I don’t know whether John signed the contract or not. aspect. I’m not sure why. Grant looked worried. Write your answers in the space provided below. modality and mood SAQ 5. He may/might be reading a book now. it might be there. 2) ‘What do you think he will do there?’ / ‘What might he do there?” 3) ‘He may go boating on the lake or he may visit the Village Museum. 5) ‘Perhaps your umbrella is at home. but I don’t think so. I haven’t decided yet. 1) present.’ ‘He might have been thinking about his sick mother. possibility.might in the following. I may become a librarian or I might become a teacher. Comment on the meanings of may .16. 154 .’ 11) I asked if I might invite my friends over next Sunday. 8) ‘Mr.

he needn’t. fetch water and cook meals themselves. They had to chop firewood. There are a lot of apples in the basket. The modal must can be used with reference to an action in the present or possibly in the future. When specific reference has to be made to other times or aspects. modality and mood 5.’ She didn’t need to call an ambulance.’ Needn’t + perfect infinitive (have + verb -en) is used exclusively to refer to an action which took place in the past but was unnecessary: I translated the message not knowing that everybody here understood English. Must Must is chiefly used to express obligation and logical necessity: obligation imposed by the speaker obligation deriving from rules/regulations logical necessity (deduction) You must be back by 10 o’clock. 155 .Tense. The negative and interrogative of have to are formed with do: Why did he have to leave home so early? The pupils didn’t have to go to school on Saturday. The children were in a summer camp. the modal paraphrase have to is used.4. He left two hours ago. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. Absence of obligation at present is expressed by needn’t and in the past by didn’t need to: ‘You needn’t wait for me. He must be at home now. aspect. Her uncle is a doctor.3. voice. It expresses habitual obligation or obligation imposed by others (external obligation): I will have to finish the book by next month. When using need in questions the speaker hopes for a negative answer: ‘Need he climb the apple tree?’ ‘No. I needn’t have translated the message.

7) He had to stay indoors because of the heavy rain. I am a doctor. Someone must be coming. Jim was feeling better. voice. 3) You needn’t have washed the cardigan. 6) You mustn’t smoke in here. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 5) I have to go to hospital early. You can cause an explosion. The first has been done for you: 1) logical necessity (deduction). aspect. because it was clean.17.Tense. 9) You needn’t help me. Comment on the meanings of must – have to – need. 2) We didn’t need to call an ambulance. 1) I hear foot steps. 4) I must go to the hospital early. Write your answers in the space provided below. 10) Visitors mustn’t feed the animals at the Zoo. I can manage. 156 . My friend is sick. 8) In England motorists must drive on the left side of the road. modality and mood SAQ 5.

5. even though she knew it was wrong. typical behavior volition weak volition (willingness) strong volition (insistence. Ought to can be used as an alternative to should in both senses: modality expressed obligation imposed by the speaker logical necessity should/ ought to He should/ ought to pay for the broken window. He said he would marry her right away if she would have him. they might have had a breakdown) must He must pay for the broken window.4. (I am not sure.’) strong volition (insistence) You shall obey my orders. aspect. 3rd pers. modality and mood 5. (‘I am willing to have you here.Tense. would They said it would rain during the night. In spring birds would return to their nests. He will go swimming in dangerous waters. subjects) weak volition (willingness) shall You shall stay with us as long as you like. obstinacy) I will marry her tomorrow if she will have me. They have a fast car. Will – would The pair will – would has two major functions: to express predictability and volition: meaning predictability concerning a future event regarding habitual. Our guests must be at home now. (typical behavior in the past) 5. will It will rain during the night. A dog will obey his master. Boys will be boys.’) (‘I insist that you obey my orders.4. Shall – should The modal verb shall expresses volition while should indicates obligation and logical necessity: meaning the speaker’s volition (imposed on 2nd.4. voice. She wouldn't change it. should is weaker than must. Our guests should / ought to be home by now. (I am sure.) 157 . In its sense of obligation and logical necessity.

aspect. modality and mood Modal verbs serve fulfill various speech acts in conversation: speech acts examples commands mild command: You can turn the TV off now. You will stay here until I come back. voice. Danny. invitations (polite) Could / Will you have dinner with us on (casual. suggestions. strong command: You might post these letters for me. advice (giving advice) Can’t / Couldn’t you talk with your wife (emphatic advice) first? (expecting advice) You must see that film.Tense. friendly) Sunday? You must come and see me some time. Shall we see a film tonight? offers May I offer you some cake? Shall I help you? desire I could cry for joy! reproach You might have warned us that the bull was dangerous. requests (polite) Can / Could / Will / Would you lend me (irritated) your pen. It’s very good. please? You might tell me what she said. bewilderment How could my daughter have been involved in all this? 158 .

aspect. modality and mood SAQ 5.5. It should rain.’ 6) ‘Was Laura going to school when you saw her?’ 7) ‘She should have been going to school. Comment on the meanings of the modals will – would and shall – should.Tense. 3) All competitors shall wear tracksuits. Indicative The indicative is the most common one and is used in factual. voice. In traditional terms. We should have heard from her by now. Write your answers in the space provided below. the conditional and the subjunctive. he would always work at it until he found an answer. A verb in the indicative varies for tense and aspect and shows grammatical concord with the subject in the present tense: 159 . but she wasn’t. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.’ 8) It’s cold and cloudy. 9) I wonder why we haven’t received any news from aunt Emily. 2) When he had a problem to solve. The first has been done for you: 1) She will talk for hours about clothes and films.’ ‘It’s too late now. there are four moods: the indicative. 4) He should be writing the composition.18. but he isn’t. 5) ‘I’m going to study tonight.1. You should have studied last night. objective statements. 1) typical behavior in the present. the imperative. 5. 5. The speaker asserts the sentence as being true (factual). Mood Mood is a grammatical category that signals the relationship of the verb with reality and intent.5.

aspect. 5. particularly in negative imperatives which are formed with the auxiliary verb do: Don't you dare touch that switch. present conditional subjunctive I would talk to her if I were you. Imperative The imperative mood is typically used to ask. Helen has closed the window.’ The conditional mood is more frequently used to express uncertainty.2. particularly in conditional sentences. but I'm not hungry. The shepherd fetched the stick. Don't you touch that butter. modality and mood Nick picks up the boxes. Go away! John.Tense. don't move until you've finished! An imperative sentence typically contains no grammatical subject. but the implied subject is ‘you’. The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would + verb).5. present conditional subjunctive 160 . voice. request or command someone to do something. I would eat. Conditional The conditional mood is manifested in independent clauses by means of the modal auxiliary would added to the bare infinitive of the main verb: John would drink. ‘What would you like to do now?’ I’d like to go swimming. Don't you eat it. while the verb in the subordinate clause (introduced by if. unless. Cows were grazing beside the river.3.5. give me the book please! Please. in case) is in the subjunctive mood: I would buy a huge house if I had a lot of money. Sentences in the indicative can be either declarative (see above) or interrogative: Have you fed the sheep yet? Do you regularly spray your crops with pesticides? 5. Sometimes a subject may be included. The imperative verb form is similar to the base form of the verb.

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

The perfect conditional (would + have + -en) shows how the past could have been different but was not: I would have come, if you had rung me. (“I did not come”)
perfect conditional past subjunctive

If anyone had asked her, she would have described herself only as nervous and worried.

5.5.4. Subjunctive
The subjunctive is rare in main clauses in present-day English, and survives in some set formulas whose subjunctive meaning is either concession or a wish: far be it from me, so be it, suffice it to say: Far be it from me to interfere with your arrangements. Come what may, I’ll help you. Be that as it may, we’ll stick to our plan. Long live the Queen! God forgive you! Curse this dog! The subjunctive is mostly used in subordinate clauses to express actions contrary to fact. The subjunctive mood has synthetic and analytical forms. The Synthetic Subjunctive is identical in form with the past simple and the past perfect: It’s time you got down to business. present subjunctive He behaves as if he owned the place. past subjunctive I wish you had brought your sister with you. If only you had asked someone’s advice! Be is the only verb which has a special present subjunctive form (were): I wish I were younger. If he were to leave, he wouldn’t hesitate to tell us. The present subjunctive expresses wishes, possibility, uncertainty present unreality, i.e. actions contrary to present fact: after It’s time after the verb wish in conditional clauses in concessive clauses in comparative clauses It’s time we went home. I wish I had a brother. If I had time, I would go on a trip. If I had had time, I would have gone on a trip. Even though he were present, I would not change my mind. He treats her as if she were a child. He treated her as if she had been a child. 161

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

SAQ 5.19.

Underline the words that use the synthetic subjunctive and put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Henry is taking his driving test for the sixth time. It’s time he (take) it. 2) ‘I am sorry I don’t speak a bit German.’ ‘I wish you (speak) German.’ 3) I would go for a walk if it (stop) raining. 4) The young man felt as if the ground (slip) beneath his feet. 5) My stomach hurt after a large meal. I wish I (not eat) so much. 6) We could have gone skating, if the river (not be) frozen. 7) Even if the work (be) twice as difficult I wouldn’t have refused to do it. 8) He looked as if he just (come) from a very long travel. 1) took;

The analytical (or periphrastic) subjunctive expresses unreality by means of a variety of modal auxiliaries + infinitive: shall / should + infinitive They decided that nobody shall be admitted without a ticket. It is not necessary that every girl should be an actress. may/ might + infinitive May you be happy in the life you have chosen! We put the milk on the shelf for fear the cat might get at it. would + infinitive I wish you would forget it. She wishes her husband would stop smoking 162

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

The analytical subjunctive should + infinitive is used after adjectives, verbs and nouns that express a wish, a suggestion, a desire, etc.: after It is/was + adjective
(crucial, necessary, essential, natural, surprising, odd, absurd, strange, urgent)

after the verbs:
ask, command, insist, order, propose, recommend, require, suggest

It is essential that they should know the truth. It is amazing that they should win the race. He proposed that we should postpone our meeting.

after the nouns:
suggestion, proposal, idea, wish, recommendation, desire

purpose clauses negative purpose clauses
after lest in expressions of fear

My desire is / was that he should leave off his work and go on a holiday. I spoke slowly so that everybody should understand the rules. The road was icy and the old woman was terrified lest she should slip and fall. If the phone should ring, please say that I’ll be back at noon.

conditional clauses
(the action is unlikely to occur)

SAQ 5.20
Underline the words requiring the analytical subjunctive with should + infinitive and put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Andy suggested that I (sell) my bicycle. 2) He made the proposal that they (buy) a car with the money. 3) It is important for children that they (learn) to share things. 4) He writes telephone numbers down lest he (forget) them. 5) They came to the agreement that they (organize) cultural exchanges. 6) The boys hid behind a bush for fear the men (see) them. 7) If Alec (win) the race, his trainer will be very proud. 8) I warned her about the danger so that she (not get hurt). 1) should sell ;

163

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

The analytical subjunctive may / might + infinitive is used in the following contexts: after the verbs: order, request, desire after expressions of fear clauses of purpose clauses of concession He desired that the boy might be left behind under his care. I’m afraid they may misunderstand my intentions. I was afraid that they might misunderstand my intentions. She gave me the key so that I might open the door. However hard he may try, he will never win the tournament.

SAQ 5.21.
Underline the words that require may/might + infinitive and comment on the use of the subjunctive. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) The driver stopped so that the children may/ might cross the street. 2) He was afraid that the news might upset her. 3) He sat with the door wide open at all times that he might hear the footsteps as they entered. 4) She was overcome with fear that I might let her down. 5) I will order that my doors may no longer be open to you. 6) She is afraid that he may leave without seeing her. 1) clause of purpose;

Summary
Tense, aspect, voice and modality are fundamental categories in grammar. Each of them represents perspectives from which we view our experience of events. Tense is the grammatical expression of time relations. In relation to the speech time, some events are simultaneous with it (present), others precede it (past) or follow it (future). English verbs are inflected only for two tenses: present and past. All other temporal forms are periphrastic (that is they are formed by means of auxiliary verbs). Aspect can be indefinite, 164

Editura Albatros. Iaşi: Polirom. have got to). past. Editura Spanda. etc) or mood (subjunctive). ought to). modality and mood progressive or perfective. be permitted to). will/would. past and future) have in common the idea of anteriority and completion. All perfective tenses (present. may. the conditional and the subjunctive. voice. Sidney Greenbaum. Georgiana. Quirk. 11. Key terms         active voice aspect imperative mood indicative mood modality modal verbs mood passive voice        past tense perfect(ive) aspect present tense progressive aspect stative verb subjunctive mood tense Further reading: Coşer C. Modality signals possibility. might (be allowed to. Developing competence in English. concessive clauses and purpose clauses. be to. Progressive tenses (present. It can be expressed by modal verbs (can/could. (1987). The subjunctive is mainly used in counter-factual clauses: if-clauses. permission or attitudes (desire. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Vulcănescu R. Sinteze de gramatică engleză. wish. the imperative. Syntheses in English Morphology.Tense. aspect. Randolph.Bucureşti . Modal verbs (or modals) have certain characteristics that differentiate them from auxiliaries and lexical verbs: modals are not marked for tense. 165 . Aspect combines with tense. Longman. Jan Svartvik (1976). Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă. 324 – 365. 61 – 123. Hulban. Geoffrey Leech. Intensive English Practice. (2004). Iasi.275. may/might. 94-158. future) involve duration and incompletion. There are four moods in English: the indicative. etc). shall/should. Horia (2004). Modals may directly precede the bare infinitive of the lexical verb and have periphrastic counterparts: can. be allowed to.. necessity. be going to. The indicative is the most common one. and the verb in the indicative has tense and aspect. could (be able to). modal equivalents (have to. probability. must (have to.

modality and mood Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 A. present or future time. T/F 18) Questions starting with shall/should inquire about the wishes of the person spoken to. T/F 4) The past tenses refer only to past time. you probably (be) amazed to see how much he (change) since we last (see) him. T/F 6) Progressive tenses are often used as background for simple present or past actions.Tense. T/F 5) Sometimes we can use both the past tense or the past perfect with the same time reference. T/F 13) Modals form their negatives with not. T/F B. knowing George as I do. T/F 8) We rarely use verbs with stative meaning in the present progressive tense. T/F 9) The present perfect tense is incompatible with ‘past’ adverbs like yesterday. I (think) he (be) far happier to work for somebody else. opportunity and theoretical possibility. T/F 7) The present tense may refer to past. 166 . voice. T/F 12) Modals form questions by inversion with the subject. permission. T/F 15) Can and could usually have the modal meanings of ability. T/F 17) Will and would have the modal meanings of volition. When you (see) him tomorrow. aspect. When I (ask) him what he (intend) to do he (say) he (not make up) his mind yet. Put the verbs in parenthesis into the correct form: (10 minutes: 16 points) George (return) from England last week and tomorrow evening we (have) a party to celebrate his return. T/F 2) The present tenses are marked by the third person singular –s inflection. He (add) that he (may) even open a business of his own. T/F 11) Shall and will are used for pure future of prediction. T/F 10) English has no future tense. but if he (offer) a good job he probably (take) it and (start) to work immediately. T/F 16) May and might are used to refer to possibility and permission. T/F 3) The past tenses are marked by -ed. However. True or false? (15 minutes: 18x2=36 points) 1) All verb forms are marked for tense and aspect. T/F 14) Modals are used to express attitude.

9) John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding. may. 9) I’m sure he is at home now. 4) I suggest that you (not take) the job without renegotiating the salary. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in parentheses: (10 minutes: 10 points) 1) It is important that he (try) to study often 2) Donna requested that Frank (be) at the party. 6) I propose that we all (be waiting) in Tim's apartment when he gets home. 10) She says that the government (regulate) the airline industry. modality and mood C. Use can. Make other changes if necessary: (10 minutes: 10 points) 1) You have the obligation to leave your shoes outside when you enter a mosque. otherwise he will not attend. 167 . 3) It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the swimming pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons. will I have the permission to choose my seat? 3) Do you have the ability to install Windows XP for me? 4) You are permitted to leave earlier today. he left a long time ago. 7) Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week. must to replace the words underlined in the sentences below. 8) The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had removed their shoes. I don't know if that is true.Tense. aspect. 2) If I come earlier. 5) Jake recommended that Susan (be hired) immediately. 7) Are you able to keep a secret? 8) It’s possible that he’ll try again. voice. 10) Is it possible for me to borrow several books at the same time? D. 5) Do you think it is possible for me to prepare dinner for the next family reunion? 6) It’s very important that we speak to the neighbors before pulling down that common wall.

does not believe. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. 168 .. please revise section 5. Total points for SAA 5: 92 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5. ______ he (not find) ______ any money he (find) ______ a lot of jewelry. misses. 2. endangers. 6.. aspect. In his rush to get downstairs he (not see) ______ the dog (lie) ______ at the bottom of the stairs. He (wear) ______ a mask and (carry) ______ a sack. then. however. as soon as. 2. habitual actions. losing his glasses. teaches. SAQ 5. 6. Her name is Susan. 4. instantaneous present (cooking recipes). 5. – 5.2. generic present. historical present. do you visit. A housewife has … She cooks … lays … washes … cleans … mends . ______ the burglar (look for) ______ them. ______ Paul (manage) ______ to escape and he (phone) ______ the police.1. Paul (try) ______ to free himself.21. planned future action. although. ______ doing anything else he (tie) ______ Paul to the chair. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. the police (wait) ______ for him at the end of the garden. ______ he went upstairs to look for money. which he (put) ______ into his sack. SAQ 5. but. don’t you trust. (15 minutes: 20 points) while. A. doesn’t like. ______ the burglar (find) ______ his glasses he (run) ______ out of the house. 5. 1.1. she does … looks …. plant. Where no verb is given. announcements. understand. and. 3. creates. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form in the gaps. say.1-5. put one of the following linking words into the gaps. 1. She is … She writes … answers… meets … types … puts … helps … reminds … works…. voice. ______ unfortunately for him. modality and mood E.1. before. 3. 1. 2. finally. 4.1. when The Unlucky Burglar One evening Paul (watch) ______ the television ______ (eat) ______ his supper ______ the door suddenly (open) ______ and a burglar (come) ______ in.Tense. and he (fall) ______ over it.2 not be comparable to those given above. B.

were your parents living (an action that began before. 1. A. am seeing. 3. were. 8. struck. fell. personal plans. 4. is thinking. gave. desire. actions annoying the speaker. 4. did you see. hit. 5. tore. was pouring (action in progress at a specified time). 2. 6. am having. made. B. an action in progress at a certain past moment. was talking (action in progress at a specified time). plans for the near future. saw. aspect. 7. 7. were having (action in progress at a specified time). 7. are you being.5. does not hear.3. 10. 2. temporary action. went. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. please revise section 5. put out. 5. an action in progress at a certain past moment. like. 1. am studying. happened. heard.. 4. temporary behavior. struck.3-5.4. am being. action happening at the speech moment. 4. 6. annoying events in the past. came. hear. 1. 1. 9. SAQ 5. 2. are playing. 6.Tense. 3. are growing. two actions going on at the same time in the past.7. lasted. 8. 5.4 not be comparable to those given above. am dining. smelt. 5. was drinking (simultaneous actions in progress). 8. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. missed B. am going. was staying (an action that began before. 6. 1. called. blew. do you smell. had. lost. SAQ 5. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). was always inviting (a frequently repeated past action. turned.? Did he need …? Did he begin …? Did one of the branches break? Did Tommy fall and hurt …? Did the eggs break? Did they taste nice? Did you last go. A. 7. 2. does your library contain. voice. tastes. started. 2. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). which annoyed or pleased the speaker). tore.1. did not burn. 5. started. 6. Did it lay five eggs? Did Tommy see the nest? Did he climb the tree? Did he hold …? Did he take …? Did he put .6. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. is giving. am working. came.. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. 7. care. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). planted. with the verbs get and grow transition from one state to another SAQ 5. killed. 3. thinks.2 SAQ 5. was eating. A. think. am smelling. B. 1. modality and mood SAQ 5. are you growing. 3. 169 . was working (an action that began before. 4. 3.

7.3. b) present prefect simple. hasn’t written. c) present prefect simple. am going to plant.4 SAQ 5. past perfect. had been. 3. 1.3 and 5. past perfect. had not done. had scarcely entered. 6. please revise section 5. 5. 3. have been driving. SAQ 5. asked. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.3. B. have written. 4. wrote. 1. 4. Will she find. will come and give. 6. had been watching. has earned. 5.2. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.2. arrived. 9.9 not be comparable to those given above. are just going to leave. and 5. 6. has the child been watching. wondered.1.11. had studied. had been writing. will help. has just rung. have you written. 2. 2. had been studying. B. 4. did you write. decorated.10 not be comparable to those given above. 2. had left. 5. past simple. 3.1. filled. aspect. 8. d) present perfect progressive.11 not be comparable to those given above.12. had been planning. 1.9. past simple. had rung him up. 170 .Tense. A. 4. 3.1. 5.8 not be comparable to those given above.2. had broken. 2. 1. had prepared. wrote. had. 1.3.2. 3. wrote. past perfect. SAQ 5. have (you) been driving.2. 4.7 not be comparable to those given above.2 SAQ 5. 10. had he left. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5. 4. wrote. 1. 5. is going to play. 2. modality and mood NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. had left.2.1. please revise section 5. 6. had.3. have been earning.3. had Mary been watching. had the lion ever left. 5. began.3. has he watched. had been supplying. had studied. 2. 3. is not going to finish. 3.2. had listened. a) present perfect progressive. is going to sink. had watched. wrote. 5. voice. hardly had the car gone. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. please revise section 5. will walk.2. 2. and 5.8. is not going to rain. past simple.2. please revise 5. did Mozart write. returned.2. had watched. SAQ 5. 4. please revise section 5. 7. 9. have driven. has been ringing. has he earned. 6. had closed. 7. 8.2. had kept. will go and get.5-5. had Jim been studying.10. A. 8. 6. had been rising.3.

1. 8.4. 7. and 5. have never been able to. 2. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. have been able to. less likely possibility in the future. he is already able to. please revise section 5. 10. obligation imposed by the speaker. 6. refusal of permission. present possibility.2. possibility that an action was going on at a certain time in the past.14. ability.2. 9. 3. SAQ 5.4. possibility. 2. used to be able to. will have been working. 4. Passengers were squashing one another to get into the bus. 8. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.12 not be comparable to those given above.2. 5. permission in indirect speech. a less likely possibility in the past. 1. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. aspect.1. 5. 6. 5. possibility (note that in questions may is replaced by do you think. A long-necked young man wearing a hat was grumbling at the man standing next to him because he was jostling him. SAQ 5. will have returned.6. 7.4. 3. 2. not used. 171 . SAQ 5. inability in the past. possibility. 7.3. 9. modality and mood NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. 5. will have been taking. hadn’t been able to. 4. B. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. 3.14 not be comparable to those given above. present possibility of something happening now. SAQ 5. 5. past ability. 1. obligation imposed by others.2 SAQ 5. 8. 7.4.13 not be comparable to those given above. please revise section 5.1. will be interviewing. 4. external obligation. logical necessity (deduction). permission. will have been living.13.16. permission. will be performing. wasn’t able to. 6. will be able to. 4.16 not be comparable to those given above. negative deduction. will be able to.2.15 not be comparable to those given above. 1.2.4.Tense. 2. 3. 5. future ability. voice. please revise section 5. be likely. 10. will have bought. Seeing a vacant seat. It was midday. weren’t able to. the young man precipitated toward it and sat down. an action was not necessary in the past. 7. past ability.7 and 5. 2. please revise section 5. 6. to be able to.4. 1. A. 6.2. 8.24.17.15. less likely possibility. 3. 5. please revise section 5. asking for permission. 4.4. obligation deriving from regulations.3.8. you washed it although it was unnecessary.

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

obligation deriving from regulations; 9. absence of obligation at present; 10. obligation deriving from regulations. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.17 not be comparable to those given above, please revise section 5.4.3.

SAQ 5.18.
1. typical behavior in the present; 2. typical behavior in the past; 3. insistence; 4. an obligation at the moment of speaking; 5. unfulfilled past obligation; 6. unfulfilled obligation to perform an ongoing action at a moment in the past; 7. logical necessity; 8. logical necessity in the past. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5.18 not be comparable to those given above, we advise you to revise sections 5.4.4.

SAQ 5.19.
1. took; 2. spoke; 3. stopped; 4. slipped; 5. had not eaten; 6.7. had been; 8. had just come.

SAQ 5.20.
1. suggested; 2. proposal, should buy; 3. important, should learn; 4. lest, should forget; 5. agreement, should organize; 6. for fear, should see; 7. if, should win; 8. so that, should not get.

SAQ 5.21.
1. so that, clause of purpose; 2. afraid, expression of fear; 3. that, clause of purpose; 4. fear, expression of fear; 5. afraid, expression of fear. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5.19 - 5.2.1 not be comparable to those given above, please revise section 5.5.4.

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Adjectives and adverbs

UNIT 6
Adjectives and adverbs

Objectives 6. 1. Adjectives 6.1.1. Semantic classes 6.1.2. Order of adjectives 6.1.3. Comparison of adjectives 6.1.4. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison 6.1.5. Formation of adjectives 6.1.5.1. Derived adjectives 6.1.5.2. Compound adjectives 6.1.5.3. Participial adjectives 6.2. Adverbs 6.2.1. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form 6.2.2. Comparison of adverbs 6.2.3. Syntactic functions of adverbs 6.2.4. Semantic classification of adverbs 6.2.5. Order of the adverbs Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6.1 – 6.11

174 174 175 176 177 178 181 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 188 192 194 194 195 195 198

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Adjectives and adverbs

Aim
This unit focuses on the basic forms, meanings and syntactic roles of adjectives and adverbs.

Objectives
By the end of this unit, you will be able to:  define the main morphological and semantic characteristics of adjectives and adverbs;  identity different semantic classes of adjectives and adverbs;  form the comparative and superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs correctly;  define the main functions of adjectives and adverbs in the clause;  form adjectives and adverbs from other word-classes by derivation;  locate adjectives and adverbs correctly in the clause.

6. 1 Adjectives
Adjectives are words that modify nouns. Adjectives commonly specify the properties or attributes of a noun referent: The house is old. I’ve bought a new car. However, they vary considerably in their form, their syntactic functions and the types of lexical and grammatical meanings they express. Adjectives may be used attributively or predicatively. As attributes, adjectives modify nominal expressions; they occur as constituents of the nouns phrase and typically precede the head noun: That is a nice old wooden cottage. In a few fixed expressions adjectives occur after the noun: attorney general, God Almighty, heir apparent, notary public, etc. Modifying adjectives can also occur as predicatives and characterize the nominal expression in subject position: Francesca was charming, but Blanche was sweet.

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Adjectives and adverbs

Certain adjectives can be used only predicatively: well, ill, and adjectives prefixed by a-: afraid, ajar, akin, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake: For several days, she was ill. Are your people still alive? Others are used only attributively: elder, live, little, sheer, mere, lonely, sick, etc.: He was a sick man. His elder brother, Richad Damory, was more prominent. Ann Catt was a lonely, devoted soul.

SAQ 6.1
Paying attention to which adjectives are normally used only attributively and which are used only predicatively, write short sentences with the adjectives shown in brackets. The first has been done for you. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) the concern (chief): the door (ajar); the kittens (asleep) the slopes (sheer) the street (main) the volunteers (ready) our dog (afraid) the reason (principal) her baby (alone) Health is her chief concern . ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ………………………………………

6.1.1. Semantic classes
Adjectives typically characterize the referent of a nominal expression: a cheerful young British nurse the little grey stone statues In addition, they are gradable in meaning, in other words they can denote degrees of a given quality. This means that they can be modified by an adverb of degree (very young, highly successful). They also take the comparative and superlative forms (younger, youngest).

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general./ poss. the order is the one exemplified below: det. human. (= connected with area or showing a chemistry’). new.2. their order is fixed to a certain degree. Order of adjectives When two or more adjectives modify a noun. or religious group to which a Democrat referent belongs) topical (giving the subject chemical. fine. long. Descriptors are typically gradable and denote such features as the following: meaning color/brightness size / quantity / extent and weight chronology / age / frequency emotion / evaluation adjectives black. official./ numeral quality age size shape color origin material purpose poss. large. late. medical. young bad. For adjectives that modify nouns denoting objects. Chinese. oral. relationship with a noun) legal. little. They are typically non-gradable: characteristics relational / classificational / restrictive adjectives additional. white dark. commercial. different. huge. beautiful. daily. high annual.Adjectives and adverbs We can distinguish two broad semantic groups of adjectives: descriptors and classifiers. complete. bright big. Christian.1. old. final. my two old tiny oval blue Chinese the large cinema her new French steel tennis noun vases hall racket For adjectives that modify nouns denoting events. good. The rules for the order of the adjectives are still a matter of dispute among grammarians. necessary ethnic (designate the national American. political 6. initial. his the cardinal two ordinal previous future second speakeroriented disgusting possible subjectoriented angry manner friendly American thematic/ ethnic noun reaction agreements invasion 176 . by placing it in relation to other referents. the order is given below: det. following. right Classifiers delimit or restrict a noun’s referent.

cement.1.2. using the degree adverbs more and most. round. Monosyllabic adjectives usually take the inflections -er. thick) table (low.3. our. Comparison of adjectives Adjectives that are capable of representing degrees of a property are said to be gradable. -est to mark the comparative and the superlative degree.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. damp. damp. a. his. the) 1) those three tiny birds. oval. 6. medium-sized) puppy (four-week-old. while longer adjectives usually take phrasal comparison. type of marking inflectional phrasal comparative stronger more difficult superlative the strongest the most difficult Non-gradable adjectives are not capable of expressing degrees of a property and cannot be used in the comparative or superlative degree: *more previous *very motionless *most continuous 177 . Gradable adjectives can be specially marked to denote comparative and superlative degree either inflectionally or phrasally. all) pumpkins (ten. warm) carpet (heavy. their) baby (lively. ten) basement (cool. long) steps (narrow. three) quilts (six. a. those. six-month-old) dress (satin. white. thick. Arrange the adjectives given in brackets in the correct order: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) birds (tiny. her.

really tremendous. full. SAQ 6. which is even more rude. Music in France remained more dancelike. more full of flavor. on the other hand. proud. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison Certain adjectives take alternatively either inflectional or phrasal marking of the degrees of comparison. rude): His face was fuller. together with the amount of money possessed by each child. and weight of each child in a group of three children. 178 .3 The following table gives the age. fierce. Denise 12 140 40 90 Ray 11 154 43 70 Carl 10 135 45 25 6. a) Some monosyllabic adjectives (fair. can be modified by emphatic adverbs: quite motionless.1. Somebody told me the truth. And the people in that region are much ruder. his lips had become swollen-looking. height.Adjectives and adverbs Some non-gradable adjectives.4. Make up clauses with adjectives in the comparative and superlative degree: Child's Name Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) Money (dollars) Compare the following: Ray – Carl Denise – group Ray – Denise Carl – group Ray is older / taller / heavier / richer than Carl.

depending on phonological or morphological characteristics. funny. to university. secure): Things are mellower. It seemed more proper to pay tribute to her in this way. shallow which end in an unstressed vowel can also be inflected. with varying degrees of frequency: He had a more lively personality than others.the easiest. friendly. much / many – more – the most. The party leaders showed livelier interest in political power than in the city's welfare. crazy. dimmer. happier. Most disyllabic adjectives (proper. sincere. carrying both inflectional and phrasal markers: This way it’s more easier to see the effects. Disyllabic adjectives such as mellow. or the luckiest of them all. unluckiest person on earth. lively) take both types of comparison. gentle. dimmest. bad – worse – the worst. -le. In conversation.Adjectives and adverbs b) Disyllabic adjectives vary considerably in occurrence with inflectional or phrasal comparison. c) Trisyllabic adjectives in -y sometimes take inflectional comparison: What can I do to relax? Sometimes I feel like the unhappiest. Other disyllabic adjectives which are sometimes inflected are those ending in –er. The adjectives good. adjectives are occasionally doubly marked for degree. lucky. safer. much / many have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms more: good – better – the best. lucky – luckier – the luckiest: I had to watch my luckier mates going to college. Adjectives ending with the suffix -ly (costly. little – less – the least. pretty) usually take -er. bad and the quantifiers little. deadly. The addition of -er and -est can involve regular spelling changes to the adjective stem. narrow. busy. -re or –ure (clever. gloomy. 179 . happy. -est to mark the comparative and the superlative: easy -.easier -. heavy. safest).tidiest). final -y is changed into -i if a consonant letter precedes it (tidy – tidier . Disyllabic adjectives ending in the unstressed vowel -y (angry. rapid) take a phrasal marker of degree: The governments encourage a more rapid growth. big – bigger – the biggest). Silent -e is omitted before adding the suffix (safe. a single consonant is doubled after a single vowel letter (dim. She felt much happier after the discussion. nasty.

180 . Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) The bread tastes even ___________ than the rolls. 9) The time remaining grew increasingly short. 8) The soil is becoming increasingly dry. 6) Her work is getting increasingly good. (little) 4) We have ___________ honey than we need. The wind is becoming stronger and stronger. 3) The child’s hands were increasingly dirty. (good) 2) He does not want to walk ___________ than necessary.5 Rewrite each of the following sentences in the space provided below. or become: I watched the balloon becoming bigger and bigger. (far) 3) Ann drinks ___________ coffee than Jim does. SAQ 6. The wind is becoming increasingly strong. (bad) Repeated comparative adjectives Two identical comparatives are sometimes conjoined by and to form a structure that denotes an ever-increasing degree of the adjective. 7) The trees are growing increasingly tall. 4) The situation is growing increasingly bad. The mist became increasingly thick. (much) 5) The weather was ___________ yesterday than it is today. 1) It was increasingly dark outside and I couldn't see much. grow. 2) The grass is becoming increasingly green. It was more and more difficult to get into the laboratory. Typically.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. the repeated adjectives function predicatively after the copular verb get.4 Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the comparative forms of the irregular adjectives given in brackets. 5) It is becoming increasingly clear that this problem will not be easily solved. using the construction in which the comparative form of the adjective is repeated. 10) She is increasingly weak because of her illness.

In addition. Denominal and deverbal adjectives are derived respectively from nouns and verbs. Formation of adjectives New adjectives can be formed with derivational affixes and by compounding. I remember Grandma telling us to go hunt for some ground squirrels or anything eatable for meat. Derived adjectives Many adjectives are derived by affixing an adjectival suffix to a base form. 181 .1. The most common derivational adjective suffixes are: noun stem person care home wood nerve verb stem eat excite correspond suffix -al -ful -less -en -ous suffix -able -ing -ent derived adjectives personal careful homeless wooden nervous derived adjective eatable exciting correspondent Having good personal relationships is the most important thing for me. and in the center of the room sat the teacher. participial forms can be used as adjectives. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 6.5.1. The horse may be nervous of cars.1. Little boys crowded together on long wooden benches.5. 6.Adjectives and adverbs Write your answers in the space provided below.

6. to go early. (critic) Why are you so …………………. 2. 3.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. (advise) It would be ………………………. …. (real) We used a more …………… approach to the problem. 10.. The compound open-minded is derived from a noun phrase (an open mind) to which -ed has been suffixed. 7. Compound adjectives Formally. (help) She stood there ……………. compound adjectives take many shapes. 4. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. not knowing what to do. Looking after a child is a full-time job (= hard work that takes a lot of time). of everything I do? (influence) He is a very …………………………. 5. The sort of people who live and work here are well educated and open-minded. by one failure. (courage) Don’t be ……………………….2. (magnet) He has a …………………………… personality.stage. (glory) It’s a ………………………….5. Compounds can also be composed of an adjective plus noun (full-time) or an adverb plus adjective (over-protective).. You look smart in this grey-bluish suit! Parents can easily become over-protective of their children (= want to protect them too much). protective). However. Furthermore. The component elements can themselves be derived (bluish. Adjectives can be added to other adjectives (grey-bluish). 6. The following list shows the common adjectival patterns: 182 . as in world-renowned. 8. 9. appearance.6 Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in parentheses. the element in an adjectival compound that is suffixed with -ed or -ing is most often a verb. (boy) Don’t be deceived by his ……………….. person.1. day for a picnic. (experiment) My work is still in the …………. many compound adjectives involve participial forms.

ready-made. bitter-sweet clean shaven. life-long. whitewashed. a) thick-skinned b) left-handed c) strong-willed d) coolheaded 2) How old are you when you become .. free-market. rapidly-growing dark-blue. they are so …. wellfed. you are . iron-rich. new-born. 183 . -headed. a) get on with people they don’t know b) are very relaxed about things c) find going to places very easy d) don’t get stressed out by things. horse-drawn eye-catching. home-baked.7 Choose the right answer: 1) Politicians don’t seem to get hurt by criticism. largescale blown-out. paid up SAQ 6. sickly-smelling duty-free. gray-white.Adjectives and adverbs structure adjective + adjective adverb + ed-participle adverb + ing-participle adjective + color adjective adjective + other adjective adjective + ed-participle adjective + ing-participle noun+ adjective noun + ed-participle noun + ing-participle adjective + noun participle + adverbial particle compound adjectives bitter-sweet. a) cold b) warm c) hot d) boiling 5) Which of the following is NOT true? ‘Easy-going people ….? a) medium aged b) middle-aged c) in-the-middle aged d) mid-aged 3) Which of the following “heart” adjectives does not exist? a) warm-hearted b) cold-hearted c) soft-hearted d) hothearted 4) If you loose your temper easily... full-time. waisthigh classroom-based.. light-blue. hair-raising. well-meaning. well-timed. peacekeeping. good-looking. yellow-brown ill-suited. left-over. fast-food.

A number of adjectives ending in -ed have a special pronunciation: the last syllable is pronounced /id/ instead of the normal /d/ or /t/.3. though.Adjectives and adverbs 6. 8) The map was badly made and actually very (confused / confusing). employed) rather than directly to the verb: He makes many interesting comments. as with uninterested or unemployed. 184 . learned. wretched. 9) We were (amazed / amazing) at the long registration line. 2) Watch out for (falling / fallen) rocks along the road. 10) Billy is always (tiring / tired) after spending all afternoon in nursery school. 1) The new recruits were ok until they took the (demoralized / demoralizing) two-hour math test. 3) All the children were (excited / exciting) at the idea of going to the circus. 6) I am (finishing / finished) with this exercise! 7) Look! It's a (shooting / shot) star.1. nouns rather than verbs provide the base form as in interested and crowded. a learned professor (formal). that wretched woman. Participial adjectives A major subclass of adjectives can be distinguished by the -ed or -ing endings. a ragged jacket. as in my aged aunt (formal). These are known as participial adjectives and they are analyzed as derived from verb forms: verb determine annoy inflection -ed -ing participial adjective determined annoying In some cases. naked. In other cases. 4) The animals were (fascinating / fascinated) to the children. 5) The news about Jane's surgery was (disturbed / disturbing) and the whole class was very (upsetting / upset). a wicked man. These are: aged /eid id/.8 Choose the correct participial adjective for the context of the sentence. ragged. wicked. SAQ 6. a negative prefix attaches to the derived participial adjective (interesting.5.

.... 9) (reluctance) He went very ……………… . rather. .. There are certain changes in the spelling of derived adverbs. happy – happily.... soon). etc.. If the adjective ends in '-y'. (intention) Did he do that ..... c) derivational adverbs are formed by suffixing –ly to the base form of an adjective: adjective cheap suffix -ly adverb cheaply Not all adverbs ending in -ly are formed by the addition of -ly to an adjectival form.. (streetwise) and –wards (forwards..Adjectives and adverbs 6.......... we may distinguish three classes of adverbs: a) simple adverbs are single words (well... economic – economically.... Some adverbs are derived from adjectives that already end in -ly: In these cases the adverb is normally formed by zero derivation. 7) (grace) She walks very ……………………… .... he came late and missed the train...... or '-le'...)......... 5) (occasion) We hear him ... wounded....... 10) (method) He works very ………………..... quite...... etc. noun stem week father suffix -ly -ly adjective weekly fatherly adverb weekly fatherly Other suffixes used to form adverbs are: -wise... add '-ally': basic – basically.... replace the '-e' with '-y' (propable – probably.. 6) (heart) He gave us a very ..9 Complete the following sentences: use the correct form of the word in parentheses: 1) 2) 3) (fatal) He was . SAQ 6.. looking person..... b) compound adverbs are formed by combining two or more elements into a single word: everywhere (every + where).. If the adjective ends in ‘able'. backwards). '-ible'. 185 ........……………… .. lucky – luckily..... If the adjective ends in '-ic'..... terrible – terribly).. replace the 'y' with 'i' and add '-ly' (easy – easily..... 8) (hero) He behaved ………………………… ... Adverbs Morphologically.. welcome.. ? (athlete) He’s quite an . therefore (there + fore).2.. 4) (fortune) .....

as appropriate. (favorable) 7. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form In some cases. 3. (hot) 10. (quiet) ___________ situated farms often produce higher yields than other farms.1. and. pay attention to whether the word to be placed in the blank modifies a noun or a verb and complete the sentence with either the adjective given in brackets or the corresponding adverb. an adverb has the same form as a related adjective: The player hit a fast ball over the left fielder's head. 2. (light) The path was ___________ marked. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.10 For each of the following sentences. adjective He was learning fast. Whereas adjectives modify nouns. adjective The farmer must get up early. 5. adverb adjective hard high late little long loud low much straight wide adverb hard high late little long loud(ly) low much straight wide When an adverb does not differ in form from the corresponding adjective. 6. (relative) 9. at times. The moon appeared ___________ between the clouds. (unusual) 8.2. 1. adverbs basically modify verbs.Adjectives and adverbs 6. (cheerful) ___________ rain is forecast for tomorrow. adverb During early childhood boys tease and bully. ___________ weather conditions have prevailed for the past ten days. it is necessary to distinguish between the functions of adjectives and adverbs in order to determine which form should be used in a given situation. work late at night. (heavy) I opened the door ___________ and stepped outside. ___________ few people understand the situation. (clear) She waved ___________. SAQ 6. It was a ___________ Easter Sunday. (brief) 186 . 4. There was a ___________ rain in the morning.

Comparison of adverbs In general. He sleeps less than he used to. and are identical to the corresponding adjectives good. the quantifiers much and little: positive badly far little well much comparative worse farther / further less better more superlative worst farthest / furthest least best most The local people advanced farther into unknown territory. In some cases. With adverbs ending in -ly. She walked easily now and more slowly. use more for the comparative and most for the superlative: positive quietly slowly seriously comparative more quietly more slowly more seriously superlative most quietly most slowly most seriously He had to take life more seriously. comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for adjectives: -er or -est added to short adverbs: positive hard late fast comparative harder later faster superlative hardest latest fastest I shook him a little harder and made some noise. We should do that more often! Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms. 187 .2.Adjectives and adverbs 6. an adverb can be made comparative either with the use of more or with -er inflection: The moral is: don't transplant it any oftener than you must. bad and far.2.

linking: a) adverbs of manner express information about how an action is performed: His speed was dropping rapidly. 6. focusing. Semantic classification of adverbs Adverbs express several broad meanings in clause and in phrase structures: modal (or manner). (pron. (“increasingly frequently”) As time passed.2. direction or distance: They built a house nearby.Adjectives and adverbs When used in making comparisons.) Misunderstanding has almost zero possibility. It rains more and more frequently. a pronoun and numeral or a noun phrase: Washed. Some of them are very delicious indeed.) (num. the positive form of an adverb is usually preceded and followed by as and the comparative form is followed by than: He moves as slowly as a snail.2. she saw less and less frequently her old friends. In Rome she intended to move very slowly indeed. adverbs may premodify an adjective. another adverb. 188 . b) adverbs of place show position.4.) Nearly everyone was impressed with their success. She took the child outside. She sings more beautifully than him. Enough and indeed may postmodify an adjective or adverb: It is simply not good enough for people to argue. Syntactic functions of adverbs Adverbs can be integrated into an element of the clause and serve as modifiers. Most commonly. The comparative forms of adverbs can be used in progressive comparisons: He worked harder and harder. they came out surprisingly clear and bright.) The struggle was over surprisingly quickly. (adj.3. circumstantial (time and place) degree. 6. (adv.

rarely seldom. downwards. etc. (before the main verb) You can always come and stay with us. northwards. I want stay in bed all day. expressing movement in a particular direction: backwards. Is it still raining? The public may still find pleasure in public places. She didn't come back for two days. You must also look upwards to see people. Still expresses continuity. it is used in positive sentences and questions and is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary or modal verbs: He still points an accusing finger at all of us.Adjectives and adverbs Other adverbs of place: ending in '-wards'. often. homewards. normally. c) adverbs of time convey information about when an action happened (position in time) but also for how long (duration) and how often (frequency): Yesterday I had a bad toothache. Adverbs expressing indefinite frequency (always. frequently. usually. forwards. onwards. Adverbs indicating position in time and duration are typically placed at the end of the sentence: We sold our horse last year. have. I have always been inclined to skepticism. (between auxiliary and main verb) Some other adverbs of definite frequency (expressing the exact number of times an action happens) are usually placed at the end of the sentence: Scrub the room once a week. sometimes. ever. (after the modal verb) I have never seen a tiger. upwards. must): He never drinks milk. I was six days going thither and coming homewards. may. occasionally. Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences and is placed at the end of the sentence or after not: Have you heard anything from him yet? The street cleaner had not yet been around. southwards. 189 . never) are usually placed before the main verb but after auxiliary or modal verbs (be.

after the verb to be and before the main verb: I honestly can't remember. Commenting adverbs (definitely. often tell false stories. obviously. I don't blame him I didn’t tell anyone. surely. This tool can also be made with a lathe. probably. are a big help so keep them if you can. these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the main verb: He has certainly forgotten us. honestly! (“this is my opinion”) (“what I say is true”) These adverbs are usually placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence and are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. undoubtedly. This would surely be a major step toward better living conditions.Adjectives and adverbs d) adverbs of viewpoint or attitude (honestly. Additive adverbs can occur at clause level or phrase level: Shade trees. undoubtedly) tell us about the speaker's viewpoint or opinion about an action or make some comment on the action: Personally. The job also covers a number of other items. Adverbs of certainty (certainly. f) additive adverbs show that one item is being added to another (too. definitely. They emphasize the importance of one part of the proposition by restricting the truth value of the proposition to that part (especially. certainly. He. especially boys. only): People of your age. too. surely) go before the main verb but after the copulative verb to be: I certainly did not want to go back. g) restrictive adverbs focus attention on a certain element of a clause. also). but they go in a different position . e) adverbs of certainty express how sure we feel about something. I definitely remember sending the letter. personally. 190 . too. The train has obviously been delayed. surprisingly. seriously. simply) are very similar to viewpoint adverbs and often the same words. This is surely a major work. believes in good intentions. If the sentence contains an auxiliary (except do).

scarcely. Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree' normally comes after the adjectives and adverbs it modifies Is your tea sweet enough? You don’t drive fast enough. paragraphs or longer thus contributing to its cohesion. very. Altogether it was a great evening. slightly. less. (adjective) (adverb) I) linking adverbs are used to connect stretches of the text: clauses sentences.  before the main verb: The pain in his chest nearly brought him down again. quite. This tea is too sweet. Firstly. The food was good and we loved the atmosphere and the people. He drives too fast. completely. enough. just.Adjectives and adverbs h) adverbs of degree (almost. I didn’t know exactly when I was going to America. an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs of degree are usually placed:  before the adjective or adverb they are modifying: This was a slightly different matter. namely pensioners. rather. overall In the general election the number of candidates in the fifteen constituencies was 14. (adjective) (adverb) Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' goes before adjectives and adverbs. thirdly. secondly. The main semantic categories are:  enumeration and addition (first.  apposition: namely One group of people seems to be forgotten. quite) tell us about the intensity or degree of an action. additionally) The problems were numerous. nearly. Overall. 191 . who was going to look after my son?  summation: altogether. half of them were serious candidates. too. secondly.

We. thus allowing many more people the chance of higher education. alternatively. I was pleased it was over. thus There is still much to discuss. duration frequency time Several adverbs expressing the precise time when the event took place are ordered from the shortest to the longest unit of time: He was born at 10 o’clock in the morning on 2 November.2. for an hour. therefore. This conclusion is. however Urbanization appears to be an important factor in the disintegration of this group.  contrast or concession: though. Alternatively. it would have to be fitted outside the window reveal. This type of window would not be suitable for a festoon or ruched blind. 6. time If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence.5. 1995. Order of the adverbs If several adverbs appear in a clause they are typically used in the order: manner/place/time sequence: She sang He waited beautifully in the town hall quietly in the room manner place last night. however. an over-simplification. 192 . The universities have expanded. Strange though it may sound. use them in this order: duration – frequency – time: I worked on a farm for five days every week last year. return to this item at our next meeting.Adjectives and adverbs  result or inference: therefore.

Write your answers in the space provided below. 193 . When you have finished.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 1) This may be the last time a competition is organized in France for some years.11 Rewrite the following in the most straightforward word order. The first has been done for you. 1) for some years / in France /this may be the last time a competition is organized 2) every day of the week / in the park / after lunch / We see John running 3) to first year students / enthusiastically / Jim lectures / about folk art 4) on the main campus / the coach works / at the gym / every day of the week / in his office 5) at the edge / all summer / rapidly / in the marshes / of the pond / bacteria grow 6) in Cleveland / in the backroom / My father was born / of a farmhouse / 7) next week / to see her doctor / Jane made an appointment / at two o'clock 8) during the months of December and January / after dark / she leaves the island 9) the children whispered / on Christmas Eve / excitedly / in front of the tree 10) on Monday/ before we leave/ try to get back.

following a copulative verb (Sue is charming). A significant number of adverbs are formed from adjectives with the suffix -ly. frightened). typically preceding the noun (beautiful building) or predicatively. place). adverbs can express a large number of meanings. Key terms             additive adverbs adjective adverb attributive adjectives classifier comparison comparative compound adjectives degree adverb focus adverbs frequency adverbs gradable / ungradable            intensifier linking adverbs manner adverb negative adverb participial adjectives place adverb predicative adjectives restrictive adverbs superlative time adverbs viewpoint adverbs 194 . longer. focusing. The comparative and the superlative can be marked either inflectionally (long. Adjectives can be formed with derivation affixes (painful. adverbs can express the comparative and the superlative either inflectionally or phrasally. Nongradable adjectives do not share these characteristics. which means that they can take the comparative and superlative forms. relative (or linking) adverbs. most beautiful). Semantically. Many adjectives can denote degrees of a given quality and are therefore gradable. degree. mid or final position. Adverbs express a variety of meanings. A major class of adjectives. is represented by participial adjectives (charming. longest) or phrasally (more beautiful. They may be used either attributively. manner. viewpoint. identified by the – ing or -ed ending. the most important being circumstantial (time. Like adjectives. In a clause adverbs typically serve as verbal modifiers.Adjectives and adverbs Summary Adjectives specify the properties of the referent of the noun they modify. critically-ill). homeless) and compounding (openminded. Gradable adjectives modify to express grammatical meanings associated with the category of comparison. In the clause adverbs occupy various positions: initial.

Sidney Greenbaum. B. powerful C. Horia (2004). weightlifters. Iasi. Greenbaum. wedding dear. a puppy. Russian. my sensitive. 216-243. True or False? (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Adjectives may be gradable or non-gradable. Several adjectives modifying a noun appear in a fixed order. Longman. Syntheses in English Morpgology. gorgeous. Quirk. Jan Svartvik (1976). Sydney and Randolph Quirk (1991). Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 A. Hulban. 160 – 175. Those are probably the ___________ curtains in the store. 229297. Randolph. London: Longman. old. Place the adjectives in the proper order: (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) cute. Mark and Diane Hall (2003). granddaddy. a) an old sweet b) a sweet. Geoffrey Leech. Uncle Carl is really ___________ man. little a dress. Most adjectives are identifiable as such by their form. intelligent. The predicative position for adjectives is after a linking verb. reading a several. old c) a sweet old 195 . old-fashioned. a) fancyest b) fanciest c) most fanciest 2. London: Longman. The attributive position is before a noun. Choose the right word paying attention to spelling: (10 min: 10 points) 1. Labrador.Adjectives and adverbs Further reading Foley. Think about adjectives. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. Advanced Learner’s Grammar. 129-203. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Editura Spanda.

English 4. What could make for ___________ Christmas than that? a) a merryer b) the merriest c) a merrier 5. 6) This coffee tastes too sweet. Everyone was home for the holidays. new. new economics c) that interesting.Adjectives and adverbs 3. 3) There are two classes of pedestrians: the quick and the dead. comfortable c) a comfortable little 6. In the fall. a) worse b) worst c) worser D. a) a fine English b) an English. 196 . a) comfortable. The Austin used to be ___________ sports car. Jerry is surely ___________. economics 8. fine c) a fine. The Titanic is the ___________ movie I've ever seen. 2) Try to be early from now on. Of all the mechanics in the shop. a) that interesting new Japanese economics b) that Japanese interesting. They grew up in ___________ house in New York. a) the less competent b) the least competent c) the competentest 9. Japanese. Decide whether the underlined words are adjectives or adverbs: (5 min: 8 points) 1) Take her easy. 8) Present is a point. a) foggy b) more foggier c) foggier 10. a) most excited b) most exciting c) most excitable 7. little b) as little. the valleys tend to be ___________ than the hilltops. just passed. 4) Her hair was clean and brushed straight down to her shoulders. My cold is definitely ___________ this morning. 5) I’ll put it away if you don’t behave right. Jill wanted to take a course with ___________ professor. 7) Something has gone terribly wrong.

T/F Most adverbs are gradable. they are unyielding. mid and end-position. 10) The Martins built a lovely house nearby. Tell me why you were getting home late. T/F No word can operate as both adjective and adverb. T/F Most adverbs of time can take front-position. certainty. T/F Adverbs of place are usually not found in mid-position. time. This is not interrogative. T/F Sentence adverbs never take end-position. place. socially. He is well connected. Underline the adverbs in each sentence and identify them by their type: manner. How do brown cows steadily eat green grass and always give white milk? Surely you can’t be serious? (Be careful. T/F Adverbials appear in a manner/place/time sequence. stylistically. (15 min: 14x=28 points ) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Jenny does not quite know what she will do after graduation. T/F F. you should always drive the speed limit. I regularly forget my homework. racially. Think about adverbs.) 9) You obviously enjoyed your vacation. relative and viewpoint or commenting. T/F Common adverbs end in -ly. True or False? (5 min: 9x2=18 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) There are three clause positions for adverbs: front. The puppies devoured their food greedily. Insert in the following adverbs in appropriate places: (5 min: 7x2=14 points) historically. G. politically. constitutionally.Adjectives and adverbs E. Jack quietly asked Helen to wait patiently for him. interrogative. Theoretically. formally 1) 2) Though not ‘true enemies’. T/F Adverbs can premodify pronouns. 197 . degree.

The volunteers are ready. SAQ 6. 6. H.1. A fine old woman / here / two weeks ago / in London / I met. Joanna made an appointment next summer to see her doctor next July at two o’clock on the first Thursday. Maria prays at St. 4. The war was the culmination of the nineteenth century. . for all that. The kittens are asleep. The door is ajar. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. 5. This is the main street. Correct the following sentences: (5 min: 7x2=14 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) She only grew to be four feet tall. 1. …the principal reason… 9. Bad socialism isn’t. Assume no special emphasis is needed but aim to write wellbalanced sentences: (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I’m / there / to tell you the truth / when he’s on duty / very rarely. At nine thirty / the exam starts / on Thursday the fifth / promptly. Make sentences from the following elements. 7. Dry the car with a soft fluffy towel carefully. better than capitalism. a European rock star. Is that music loud enough? She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually. 198 . – 6. Steadily / for the rest of the day / in the garden / they worked. I.11. 3. Most of the new towns are still villages. The dog is afraid (of people). They reported that John Brown. Their chief concern was to solve the problem. 8.Adjectives and adverbs 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The sentences are too long and complex. Total points for SAA 6: 122 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6. The British are mixed.1. 2.Her baby is alone. had issued a new album on the six o’clock news. After lunch / to your place / actually / to return the money / if it’s convenient / I could come. …the sheer slopes…. Matthew’s Church fervently for her grandmother’s recovery.

9. 2. 4. 9. It was darker and darker outside and I couldn't see much. b. more. our warm. 10. please revise sections 6. The child’s hands were dirtier and dirtier. 10. 9.1 – 6. disturbing. 10. 1. boyish. 5. 1. d. Ray is younger / shorter / lighter / poorer than Denise. 3. SAQ 6. magnetic. heroically. 6. 10.3.1. 4. SAQ 6. 5. excited. Should your answers to SAQs 6. advisable SAQ 6. finished. 5. Her work is getting better and better. all six thick quilts. worse SAQ 6. her lively. 5. SAQ 6. heavy. less. 4. The soil is becoming drier and drier. 199 . Fortunately. Should your answers to SAQs 6.5. Ray is older / taller / heavier / richer than Carl. 6. critical. 5. influential. 1. 8.7. SAQ 6. methodically.1. 4. heartily. farther. 9.4. tired.5. 3. 2. 7. 9. 4. not be comparable to those given above. 4.8. The grass is becoming greener and greener.6. round carpet.5. 7. a.3. 10. 6. 3. 3.2. 4. c. 1. shooting. fatally. intentionally. experimental. oval table. Carl is the youngest / shortest / lightest / poorest child in the group. helpless. demoralizing.1. 8.3. 2. The time remaining grew shorter and shorter. not be comparable to those given above. 8. a thick. 3. a. Should your answers to SAQs 6.1. 3. 2. The mist became thicker and thicker.1 – 6. 1 – 6. 6. 3. please revise sections 6.5. a long white satin dress. It is becoming clearer and clearer that this problem will not be easily solved. his ten mediumsized pumpkins. She is weaker and weaker because of her illness. amazed. confusing. gracefully. damp basement. 3. 2. 8. 1.3. discouraged. 7. The trees are growing taller and taller. 2. damp. SAQ 6. ten narrow cement steps.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. 1. 1. 4. The situation is growing worse and worse. 6. reluctantly. the cool. 7. their low. falling. not be comparable to those given above.8. 8. 2. glorious. realistic.4 – 6.6 – 6. 2. 5. please revise sections 6. athletically. Denise is the oldest / tallest / heaviest / richest child in the group. 5.1. 9. better. four-week-old puppy. fascinating. 8. those three tiny birds. occasionally.4. 1. 7. six-monthold baby.

2. briefl. 5. The children whispered excitedly on Christmas Eve in front of the tree. Favorably. 6. 8.9 – 6. 2. Bacteria grow rapidly at the edge of the pond in the marshes all summer. 4. 200 . clearly. 3. Relatively. light. The coach works at the gym in his office on the main campus every day of the week. 9.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. Jim enthusiastically lectures to his students about folk art. 1. 4. quietly. SAQ 6. 1. cheerfully. 7. heavy. This may be the last time a competition is organized in France for some years. please revise section 6. Jane made an appointment to see her doctor at two o’clock next week.10. 10. Try to get back before we leave on Monday. 3. She leaves the island after dark in the months of December and January.11 be comparable to those given above. 7.11. We see John running in the park after lunch every day of the week. 8. 5. My father was born in the backroom of a farmhouse in Iowa. 10. hot. 2. Unusual. 6. Should your answers to SAQs 6. 9.

Affixes can also be called inflectional and derivational morphemes. if it is gradable.Glossary of grammatical terms Glossary of grammatical terms Active voice There is no morphological marker of the active voice. verbs (to work slowly). An affix may be a prefix or a suffix. may be intensified. Aspect is often indicated by verbal affixes or auxiliary verbs. terribly difficult. and may take comparative (taller) and superlative (tallest) degrees. (e. to which the noun refers. ripe apples Adjective phrase Adverb Adverb phrase Affix Aspect Attributive adjectives 201 . Adjective An adjective is a word that modifies nouns. An adjective. etc. Jack has woken up. An adjective qualifies the person. In contrast to tense.g. An adjective can be intensified by an adverb (as in very strong. place or direction. manner (She speaks softly). age (an old woman). The term attributive refers to the position of an adjective in a noun phrase.) An affix is a bound morpheme which adds lexical or grammatical information to a root or stem. Adjectives typically give us information about size (a tall man). i.e. the subject of an active verb phrase is the 'doer of an action': Ann is drinking coffee. Aspect is a grammatical category characteristic of verbs that expresses a temporal contour of events. or sentences for such categories as time (He left early). A phrase with an adverb as its head. etc. We say that an adjective is attributive or is used attributively when it comes before a noun (and therefore is part of a noun phrase): a young student. Typically. other adverbs (really superbly). The head may be preceded by an intensifier (another adverb: even faster. A phrase with an adjective as its head. their duration (She is writing a letter now) and their being accomplished or not (She has just written a letter). I will come back soon. more popular). -s and -ed in play-s and play-ed). The English verb phrase can be marked for two different aspects: the progressive (be –ing) and the perfective (have –en). color (red tulips). Adjective phrases function as modifiers of nouns (fertile land) or as predicatives (The land is fertile). too abruptly) and followed by a postmodifier (usually a clause: more slowly than he expected. aspect does not locate an action/state in time. thing. An adverb is a word that typically modifies any class of words (except nouns) such as adjectives (extremely hot).

English distinguishes a common case. have. Clauses can be main clauses or subordinate clauses. finite clause non-finite (present) participial clause finite clause When arriving there. and adjectives of time (new. marked by ’s. On arriving there. the village seemed deserted. they found the village deserted. person or number or non-finite when the verb form does not express these. and expresses a complete thought. independent dependent Clauses can combine into larger units of thought. unmarked (boy) and a genitive case. and voice. tense. Central adjectives are adjectives which fulfill all the criteria for the adjective class: they are gradable. gerund. government) that may be considered either as individuals or as one larger entity. The group includes adjectives of size and dimension (big. and may be used attributively or predicatively. independent Case Central adjectives Clause John works on a farm where pesticides are used. non-finite gerundial clause Seen from the distance. Syntactically. number. non-finite (past) participial clause Collective noun A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of entities (family. small). can be modified by an adverb of degree. they found the village deserted. and they can be finite or non-finite.Glossary of grammatical terms Auxiliary An auxiliary verb is a verb which accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase. coordinate clause main clause coordinate clause subordinate clause They irrigated the land when they got the pumps. that is complete in itself. -ing participle. army. Case refers to the form of a noun to show whether it is subject. (boy’s). object. in two ways by means of coordination or subordination: They irrigated the land and used fertilizers. or dependent. they found the village deserted. Depending on the form of the verb. 202 . that is when the verb is in the infinitive. sentences. tall. -en participle: When they arrived there. such as person. young) A clause is a grammatical unit that includes a predicate and a subject. a clause may be independent. necessarily related to an independent clause: John works on a farm. a clause is finite. etc. when the verb form expresses tense. and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb. aspect. The auxiliary verbs are be. Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic or semantic function of a noun or pronoun. do. old.

The positive is the base form (good. quickly). a thing (book). It has the ability to take a plural form (books). a prepositional phrase (The trees are in flower) or a clause (The trouble is that the car is too expensive). tallest. grow His voice sounded strange on the phone. The room smelt damp. rather quite. become. You should drive more carefully. rice. many). The comparative indicates a higher degree (better. taller. exist. and to occur with cardinal numerals. The term refers to adverbs like enough. verbs of perception: look. which refers to separate entities. smell. distinct from the singular one (book). A noun is uncountable when we do not normally use a/an in front of it and it has no plural (water). and the superlative. tall. which broadly answer the question To what extent? Degree adverb 203 . Adverbs: He works harder / quicker than me. an action (laughter). a dog. taste or verbs that express a process of change: turn. a horse-drawn cart (compound adjective). most quickly). a quality (courage).Glossary of grammatical terms Common noun A common noun is a noun that signifies a nonspecific member of a group: a person (teacher). She turned pale. A concrete noun refers to people or things. to occur with characteristic determiners (such as a/an. very. Comparatives of adjectives and adverbs are formed with –er … (than) or more /less … (than) Adjectives: My coffee is hotter (than yours). A copulative/link verb is a verb which links a subject to a predicative realized by an adjective phrase (John is/looks very sick). fairly. a noun phrase (You are a good student). sound. Compound Concrete noun Copulative verb Countable / Uncountable A countable noun is a noun. more quickly). and the superlative indicates the highest degree (best. A compound is a word that is made up of two (or more) roots: blackboard (compound noun). which have physical existence: a doctor. feel. An old tractor is less expensive than an old one. the comparative. an animal (cat). That book looks interesting. Comparative Comparison The declension of adjectives/adverbs to indicate degree: the positive. Copulative verbs are mostly verbs of existence: be.

often. cacti /cactuses). that/those) and quantifiers (few. fly. A finite verb is a verb form that occurs in an independent clause.e. The extended verb phrase consists of a lexical verb at the head. voice. is reading. It is realized by several classes of determiners: articles (a/an. demonstrative determiners (this/that. demonstrative adjectives (this/these. others also have anglicized forms (sg. The order in which the auxiliaries occur is fixed and depends upon the grammatical meaning they convey. possessive determiners (my. little). may be walking. and is marked for: tense. their). Determiners are words that express the reference of a noun. aspect. read. the). Examples: will have arrived. indefinite determiners (some/any). voice. merely. bases). number. whose). i. relative determiners (whose. modality. Some have only foreign plurals (sg. her). cactus – pl. possessive adjectives (my. these/those). definiteness. The term refers to some plurals of nouns of foreign origin that are not formed with s. Verbs which are not dynamic are referred to as 'stative’. Examples: reads.Glossary of grammatical terms Determination A category specific of nouns. The distinction between stative and dynamic verbs is relevant for the use of the progressive aspect and the passive voice. aspect. they ‘determine’ the meaning of the noun. numerals. person. which). In a double genitive. run. both of which occur mostly with dynamic verbs. preceded by up to four auxiliaries. The genitive can be expressed by ’s-genitive (the farmer’s tools) or the of-genitive (the tools of the farmer). The term refers to adverbs like always. proximity and ownership. will read. Examples include the definite article (the) and indefinite articles (a/an). A dynamic verb refers to an activity. action or event: talk. Focus adverbs are adverbs like even. her. its. our. both constructions appear in the same phrase: a horse of my uncle’s (“one of my uncle’s horses”). interrogative determiners (which. Nouns of foreign origin are frequently used in scientific and technical contexts. basis pl. your. just. and only which can precede the word they modify to focus attention on it: Only Mary succeeded. etc. has read. or an s-genitive. usually which answer the question How often? Determiner Double genitive Dynamic verb Extended verb phrase Finite verb form Focus adverbs Foreign plurals Frequency adverbs 204 . The features of grammatical meanings which can be expressed in an extended VP include the following: tense. his. what. your. had read. which refers to such meanings as number.

number. Most adjectives are gradable. too. good enough) or form a comparative or superlative: shorter/ shortest. Adverbial Modifier) is a role of a noun phrase that determines syntactic behavior such as word position in a clause. she. Natural gender indicates that nouns may be classed in correlation with natural sex distinctions. Gradable is a term applied to adjectives. 205 . the head is the noun that refers to the same entity to which the whole phrase refers. object The villagers planted Subject Genitive Gradable / ungradable Grammatical category Grammatical relation apple trees Object on the hill. and to some adverbs. case. In nouns. mood. enough (very good. In English nouns denoting humans have natural gender while inanimate nouns are neuter. feminine. aspect. such as horse in a fine black horse. and a female noun (girl. agreement. A noun or a pronoun denoting a male (boy. he. So we can use an adjective with very. Genitive case (also called the possessive case) indicates possession. for example medical. Adverbial Modifier Apple trees were planted on the hill Subject Adverbial Modifier by the villagers. These are the verbal grammatical categories. voice. mother. Object. himself) is of masculine gender.Glossary of grammatical terms Gender Gender is a grammatical category that groups nouns and some pronouns in three classes: masculine. A grammatical category is a set of syntactic and semantic features that characterize word classes. or with the of-phrase (the door of the house). Adjectives are ungradable when we cannot modify them with very. the latter. the term refers to such notions as gender. The former is mainly used for people. herself) is of feminine gender. participation in such operations as passivization. father. A grammatical relation (Subject. and cannot make comparative and superlative forms. neuter. The genitive can be expressed in two ways in English: with apostrophe’s (John’s house). Verbs are characterized by tense. This means that we can imagine degrees in the quality referred to. for things. Here are some kinds of grammatical relations: subject. more interesting/most interesting. unique. In a noun phrase. These are the nominal grammatical categories. Complement. Prepositional Object Head (of a phrase) The head of a phrase is the element that determines the syntactic function of the whole phrase.

that expresses a grammatical meaning such as: agreement (in person and number). 206 . The indicative verb form differs from the others in varying for tense and aspect. Typical intensifiers are very. but the implied subject is 'you'. but it does not vary for tense. Intensifiers are adverbs which are used with gradable adjectives and adverbs (very slow/ very slowly) and in some cases. There are three classes of adverbs ending in –ly: Adverbs of manner: badly. Indicative (mood) The indicative mood represents an action as a fact or as in close relationship to reality. such a/an. Compare: Your work is good. Don’t talk. In the sentence She reads a story. reads is inflected for person (3rd person) and number (singular) by the suffix -s. aspect. A sentence such as Let's go home! where the implied subject includes the speaker as well as the hearer(s). so. He is extremely tired. is also imperative. typically by means of an affix. aspect. The indicative is used for most communicative purposes. Frankly. The verb working in must be working is a lexical verb. tense. or person/number. and in showing grammatical concord with the subject in the present tense. and mood. An imperative sentence characteristically contains no grammatical subject. I don't trust you.Glossary of grammatical terms Imperative (mood) The imperative is typically used to make commands: Go away. An intensifier normally strengthens the meaning. The imperative verb form (identical to the base form of the verb) is finite. Inflection is variation in the form of a word. happily: Intensifiers: extremely: Viewpoint adverbs: frankly: We played badly. particularly in negative imperatives: Don't you dare say that. Sometimes a subject may be included. verbs (I entirely agree). Inflection Intensifier Lexical verb -ly adverb A lexical verb is a verb that belongs to the primary verb vocabulary of a language. Sentences in the indicative can be either declarative or interrogative. Your work is very good. and –ly adverbs instead of very (extremely).

involving the affirmation of possibility. and of how words are inflected. the constituent hot is a modifier of soup. might. A nonfinite verb is a verb that is not fully inflected for the categories of tense. could Ability: can. the head of the construction. These modals have no nonfinite forms. after the first auxiliary (He has often gone to the USA). must. inflectional (in which case they represent grammatical suffixes). and before the main verb (I never drink coffee). shall/should. person and number: working (present participle). shall. bookish) or more (unreadable). impossibility. will/would. Adverbs of manner answer the question How? Most of them end in –ly and are formed from adjectives: badly. can. or an event is carried out. while the post modifier follows the head. A premodifier precedes the head. possibility. others of two (books. Morphemes can be lexical (in which case they refer to something). This term is often used in connection with adverbs of frequency. could Possibility: may. Mood is a verbal category that signals the relationship of the verb with reality and intent. Depending on their position in the phrase. In the phrase the hot soup. modifiers are of two types: premodifiers and postmodifiers. experience. In traditional terms. Modality is a type of meaning. need Permission: may. or derivational (in which case they represent an affix which changes the meaning and often the class of the word to which it is added). necessity. etc. should. The modal verbs are can/could. can. might. the imperative. may/might. which normally come after be when it is the only verb in the clause (He’s always late). permission. ought to. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit.Glossary of grammatical terms Manner adverb Manner is a semantic role that notes how the action. and the subjunctive. the conditional. 207 Mood Morpheme Morphology Non-finite verb form . Modality can be expressed by verbs (particularly modals). dare Obligation: must. ability or probability). and adverbials: Willingness/readiness: will. Morphology is the study of how morphemes combine into words. there are four moods: the indicative. would. happily. Some words are made up of one morpheme (book). There can only be one modal auxiliary proper in a verb phrase. have to. to work (infinitive). A verb that expresses modality (obligation. ought to. could Mid position Modal verb Modality Modifier A modifier is an optional constituent in a phrase that conveys information relating to the head of the construction.

A noun phrase generally includes one or more modifying words (the man next door). The past perfect: past tense + perfective aspect (He had come back) expresses that something took place at a point before another moment or action in the past. The passive voice is marked by the grammatical auxiliary be + past participle: The letter is/was written by Joe. (direct or indirect) objects of the verb. The past tense form of regular verbs ends in –ed: (play .wrote written). Perfective aspect 208 . The perfect or perfective aspect is a verbal category showing that something is completed. the past tense form is the second form cited (go . A noun phrase is a phrase that has a noun as its head.gone. etc. The agent (= the doer of the action) may be specified by means of a prepositional phrase (by Joe) or not.went . In the word boys.played . in order to identify them. The present perfect: present tense + perfective aspect (He has come back) expresses that something took place at an unspecified point in the past. or do in Do you study English? A participial adjective is the same form as a present participle of a verb (fascinating) or the past participle of a verb (fascinated ) and is used exactly like an adjective. The first auxiliary in an extended verb phrase. Number is a grammatical category of nouns and pronouns that expresses distinctions such as "one" or "more than one". which have special present tense forms for third person singular subjects (the girl sings vs. object of a preposition or attribute of a noun. the girls sing).Glossary of grammatical terms Noun Nouns are names given to people. In irregular verb conjugation. The fascinated audience applauded enthusiastically. and that this action may have some relevance to the present. things. as in No new errors were being made.played). Noun phrase Number Operator Participial adjectives Passive (voice) The passive is a category of the verb phrase. the pronoun him has a different form in the plural them. Past tense Past tense verbs most commonly refer to actions / events / states that belong to the past. Nouns may act as subjects. write . The subject of a passive clause is typically an affected participant (the letter). He told us a fascinating story. such as will in She will be coming. places. plural number is marked by the suffix -s. In English the perfective aspect is realized by the grammatical auxiliary have followed by a past participle. The category also applies to a certain extent to verbs.

second person (you. come down to. it is placed between the verb and the particle. herself. catch up with. our. we. switch off. If the object is realized as a pronoun. put up with. himself. yourself/yourselves. them. look forward to. his. Prepositional phrasal verb Prepositional phrasal verbs (get out of. get back to. and third person (he. she. it.Glossary of grammatical terms Person Person is a grammatical category of nouns. they. Phrasal verb Phrase A phrase is a word or group of words which can fulfil a syntactic function in a clause. verb phrases. Compare with prepositional verb. your. adverb phrases. first person plural. turn away from. myself. him. You seem happy. so that we get first person singular. etc. their. adjective phrases. ourselves. do with. etc. end up with) consist of a lexical verb combined with an adverbial particle plus a preposition. take after). That cottage is old. upstairs) or phrases (in hospital. its. hers. themselves. on the left) The term predicative refers to the position of an adjective in a clause. Adverbs of place are words or phrases that answer the question Where? Where to? Where from? They may be: single words (here. seem. and thus accompanied by a direct object. my. The category of person combines with that of number. become. A phrase is named after the most important word in it (the head): noun phrases. An adjective is predicative or is used predicatively when it comes directly after be. there. A phrasal verb may be transitive. We distinguish between first person (I. and determiners. us. yours). her. The verb system has special present tense forms with third person singular subjects: I like him He likes me. etc. get away with. away. Place adverb Predicative adjectives 209 . itself. pronouns. mine. Phrasal verbs can occur in the passive voice: The word was looked up. The verb and the particle form a close semantic unit. whose meaning is often not predictable from the meaning of the verb + the meaning of the particle (give + up). theirs). it tends to be placed after the particle: I looked this word / it up. I looked up this word. me. go out for. Phrasal verbs are combinations of a lexical verb with an adverbial particle (give up. ours). but if it is realized as a full noun phrase.

Besides noun phrases. in that the verb + preposition form a single semantic unit. In contrast to the particle in phrasal verbs. except for third person singular subjects. of. or as postmodifiers of noun phrases (The man with a black hat is my father) or complements of adjectives/adverbs at phrase level (He is fond of music). before. often in time or space. support. or they may combine with a verb to form a prepositional verb (to depend on). in. Compare: He looked after the dog. The dog was looked after. or any combination of aspect and voice (he has been sleeping).Glossary of grammatical terms Preposition Prepositions generally express a relation. or with the passive voice (he has been asked questions). Present tense Present tense verbs usually refer to actions/events/states that belong to the present time. However. the preposition in a prepositional verb always precedes the object: She pleaded with her friend not to go. Prepositions may also combine with a preposition or an adverb to form complex prepositions (out of. cause. apart from. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition + a noun phrase (in China. Prepositional phrase Prepositional verb A prepositional verb consists of a verb + a preposition. for a week). (after. What follows the preposition is called the complement of the preposition. They can also express relations of agency. 210 . Some prepositional verbs can also occur in the passive voice. etc. A present tense form can combine with the progressive aspect (he is sleeping). means. under). at. Prepositional phrases can function as adverbials at clause level (He worked in the field). He is in dispute with his parents about what to do in life / what he should do in life. with the perfective aspect (he has slept). Prepositions introduce prepositional phrases (after lunch). when the verb ends in -s. because of. by. the preposition is closely connected to the verb. or that have general validity. opposition. the complement of the preposition can be an -ing clause or an indirect question: He boasts about having seen all the countries in America. in which case the preposition stays with the verb rather than with the noun phrase. manner. below. over. on. The present tense form is identical to the base form of the verb. followed by an object. in front of).

the months of the year (March). and it may combine with derivational and inflectional affixes.Glossary of grammatical terms Progressive / non-progressive The progressive aspect is a verbal category with two meaning components: (limited) duration and (possible) incompletion. the progressive aspect denotes progress and incompletion (She is watching a film on TV). A root is a lexical morpheme.. a pretty woman). others with uncountable nouns (little time). A proper noun is used for a particular person (Julia). Reference is the relationship that a linguistic expression has with the concrete entity or abstraction it represents. (an old car. The progressive aspect is realized by the auxiliary be followed by an-ing participle. An adjective describes or qualifies the person or thing. which is thought to be unique. It is normally spelt with a capital letter. A quantifier expresses a referent's definite (two. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun.the emphasis is on the activity of reading). some with both kinds (plenty of books/time). four) or indefinite number (few. the root is popular. much). to which it refers. the noun pen refers to an object. Combined with the past tense. i. Here is an example of reference: the noun man refers to a person. a word or part of a word which has meaning. the progressive aspect denotes duration in the past and possible incompletion (She was reading last night -. the meaning is that an activity stretched from the past up to a specified point of time (They’ve been working all day). Proper noun Qualify Quantifier Reference Root 211 . place (Australia).e. etc. We use adjectives to say what a person or a thing is like. When the progressive aspect combines with the perfective aspect. and which cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units. The progressive aspect does not usually occur with stative verbs. etc. as these verbs denote permanent situations. In the word popularity. Articles are not generally used with proper nouns. etc. the noun storm refers to a natural phenomenon. little. plenty of) or amount (many. Some quantifiers combine with countable nouns (a few books). Combined with the present tense. while ity is a derivational affix (morpheme). It can function as a stem.

Semi-modal Also known as marginal modal auxiliaries. Compare: John hit Ben and Ben was hit by John. Mary loves cats. Ben has the semantic role of patient. the prepositional object. and subordinated to it by means of a subordinating conjunction (when. John cut the bread with a knife. semi-modals require doinsertion in negative and interrogative sentences (Do you need money?). but. although in the first John is the Subject of the clause. In both clauses. a horse). each sentence has a phonetic shape. while in the second. semi-modals (dare. without do-insertion in interrogative and negative sentences (You need not help her). A simple sentence consists of an independent clause. Sentences consist of one or more clauses. I bought mother a present.e. At the phonological level.Glossary of grammatical terms Semantic roles A semantic role is the relationship that a participant in a situation has with the main verb in a clause. Mother opened the door. semantic and phonological properties: The man feeds a horse. someone named John deliberately hits someone else named Ben. The main semantic roles are: Agent: Patient Beneficiary: Force: Instrument: Experiencer: Peter wrote the essay. have to. need. while Ben is the patient (the one who suffers the effect). A sentence is a grammatical unit with syntactic. Unlike auxiliaries. if. an intonational contour and a graphic form. or. The semantic role of John is the same (agent) in both sentences. Compound sentence: They irrigated the land and used fertilizers. before. used to) are verbs which carry the same kind of meaning as the modal verbs. The thunder struck the tree. i. etc. a sentence is representable as a logical relation between a predicate (feed) and its arguments (the man.) Simple sentence: They irrigated the land. It follows that John is the agent (the doer) of the action. At the semantic level. In both sentences. At the syntactic level a sentence consists of a relation of predication between a NP functioning as the Subject of the sentence [NPThe man] and a VP functioning as the Predicate of the sentence [VP feeds a horse]. after. A compound sentence involves two or more clauses coordinated by means of coordinating conjunctions (and. It is the actual role a participant plays in a situation. when used as main verbs. A complex sentence consists of an independent (main) clause and one or more clauses dependent on the main clause. Semi-modals can be used either as auxiliaries. or as main verbs (You need money). nor). coordinate clause coordinate clause Sentence 212 . because.

main clause subordinate clause Sentence form / type Sentence form refers to the typical word order of a clause/sentence. know. It consists of a root. hear). The root is 'farm'. the positive form of adjectives (nice) and adverbs (quickly). the singular form of a noun (field). they provide information about situations or states. but as a wish. In all other cases the subjunctive is expressed by the base form of the verb. wh-interrogative (marked by the word order wh-word+V+S). understand) behave as stative verbs when denoting involuntary perception/cognition. please! Stative Stative verbs refer to a state. The distinction between stative and dynamic verbs is relevant for the use of the progressive aspect and the passive voice. A subjunctive verb form is finite. The word disgraceful is a stem consisting of the root 'grace' and the two affixes 'dis-' and '-ful'. and imperative (marked by the word order V. yes/no interrogative (marked by the word order V+S). so be it. have. and 's is an inflectional suffix. imperatives as commands and exclamatory sentences express strong emotional states: Declarative: They saw a beautiful landscape. I would go on a trip to Paris. should + infinitive is generally used instead (She insisted that they should come in time). Note that verbs of perception (see. and verbs of opinion and of thinking (think. the subjunctive also survives in some set formulas such as be that as it may. In formal (written) American English. The stem is the main part of a word to which inflectional morphemes may be added. In main clauses. with the verb in the imperative. but does not vary for person or number. The sentence types in English are declarative (marked by the word order S+V). resemble. The subjunctive is used in counter-factual clauses (if – clauses. and require no action on the part of the subject: be. desire or plan in the mind of the speaker. believe. the so-called mandative subjunctive is used in that-clauses expressing a demand. such as the base form of a verb (write). In British English. the stem is farmer. sometimes in combination with derivational affixes. and usually no subject. since neither combines easily with stative verbs. Sentences express different types of meaning. contain. interrogatives function as questions. long live the Queen. In the word farmers. Be is the only verb which has a subjunctive past tense form (were). Stem Subjunctive (mood) 213 .Typically. (If I had money. regulation. and 'er' is a derivational suffix. (= I don’t have money) or concessive clauses.Glossary of grammatical terms Complex sentence: They irrigated the land when they got the pumps. Interrogative: What did they see? Exclamatory: What a beautiful landscape! Imperative: Take a photo of this landscape. or obligation (She insisted that they come in time). The subjunctive mood represents an action or a state not as an actual reality. declaratives function as statements.

definite time (today.g. or to how clause elements are combined. Verb phrase A verb phrase is a phrase that is composed of a main verb (the head) and auxiliary verbs or particles related to the verb (drinks. tenses which have special forms rather than combinations of forms): present tense and past tense. or the number/types of modifiers that go with a head). indefinite time (another time). drank up). must have been drinking. Tense Time adverbs Adverbs of time are words or phrases that answer the questions When? How long? How often? They refer to duration (since Monday. Harvesting starts today. e. Adverbs: John drives the most carefully. Verbs in the present tense generally refer to 'now'. the order of modifiers and head. Tense is a category of the verb phrase. We use the superlative when we compare one person or thing with others in the same group. Compare: She lives in London. syntax refers to how the words in the phrase can be combined. Both the present and the past tense can combine with the progressive and the perfective aspect. what kinds of clause elements can occur together. i. It places an action in time relative to the 'here and now' of the speaker. Syntax An area of grammatical study. English has only two morphological tenses (i. on Friday). never): I'm going away for a few days.e.e. frequency (always. 214 .Glossary of grammatical terms Superlative The superlatives of adjectives and adverbs are formed with –est or the most/least. for three years). She lived in London. while verbs in the past tense generally refer to 'before now'. Only finite verbs can show tense. The definite article the is used before a superlative: Adjectives: This is the hottest summer/the most comfortable sofa. and in which order they can occur.

generally or normally to make generalizations: Frankly. Their meaning is similar (someone by the name of James ate the cake) but. in the former the agent (or doer). is the subject of the clause. Voice Voice is a category of the verb that expresses the semantic functions attributed to the Subject of a clause. The most important are: Subject. The following clause in the active voice: James ate the cake. They do not affect the word order of the rest of the clause. Object. Complement. or of letters) and a content side (an independent meaning). while the next is in the passive voice: The cake was eaten by James. Word Syntactic function Zero 215 .Glossary of grammatical terms Viewpoint adverbs Viewpoint adverbs express the speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying. A zero morpheme marks the plural of sheep. Adverbial Modifier. Predicate. the agent is the prepositional object (by John). and are marked off by commas. the patient or the recipient of the action/state of the verb. A zero is a constituent proposed in an analysis to represent an element held to be present at an abstract level but not realized in the data. James. Viewpoint adverbs modify the whole clause (that is why they are also called sentence adverbs). whether it is the agent. a speaker may use the adverbs clearly or evidently to tell us that he/she is drawing conclusions. while in the latter. I don’t think he’s right. A word has an expression side (combination of sounds. The word is the smallest linguistic unit that can have a syntactic function. For example. They come at the beginning of the clause. A syntactic function is the grammatical relationship of one constituent to another within a clause. frankly or honestly to impress us with his/her sincerity.

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