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MORPHOLOGY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH
Remus BEJAN Camelia BEJAN

Program de conversie profesională la nivel postuniversitar pentru cadrele didactice din învăţământul preuniversitar Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul I

2010

LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Morphology of Contemporary English

Remus BEJAN

Camelia BEJAN

2010

© 2010

Acest manual a fost elaborat în cadrul "Proiectului pentru Învăţământul Rural", proiect co-finanţat de către Banca Mondială, Guvernul României şi comunităţile locale. Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei, Cercetării, Tineretului şi Sportului.

ISBN 973-0-04113-X

Cont ents

Contents

Introduction

Objectives of the course Specific competences Presentation of content Course tasks Evaluation, assessment and testing Plan your study Summary Further reading Diagnostic test Answers to diagnostic test

2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 8 10 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 I

UNIT ONE. Basic concepts

Objectives of the unit 1.1. Grammatical units 1.2.The phrasal constituents 1.2.1.The noun phrase 1.2.2.The verb phrase 1.2.3.The adjective phrase 1.2.4.The adverb phrase 1.2.5.The prepositional phrase 1.3. Words 1.3.1. Word vs. lexeme 1.3.2. Morphological structure of words 1.3.3. Word classes 1.3.3.1. Lexical words Nouns Lexical verbs Adjectives Adverbs 1.3.3.2. Function words Determiners Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Modal verbs Prepositions Adverbial particles Coordinators Subordinators The negative particle ‘not’ The infinitive marker ‘to’ Numerals Summary Key Terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 1 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.1– 1.7

4. Personal pronouns 3.4. Lexical expression of gender 2. Dual gender nouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA)2 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 2. Aero article 3. Numerals 3. The genitive case 2.4.2.5. Possessive determiners 3. Demonstrative determiners 3.2.3.1 -3. Quantifiers 3.3. Compound nouns 2.1.1. Reflexive pronouns 3. Indefinite article 3.1.8.2. Number 2. Determiners 3.1.6.3.1. Reciprocal pronouns 3. Pronouns 3. Morphological expression of gender 2.2.5. Derived nouns 2. Interrogative pronouns 3.Cont ents UNIT TWO.2.1. Nouns resistant to number contrast 2.1. 10 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 38 39 39 39 46 48 49 51 51 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 59 62 65 66 66 67 68 70 72 76 76 77 81 85 87 87 89 90 91 92 95 96 72 98 99 99 99 102 UNIT THREE. Regular plural formation 2.5. Irregular plural formation 2.2. Determiners and pronouns Objectives of the unit 3. Definite article 3.5.1.4. Common nouns 2.1.1.7. Case 2.1. Possessive pronouns 3.1.13 II . Relative pronouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 3 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 3.3.5.4.1.2. Semi-determiners 3. Indefinite pronouns 3.5.1.2. The common case 2.1. uncountable nouns 2. Types of nouns 2.2.3.2.2.2. Nouns Objectives of the unit 2.3.1.1.3.2. Foreign plurals 2.1. Countable vs.3.1.2.2.5.2.3.1.1 – 2.2.3.3.1. Demonstrative pronouns 3. Articles 3. Noun formation 2.1.2.6.2. Gender 2.1.1.2. Proper nouns 2.4.

Phrasal verbs 4.1. Future perfect progressive 5.3. Formation of verbs 4.4. Tense 5. Shall – should III .1.3. Voice 5.2.2. have.2. Present progressive 5.2.2.1.2.1.2. do Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 4.2. modality and mood Objectives of the unit 5. Past progressive 5.1 -4. Idioms 4.4. May – might 5.1.3. Can – could 5.4.1.2.2.8. Present simple 5.2.4.1.2.2. Future progressive 5. Will – would 5. Present perfect simple 5.4.3.Cont ents UNIT FOUR.2.1. Tense. Past perfect simple 5. Single-word lexical verbs 4. Regular lexical verbs 4. Modality 5.2.3.7.2.2.4.6. Means of expressing future time 5.2.3.1.4.4.1.1. Prepositional verbs 4.4.1.4. voice.3. Going to 5.1.2.5. Present perfect progressive 5. Future perfect 5.4.4.2. Aspect 5. Past perfect progressive 5. Past simple 5. Present simple 5.4.2. Present progressive 5. Must 5.3. The perfective aspect 5.4.5.4.2.2.3.4. Prepositional phrasal verbs 4.2.2.2.2. Multi-word lexical verbs 4.2. Auxiliary verbs: be.4. Irregular lexical verbs 4.1. aspect.1. The progressive aspect 5.2.4. The simple aspect 5. Be to 5. Verbs Objectives of the unit 4.2.4.2.2.3. Future simple 5.2.2.3 104 105 105 105 107 109 110 110 111 112 113 113 114 114 114 114 117 118 119 119 120 125 128 128 128 131 132 134 134 136 138 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 148 150 153 155 157 157 UNIT FIVE.3.3.

Order of adverbs Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6. Subjunctive Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5.4.4. Mood 5.1 -6.1.5.1. Comparison of adverbs 6.3. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison 6. Adjectives and adverbs Objectives of the unit 6. Compound adjectives 6.1 -5.3.2.3. Imperative 5. Order of adjectives 6.2.5.2.2.1.1.2. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form 6. Semantic classification of adverbs 6. Semantic classes 6. Adjectives 6. Derived adjectives 6. Participial adjectives 6.2.2.5.2. Comparison of adjectives 6.5. Syntactic function of adverbs 6.3.Cont ents 5.2.5.1.11 Glossary of grammatical terms Bibliography IV .5.1.5. Formation of adjectives 6.1.1.21 159 159 160 160 160 164 165 165 166 168 173 174 174 175 176 177 178 181 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 188 192 194 194 195 195 198 195 211 UNIT SIX. Indicative 5.5.1.1.1.5.1.2.5.4. Conditional 5. Adverbs 6.1.

Introduction 1.Introduction Introduction 1.6.1. assessment and testing 1. Specific competences 1.3. Objectives of the course 1. Course tasks 1.5.2. Evaluation. Plan your study Summary Further reading Diagnostic test Answers to diagnostic test 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 7 7 9 1 .4. Presentation of content 1.

determination. It assumes a low intermediate standard of knowledge and operational ability in the language and seeks to fulfill the following aims:  to develop your knowledge of English through exploration and analysis . etc. case. of the difficulties met in learning English. 1.). grammatical markers).). Specific competences By the end of the course you will be able to:  recognize the main word classes (noun. as well as become aware. Introduction The study of grammar traditionally includes morphology and syntax. verb. aspect.2. 2 . part of pack 1 (specialism). which will allow you to communicate efficiently in the language (orally and in writing). syntactic and semantic observations. through personal experience.  produce correct sentences observing morphological rules (the use of tenses and aspect. at an advanced level and meet the fundamental objectives of teaching English. positioning of adjectives and of adverbs in the clause.  correlate observations concerning the morphological structure of words with phonetic.Introduction 1. The Morphology of Contemporary English is a mandatory course. 1.1. adjective.  recognize the elements that make up the structure of the word (morphemes. the verbal categories of tense. while syntax involves the study of word combinations or sentence structure.  carry out complex morphological analysis of sentences (identify word classes and grammatical categories).  recognize grammatical categories (the nominal categories of gender. the adjectival/adverbial category of comparison). mood.  to enable you to see grammar in general and morphology in particular as providing means of understanding the relation of form to meaning and of meaning to situation .  to provide you with a basic terminology which will enable you to make these relationships explicit. Objectives of the course The course will help you demonstrate your capacity of understanding and using the basic structures of English. etc. phonological. Morphology is that part of the grammar of a language that studies the internal structure of words.

pronoun. adjective and adverb). which we have placed at the end of every unit. They are designed to assist you in your preparation and offer a review for study purposes. verb. each one being conceived as a learning component with appropriate practice tasks. quantifier. The units are further divided into sections. 3 .3. to reflect upon the results and develop ideas and procedures adapted to the environment in which you work. aspect. To stimulate your interest in studying this course. voice. determiner. as follows: Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Basic concepts Nouns Determiners and pronouns Verbs Tense. These and any work in English that you consider relevant to your training should be collected at any time for future reference. We encourage you to experiment and apply the ideas and the techniques used in the course in your own activity. They will also assist your preparation for the progress tests and the final examination.Introduction 1. The objectives will help you monitor your own progress and decide on the work that you need to do in order to get the best possible results. The summary and the list of key terms organized alphabetically. Every unit begins with a statement of the aim and lists its main objectives. each unit contains a variable number of topics for reflection and study. together with the glossary of grammatical terms at the end of the book are meant to reinforce the main grammatical aspects discussed. Through its objectives. Units from 2 to 6 give a detailed description of the main word-classes of English (noun. word and morpheme). each unit specifies what you will be able to do when you have finished it. The grammatical content of the book is presented in 6 independent units. Reflection points (Think first!) are signaled by a question mark. modality and mood Adjectives and adverbs Unit 1 gives a bird’s eye view of the whole course and defines the basic units of grammar (phrase. Each of the six study units which make up the course is accompanied by intensive practical work. Presentation of content This book will introduce you to the study of English morphology. We advise you to build up a portfolio of the tasks to be undertaken.

to a great extent. not only in the results themselves.Introduction Note down any thoughts or experiences you consider useful in your portfolio. Those proposed can be selected. This coursework assessment will consist in submitting to your tutor the six obligatory send-away assignments (SAAs). others call for the manipulation and completion of classes of words in various meaningful ways.4. 4 . Its value lies. you will find answers at the end of each unit.5. and you should resist the temptation at all costs. Evaluation. Some involve the observation and identification of morphological elements and their semantic functions or of the relations between them. We believe that study should not attend solely to the attainment of certain practical end-results. on the date set by the course map. assessment and testing Your level of performance will be assessed periodically throughout the semester (which counts 40 % of the overall end-of-semester grade). For all of them. Self-assessed questions (SAQs) are in-text questions that break down the text in order to clarify and consolidate certain teaching points. Self-assessed questions (SAQs) are signaled by a fountain-pen. 1. 1. The send-away assignments (SAAs) are signaled by an envelope and a mail-box. Course tasks The different areas of grammar lend themselves to a wide variety of practical linguistic tasks limited only by the time factor. as you progress through the course. adapted. The premature reference to a key negates the whole purpose of the tasks. This will support your learning experience and contribute to the work you need to do for successfully meeting the specific objectives of the course. in the thinking that goes in the process of ensuring results. according to need. amplified or omitted.

paraphrase. send them to your tutor. In case you fail to solve any of the items. your competence in the mechanics of writing (demonstrated in your writing) and in communicating grammatical concepts to others. provided you have completed all the tasks required by the unit. both written and oral. You will also sit a written examination (which counts for 60% of the overall mark) at the end of the semester. we have taken into account the relative importance of objectives covering the content of the unit. word changing. For each exercise. 5 . modified cloze. In establishing the weight of each SAA (see table on page 5). You will have to spend about 60 minutes in doing each assignment. he or she may be unable to read your assignment and send feedback quickly to you. the time allotted by the syllabus for dealing with them. At the beginning of each assignment you will find detailed instructions on how to do it. refer to the glossary of grammatical terms to revise basic definitions and other material suggested in the ‘Further reading’ and in the general bibliographic list. your knowledge of vocabulary for thinking and about and discussing grammar. It is of utmost importance that you meet the deadlines specified in the course map. we strongly advise you to re-read the relevant sections of the course. Your grade will be based on your ability to understand and describe the structure of English sentences (form and function). text completion. Remember that your tutor has planned his or her time around these deadlines. Your grammar competence will be evaluated by means of a variety of testing structures such as multiple choice. true – false. their degree of complexity and novelty. Once completed. You can use extra material if you wish (you might find the suggestions for further reading at the end of each unit useful). are based on the material you have studied in the units. which you will find at the end of each unit. We would prefer that you type your assignments but writing them legibly will do as well. depending on the specific learning tasks that derive from the objectives mentioned at the beginning of each unit. the difficulty that you are likely to face in their realization. a 50% success rate should be considered as minimal. and he or she will send feedback on all of them (commentary and assessment) within two weeks. error identification. which are perceived as grammatically correct. Every SAQ and every SAA contain a variable number of exercises and items. If you do not observe them. word/clause order.Introduction These assignments. You will have to answer various questions and do exercises covering the major problems dealt with in the course (units 1-6). Your grammar knowledge will also be demonstrated by your ability to produce sentences.

the word and the morpheme. the adjective. in a manner that best suits you. case (for nouns). the phrase. a Send-away assignment (SAA) tests what you have learned in the respective unit. the verb. At the end of each unit. tense. Each unit contains a significant number of exercises of different types (SAQs) that will allow you to practice the most important problems studied. 6 . It will take you about 28 hours to go through the whole course and accomplish all the assignments required.Introduction 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Week Units Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 6 Revision Revision Assignments Diagnostic test SAA 1 due SAA 2 due SAA 3 due SAA 4 due SAA 5 due SAA 6 due 40 % 6% 7% 8% 5% 8% 6% Date Summary The material for study is divided in six rather independent units. the adverb and the grammatical categories associated with them: gender. Throughout the book we use a number of icons to identify the main types of activities. Unit 2 is important in the sense that it provides the essential information about the basic units of grammatical analysis: the clause. The following units give details about the noun. whenever you can find some time to learn. Plan Your Study Distance learning encourages and relies on those skills and competences that allow you to work independently. Reflection points (Think first!) allow to link your study with your own activity. aspect. mood (for verbs). number. You can learn at your own pace.6.

we’re all human. Diagnostic test This diagnostic test is designed to give you a quick way of assessing the approximate level of your knowledge of English grammar and usage.Introduction Further reading We strongly encourage you to consult other works that will help you find additional information on special grammar aspects. a) will have looked b) looked c) have looked d) look 7 . I’ll lend you the newspaper. a) had known b) knew c) has known d) knows 9) When I ……… through it. a) tomorrow b) much 7) In life ……… can make a mistake. when you do this. At the end of each unit. You are advised to spend not more than 15 minutes on this test. remember to read critically. you will find useful recommendations. Sir Francis Bacon once said: Read not to contradict and confute. not to believe and take for granted. However. a) do b) is c) work 3) I think ……… doctor. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence grammatically. but to weigh and consider. a) anyone b) some people c) not anybody d) someone 8) If he ……… about it. a) her job is b) she’s a c) her job is an d) does d) she’s d) been d) I c) rare d) seldom 4) How long ……… sitting here? a) have you been b) are you c) have you 5) Would you like ……… help? a) a b) some c) me 6) They ……… go to the cinema. 1) Did you ……… anywhere interesting last weekend? a) go b) going c) was d) went 2) I work as a teacher and my wife ………. too. I’m sure he’d help. not to find talk and discourse.

a) few b) a few c) a little d) little 8 . We have plenty of time. a) more expensive b) expensiver expensive c) much expensive 17) I made one or two mistakes. a) mustn’t b) shouldn’t c) can’t d) needn’t 12) You have a terrible fever! ……… call a doctor? a) Shall I b) Do I c) Must I d) Will I 13) Please try ……… ……… at night. a) talked b) to talk c) talking talk 22) He's a friend of ………. a) no b) any c) none 21) George can't ……… to you now. . a) very much b) a lot of 16) A Jaguar is ……… than a Fiat. the express to London or to Edinburgh? a) Which b) How c) Whose d) What 19) Mary takes the dog for a walk ……… the evening.Introduction 10) Mum gave ……… her job when I was born. but ……… of my answers were correct. a) in b) up c) off d) away 11) It's all right. we ……… hurry. a) in b) at c) on d) to 20) We haven't got ……… English friends. train are you taking. a) avoiding to drive b) to avoid to drive d) to avoid driving 14) You should give ………. a) to your mother this letter c) letter this to your mother c) avoiding driving b) this letter your mother d) this letter to your mother c) lots d) a very lot d) 15) Marian has ……… old books. . a) a pair of b) a set of c) two d) a 25) Would you like some more tea? There's still ……… left. a) them b) there’s their 23) I ……… drink beer than wine. a) much b) most c) more d) few 18) . a) would like more b) prefer rather c) theirs d) some d) d) c) had better d) would 24) I gave her ……… earrings for Christmas. He's busy.

17) b. 8) a. 27) b. You will have to work hard to make significant improvements. 12) a. a) far b) away c) distance d) long 28) Many adult students of English wish they ……… their language studies earlier. 24) a. a) both b) any c) either d) neither 30) George goes to ……… by car. 28) c. 21) d. you should consider your level as elementary. 5) b. 18) a. 30) d 9 . 4) a. 7) a. 29) c. 2) d. your grammar is good! Answers to diagnostic test 1) a. A score of 50-70% is acceptable. 23) d. 20) b. 13) d. congratulations. 9) c. 11) d. 19) a. 26) c. If your score is higher than 75% . but some areas of English grammar need to be given special attention. 25) c. 14) d. a) by b) for c) on d) in 27) The language school that I attend is 20 kilometers ………. 15) b. 3) b. a) a work b) the work c) an work d) work If your score is 50% or less. 22) c. 6) d. 16) a). 10) b.Introduction 26) I didn't realize that the shop was ……… the other side of the road. a) would start b) would have started c) had started d) will start 29) Tom has two sisters. but he doesn't speak to ……… of them.

7.2.3.1 – 1.2.4.3.2.1. Words 1.2.3.2.2.3. The adverb phrase 1. Word vs. Word classes 1.3.1 Lexical words Nouns Lexical verbs Adjectives Adverbs 1.3.3. Morphological structure of words 1. The phrasal constituents 1. 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 10 .3. lexeme 1.5.1.Basic concepts UNIT 1 Basic concepts Objectives 1.3.2.3. Grammatical units 1.2.2. The prepositional phrase 1. The noun phrase 1. Function words Determiners Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Modal verbs Prepositions Adverbial particles Coordinators Subordinators The negative particle ‘not’ The infinitive marker ‘to’ Numerals Summary Key terms Further reading Send – away assignment (SAA) 1 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1. The adjective phrase 1. The verb phrase 1.1.

Objectives After you have completed the study of this unit and have done all the tasks recommended. the adjective phrase.Basic concepts Aim This unit will introduce. possibly. • analyze the structure of phrases. 1. affix. the verb phrase. affixes) b) syntactic role and c) meaning. a word consist of a stem and. inflection. a complement and optional adjuncts. The clause is made up of one or more phrases. • give brief definitions and examples of the following terms: morpheme. complex or compound words. root. Grammatical units In spite of the bewildering variety of forms. 11 . language use is governed by rules. either spoken or written. the major word-classes and their characteristics. the adverb phrase. the prepositional phrase. Stretches of language. with a view to enhancing your awareness of the relationship between grammatical form and meaning. a phrase consists of a head. base/stem. It is made up of a subject. can be broken down into meaningful linguistic units. In English four types of units are usually recognized and hierarchically arranged on a rank scale: clause → phrase → word → morpheme Thus. We will examine the constituents of the simple sentence. you should be able to: • recognize and identify the phrasal constituents of the clause: the noun phrase. each phrase is made up of one or more words. Each word can be further analyzed as being made up of one or more morphemes. define and illustrate the terminology used in the grammatical analysis of English. Grammatical units are characterized in terms of their a) internal structure (a clause consists of clause elements.1. the morpheme being the smallest meaningful unit. a clause is the maximal grammatical unit. • explain how words are formed. the structure of the word and will sketch the context in which any correct grammatical analysis should be carried out. • define and exemplify simple. a predicate and usually expresses a complete thought: John works on a farm. which follow a regularly repeated pattern.

[That tall hardworking farmer] is my uncle.1. and the predicative (my neighbors). [Those farmers] are my neighbors. [That tall hardworking farmer feeding the cattle] is my uncle. there are noun phrases. Depending on the head. which may be accompanied by other elements. 1.2. c. and other nouns. adjectival phrases. [That tall hardworking farmer who is feeding the cattle in the stables] is my uncle. in the verb (are). especially prepositional phrases ( with the shovel in his hand). The head. postmodification postmodification In describing noun phrases we may distinguish: • the head (farmer). The phrasal constituents The words that build up a clause can be put together in meaningful groups or phrases. Minimally.Basic concepts 1. relative clauses ( who is feeding the cattle in the stables) and non-finite clauses (feeding the cattle in the stables). • the premodifiers. [That farmer] is my uncle. g. adjectives (tall.2. [John] is [a farmer]. Consider the bracketed structures with the noun farmer(s) as the main part: a. which include all the items placed before the head: determiners (that. f. adverbial phrases and prepositional phrases. it may consist in a noun only. those). as in (a) below. • the postmodifiers. Thus in (c) the plural noun head farmers determines changes in the demonstrative adjective (those). the noun that is central to the phrase may be accompanied by other words. b. postmodification premodification premodification premodification e. verb phrases. all of which are thus marked as plural. d. 12 . except the prepositional phrase. which provide information relating to it. comprising all the items placed after the head. [That farmer with a shovel in his hand] is my uncle. Each phrase. can consist of the head only. Often. The noun phrase The noun phrase (NP) is called so because the word which acts as its main part is typically a noun. hardworking). as the most important element of the phrase determines the relationships and the behavior of the phrase as a whole. the word around which the other components group together and which controls concord. that is the agreement in grammatical form between elements in a clause or a phrase.

Indirect Object: They gave the farmers all the documents. 13 . Attribute: The farmers’ meeting was postponed. Consumption is often low amongst lower socio-economic groups. attribute. Eating a wide variety of fruit and vegetables helps ensure an adequate intake of most micronutrients and dietary fibers. premodifiers and postmodifiers. indirect object or prepositional object. there is a class . The main morphological characteristics of the noun will be discussed in the following pages. The only situation in which the noun phrase has no expressed determiner is when it has a ‘zero’ article. heads.1. direct object..the determiners . The structure of the noun phrase could thus be re-written as: Noun Phrase (NP) (Determiners(s)) (Premodifier(s)) Head (Postmodifier(s)) The parentheses remind you that the determiners and the modifiers can be left out. Prepositional Object: We rely on farmers. Subject predicative: My neighbors are good farmers. The noun phrase can typically act as subject. in a clause: Subject: Some farmers have new machinery. Underline the noun phrases and analyze them into their determiners. Direct Object We helped the farmers. says a UN agency. etc. SAQ 1. Though developing countries largely contribute to the global supply of fruit and vegetables and production can still be improved. or predicative. sugar and salt.which show whether the entity denoted by the noun is known or not to the speaker. The premodifiers and the postmodifiers will be treated in the next chapter of this course. many people in the developing world do not eat enough. determiners are more necessary to the noun phrase structure than modifiers.Basic concepts Within the set of noun premodifiers. However. Object predicative: They chose him ‘Farmer of the Year’. Increased consumption can help avoid eating foods high in fats. as in the first example above.

perf. The verb phrase The verb phrase (VP) usually consists of a head. necessity. possibility. all finite VPs are also marked for tense (T): T T T T T T T T T 14 perf. Lexical verbs express both lexical meaning (motion. progr.) and grammatical meaning (tense.: You can build this vacation cottage yourself. perf. aspect. etc. passive.2. perception. This year prospects may be better. person. etc. In addition. cognition. wide – premodifier. passive passive . number): She went back to New York. preceded by the optional elements. perf. (some of them may be omitted). [ability] [possibility] [obligation] Auxiliary verbs (be. of fruit and vegetable – postmodifier. progressive. permission. the auxiliaries and/or the modals. I know no secret recipe for certainty. modal modal modal modal perf. progr. V V V V V V V V V V writes has written is writing has been writing will write will have written will be writing will have been writing is written has been written progr. obligation. do) carry grammatical meaning only.Basic concepts Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. which is a lexical verb.2. The problem must be faced squarely. have. The first has been done for you: a – determiner. variety – head. [motion + past] [cognition + present] Modal verbs add to the lexical verb a special semantic component such as: ability. progr. They follow modals and occur in the order: perfect. 1.

Hanck did not abandon his scheme. “How do you feel?” Charlie asked me. He made up his mind independently. the specifier and the complement: He made up hid mind.). The adjective phrase Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns. He is so fond of music. rather. which may function alone.2.Basic concepts The first auxiliary is usually called operator. etc.3. which combine to form the following basic structures: specifier very so head old angry fond complement with John of music The head of the adjectival phrase is always realized by an adjective. The adjectival phrase (AP) typically consists of a head.4. too. He made up his mind quite independently of me. Has he been working as an engineer for five years? He hasn’t been working as an engineer for five years. so. 1.2. Adjectives commonly specify the properties or the attributes of a noun referent: The house is old. Sam is very angry with John. 1. a specifier and a complement. or may be optionally accompanied by specifiers (very. The elements following the head serve to complete the meaning of the adjective and are generally called complements. Complements generally take the form of prepositional phrases. The adverb phrase Adverb phrases (AdvP) are normally composed of three elements: the head. Specifiers typically indicate the degree of the quality denoted by the adjective. 15 . The operator is involved in forming interrogative sentences (the operator is inverted with the subject) and negative sentences (the negative particle not is attached to the operator): He has been working as an engineer for five years.

The prepositional phrase English makes extensive use of prepositions.Basic concepts specifier quite head independently independently complement of me Complements are typically realized by prepositional phrases. Place or Time. I know where he is.2. They are at odds. and occasionally by adjectives and adverbs: He was taken completely by surprise. Prepositions are semantically bound with the noun following them: He put the book right on the shelf. right near here. Prepositions never appear alone but in combination with a noun phrase. specifier right head on behind at complement the shelf him odds The complement of the preposition is typically realized by nouns and pronouns but also by wh-finite clauses. 1.5. They function as Adverbial Modifiers of Manner. Adverb phrases are frequently optional in the sense that they can be omitted without the clause becoming ungrammatical. that acts as complement of the preposition. He insisted on being paid at once. gerundial clauses. He knew them from before the war. At last the call came. (prep + noun) (prep + prep + noun) (prep + adv) (prep + adj) (prep + gerundial clause) (prep + indirect question) 16 . He was interested in what they were up to.

VP. 2) quite hot. or more dictionary meanings: boy 1. (in reply to a question like: Who phoned?) (in reply to a question like: When shall we meet?) c) being assigned one. in writing: The boy is reading a book. 5) in a hurry. The first has been done for you: 1) NP.2. The first has been done for you. b) being the minimal possible unit in an utterance: John. 11) every bridge over the river 12) so efficient in his work. Identify the type of phrase (NP. 6) a small black bag. Words are however identifiable by such criteria as: a) a regular stress pattern. a son: How old is your little boy? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) The manner in which the above-mentioned conditions are met varies considerably and depends on the nature of each word. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 1) anti-terrorist laws. 1. 9) rather carelessly. AdvP).3. 8) very kind to Mary. 3) pretty soon.Basic concepts SAQ 1. a male child or a male person in general: The boys wanted to play football. Tonight. 4) the urban young. Although they look familiar to everyone. the possibility of being preceded or followed by pauses in speech or separated from one another by means of spaces and punctuation marks. Words Phrases are made up of words. 2. 17 . AP. 10) before the war. their definition is far from simple. 7) a student of Physics.

can be divided into three syllables (a-ni-mal). play would have two entries in the dictionary.2. together with the corresponding word forms. -ni-. and the latter. as a verb and as a noun. which in this case. 1. Look up the entries for study and intellectual in a dictionary. However. plays. play. Identify the lexemes for each. that is. played. which retains the original threesyllable structure. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit.Basic concepts 1. Morphemes are classified by linguists as free morphemes or bound morphemes and as roots or affixes.1. is identical to the word. None of the smaller units (a-. represented by -s (/z/ in speech) signifying “more than one”. playing play plays (pl. By definition.3. yet it consists of one morpheme only.3. -mal) bears a meaning of its own. 18 . Word vs. consists in two morphemes: the former is animal. for example. The verb would appear in various forms when used in sentences. while the noun would have other forms: verb lexeme: forms of the lexeme: noun lexeme: forms of the lexeme: play. Morphemes are different from syllables.3. plays’ (genitive) SAQ 1. play’s. a meaningful sequence of sounds which is not divisible into smaller meaningful units. lexeme A lexeme is a word in roughly the sense that would correspond to a dictionary entry. the basic forms. Morphological structure of words A word is built up of smaller constituents called morphemes. meaning “a creature”.). These are the lexemes. The word animal. a morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning. For instance. the plural form animals.

affixes attach to the root (of the word). Actually. farmer. revolution. A bound morpheme is one which cannot occur as an independent word (re-. to be more precise. they are called derivational morphemes. generate new words and. reevaluate. reunification. rest. Decide in which of the following words re. Their semantic content is more difficult to isolate. and it typically has semantic content.is a bound root? rewrite. 19 . education. etc. dislike. dis-. “an area of land. misfortune fruitful.Basic concepts A free morpheme is one which can stand alone (farm. job.) and has to be attached to other morphemes to build words: replay.). together with some suffixes. untold misunderstand. inhuman. etc. resistance. humanly humanism. humans.4. and the buildings on it. -tion. child. There are two types of affixes: prefixes (added to the beginning of a word) and suffixes (added to the end of a word): unmis-ful -tion unnecessary. for this reason. The morpheme farm. used for growing crops and/or keeping animals”. redo. A root is the portion of a word that is common to a set of derived or inflected forms. SAQ 1. cannot be broken down into smaller bits. Bound morphemes are typically called affixes. -er. repeat Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. careful construction. being morphologically simple and carries the main portion of meaning of the words in which it appears: humanize. exploitation Prefixes. humanitarian. for instance. box. in our case. task. derivational prefixes or suffixes. When all affixes are removed the root is not further analyzable into meaningful elements. man.

Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) impossible 2) cloudiness 3) childhood 4) teacher 5) development 6) peacefully 7) exceptionally 8) parental 9) friendship 10) industrialize 20 . Consider the word carelessness: care [root] care [root and stem 1] + less [derivational suffix 1] > careless (adj) careless [stem 2] + ness [derivational suffix 2] > carelessness (n) Care is also the stem of the verbal lexeme to care. SAQ 1. The root is always a stem. whose inflectional forms are cares (present. Unlike roots. words may have more than one stem. 3rd person singular).Basic concepts That part of a word to which affixes are added is called a stem. cared (past tense or past participle) and caring (present participle). A.A.5. Identify the roots for the following words. but a more complex derived word structure may also be a stem.

Democracy is fundamental to good govern____. my great-aunt also suffers from forgetful____. Most of the mistakes can be forgiven. -ize. 21 . The most widely used inflections are given in the table below: inflection -s -ed -ing -en -s ‘s -er -est grammatical meaning 3 pers. etc. However. voice) and adjectives/adverbs (whose inflections indicate degrees of comparison). falling fallen carts farmer’s warmer warmest It follows from this. case) verbs (whose infections indicate: tense. falls worked working. B. -ity. Yes. -ment. it is difficult to priorit____. fy. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) The tap water is not safe to drink. –hood..B. these basic errors are unforgiv____. Please noti____ all the students concerned about the room change. Which assignment is your priority? I don’t know.able. However. It is difficult to cope with the strains of single parent____. -ible. case. the bottled water is drink____. Complete the words in italics with the correct derivational suffix: -ness. My grandmother is very forgetful. present verb past verb progressive verb past participle verb plural noun possessive noun comparative adjective superlative adjective rd example works. that inflections distinguish between large classes of words: nouns (whose inflections indicate: number. aspect. The factory has been very product____ this year. sg.5. aspect. The court was unable to determine the own____ of the property. tense. Inflectional morphemes are endings added to noun or verbal stems to specify grammatical meanings such as number.Basic concepts SAQ 1. -ive. It is difficult to explain the popular____ of a singer who cannot actually sing.

quickest. capitalism. The boys studied longer than you. 5. The tallest student studies in Bill's class. 1) John’s – genitive. Identify and name all inflected forms. B. Fred may have written the longest essay. singing. The first has been done for you.Basic concepts SAQ 1. react. 3. jobs. worker.6. John's house looks older than this. A. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. John's. Which words contain a derivational affix and which inflectional affix? Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: eggs. 1. goodness. 2. faster. I am waiting for the student who o wns this book. John claimed that he had tried to find you. 6. walked. derivational affix inflectional affix SAQ 1. given. 2) 22 . B.6. 4. employee. A.

Function words Function words have little or no lexical meaning. manner) in which an action takes place (here. no w.3. prepositions 23 . 1. teacher. Adjectives Adjectives typically describe qualities. the negator not. There are four main lexical words in English: nouns. play). develop. time. slowly). (nice. 1. rain). book. processes (change. Function words can be conveniently grouped according to the lexical word to which they are associated: grammatical unit clause clause/ phrase verb phrase noun phrase function words subordinators. increase) or states (sleep. people and phenomena expressed by nouns.3. difficult. frighten).3. their role is to express grammatical relationships between lexical words or between lexical words and larger units. Nouns Nouns typically refer to concrete people and things as well as to abstract ideas and phenomena (John. land. Lexical words have a complex internal structure. are morphologically variable. peace. easy) Adverbs Adverbs specify the circumstances (place. fear. write.1 Lexical words Lexical words are the main bearers of meaning and they form the primary vocabulary of a language. characteristics and properties of objects. wh-words.3.2.Basic concepts 1.3. the infinitive marker to coordinators auxiliaries. modals. and they can be heads of phrases. pronouns. verbs. adverbial particles determiners.3. adjectives and adverbs. numerals. words can be broadly grouped into: lexical words and function words. Word classes According to their grammatical behavior and their main function. Lexical verbs Lexical verbs typically denote actions ( work.

The horse was black. herself) show coreference with the subject: She must be very proud of herself. The most important are: a) The definite article (the) specifies that the referent is known to the speaker: There was a horse in the field. many. replacing other words. few. (remote in distance) I saw her this morning (= today in the morning). and a third referent that is neither speaker nor addressee (he/him. whose meaning is understood from the linguistic or extra linguistic context) which functions like a noun and replaces a noun phrase.Basic concepts Determiners Determiners are words that modify noun phrases. b) Reflexive pronouns (myself. her. that/those) indicates whether the referent of the noun phrase is close or remote in distance. Pronouns A pronoun is a pro-form (a word. your. his. much) specify the number or amount of something: I don't have much money with me. a) Personal pronouns identify the participants in a communication situation: the speaker (I/me. we/us). she/her. (close in time) d) Possessive determiners (my. 24 . our. phrases. c) Demonstrative determiners (this/these. it. or time: Look at that man over there. clauses or sentences. they/them): Tell them the news. e) Quantifiers (some. their) express ownership: Their parties are always fun. the addressee (you). b) The indefinite article (a/an) typically signals that something is mentioned for the first time and thus represents new information: She was talking to an old woman. yourself.

Have specifies perfective aspect: He has known Mary for two years. h) Interrogative pronouns (who. which. theirs. The auxiliary be marks the progressive aspect and the passive voice: They are taking a course in fertilizers. For a few brief minutes they had all been part of one little drama. what. which) are questions to stand for the item questioned: Which of the applicants has got the job? Who is that woman? What are your political opinions? used in Auxiliary verbs The three auxiliary verbs of English. g) Relative pronouns (who. d) Demonstrative pronouns (this/that. ours) express ownership: This piece of land is mine. be. somebody. and are co-referential to the word modified by the relative clause: Houses which overlook the lake cost more. ] e) Reciprocal pronouns (each other. one another) express a mutual sentiment or action among the referents of a plural subject: Don and Susie really loved each other. (progressive) (passive] 25 . On that date Huff left his home. We all try and help one another. anybody) indicate that the referents are not identifiable: There's someone at the door. She was seen at the theater. f) Indefinite pronouns (one. these/those) indicate a referent’s spatial or temporal location: This is the best project. what) introduce a relative clause. have and do are used to form up complex verb phrases.Basic concepts c) Possessive pronouns (mine.

make up. 26 . should. They are closely connected with the verb: Working in the slums brought her up against the realities of poverty. do wn. which are used to build phrasal verbs. had better. will. forth. a number of multiword verbs such as have to. might. Adverbial particles Adverbial particles are invariable words (a way. shall. The kids were playing in the street. different from adverbs and prepositions. could. used to can be regarded as marginal auxiliaries. at. would and must.Basic concepts The auxiliary do is used as operator in interrogative and negative independent clauses when there is no other auxiliary present: What do you read? I didn’t meet them in London. down. Modal verbs can express a wide range of meanings (possibility. Modal verbs Modal verbs are used to build up complex verb phrases. etc). such as: give up. may. There's nothing you can do about it now. Moreover. Several characteristics differentiate modals from other verbs and auxiliaries. be going to are close in meaning to modal verbs. etc. by. back. Their basic meaning is of motion and result. off.) are invariable words that introduce prepositional phrases and connect them with other elements of the clause. Prepositions Preposition (about. obligation. ought to. The stone rolled down the hill. permission. necessity. of. There are nine modal auxiliaries in English: can. up). past. need (to). in. bring about. The verbs dare (to). have got to.

but his father might. (addition) (alternative) (alternative) (contrast) Subordinators Subordinators or subordinating conjunctions are words that introduce finite dependent clauses.. His mother won't be there. since. condition (if. or) or correlative (both . either .. than). Is your sister older or younger than you? Well. even if I have to walk. (clausal negation) (constituent negation) The infinitive marker ‘to’ To is often used before the base form of a verb to show that the verb is in the infinitive: I set out to buy food. I did it because he told me to. or). It's twenty years since I've seen her. as. The negative particle ‘not’ The main use of the particle not (shortened form n’t) is to negate a clause or a constituent: She did not / didn't see him. It was much better than I'd expected.Basic concepts Coordinators Coordinators or coordinating conjunctions link phrases and clauses that have the same syntactic function. You can go swimming while I'm having lunch. even if). She managed to escape. They can be simple (and. 27 . reason (because). Both his mother and his father will be there. They indicate the meaning relationship between the dependent clause and the superordinate clause: time (after. alternative or contrast. Coordinators express the meanings of addition. while).. comparison (as. but. I'll get there. Not everybody agrees. and.. I think she's either Russian or Polish.

sequence. It was a very hot day and they fancied having a s wim in the sea. Her mother had just given birth to another child.Basic concepts Numerals A numeral is a word. and fraction. and relation to the number. Identify the word classes in the following text. SAQ 1. holiday Determiner: Pronoun: Adjective: Numeral: Verb: Adverb: Preposition: Conjunction: 28 . distributive (by threes. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: Two elephants went on holiday and sat down on the beach. the second). multiplicative (once. half): Ten people were invited but only five turned up. functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun. twice. It was the first time they had ever met. frequency. in twos) and partitive (two thirds. four times). ordinal (the first. such as one of the following: quantity. People arrived in twos and threes. that expresses a number.7. two). Unfortunately they couldn't: they only had one pair of trunks! Noun: elephants. her fifth. There are four distinctive sets of numerals: cardinal (one. They go there twice a week.

Levitchi. meanings and syntactic roles: clause. Jan Svartvik (1976). word and morpheme. verb phrases. prepositions. Sidney and Randolph Quirk (1991). Sidney Greenbaum. deals with words and the changes that affect their forms to express various grammatical meanings associated with such categories as number. Geoffrey Leech. conjunctions). A Grammar of Contemporary English. Tokyo. as a traditional part of grammar. tense. A University Course in English Grammar. or comparison. New York. Quirk. Key terms • • • • • • • • • • affix aspect case clause comparison determination grammatical category grammatical meaning inflection mood • • • • • • • • • modality morpheme phrase root sentence stem tense voice word Further reading Downing. England: Longman. Bucuresti: Editura Didacticã si Pedagogicã. Phrases can be classified with regard to their head into noun phrases. London. Singapore: Phoenix ELT. Sydney. phrase. voice. aspect. Angela and Philip Locke (1995). gender. case. Words can be grouped into lexical words (noun. mood. Randolph. adverb phrases and prepositional phrases. Longman. 29 . Leon (1970). Toronto. Limba englezã contemporanã. Morfologia. Harlow.Basic concepts Summary Grammar is a description of a language. verb. auxiliaries. There are four fundamental grammatical units characterized by a specific internal structure. Greenbaum. adjectival phrases. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. adjective and adverb) and function words (pronouns. Morphology.

Basic concepts

Send – away assignment (SAA) 1
Complete the following test to find out how much you know about basic morphology. A. How many different lexemes are there in the following list? man, men, girls, girl, mouse, work, play, walk, leave (10 minutes: 10 points) B. Each underlined word in the following passage ends with an inflectional suffix. Write beside each word the morpheme label for the inflectional suffix it contains (-pl., poss, -prs, -ed, -en, -ing, -er, -est). (15 minutes: 10 points) At a certain season of our life we are accustomed to consider every spot as the possible site of a house. I have thus surveyed the country on every side within a dozen miles (pl) of where I live. In imagination I have bought all the farms ( ) in succession, for all were to be bought, and I kne w their price. I walked ( ) over each farmer's ( ) premises ( ), tasted ( ) his wild apples ( ), discoursed on husbandry with him, took his farm at his price, at any price, mortgaging ( ) it to him in my mind; even put a higher ( ) price on it. This experience entitled me to be regarded as a sort of real-estate broker by my friends ( ).
Henry David Thoreau, Walden, Ch. 2. “Where I Lived, and What I Lived For”

C. Briefly define or explain the following terms (50-60 words): (30 minutes: 30 points) 1) grammatical meaning 2) lexeme 3) clause 4) noun phrase 5) affix 6) inflection 7) word 8) gender 9) stem 10) grammar Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. Total points for SAA 1: 50

30

Basic concepts

Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.1 – 1. 7. SAQ 1.1.
a an a det. premodifier wide adequate UN increased developing global many lower socioeconomic head variety intake agency consumption foods countries supply production people consumption groups postmodifier of fruit and vegetables of most micronutrients and dietary fibers high in fats, sugar and salt of fruit and vegetables in the developing world

the

SAQ 1.2.

1. NP; 2. AP; 3. AdvP; 4.NP; 5. PP; 6. NP; 7. NP; 8. AP; 9. AdvP; 10. PP; 11. NP; 12. AP.

SAQ 1.3.

study, studies (noun); studies, studying, studied (verb); intellectual (adjective); intellectual, intellectuals, intellectuals’ (noun) Should your answers to SAQs 1.1 – 1.3 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise sections 1.1. – 1.2. rewrite, redo, reevaluate, reunification

SAQ 1.4. SAQ 1.5.

A. 1. possible; 2. cloud; 3. child; 4. teach; 5. develop; 6. peace; 7. exception; 8. parent; 9. friend; 10. industrial. B. 1. drinkable; 2. prioritize; 3. forgetfulness; 4. unforgivable; 5. parenthood; 6. productive; 7. government; 8. owner; 9. notify; 10. popularity. A. Inflectional affix: eggs, walked, singing, John's, faster, given, quickest. Derivational affix: react, goodness, capitalism, worker, employee, jobs. B. 1. John’s (genitive); looks (simple present tense); older (comparative); 2. boys (plural); studied (past tense); longer (comparative); 3. written (past participle); longest (superlative); 4. claimed (past tense); tried (past participle); 5. am (present tense); waiting (present participle); owns (present tense); 6. tallest (superlative); studies (present tense); Bill’s (genitive). 31

SAQ 1.6.

Basic concepts

NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 1.4 – 1.6 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise section 1.3.2.

SAQ 1.7.

word class noun determiner pronoun adjective numeral verb adverb preposition conjunction

item elephants, holiday, beach, day, s wim, sea, pair, trunks the, a it, they hot two, one went, sat, was, fancied, having, couldn’t, had down, very, unfortunately, only on, in, of and

NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 1.7 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise section 1.3.3.

32

Nouns

UNIT 2
Nouns

Objectives 2.1. Types of nouns 2.1.1. Proper nouns 2.1.2. Common nouns 2.2. Noun formation 2.2.1. Derived nouns 2.2.2. Compound nouns 2.3. Number 2.3.1. Countable v. uncountable nouns 2.3.2. Regular plural formation 2.3.3. Irregular plural formation 2.3.4. Foreign plurals 2.3.5. Nouns resistant to number contrast 2.4. Case 2.4.1. The common case 2.4.2. The genitive case 2.5. Gender 2.5.1. Lexical expression of gender 2.5.2. Morphological expression of gender 2.5.3. Dual gender nouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send away assignment (SAA) 2 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs )2.1 – 2.10

34 34 34 35 36 36 38 39 39 39 46 48 49 51 51 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 59 62

33

institutions (The UNO. places but also to actions (laughter). places (London). which differ in meaning and grammatical properties. which will facilitate your understanding of the correct use of the noun in communication.1. objects. • identify and use classes of nouns in the plural form.1. You will learn a number of important concepts used in the analysis of nouns as well as develop practical skills by solving exercises.1. • explain the difference between countable and uncountable nouns. Types of nouns Nouns refer semantically to concrete entities such as persons. proper nouns are marked by an initial capital letter. Proper nouns Proper nouns name unique entities that are known to the speaker and the hearer in a given speech situation. The Parliament) and rank from single words to fairly lengthy strings of words. • illustrate the various meanings of the genitive constructions. Proper nouns designate specific people (Bill Gates). as basic elements of noun phrases. 2. Nouns can be broadly grouped into a number of classes. You will study the nominal categories of gender. • distinguish between nouns in the masculine. Orthographically. abstractions (thought). Objectives After studying this unit.Nouns Aim This unit will introduce you to the morphological characteristics of nouns. you will be able to: • explain how nouns are formed. number and case. natural phenomena (thunder) and others. although their capitalization is strictly a matter of convention. feminine and neuter. • classify nouns according to morphological and semantic criteria. 34 . 2. There is an important semantic distinction between proper nouns and common nouns.

the Albert Hall. the Straits of Magellan. a Democrat. Geographical names: Britain. seas. law. m) Public institutions. The Equator. libraries: the Ritz (Hotel). a Republican. and canals: the Danube. the Black Forest. museums. o) Many newspapers and periodicals: The Guardian. Romania. The Eiffel Tower. Oxford University. gulfs. restaurants. Parliament. there are many proper nouns that are regularly preceded by the definite article. island groups. The Declaration of Independence. monuments: The British Museum. straits. deserts. Languages: English. the Yucatan Peninsula. Buddhist. forests. qualities (beauty). Holidays. emotions (anger). The Industrial Revolution. March. Victorian. the Suez Canal. institutions. or as an indivisible.Nouns The most familiar proper nouns are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Personal names: John.2. periods: World War II. Congress. months and days of the week: Easter. theaters. phenomena (rain) and others. the Old Vic (Theatre). Many nouns which are basically uncountable also have countable uses with a difference of meaning: 35 . Adjectives and common nouns derived from proper nouns: a Marxist.1. The referent may be perceived as a countable [C] entity (dog – dogs). 2. the Metropolitan (Opera). The Mayflower. Proper nouns do not normally take any determiner because they refer to an entity whose identity is already known. the Middle East. New Yorker. Helen. God. the Smithsonian (Museum). animals (horse) but also denote actions (work). abstractions (suggestion). However. followers of particular religions and some religious concepts: Christianity. mostly those well-known in history: The Titanic. the National Gallery. p) Points on the globe: The North Pole. relations (friendship). n) Names of ships. Italy. Some important groups are: k) Plural geographical names (mountain groups. Muslim. Romanian and nationalities: a German. Political parties and their members: The Republican Party. the Sahara. Religions. places (countryside). uncountable [U] mass entity (sugar). Monday. a Frenchman. Persons and bodies with unique public functions: The President. the Devil. the Caspian. persons (girl). Common nouns Common nouns refer to ordinary things (book). such as hotels. the Persian Gulf. geographic areas): the Alps. peninsulas. Public buildings. l) Other geographical names such as rivers. The Washington Post. Historical events. the Bahamas.

In addition to derivation and compounding. among’ ‘small’ ‘one’ ‘not’ ‘outside. Noun formation New nouns can be formed by derivation and compounding. also known as “zero derivation”. Compound nouns are formed from two words combined to form a single noun (bed + room → bedroom) [the arrow shows the direction of derivation]. separate’ ‘before’ ‘false’ ‘again’ ‘half’ ‘below’ ‘more than.2. ‘meat’ ‘bird’ [U] [C] 2. For instance. above’ ‘distant’ ‘below. no morpheme marks the change of the verb (play) into the corresponding noun (play) as below: You'll have to play inside today. Derived nouns are formed by adding affixes (suffixes or prefixes).+ colonialism (noun) → neocolonialism The most productive prefixes are: a) Prefix antiautocounterhyper interminimonononoutprepseudoresemisubsuperteleunder36 basic meanings ‘against. Prefixes usually do not change the word class: added to a noun root they form a new noun with a different meaning: neo. too little’ examples antiabortionist autobiography counterargument hyperinflation interaction minibus monotheism nonconformist outgrowth predecessor pseudo-democracy reconstruction semicircle submarine superhero teleshopping underachievement (noun) . (verb) (noun) 2. chicken and fish for dinner.2. They have some chickens and two turkeys.Nouns I had ham. We could hear the happy sounds of children at play. Derived nouns Most derivational prefixes have their own meanings which combine in various ways with the meaning(s) of the word to which they attach. there is conversion.1. opposite to’ ‘self’ ‘against’ ‘extreme’ ‘between.

Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) (help) (sincere) (confide) (precede) (drama) A feeling of utter …………. super-. up-. writes plays for the theater.. of good music.. under-.. I don’t doubt his ………. television or radio. over-. You should give your schoolwork ………….... others are of foreign origin. macro-. sub-. transanti-. neo-. tele- SAQ 2. Here are some examples: Germanic: Latin: Greek: for-. The derivational process may also bring about changes in spelling and pronunciation: b) Suffix -ance -ant.Nouns Many of the derivational prefixes in English are of native Germanic origin. In contrast with prefixes. geo-.. hyper-. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in parentheses.. washed over him. suffixes can be added to words belonging to various classes. non-.. A ….. used for V-ing’ amount that fills N’ ‘person concerned with N’ ‘action of V-ing’ ’doctrine of N’ ‘person believing in N-ism’ ‘state of quality of being A’ ‘state of being N’ ‘skill as N’ examples assistance assistant freedom employee farmer computer handful mathematician reading Marxism Marxist blindness friendship craftsmanship 37 .. mis-. pre-.. -ent -dom -ee -er -ful -ician -ing -ism -ist -ness -ship meanings ‘action/state of V-ing’ ‘person who V-s’ ‘state of being A/N’ ‘person who has been V-ed’ ‘person who V-s’ ‘smth.... withdis-. Latin or Greek. out-. bio-.1. She shows little …………….. the suffix is added to a verb to form a noun: employ (verb) + er → employer (noun). the meanings of suffixes is rather vague.. 6) (appreciate) While prefixes are attached to nouns to produce other nouns. I’d like to speak to you in ………. psycho-. In the example below... pro-.

screwdriver housekeeping blackbird cookbook printing-press go-between. i. dropout income. c) a number of nouns are formed by means of conversion or ‘zero derivation’. Some major patterns are illustrated in the following table: pattern noun + noun noun+verb-er noun+verb-ing adjective+noun verb+noun verb-ing+noun verb+particle particle+verb example database bookseller. In compounding. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 38 a factory producing paper a story about war a person training teachers the door of the garage a headline in a newspaper soup made of chicken a paste for cleaning teeth the light to the moon the waves of the sea a case for books a paper factory _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ . Compound nouns Compounding is the most productive process by means of which the vocabulary of the English language expands.e. sometimes more than two.2. without the benefit of an affix: (verb) drink (verb) cut (verb) move (adjective) poor (adjective) young → → → → → (noun) drink (noun) cut (noun) move (noun) the poor (noun) the young Do you want me to cut the cake? (verb) A cut of 1% in interest rates was announced yesterday. two words. input SAQ 2.2. Express the following ideas using a noun + noun structure.2.Nouns Derivational suffixes are more productive than derivational prefixes. (noun] 2. combine to form new words.

The number system has two terms: singular. and plural.3. Countable v.1.two forests substance water 2. The FAO report on forests and water stresses the need to improve environment policy in support of the management of mountain forests and upland areas. ‘Mountainous forested watersheds are the most important freshwater-yielding areas in the world but also the source area for landslides. Loss of forest cover threatens freshwater supplies.Nouns 2. identify the nouns in the following paragraph and state whether they denote countable entities or amounts of substance. torrents and floods. which denotes ‘one’. with separate singular and plural forms. Think first! Before reading the next section.lands box .boxes bus .farms land .3.two papers one forest .’ Food and Agriculture Organization. The singular is not marked while the plural of most nouns is marked by simply adding the –s or –es: farm . Write your answers in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues.buses 39 . countable entities one paper . which denotes ‘more than one’. uncountable nouns The vast majority of English nouns are countable. Number The grammatical category of number in nouns correlates with the notion of countability.

salt. plateful. They are invariable. soap. grass. tea sack of grain. hundreds.Nouns Uncountable nouns refer to entities which cannot be counted. Both countable and uncountable nouns can enter constructions denoting the part of a whole. news. yard. progress. butter. teaspoonful: armful of straw. They are usually names of materials (cotton. mail b) nouns denoting shape heap of leaves. meter of material. water foot. books There were scores of boxes and crates. books cup of coffee. fruit. liter of beer. equipment) or abstract nouns (knowledge. wire. rocks. scores of animals. inch. flour ton. flowers box of chocolate. information. bellyful. bricks d) plural numerals tens. e) nouns ending in -ful: the suffix –ful can be added to almost any noun denoting some kind of container to form a quantifying noun: basketful.e. milk. all waiting to be checked and loaded. milk). collections of things (baggage. gas. advice). bricks. flowers handful of salt. wood There's heaps of time before the plane leaves. pocketful. fish basket of eggs. mouthful. i. quart. they cannot change their number. potatoes. pound. c) standardized measure terms pint. pencils 40 . matches. gram. water. luck. gallon. sand. accidents dozens. Quantifying nouns vary in number like ordinary countable nouns: He drank a cup / three cups of tea. rice. furniture. kilo(gram) of cheese. Such partitive constructions consist of a quantifying noun indicating the part or the quantity and an ofphrase specifying the type of matter referred to. tone of aluminum. The major types of quantifying nouns are: a) nouns denoting the type of container barrel of brandy. blankets pile of bills. millions of dollars. cloth ounce.

SAQ 2. head. hours. gloves. please? Put another ……… of coal on the fire. boys I've seen her a couple of times before. Can I have another ……… of paper. flight. piece. sheet. slice. . item. SAQ 2.3. Use each word once only: blade. socks couple of days.A.B. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Let me give you a ……… of advice. . There is an interesting ……… of news in the paper. A.Nouns She scooped up handfuls of loose earth. ants ducks horses rabbits bees fish locusts sheep cattle flies mares trout chickens geese oxen turkeys cows goat pigeons wolves dogs hen pigs Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: a colony / an army of a swarm of a herd of a brood a pack of _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ 41 . set.3. She’s going to buy a new pair of shoes. A ……… of stairs takes you to the top of the house. lump. 9) There was not a single ……… of grass left standing. Use a dictionary to decide what you call a group of . B. hands. f) nouns denoting two items: pair of eyes. Helen has a lovely ……… of hair. Complete each sentence with one suitable word from the list. Do you want another ……… of toast? We bought Mary a ……… of cutlery for a wedding present.

bush. -f. church. knife. fox. dog. and –fe ? ………………………………………………………………………. 42 . wolf. How is the plural of these nouns formed? When do you add –es instead of –s to form the plural of a noun? ………………………………………………………………………. potato ……………………………………………………………………….Nouns a flush / team of a shoal of a flock of a herd / team of a plague of a stud of a team / yoke of a flight / flock of a colony / bury /nest of a hover of _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Think first! Write the plural form of cat. . Write your answers in your portfolio too and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and/or your colleagues. Write the plural form of the nouns day.……………………………………………………………………… . How do you form the plural of nouns ending in –y. .……………………………………………………………………… . tomato.. . . ………………………………………………………………………. poppy.

Nouns

2.3.2. Regular plural formation
The regular plural is formed by means of an –s suffix which is pronounced [s] or [z]. The plural ending is pronounced /s/ when the singular ends with a voiceless consonant / p, t, k, f, θ/: /p/ /t / /k/ /f / /θ / map – maps cat – cats book – books cliff—cliffs, roof—roofs, gulf--gulfs moth – moths

The plural ending is pronounced /z/ when the singular ends with a vowel or with a voiced consonant: /b/ /d/ /g/ rib – ribs bed – beds pig – pigs

The plural ending -es , pronounced [iz], is added when the noun ends in sibilants [s, ʃ ʧ z, ʒ ] , ,, : /s / /ʃ / /ʧ / /z / /ʒ / horse – horses bush – bushes church – churches prize – prizes mirage – mirages

Attention should be paid to certain spelling points concerning nouns ending in –y, -f / -fe and –o: Nouns ending in –y: If the singular form ends in a vowel +y, add –s for the plural: boy – boys day – days If the singular form ends in a consonant +y, the plural ends in -ies: poppy – poppies factory – factories

Nouns ending in –f or –fe, have the plural in -ves: calf – calves wolf – wolves half – halves wife – wives leaf – leaves shelf-- shelves

With some nouns, both regular plurals in –s and –ves plurals are possible: scarf – scarfs/ scarves hoof – hoofs / hooves 43

Nouns

Nouns ending in –o have the plural form –s if the noun ends in vowel +o: radio – radios, or in nouns of foreign origin: kilo – kilos, photo – photos However, if the singular noun ends in consonant +o, the plural is –es: hero – heroes, potato – potatoes, tomato – tomatoes Abbreviations take the regular –s plural ending: PCs, CDs, DVDs.

SAQ 2.4.A.
A. Write the plural form of the nouns ending in –y: 1) He withdrew the key from his pocket where he had been toying with it. 2) There is a growing tendency among employers to hire casual staff. 3) He waited for the students’ reply. 4) A grand jury called 10 witnesses yesterday. 5) The Secretary of State has repeated a warning. 6) Finding a doctor can be difficult in a foreign country. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit:

44

Nouns

SAQ 2.4.B.
Write the plural form of the nouns ending in -o: 1) It was just a potato and tomato salad but it was the best John had ever had. 2) If you listen carefully, you will hear the echo coming back from the mountain. 3) In times of trouble anybody can become a hero. 4) On the piano there was a framed photo taken ten years ago at their wedding ceremony. 5) Granny was watching too many soap operas on TV and she never listened to the radio. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit:

Think first!
Simple nouns get the –s/-es marker of the plural attached at the end of the word. What about compound nouns? Underline the correct plural form: A grown-up is requested to pay all the fees. Grown-ups / growns up are requested to pay all the fees. A gentleman farmer was invited to attend the meeting. Several gentleman farmers / gentlemen farmers were invited to attend the meeting. Write your answers in your portfolio too and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues.

45

Nouns

Compound nouns form the plural in different ways: a) plural in the first element: attorney general notary public passer-by mother-in-law grant-in-aid attorneys general notaries public passers-by mothers-in-law grants-in-aid

b) plural in both first and last element: gentleman farmer manservant woman doctor c) plural in the last element: grown-up stand-by forget-me-not sit-in grown-ups stand-bys forget-me-nots sit-ins gentlemen farmers menservants women doctors

With the nouns illustrated so far, the plural form is fully predictable from the singular, i.e. they have the regular plural.

2.3.3. Irregular plural formation
Irregular plurals are by definition unpredictable. For this simple reason the plurals of the nouns that follow such a pattern have to be learned as individual lexical units. In many cases where foreign words are involved, it is helpful to know about pluralization in the relevant languages, particularly Latin and Greek. Vowel change In a small number of nouns, there is a change of vowel sound and spelling (‘mutation plurals’) without an ending, which distinguishes the singular form from the plural one: goose – geese tooth – teeth foot – feet man – men woman – women
/’w u m ə / n /wimin /

mouse – mice louse – lice

46

When these animals are not seen as a pray. these nouns have normal plural forms: Dozens (and dozens) of people crowded into the room. they have the regular –s plural: Aren’t those pheasants beautiful? b) Nouns of quantity. birds and fishes can have zero plurals. These nouns take a verb either in the singular or in the plural: This sheep has just had a lamb. There is a strong tendency for units of number. honest. especially when viewed as prey: They shot two reindeer. of length. Japanese) also have zero plurals: The Chinese are friendly. deer and cod though countable have the same form for the singular and the plural. Chinese. These sheep have just had lambs. Thousands of people had lived in the flooded area. of value and of weight to have a zero plural when premodified by another quantitative word: three dozen / hundred people many thousand / million insects eight ton of coal ten head / yoke of oxen three pound / stone of potatoes However.Nouns Zero plural Some nouns have the same form both in the singular and in the plural. though this is strictly forbidden. Sheep. The woodcock/ pheasant/ herring/ trout/ salmon/ fish are not very plentiful this year. Other animals. 47 . They fall into three main categories: names of animals. a) Nouns naming animals. and terribly proud of their country. when not preceded by numerals. quantifying nouns and nationality names. c) Nationality names ending in –ese (Portuguese.

4.Nouns 2. especially Latin. retain the foreign inflection for plural. and Greek. there are two plurals: an English regular form used in everyday language and the foreign plural preferred in technical discourse: a) Nouns in –us /əs/ with plural –i /ai/: bacillus stimulus bacilli stimuli b) Nouns in –us /əs/ with plural –a /ə/ (only in technical use): corpus genus corpora genera c) Nouns in –a /ə/ with plural –ae /i:/ or /ai/: regular plural formula vertebra foreign plural formulas vertebras formulae vertebrae d) Nouns in –um /ə with plural –a /ə/: m/ : curriculum curricula stratum strata e) Nouns in –ex. Foreign plurals Numerous nouns adopted from foreign languages. -ix with plural –ices /isi:z/: index matrix indices matrices f) Nouns in –is /is/ with plural –es /i:z/: analysis axis basis crisis hypothesis parenthesis thesis analyses axes bases crises hypotheses parentheses theses g) Nouns in –on /ən/ with plural –a /ə/: criterion phenomenon criteria phenomena 48 . In some cases.3.

5. synthesis -us → -i -a → -ae -um → -a -ex. -ix → -ices -is → -es -on → -a nucleus. measles names of games: billiards. syllabus. Nouns resistant to number contrast Number essentially involves the distinction between ‘one’ and ‘more than one’.Nouns h) Some nouns from French sometimes retain a French plural in writing. fungus. phenomenon.3. homework proper nouns: London. thesis. a regular English plural: regular plural bureau plateau foreign plural bureaus /-əuz / plateaus bureaux /-əu/ plateaux SAQ 2. uranium abstract mass nouns: music. Write them in the corresponding row. formula. The following nouns have retained in English their original Latin or Greek plural forms. datum. Accordingly. and a second one following the English rules of plural formation. The most familiar are: concrete mass nouns: silver. criterion. more usually. such nouns will be grouped into: a) Singular nouns (also known as singularia tantum) are nouns that have no plural form. curriculum.5. but there are singular nouns that cannot ordinarily be plural (meat) and plural nouns that cannot ordinarily be singular (binoculars). Mary certain nouns ending in –s: news names of sciences ending in –ics: physics. dirt. with the French zero ending in speech or. dominoes 49 .nuclei/ nucleuses 2. index. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit: bacterium. larva. acoustics names of diseases: mumps. Some nouns have two plural forms: the original one. the Danube.

scales. 10) Cattle is / are feeding on the banks of the river. ministry. etc. 8) In this village it is the community that decide / decides 9) The staff is / are arguing fiercely with their opponents. union. the collective noun is followed by a verb in the singular: The average British family has 3-6 members. pants. forceps. If collective nouns are considered as denoting a group of individuals doing personal things or involved in performing certain activities. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) My family always spend / spends their Easter holiday up in the North of Moldavia. They refer to entities which comprise two parts: tools and instruments (scissors. My firm are wonderful. The set includes binary nouns (also known as summation plurals). They do all they can for me. an abstract entity.Nouns b) Plural nouns (also pluralia tantum) are nouns with only one form. 3) The press was / were asked to take their seats 4) The team has / have been working in different places since May. 7) The police is / are looking for the murderer. 5) The whole team has / have been working on the same project since May. These trousers don’t match your shirt. Collective nouns agree with the verb either in the singular or in the plural depending on their meaning. pajamas. committee. and articles of dress (jeans. tongs). jury. they are followed by a verb in the plural and plural pronouns: My family are at the seaside. 6) The police has / have no idea about the identity of the murderer. My children are playing and my wife is watching them. team. firm. shorts. family. c) Collective nouns are common nouns that refer to groups of people: class. the plural. My firm was founded in the 19th century.6. 2) The press was / were asked to leave the hall. SAQ 2. They are all on the beach now. When the emphasis is on the group as an impersonal unit. trousers): These scissors are too blunt. staff. 50 . party. Underline the correct form of the verb. government.

(Accusative.4. That is why it is sometimes called the ‘possessive’ case. The genitive case The genitive is mainly used to express possession. besides showing possession the genitive has other meanings related to some basic sentence structure: Genitives a) possessive genitive Mary’s passport the car’s wheel subjective genitive the parents’ consent genitive of origin the girl’s story England’s cheeses objective genitive the family’s support the boy’s release descriptive genitive a women’s college a doctor’s degree Analogues “Mary owns a passport. (Nominative. Case Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic function and the semantic role of a noun. 2.Nouns 2.” “The car has a wheel. Experiencer) The neighbors gave direct help to the farmer.” “the cheeses produced in England.1. (Dative. these cases are collectively known as ‘the common case’: A farmer uses fertilizers to improve the crop.4.” “The parents consented. Beneficiary ) Liz married a farmer.” “somebody supports the family” “somebody released the boy” “a college for women” “a doctoral degree / a doctorate” b) c) d) e) 51 . English nouns have two cases: the unmarked common case and the marked genitive case. However. (Nominative. Consequently. Agent) A farmer loves his land.4.2. dative or accusative case.” “The girl told / wrote a story. The common case Nouns in English have the same form when they are used in the nominative. Patient) 2. Morphologically.

the ’s genitive is favored by the animate nouns. etc. The following four animate noun classes take the ’s genitive. it is reasonable to regard the genitive as having two forms: a) the ’s genitive (the inflected genitive) indicated in writing by the apostrophe ’s suffix or apostrophe only. but the of-genitive is also possible in most cases: personal names personal nouns collective nouns higher animals George Washington’s statue the boy’s new shirt the government’s decision the horse’s neck The ’s genitive is also used with certain kinds of inanimate nouns: a) geographical names: continents: countries: cities/towns: universities: Europe’s future Spain’s immigrants London’s water supply Harvard’s Linguistics department b) ‘locative nouns’ denote regions. the similarity in meaning and function has caused the latter to be called the ‘of genitive’. institutions. can be very similar to geographical names and are often written with initial capital letter: 52 . that is persons and animals with personal gender characteristic. after the modifying noun: modifying noun head modifying noun head the boy’s toys the students’ fault b) the of genitive (the periphrastic genitive) consisting of the modifying of-phrase after the head of the noun phrase: The The toys of the children head head modifying of-phrase modifying of-phrase fault of the students Choice of the ’s genitive The choice of the ’s-genitive depends on the gender of the noun in the genitive case.Nouns The genitive constructions We frequently find a choice between using a premodifying genitive and a postmodifying prepositional phrase with of.. Generally speaking. Thus.

with some phrases connected to nature. science’s future Mary’s car. when the first noun is the user or producer of something expressed by the second. 3. d. Match the situations when the ’s genitive is used with the corresponding examples. 2. the herd’s head 20 euros’ worth. 4. with words expressing dimension or value. yesterday’s ne ws. The first has been solved for you. for order’s sake 53 . the horse’s tail Romania’s population the sun’s rays. 9. with words followed by sake.7. When you have finished compare your answers with those at the end of the unit: 1. 6. 5. when the first noun refers to a group of living creatures or an organization. when the first noun is a person or a big animal. with geographical names or places. a doll’s house at ten miles’ distance the mind’s development. cow’s milk. with words expressing time. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) bird’s nest. 7. 8. 10.Nouns the world’s economic organization the Church’s mission the country’s population c) temporal nouns: the decade’s events a day’s work this year’s sales a week’s holiday d) nouns of ‘special interest to human activity’ the body’s needs the car’s performance SAQ 2. with words expressing distance. with nouns of special interest to human activity. the bank’s clients.

Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. 14. A walk takes five minutes. The fence is colored. 3. 12. The village road has an end. for example. Mary has a niece. 2. 8. will equally well admit both genitive constructions: the car’s engine the book’s title the to wn’s population the engine of the car the title of the book the population of the town SAQ 2. 7. Dad has consented to our marriage. The pupil has made a mistake. but many inanimate nouns occur with the ’s genitive.8. The project lasted for two years. This word has a meaning. In certain cases both options are possible. 9. The mayor has approved the funding. Inanimate nouns regularly take of genitive. Mary’s niece ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… 54 . The accident has a cause. 11. The following nouns. 10. The town has a name. The cottage has two windows. 13.Nouns Choice of the of genitive The of-genitive is chiefly used with nouns denoting lower animals and with inanimate nouns. The mountain is covered with forests. 6. 4. The cow gives milk. Rewrite the following sentences using ’s or the ofgenitive as appropriate. The newspaper was published yesterday. 5. 15.

nun Lexical means are also used to express gender with a number of animate nouns: bull .hen stallion . Lexical expression of gender Nouns denoting family relationships (a) and social position (b) are lexically marked for gender (pair of different words): father .mare stag . 2. the corresponding nouns tend to be in separate classes.hind In compound nouns either the first constituent or the second one is lexically marked for the masculine – feminine distinction: a) the first constituent male nurse (male) student boy-friend Jack ass he-goat cock sparrow tom cat (female) nurse (female) student girl-friend Jenny ass she-goat hen sparrow tabby cat He was in the police you know. consequently. It is therefore connected to distinctions of sex and. Gender Gender is a grammatical category characteristic of nouns that have male and female referents. Judy told a story about a British female reporter.queen monk .sister son .daughter spinster – bachelor lord – lady uncle . namely masculine and feminine. and he was a male nurse.5.mother brother .cow fox . which are therefore classified as neuter.aunt nephew . 55 .niece king .5.vixen ram .Nouns 2.ewe boar – saw cock . They ordered the drinks from a female bartender. Such distinctions are not normally made in the case of nouns referring to ’things’. These were female prisoners convicted of violent crimes.1.

their Chairperson. A State Department spokesman explained the situation.5. Moon. In most cases the feminine noun is derived from the masculine one: masculine actor governor mayor mister god hero feminine → actress → governess → mayoress → mistress → goddess → heroine [the arrow → shows the direction of derivation] There are a few exceptions to this rule: masculine widower bride <= <= feminine widow bridegroom 56 .Nouns b) the second constituent: chairman spokesman businessman congressman chairwoman spokeswoman businesswoman congresswoman A spokeswoman for the company announced the decision. Morphological expression of gender A few English nouns have gender-specific derivational suffixes. was interviewed yesterday. 2. Most of the personal nouns refer to positions and jobs. Compounds ending in -person(s) and -people are sometimes used to express reference to both males and females and to avoid sex-bias associated with the use of the corresponding masculine forms: Mrs. Jane was the spokesperson for the delegation.2. We have a vacancy for an experienced salesperson.

9. 5) "God save the King!” 6) She is a very high-powered businesswoman.Nouns SAQ 2. fo wl. 3) Gavin's stallion was in the barn. 4) The old woman had a nephew from Northern Italy. A. When referring to nouns of dual gender and pronouns such as anybody or nobody. teacher. pig. 2. and Mrs. special problems arise. but she failed. fox. Nobody in his right mind punishes a quarter-century-old dereliction. 57 . 9) They have a she-goat in the barn. masculine pronouns have been used: The individual can deal directly with his employer if he chooses so. etc. child. Dual gender nouns Within personal nouns. deer. pupil. Some grammarians call them dual gender nouns: journalist. there are several nouns in English where the distinction male/female is neutralized. baby. etc. doctor. Ferguson 2) The hero of this novel is a man fighting injustice. student. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit. however. sheep.3.5. horse. friend. Traditionally. where the sex of the referent is unidentified or irrelevant. 8) The Congresswoman tried hard. The first has been done for you: 1) Parents of the bridegroom are Mr. 1) bridegroom (M) – bride (F). the same noun naming both. 7) The hunters had killed a lioness. Underline the nouns marked for gender and give the corresponding masculine or feminine pairs.

etc.Nouns Nowadays. further grouped into countable and uncountable. the ’s genitive being favored by animate nouns. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: masculine ram engineer stag chairman feminine niece spinster nanny-goat widow dual pig sheep engineer goat horse hen Summary In this unit we have discussed the morphological criteria used to identify a number of noun classes: proper nouns. ‘zero plural’. which name unique entities. did they? Everyone thinks they are in the centre of the universe. Animate nouns are masculine or feminine. Although most English common nouns mark the plural by means of an –s suffix. indicating the corresponding masculine. The English case system consists in the unmarked common case (corresponding to the nominative. which name ordinary things. a plural form pronoun is preferred as a way of purposely not specifying the sex of the person referred to (although the expressions he or she. and ‘more than one’. Inanimate nouns are neuter. him or her may also be used): Nobody came.10. the grammatical category of gender is closely connected with sex distinctions. SAQ 2. The category of number indicates the opposition between ‘one’. Such distinctions correlate with different grammatical patterns (countable nouns have singular and plural number. feminine of dual gender noun (wherever possible). Once you have let anybody in they'd chop you up and put you in their next stew. a large number of nouns do not follow this pattern and use other markers: vowel change. and common nouns. dative and accusative cases) and the marked genitive case. In English. while uncountable have only one form. 58 . either in the singular or in the plural). Fill in the table below. The choice is between a premodifying ’s genitive and a postmodifying genitive (ofgenitive) and depends on gender distinctions.

T/F 8) The ‘s-genitive is preferred for inanimate nouns. T/F 10) All nouns get either prefixes or suffixes to express gender. pp 71 – 93. Gramatica limbii engleze. Hestia Publishing House. 16 – 95. Editura didacticã si pedagogicã. Iasi. (2004). Timisoara. The English Noun Phrase. True or false? Choose as appropriate. Editura Spanda. Developing competence in English.Nouns Key terms case collective noun common noun compound noun countable uncountable foreign plurals gender genitive noun number proper noun quantifier zero plural Further reading Baciu. 195 . T/F 5) Nouns in the plural always end in –s. Horia (2004) Syntheses in English Morphology. T/F 3) Both proper and common nouns start with a capital letter. Bucuresti: Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti. Iasi. Gãlãteanu. Hulban. Hortensia (1995). Polirom. pp. T/F 6) All nouns have singular and plural forms. T/F 59 . Georgiana. Parlog. Coser C. T/F 9) Nouns denoting persons are either masculine or feminine.209. A generative perspective. English Morphology: Word Formation. Bucuresti. Ileana (1999). Ecaterina Comisel (1982). Vulcãnescu R. T/F 4) Derived nouns are formed by means of affixes. 11-40. T/F 7) All nouns in the genitive case express possession. Send away assignment (SAA) 2 A. (5 minutes: 10 points) 1) Nouns may be countable or uncountable. T/F 2) Some concrete nouns are uncountable. Intensive English Practice.

or she will find some work. 7) The farmer bought ( worth / Euro 20) of seeds. She headed towards the pantry to pack some food and on the way she tripped over the checkers that Marty had left on the floor when he left for the athletics class. 60 . 3) They were satisfied with (work / that day). Something had awoken her from her too long sleep and suddenly she knew that she had to leave that house and try her luck somewhere else. A feeling of pride overwhelmed her. 6) Jane was pleased with her (holiday/two weeks) in the mountains. All she felt was a great feeling of relief now that she had made the decision. 2) Although (Ann / reply) amazed her relatives. so Jim fell when he sat down.Nouns B. If everything went wrong she could still continue her career in politics. She had to try at least. Courage had almost left her but her patience was over. Underline the uncountable nouns in the following text and put them into one of the categories below: (10 minutes: 26 points) substances: coffee human qualities: feelings: activities: abstract ideas: subjects of study: sports events: games: illnesses: She left her coffee on the table. Rewrite the sentences using the correct possessive form of the nouns given in parenthesis: (10 minutes: 7 points) 1) (roof / shed) was blown off by the storm last week. 4) (legs / chair) were not very well glued. But she didn’t stop. 5) She rubbed (floor/ kitchen) clean and then continued with the ( windows / sitting room). untouched.’ C. She was afraid the noise would wake Joe who was lying with mumps in the other room. they didn’t show their feelings.

4) Women are as efficient in managerial jobs as men. Smoking is forbidden. 5) The sheep were grazing in the field when he came to gather them. b. 6) The astronaut wrote two series of numbers on the board. The table has to be ready with a sparkling tablecloth and a matching napkin for each person. you bring in the trolley so they can choose. menu in the middle. and the cutlery will be on it: knife on the right. 61 . fork on the left. 7) Jamie put down the scissors in front of the mirror next to the pincers. If you want to have some dessert. Nouns with the same form for both singular and plural: _____________________________________ c. 3) She taught the children to take good care of their teeth. For a special event. Harris identified several new species of plants. Irregular nouns: child – children _____________________________________ b. Identify the nouns belonging to the different categories a. Nouns that refer to single items that have two linked parts: _____________________________________ 1) During the three years he had spent in the jungle. There’s always a flower or a bunch in a vase in the middle of the table.’ Rebecca Harding Davis. Read the following sentences. people will leave the money on the table with a tip. Life in the Iron-Mills guests.Nouns D. No ashtray in this room. 2) Joe put the meat on the scales before cutting it up into small pieces. Underline the nouns in the text below and write their plural form: (10 minutes: 34 points) ‘You have to be waiting for the guest if he has had a reservation. c and give some more examples for each category: (10 minutes: 13 points) a. Have the bill ready when they ask for it but leave the table immediately: don’t worry. there’ll be a spoon and a special knife for the fish but no teaspoon since people might prefer a piece of fruit instead of an ice cream or a cake.___________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ E.

housework. precedence. F.’ 2) ‘How much ________ have you received from your friend?’ ‘I haven't heard from him lately. I only do the washing up. 5. 9. tooth paste. a war story. fish.1 – 2. 6. help. news. 3.’ 3) ‘How much ___________ would you like with your rice?’ ‘Just a little. luggage.10 SAQ 2. 3. chicken soup. confidence.’ 4) He does not eat much _____________. 4. SAQ 2. 6. We will basically manage alone. time. 9) They have not caught many ____________ from the river. 1. sincerity.2. please. bookcase. But they don't lay eggs. wine 1) ‘How many ________ do they have?’ Six. (5 minutes: 10 points) cars. fish. 2. the garage door. 7. 10) We do not need as much ____________ as last time. a newspaper headline. Total points for SAA 2: 93 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 2. 2. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. money. a paper factory. moonlight. 8) I won't take too much ___________ with me. 62 . Choose from the list below. 7) I have got so many__________ to tell you. helplessness.1.Nouns 8) Tom had left his glasses on the shelf and now he couldn’t see the trout because of the sun glistening in the water. coffee. children. chickens. 1. the sea waves. He likes only carp. only a suitcase and a handbag. furniture. experience. Some of the nouns may not be useful. Fill in the blank space with a suitable word. a teacher trainer. chicken. appreciation. 4. dramatist. 5. 10. times. 5) How much ______ have we got to finish the project? 6) I do not have to do much __________. 8. things.

replies. a flock of geese. A. turkeys. SAQ 2. 4. b. blade.1 – 2. a pack of dogs. 1. A. [-us > -i] nucleus – nuclei /nucleuses fungus –fungi / funguses syllabus – syllabi / syllabuses [-ix. juries. i. SAQ 2. SAQ 2. 7. g.7. 10. B.2. A. are. 7.8. sheet. countries. the cause of the accident. 3. 1. a hover of trout. 5. spend. 10. a. 2. 10. 6. slice. decides. 2. a plague of locusts. 4. echoes. two year project. clap B. has. a drove / herd / sounder of pigs. a colony / bury / nest of rabbits. a shoal of fish. f. 1. 7. lump. sheep.4.6 not be comparable to those given above. 3. 4. e. c. 6. 1. a flight / flock of pigeons. set.Nouns SAQ 2. a stud of mares. flies. was. -ex > -ices] index – indices [-a > -ae] formula formulae /formulas larva – larvae – [-um > -a] datum – data curriculum curricula bacterium bacteria – – [-is > -es] thesis – theses synthesis – syntheses [-on > -a] phenomenon – phenomena criterion . goats.3 SAQ 2. the color of the fence.3. 5. yesterday’s newspaper. 3. 9. 8. 5. 5. h. tomatoes. 7. have. j. are. the pupil’s 63 . piece. 8. 6. the town’s name/ the name of the town. radios. have. 4. 5. 6. 9. authorities. a brood / peep of chickens. cows. a colony / an army of ants. a herd of cattle. 9. pianos.6. the mayor’s approval of the funding. a flush / team of ducks. a swarm of bees. are. potatoes. 2. 4. 6. 3. 2. 8. keys. 3. head.criteria SAQ 2. secretaries. 2. a team / yoke of oxen. 8. 1. flight. item. heroes. 3.5. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. 1. were. d. 5. a brood of hens. 4. a drove / herd / stable / team of horses. wolves.1 . we strongly advise you to revise sections 2.

2. a five minutes’ walk / a walk of five minutes. 9. 64 . congressman. 4. 5. the end of the village road.9 . hog nephew ram bachelor engineer billy-goat widower stag stallion chairman cock sow niece ewe spinster female engineer nanny goat widow hind mare chairwoman hen pig sheep engineer goat deer horse chairperson - NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. the meaning of the word. heroine.10 not be comparable to those given above. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) SAQ 2.2. we strongly advise you to revise section 2. businessman. 14.2. bride. we strongly advise you to revise section 2. Dad’s consent to our marriage. 3. lion. mare. SAQ 2. 10.Nouns mistake. the mountain’s forests / the forests of the mountain. 15. A.4.7 . he-goat. 9.8 not be comparable to those given above. queen. the cow’s milk. 7.10. 13. 11. niece. 1. the windows of the cottage. 6. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2.5.9. 12. 8.

5.Determiners and pronouns UNIT 3 Determiners and pronouns Objectives 3.2. Semi-determiners 3. Indefinite pronouns 3. Relative pronouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA 4) Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 3. Reflexive pronouns 3. Interrogative pronouns 3.1.1. The definite article 3.4.1.2. Numerals 3.1.1. Demonstrative pronouns 3.1.6.1.3.3.2.2.1.1.4. The zero article 3.6. Determiners 3. Quantifiers 3.1 – 3. Reciprocal pronouns 3.2. Personal pronouns 3.2.5.2. Possessive pronouns 3. Pronouns 3.1.7. Demonstrative determiners 3.2.2.1. The article 3.2. Possessive determiners 3.1.2.3.8.13 66 66 67 68 70 72 76 76 77 81 85 87 87 89 90 91 92 955 966 977 98 99 99 99 102 65 .1.1. The indefinite article 3.2.1.1.

Determiners Determiners are words that specify the reference of a noun.e. your. those c) possessive determiners: my.1. The second section will examine various types of pronouns and their function as substitutes for nouns in appropriate contexts. Among determiners. three sub-groups may be identified according to their position: 1) Central determiners. his. measurements. with three subgroups: a) articles: the. numerals and semi-determiners) and explain their role in noun phrases. apply your understanding to the analysis of linguistic material. The combinations of nouns with certain determiners differ depending on the type of noun. they cannot be used simultaneously in the same noun phrase. define quantifiers and explain how they modify nouns. use numerals to express dates. quantifiers. 66 . as compared with the past). possessive. Objectives After studying this unit.  3.Determiners and pronouns Aim In this unit we will continue our study of the noun phrase by focusing on those items that precede the head . possessives. This (sg) and these (pl) are used to refer to a particular person(s). that. thing(s) or event(s) that is/are close in time or space: How long have you been living in this country? He never comes to see me these days. reciprocal. etc Central determiners are mutually exclusive. define and identify three types of articles: definite. identify different types of pronouns (personal.generically called determiners. demonstratives. interrogative). indefinite. demonstrative. the entity in the real world to which a noun refers. you will be able to:      recognize different types of determiners (articles. explain their role in the noun phrase or in the clause and account for their correct use. indefinite and zero and account for their correct use. calculations. i. b) demonstrative determiners: this. reflexive. a. these. (= now.e. i.

many Post determiners follow central determiners: The disappearance of my former partner is extremely troubling. other. The article The definite article (the) and the indefinite article (a) are the most common determiners. You should pay attention to nouns spelt with initial h. and an before nouns that begin with vowels (an apple. predeterminers precede central determiners: There is much truth in both these charges. I think you'll find these shoes more comfortable than those. definite or generic. Compare the initial sounds (not the letters) of the following nouns: /a / /e / an umbrella an egg / ju / a university. I'm gradually losing all my friends. The semantic function of articles is to present the referents of a noun as indefinite. a union / ju / a Euro. Sometimes the written form of a noun may be misleading. ten and quantifying determiners much. As their name indicates. Thus.Determiners and pronouns In contrast. / wʌ/ a one-time hero The choice of the correct form of the indefinite article depends on pronunciation and not on spelling./ a hotel /həu`tel/ an hour /`auə/ 67 . former.1. If a vowel is the first sound in the word. latter. once. an is used when the word begins with an actual vowel sound and a when the word begins with a consonant or a consonant-like sound /ju/ or /wu/. I was living with my parents at that time. The indefinite article is used before singular countable nouns or before nouns that begin with consonants (a cow. use an: a horse /`hɔ: s. half and multipliers like double. with two sub-groups: a) ordinal numerals first. last and next b) cardinal numerals six. 3) Post determiners. that (sg) and those (pl) are used for referring to a person/persons or thing(s) that is/are not near the speaker or as near to the speaker as another/others: Look at that man over there. a European / wu / a woman. 3. an orchard). If h is pronounced as the consonant /h/ then use a. second and the semideterminers same. These two colors don't look right together. a barn). both. 2) Predeterminers: all.1.

In these examples. an) in the following noun phrases. … honorable person. 5. 8.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. a hundred c) to indicate jobs: He is an engineer. … unilateral agreement. 15. 7. the relationship between two groups of people or things that is represented by two numbers showing how much larger one group is than the other: 16p a kilo. 20. 19. instead of one: a couple. a quarter. 3. … one-way street. … elephant. … worm. She accepted the ring / it . … owl. … wall. 6. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the indefinite article (a. … useful book. The cat / It was black. … historical speech. Subsequent references to the same entity generally take the form of definite nouns or personal pronouns: He bought a diamond ring. 68 . Compare our answers with those at the end of the unit: 1. 4. 3. the nouns diamond ring and cat take the indefinite article when used for the first time. … Australian student. Joan is a teacher. Laura tutored my older brother Johnny three times a week. 13. Mary saw a cat.1. Some special uses of the indefinite article a) in ratios (= “per”). … ear-ring.1. b) in numbers. The indefinite article The indefinite article is used to introduce a new entity in the discourse.1. … unintentional mistake. … hare. 14. 18. 16. … Ukrainian skater. 10. 9. … honest refusal. … one-man band. 11. i. When used for the second time. because they are new information in the discourse. they take the definite article (or are replaced by pronouns) because they are already known information. … Englishman. 17.e. a couple of miles a day. … engineer. 12. … European journey. … heiress to the throne. 2. six miles an hour: I take a walk at lunchtime.1. five times a year.

We’d better go by … taxi […] – if we can get … taxi […] at such … hour […] as 2 a.. go. If I'm lucky I will go for a ride on my stallion. 9. 7. Would you like to come? 10. But I’m not going for … holiday […]. My neighbor is a photographer [C]. take. SAQ 3.2. 5. Decide whether the nouns are countable [C] or uncountable [U] and use the correct form of the indefinite article. 8. He’ll give you … nut cutlet […] .Determiners and pronouns d) in idiomatic expressions with verbs like have. etc. 69 . I think I’ve got … cold […] . It’s not … enormous salary […] but after all you are … completely unskilled man […] . 4. I hope you have … lovely time […] and … good weather […]. I have … headache […] and … sore throat […] . We had … fish […] and … chips […] for … lunch […]. I’m going on … business […] . I’ll pay you … hundred […] … week […] . If you go by … train […] you can have quite … comfortable journey […] . make. you won’t get … meat […] at his house. 3. … travel agent would give you … information […] about … hotels […]. let’s ask him for … advice […] about color films. The first has been done for you: 1. Write your answers in the spaces provided below.m. 2. 6. He is … vegetarian […] . to indicate an action: have a talk / a walk / a sleep have/take a bath / a look / a rest / an interest in go for a ride / a run / a s wim / a walk make a(n) attempt / a fuss / a mistake / a speech You can have a sleep tonight. I’m having … few friends […] in to … coffee […] tomorrow evening. Compare our answers with those at the end of the unit.

A horse is a domestic animal. Let’s meet at the university. not milk). Some special uses of the zero article: Institutions In some fixed expressions indicating place.2. with singular countable nouns. However. while a horse refers to any member of the species.Determiners and pronouns 3. Though close in meaning (both are generic). as in: The horse is a domestic animal. (to attend service) They go to the nearest church. we use the zero article (the focus is on the type of institution rather than on a specific entity): at / to / from school at / to / from university (college) at / in / from / to church in / into / out / to / from hospital Notice the difference in meaning when the same noun is used with the zero article or with the definite article: They’re in hospital. The absence of the article in these cases indicates that the noun is generic.1. They’re in the hospital.1. (we are students) (a certain meeting place) 70 . (to a certain church) We are at university. (in a certain hospital to visit a patient) (they are sick) They go to church on Sunday. that is why the absent article is called the ‘zero’ article. the horse refers to the species as a whole. we may use either the definite or the indefinite article to express generic reference. Notice that the ‘zero’ article does not mean that the article has been omitted as in this newspaper headline: FARMERS CLAIM FAIR TREATMENT Reference is generic when the noun phrase refers to a whole class rather than to an individual person or thing. and plural countable nouns (He hasn’t read books for years) are used without an article. The zero article There are situations when uncountable nouns (I drink coffee.

the zero article is used: Queen Elizabeth had lunch with President Bush. at night: The bell in the church tower rang before and after Mass and at noon. 71 . In contrast. Will the children be left alone at night? However. the definite article is used if a special meal is singled out: They had lunch at a cafe overlooking the intersection. they will freeze. the use of the definite article shows a certain period of the day: She sat and waited for the dawn. at dawn. means of transport and communication Prepositional phrases opening with the preposition by take a noun with the zero article: (go) (travel) (contact) (send) by bus / car / coach / plane / taxi / train by air / horse / trail / car by radio / telephone by mail / post / satellite link a) times of the day The zero article is used especially with some prepositional phrases indicating time: at noon. days. When winter comes in 12 weeks. a unique position Jobs and positions normally require an indefinite article. He was elected chairman of the committee. but when somebody gains a unique position. Jack grabbed the lunch from the table and went out. months and seasons We use the ‘zero’ article with the names of the days of the week and months of the year: In April came a rapid thaw that produced high waters.Determiners and pronouns Meals The zero article refers to the general term ‘meal’. He woke up in the middle of the night.

1. Week by week he grew a little stronger. a line and some hooks are all you need. and notices. where communication needs strip language of all but the most information-bearing forms: CEREAL STOCKS CONTINUE DECLINE NEW BAR ON EMIGRANTS KEY WITNESS DISAPPEARS 3. book titles. The use of the definite article may also reflect the situational context. The hooks can't be too small. The entity to which the noun phrase refers is assumed to be known to the speaker.Determiners and pronouns double expressions The zero article is sometimes found in combinations of identical or semantically related nouns.1. particularly with prepositions: arm in arm day after day day by day from cover to cover from top to toe hand in hand shoulder to shoulder week by week He traveled from country to country. h) block language The zero article is normal with noun phrases in block language.e. common one: (immediate speech situation. but the rod must be flexible and the line very strong. i. They walked hand in hand along the path.3. Situational reference depends on the immediate speech situation or on the larger shared context. It may be obvious from the situation which particular object(s) is/are being referred to. This knowledge could be based on the preceding text: A rod. the special type of language used in public notices. newspaper headlines. (unique reference) Go to the door. Reference may be to a unique event or to an ordinary. The definite article The definite article specifies the referent of the noun phrase. both interlocut ors are in a room with one door) How do I get to the bus station? (larger shared cont ext) The sun sets in the west. labels. 72 .

we prefer a prepositional phrase + the: He wouldn't look Thomas in the face. intelligence. next.): The second / next / best chapter was ready. The pupils had used the same dictionary. same. A fragment of the tooth came off and hit me straight in the eye. superlative and superlativelike adjectives (only. 73 . You look quite a sight in your red dress. minimum. whole (of). b) with first.Determiners and pronouns Some special uses of the definite article: a) to show that the person or thing referred to is famous or important. Notice however that when we talk about the parts of the body as affected by some external action. last. heart. the better. She kissed the baby on the forehead. The dog bit him in the leg. Yet in energy terms the UK is the best placed country in the whole of Europe. e) with parts of the body and the human make-up (mind. or about their possessions. d) with interdependent comparatives: The sooner we get a way from here. wrong. main. right. will) referred to generally: Heavy drinking will damage the liver. Poor George! The only boy. ordinal numbers. The majority of children will benefit by orthodontic treatment. the family darling. intellect. The definite article is stressed and pronounced / ði: /: Tom Cruise? Not the Tom Cruise? At that time London was the place to be. Do you believe in the soul? Usually if we talk about a person’s body. c) with "superlative" nouns: majority. soul. I was struck with the expression of his face. we use the possessive adjective: He broke his leg during a football match. etc. etc.

6) We shook ………………………. fill in the gaps either with an article or with a possessive determiner. e. the rich. the British Isles. the Gobi. arm. 11) I saw him raise ………………. the Pacific. scrubbing the kitchen floor. 4) He stroked ……………………. the Arabian Gulf.3. the French. shoulder. shoulder. The Odeon.b. The National Gallery. 8) You’ll strain …………………… eyes if you read in bad light. The University of Phoenix. the English. the Far East.3. The Globe. 74 . The Sunday Times. 7) He is a selfish man.. leg. f.a. thumb with a hammer when I was hanging the picture. 3) I have a pain in ………………. The following illustrate the use of the definite article. he wouldn’t lift ……………….. The Eminescu Library. the Black Sea.. if necessary.. the Sun. the poor. finger to help anyone. knees. the Transylvanian Plateau. hands with the host. 1) The bullet struck him in ………. chin thoughtfully. 2) Someone threw an egg which struck the speaker on ………. the Danube. the Panama Canal. c..Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. The British Museum. 9) She was soon on ……………. face. From the knowledge you have acquired about the use of determiners with nouns denoting parts of the human body. Match the statements to each set of examples: a. 10) I hit …………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 5) The lioness bit him in …………………………. the Carpathians. d. right hand and take an oath. B. 12) There was a shot and a policeman came out with ………… blood running down …………………. SAQ 3. b. the Danube Delta. the Moon. The Observer Magazine. A.

place names: geographical regions. 2. 3. names of peoples. please. youngest boy has just started going to ………. Titanic was crossing ………… Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. When …………. things to stay ………. the most beautiful. 6. Smith. 4. young people want ………. ………. the Romanian language. cinemas and theaters. 1.. Smith who works in ……… box office or ………… other Mr. ordinal numbers. deserts. captain ordered ……… crew to help ………. boats. h. seas. SAQ 3. 2. museums and art galleries. eldest boy is at ………… college. nouns formed from adjectives. 5.… young. Smith?’ 75 .3. passengers into ……. the biggest. the second. school. mountain groups. oceans. public buildings: hotels. hospitals. plateaus. Write your answers in the space provided below. the superlative of adjectives. some newspapers and magazines.’ ‘Do you mean ………… Mr. bays.. things that are unique. i. gulfs. island groups. universities. change but ……… old people want ………. same. libraries.. rivers. …………. ……. C. 9. the fifth. the best. ‘I’d like to see Mr. the English language. 8. The first has been done for you: a-4. Insert the definite article if necessary.Determiners and pronouns g.c. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. …….. 3. 7. names of languages when determined by the word language. 4. There’ll always be a conflict between ……… old and ….

3. their). its. Demonstrative determiners The demonstrative determiners this/that and these/those are closely related in meaning with the definite article.1. 76 . Which is their house? that The possessive adjective o wn is frequently used to emphasize a) something belongs to or is connected with a person: It was her own idea. However. in addition to marking an entity as known. b) something is done or produced by a particular person and for himself or herself: She makes all her own clothes. our). her.): Mrs. the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text or given in the speech situation (his.2. The set of possessive determiners corresponds to a set of personal pronouns (see 3.Determiners and pronouns 3. they specify the number of the referent (singular or plural) and whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the speaker: near distant singular this book that book plural these books those books The singular demonstrative determiners combine with both countable and uncountable nouns. Black celebrates her birthday [C] on Tuesday. He has to cook his own meals. 3. We encourage students to develop their own ideas. Possessive determiners Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker (my. the plural demonstrative determiners combine with countable plural nouns only: This soup [U] is really delicious – how do you make it? Have you heard from that Scottish boy [C] you used to go out with? These areas [C] are frequently affected by floods.1.2. Is the car your own? Your day off is your own. (“you can spend it as you wish”) Our children are gro wn up and have children of their own. However.1.

1. will you? The use of demonstrative determiners is not just a matter of physical location in relation to the speaker. few. no). Frequently they also express whether something is near or distant in time (cf. they are generally followed by of: all money some money much money all of the money some of the money much of the money all girls. over there. Both is used with reference to two entities with plural countable nouns: The US Government pays for all its overseas workers [C]. every indicates the individual as a member of the group: Eve and I were each allotted $5000. it combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. 77 . both. (referring to a photo the speaker is looking at) Give me that photo. little). Quantifiers Some determiners specify nouns in terms of quantity and are therefore called quantifiers. then) The effects of their decision will be seen by this autumn. now vs. The demonstrative determiner reflects the speaker’s perception of distance: Who's this? A teacher in our school. a) Inclusive All refers to the whole of a group or a mass. He’s been entirely different all spring [U]. of moderate or small quantity (some. 3. every). Each and every refer to the individual members of a group and only combine with singular nouns. He suffered multiple fractures of both ankles. It was a merry Christmas for me that year. Situational reference is very common in conversation.Determiners and pronouns The reference of noun phrases with demonstrative determiners may be established on the basis of the situation or on the preceding or following text. some girls. each. many girls Quantifiers can be broadly divided into four main groups: inclusive quantifiers (all. quantifiers of large quantity (much. many). He gave every patient the same medicine. In the latter case. arbitrary or negative quantifiers (any. They combine with both definite and indefinite noun phrases.4. Each stresses the separate individual.

a great/ good deal of (with uncountable nouns). [C. as in: This is some man! Determiners specifying small quantity are a few. [C] Some /sʌ m/ also has other uses that need to be distinguished from the one above. b) Large quantity Many and much specify large quantity. Lots of patience [U] is needed. They are characteristic of casual speech: A good many pages [C] of the book are an account of his life. They are typically used in questions and in negative contexts: Did you have much trouble [U] with the customs? Have you read many English books [C. [U] He did not translate many books from English into Italian. few and several with plural countable nouns. and much with uncountable nouns. too. pl] Other determiners specifying quantity are a great/ good many (with plural countable nouns). [U] He has bought some aspirins. 78 . little with uncountable nouns. [U] A good deal of English [U] was spoken on the beach.] ? His performances have not attracted much attention.Determiners and pronouns Each can be used with reference to two entities. It expresses admiration or approval and it is strongly stressed. a lot of and lots of. many with plural countable nouns. Gymnastics requires a great deal of character. pl. The business makes less money every year. and a little. Lots of citizens [C] think it’s time for an election. every with reference to three or more: She had a child holding on to each hand. c) Moderate or small quantity Some /sə m/ usually specifies a moderate or indefinite quantity or number and is used with both uncountable and plural countable nouns: I need some medicine. [C] A lot of my friends [C] are thinking about emigrating. plenty of. The last three combine with both uncountable and plural countable nouns. He has got plenty of money [U] / plenty of friends.

Either day is OK. I can’t get there – there’s no bus. few people can understand it. It combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. They suggest that the quantity is less than expected: He has little time to spend on writing letters. 79 . (almost no time) This theory is very difficult. but it refers to two entities and combines only with singular countable nouns: Come on Tuesday or Wednesday. Either has a similar meaning. It is often used in questions and negative clauses: The decision does not discriminate against any applicant [C]. There's a door at either end of the corridor. Few and little have a negative meaning. Neither parent realized what was happening. No and neither have negative reference. You never give me any help [U]. the former generally. (not many) d) Arbitrary / negative member or amount Any refers to an arbitrary member of the group or amount of a mass. the latter with reference to two entities: No action has been taken on such major problems.Determiners and pronouns A few and a little have a positive meaning similar to some: Would you like a little (some) champagne [U]? There are a few (some) eggs [C] in the fridge.

and they have better lawns this year. 10) __________ of my neighbors ignore their grass.a. milk left. few.4. A. Hardly …………. 3.b. 7) Our yard looks awful this summer. many.4. little. 80 . and that has made a difference. 6) I've paid __________ attention to how __________ rain we've had. In the following sentences. Can I offer you ………… wine? 5. I’ve got ………… interesting ideas if you are willing to hear them. 8) I didn't use __________ fertilizer last spring.’ 2) How __________ material are we expected to read in one week? 3) I’ve had __________ headaches already because of stress. 5) I know __________ instances where that proves true. a little. 6. If there’s ……………. There isn’t __________ food left.. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers: much. There aren’t ………… buses but you can take the train. Fill in the spaces in the sentences below with some. They never have ………… fun. put it in the fridge. a lot of. no. 1) SAQ 3. a fe w.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. any. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 4. B. and the grass is turning brown and dying. 2. There are too __________ weeds. of John’s friends is coming to the party? 7. Do you know if ………. 9) I'm afraid it's rained __________ times this summer. is there? – ‘There’s __________ bread and soup. of the new cars have acceptable prices. 4) They say __________ knowledge is a bad thing.

e. There are two main types of numerals: cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. (quantifying det erminer) There were four papers to be filled in. zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four thirty ordinal numeral first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth thirtieth 81 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 30th . they are formed by adding suffixes to other numbers. as can be seen below: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30 cardinal numeral naught.1. English numerals are systematic in the sense that. i. (cardinal numeral) Ordinals. They designate position in a sequence and are more like semideterminers: The first paper to be filled in was on the table. with few exceptions.Determiners and pronouns 3. Cardinals are clearly related to quantifying determiners but differ from these in providing a numerical rather than a more general specification. specify nouns in terms of order. they are used to express how many objects are referred to: There were some papers to be filled in.5 Numerals A numeral is a word. on the other hand. functioning most typically as a modifier of a noun that expresses quantity or sequence.

000 forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred one hundred and one one thousand one thousand and one one thousand. In American English and can be dropped: 310 Br.000.000.000.902nd fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth one hundredth one hundred and first one thousandth one thousand and first one thousand.000 100.254th 2. as shown below: a. nine hundred and second 1.000th 100.000 1.E. decimals.902 1. Am. etc.001 1.000. measures. prices.001st 1.Determiners and pronouns 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 1. Fractions Simple fractions are expressed by using ‘ordinal numbers’: 1/8 1 5/9 over: 82 ‘an eighth (or one eighth)’ ‘one and five ninths’ More complex fractions are often expressed by using the word 310/ 605 ‘three hundred and ten over six hundred and five’ .. games scores.000.000th 658.254 2. nine hundred and two one million 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 1.000 658. telephone numbers. dates.000.000th 1. calculations.000.E. two hundred and fifty fourth two thousandth one hundred thousandth six hundred and fiftyeight thousand. bank accounts. three hundred and ten three hundred ten Numerals are used in: fractions.000th one millionth Other numerals 1.000 1.000 British one thousand million one billion American one billion one trillion In British English they always use and before the tens in a number. two hundred and fiftyfour two thousand one hundred thousand six hundred and fifty-eight thousand.

50 ‘three pounds seventy-five (pence)’ or ‘three pounds and seventy-five pence’ (more formal) There are 100 cents in a dollar. tencent coins are dimes. Expressing the date There is a difference between British English and American English when expressing the date: Br. Some coins have special names: one-cent coins are called pennies. Decimals Decimal fractions are said with each figure separate. e.E.E.Determiners and pronouns Fractions expressing time or distance are read: ¾ hour‘three quarters of an hour’ 7/10 mile ‘seven tenths of a mile’ b. Approximate values are given below: 1 inch (in) 1 foot (ft) = = 12 inches = 2.375 ‘five point three seven five’ c. 1996 ‘the second of March nineteen ninety-six’ March 2. Am. Prices in British and American money There are 100 pence in a pound. Britain has adopted some metric measurement units. write and read write and read 2 March 1996 or 2nd March. Sums of money are named as follows: 1p ‘one penny’ or ‘one p’ /pi:/ (informal) 5p ‘five pence’ or ‘five p’ (informal) £3. America uses mainly non-metric units.5 cm 30 cm 83 . twenty-five cent coins are quarters. 1996 ‘March the second nineteen ninety-six’ d. Measures In recent years. but non-metric measures are still widely used.5 ‘nought point five or point five’ (US: ‘zero point five)’ 5. Sums of money are named very much as in British English. five-cent coins are nickels. The full stop (called ‘point’) not a comma is used before fractions: 0.

f.Determiners and pronouns 1 yard (yd) 1 mile (m) 1 acre 1 square mile = = = = 3 feet = 1. ‘twelve by twelve feet’ The total area is twelve feet square. ‘thirty meters by forty-eight meters’ A room is 12 x 12 ft. Three times two is six.55 litres 3. Americans just use pounds: Br.760 yards = 90 cm 1. about 500 yards on the right.840 square yards = 640 acres = = = = = 1 ounce (1 oz) 1 pound (1 lb) 1 stone (British only) 1 kg 1 British pint 1 US pint 1 gallon 1 British gallon 1 US gallon = = = = = 28 g 16 ounces = 455 g 14 pounds = 6. The car park is straight on. (informal) (informal) (formal) (informal) (formal) 3x2 =6 9:3 =3 84 .2 lb) 568 cl 473 cl 8 pints (8 pt) 4. British people usually measure their weight in stones and pounds.4 kg 2. Two plus two equals / is four.6 km 0.4 hectares 259 ha 4. Calculations 2x2 =4 7-4 =3 Two and two is / are four. Areas are given in square feet or square meters: A garden is 30m x 48m. (informal) (formal) Four from seven is / leaves three. while distance can be measured in feet or yards: We are now flying at an altitude of 28. Three multiplied by two equals / is six.78 litres Height is measured in feet. (informal) Seven minus four equals / is three. I weigh eight stone six.E. Nine divided by three equals / is three. (informal) Seven take away four is / leaves three. (formal) Three twos are six. Three(s) into nine goes three times.2 pounds (2.000 feet.

In measurements (for instance of temperature) 0 is called zero: zero degrees Fahrenheit=17. certain and such.09.01. Cardinal numbers: 1995. last and next. 3. Decimals: 0. 3. Both the British and the Americans use love for tennis game scores. Same may be added after the definite article to emphasize that the reference is exactly to the person or thing mentioned before: We were almost the same age.Determiners and pronouns g. 243rd. 33. $ 35. Read the following numbers. In telephone numbers or accounts it is read like the letter O [əu]: My account number is 41206090. 2.90.427.2003. 8th. 5. When referring to team games it becomes nil: Manchester three. Liverpool nil. Prices: £10. ½. former and latter. 6/8.8 degrees below zero Centigrade In American English the figure 0 is called zero. 179.1. These teams carried out the same operations in different areas. There are four major parings of semi-determiners: same and other. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. 21st. She was fifteen and I was twelve. 9th. 061-721034. 4. 85 . there are some determiner-like words which are often described as adjectives. 4. 952nd. Dates: 2. 2.251. Most semi-determiners co-occur either only with the definite article or with the indefinite article but not with both.089. 941. 30. SAQ 3. 2/3. The figure 0 In British English the figure 0 is called nought.1711. 5.1978. They differ from adjectives however in that they have no descriptive meaning. 231.341. 7. Fractions: 3/5.45. 0. Euro 45. Phone numbers: 071-520722.11.5. My account number is four one two o six o nine o.6. 23. Ordinal numbers: 5th. 6. Semi-determiners In addition to the determiners proper.

meaning “that used to have a particular position or status in the past”: He is married to the former Audrey Knecht. Former and latter may be added after the definite article to discriminate between the first and the second of two things or people already mentioned: He presented two solutions. except when used in time expressions (such as last week. They regularly combine with the definite article or some other definite determiner. They do our country great harm by such actions. or they can combine like adjectives with one(s) to occupy a nominal position: Others admitted he was absolutely correct. The latter seems much better. 86 . The town has a cinema and a theater. I hate these earphones but the other ones hurt my ears. Shirley was a former student of North Texas State University. the semi-determiners can also be used as pronouns. Helen had to adjust to another approach to collaboration. The committee analyzed its defeat of last autumn. Such refers to a person/thing or people/things of a particular kind: Certain areas are better than others in keeping bees. after a numeral or it may occur as the only determiner in indefinite noun phrases (in which case it takes the form another): The / His / T wo other cases were also under investigation. possessive determiners. Former and latter can also be used with reference to time. Certain and such differ from the other semi-determiners in being used only in indefinite noun phrases. The former was built in 1950. The views of one leader may not be the same as the views of another one. Certain singles out a specific person/thing or some specific persons/things. It may be added after the definite article.Determiners and pronouns Other is the opposite of same and specifies that the reference is to an entity different from the one mentioned previously. Last and next are like ordinal numerals in specifying items in terms of order. next Thursday): In the next chapter they will give attention to the style of writing. The pigment in shells was the same one as that in mussels. Other uses of semi-determiners Apart from certain.

theirs. him. you. etc. we and us generally have personal reference. The plural pronouns they /them are commonly used with both personal and non-personal reference: ‘Where’s Jane?’ ‘She is at the hairdresser’s.Determiners and pronouns In addition to occurring as determiners and pronouns. which. relative pronouns (who. these / those). certain as adjective (Are you certain?). he.).’ 87 . what).). etc. possessive pronouns and reflexive pronouns. and referents which are neither speaker nor addressee (he/him. etc). interrogative pronouns ( who.2. and it typically refers to specific individuals. we/us) the addressee (you). him. as shown in the table below: personal pronoun nominative accusative possessive determiner pronoun reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them my your his her its our your their mine yours his hers ours yours theirs I. etc. possessive determiners. There are corresponding series of personal pronouns. Personal pronouns A personal pronoun distinguishes between the participants in communication. 3. possessive pronouns (mine. reflexive pronouns (herself. such as the speaker (I/me. which. me.1.). they/them). The English pronominal system consists of: a) b) c) d) e) f) personal pronouns (I. that. some of these forms have other uses: last and next as adverbs (When did you last see him?). ourselves. Further. there is a distinction between nominative and accusative case for most personal pronouns. 3. Pronouns A pronoun is a word which replaces a noun.2. demonstrative pronouns (this / that. she. they. while it normally has nonpersonal reference. she/her.

The personal pronoun I is considered overcorrect.’ 2. ‘ 3.. so in informal speech me is used instead. it seems to ……. He/him or she/her may also be used with reference to animals when we think of them as having personal qualities and feelings characteristic of human beings. my friend Thomas and ……. SAQ 3. You think it's him? (formal) (informal) After the adjectives in the comparative degree both nominative and accusative forms occur: She's as bad as me and you ! Joe was older than he and suffering from high blood pressure. ‘When knocking at a friend’s door. is the usage. that …….’ 5. both nominative and accusative forms can be used: It is I. were the only ones to agree to the proposal. our neighbor and …….Determiners and pronouns John killed the spider by hitting it. ‘I can’t believe this! All my friends get paid more than ……. is the grammatically correct form but …….’ 4. ‘My father. Fill the gaps with the appropriate form of the first person personal pronoun.6. It was he. dad. ?’ ‘Well. ‘My secretary and ……. do. Pronouns used either in the accusative or in the nominative After forms of the verb be. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1.’ 88 . do you say ‘It’s …… ?’ or ‘It’s ……. Then he’s as real as I. It s me. 'Who’s there?‘ ‘It’s only ……. went fishing on Sunday morning. particularly with pets and domestic animals.

5. A relative of mine had a son called Rick. Yours is much thicker. ‘What happened?’ ‘ Your guess is as good as mine’. even when you whisper.Determiners and pronouns 3.. but ……. My hair is very fine. Several people waved theirs at Bobbie and smiled as she went by.. I forgot …….. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the possessive pronoun. SAQ 3. She is a friend of hers. My brother and I have bicycles but ……. He took a fancy to a cousin of mine. Please. I can’t recognize his voice. They are typically used when the head noun is recoverable from the preceding text: Alice took my hands in hers. which is parallel to the double-genitive: She is a friend of my wife’s . 3. Possessive pronouns The possessive pronouns express possession. The possessive pronoun also occurs in a post-modifying ofphrase. We have a new tennis racket and Mary has a new one too.2.. lend me a pencil. but I never mistake ……. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. Mary and John drink coffee but …….2. is stronger than …….7. 89 . is better quality than ……. Everyone seemed to have a newspaper in their hands that morning. (one of her friends) This construction makes it possible for a noun to be specified with both a determiner and a possessive marker. who was learning brick-laying at a local college. 4. 2. is older than …….

They are called emphatic reflexive pronouns and their function is to underline the identity of the referent: I’ll go and see the President himself if I have to. The reflexive pronoun however carries a different syntactic role. it is typically an object: So I consoled myself by reading books. they are identical in reference with the subject of the same clause. In this use. She cried herself to sleep. 90 . Reflexive pronouns also show emphasis. Reflexive pronouns The reflexive pronouns form a set corresponding to the personal and possessive forms and show co-reference with the subject. Having reached the place himself. John forced himself to smile. Compare: The mayor himself spoke to me. he ran tiptoe down the steps. the reflexive pronouns are stressed and are usually placed immediately after (or nearby) the noun phrase they relate to. Do pull yourself together! The reflexive pronoun oneself refers to people in general: It is only through study that one really begins to know oneself.2. The mayor spoke to me himself.Determiners and pronouns 3. they may also be placed later in the clause and have greater positional mobility.3. i. With subject noun phrases.e.

usually in subject position: They visit each other a lot. The lights switch themselves on as soon as it gets dark. The first has been done for you: 1. Both reciprocal pronouns can have possessive forms: We avoided one another's / each other’s eyes. However. in modern English. … 6. Her friends were talking to one another. One another is used when we refer to more than two people or when making very general statements: Jane and Mary talk to each other a lot. You yourself have to take this decision. … 3. people were getting one another out and trying to save one another.4. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. There are plenty of cakes. … 7. 91 . You don’t seem to feel too well. Despite the chaos. Determiners and pronouns Are the pronouns in the following sentences reflexive or emphatic (R/E)? Write your answers in the spaces below. most people make no difference between these two pronouns. R 2. Don’t tell me to check the lights! Check them yourself.2. You’d better check yourself. They differ from the reflexive pronouns in that the reference is to more than one entity and in that there is a mutual relationship between the entities. Help yourselves! … 8. Each other is used when only two people are involved. … 4. … 3. We visited the gardens but the museum itself was closed. One can easily lose oneself in the woods.SAQ 3. How much time do you give yourself to get ready? … 5.8. Reciprocal pronouns The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another are coreferent with a preceding noun phrase within the same clause.

4) Ann and I allow …..2....…………………….... 8) A committee of parents try to help ….. help each of us to care for . 9) Europeans learn a little more about …............……………………...... Kennedy always knew everything about everybody. Indefinite pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to entities which the speaker cannot specify more exactly. anything are distributed in interrogative sentences: Something or someone frightened him off.... on the back.... absolute freedom.. with their Maths lessons.. and to help…..……………………. Can anybody believe stories like that? 92 . 3. someone and something are usually used in affirmative sentences...……………………...……………………... Write your answers in the spaces below. 6) The two smile at .. 2) Jane and Maggie used to help …. and pat ....... by name in the village...Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3.... Now no one said anything at all. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) Hearing the noise the three boys became silent and looked at …..…………………find accommodation.. each derived from a quantifier: quantifier every some any no everybody somebody anybody nobody indefinite pronouns everyone everything someone something anyone anything no one nothing Reference is always to an indefinite person or thing: ‘I feel fine! Where is everybody?’ Mr.. There are four main sets of indefinite pronouns..5..... Somebody.……………… ... And nobody knew anything about aquafarming. Fill in the gaps with the correct reciprocal pronoun. while anybody.... and then move to hold one hand together.……………………....……………………. 7) Everyone knew …. 5) Dear Lord..9...... anyone. to love …. ….. 3) The government and rebel delegations had begun to build up some trust in …... 10) Jerry holds his arms out and they both hug …....

comparison with too: The problem was too difficult for anyone to solve. no. tell him or her I’m sick in bed.: Never lend money or anything else to a stranger. When possessives and pronouns refer back to everybody or everyone they can be either singular (more formal) or plural (less formal): 'How's everything with you?' 'Fine. words with a negative meaning: fail. anything also occur in negative sentences generated by: a) negating the verb with the negative particle not: I opened the door but I couldn’t see anybody. I'd cook anything. ‘no matter what’: I enjoy cooking. Hardly anyone noticed her as she passed by. Nor is there anyone willing to do that. anybody. hard. c) the ‘implied’ negatives. . thanks. (informal) 93 . This was too risky for anybody to do it.' (informal) Everyone held his or her breath. Conversely.Determiners and pronouns Anybody. Neither team think they're going to gain anything from that. Anybody can see that it's wrong. interrogative or conditional clauses. prevent. He was reluctant to meet anyone that day. b) the negatives never. compounds of some can be used in negative. d) in conditional clauses If they have to take anything. hardly. neither. scarcely. reluctant. when the basic meaning is assertive: Why don't you just hire somebody else? (‘I strongly suggest you hire somebody else’) (‘the speaker expects that someone will call’) If somebody calls. difficult. i. I'll be there all day if anyone can help me. .e. they'd rather take the money. anyone. For all this. everyone and everything are used with singular verbs. They worked hard for anything they got. etc. nor. Everybody. anyone and anything can be used with stress in clauses with the meaning ‘no matter who’. (formal) I know everybody's got their own arguments but .

....................’s life... Peter? 4) I haven’t got ............. It is a rather formal and impersonal pronoun in this use: What can one do to protect oneself from these awful people? There is also a possessive one’s and a reflexive pronoun oneself: One’s family can be a real nuisance at times................... to eat....... 9) Should we call a doctor or ...... who can advise me about tax? 7) Nothing is more precious than ............ 94 .... A singular noun is replaced by one.. 5) They’ve got .... b) generic one One may also refer to people in general (‘including you and me’)..................... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) ............? 10) When we confronted him........... to go with.................. 6) Is there .............................. breathe a word about this! 2) ............ to play with... to touch that clock... in addition to being used as a numeral: a) substitute one One is often used to replace or to avoid repeating a noun.... 8) I forbid .......Determiners and pronouns The pronoun one has two pronominal uses........................... SAQ 3..... a plural noun by ones: May I have a melon – a nice ripe one? The new designs are much better than the old ones.. One should always give oneself plenty of time to pack................... Fill in the blanks with the corresponding indefinite pronouns......... stand up! 3) Have you had .10................... he denied ..............

He never comes to see me these days (now. this is John (= when you are introducing them). those) in relation to the addressee: Make up your mind. Do you want me to come this Monday (Monday of this week) or next Tuesday?* Do it this minute (now). c) with periods of time related to the present: this week / month / year: I saw her this morning (today in the morning). Do it like this (= in the way I am showing you). This is the captain speaking.2. Demonstrative pronouns In addition to marking something as known. Which do you want? This one or that one? The demonstrative pronouns have a number of special uses: The demonstrative pronouns are used: a) to introduce somebody or show something to somebody: Hello. the demonstrative pronouns specify whether the referent is near (this. this is Maria Diaz (= on the telephone). as compared with the past). This breaks his heart.6. 95 .Determiners and pronouns 3. Kate. b) to refer to somebody or something that have already been mentioned: There was a court case resulting from this incident. these) or distant (that. What’s this I hear about you getting married? The singular forms of the demonstrative pronoun may refer to a preceding clause or sentence. or more vaguely to the preceding text: He doesn't want her to speak to him angrily.

Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Interrogative pronouns The interrogative pronouns (who. whom and whose have only personal reference: ‘Who are you?’.’ Which and what may have both personal and non-personal reference: I can see five girls in this photo. this / that will make you laugh. Which is yours? ‘What is she?’ ‘She is a Chemistry teacher. whom.’ ‘What is he drinking?’ ‘He is drinking lemon juice. close or happening now and that/those for something that is over there.’ Which is selective and usually implies that the speaker has a limited number of choices in mind.’ ‘Whose are these books?’ ‘These books are Mary’s .2. __ Just listen.’ ‘Whom have you asked about your assignment?’ ‘My teacher. whose. which and what) are used in questions. distant. 96 . unfinished or unwanted.7. __ These / Those shoes are expensive but I like them very much. Which is your sister? There are several umbrellas here. They replace the item questioned. Use this/these for something that is here. __ Did you hear this / that heavy rain last night? __ This / That outcome was not in the least wanted. ‘I’m Jane. The first as been done for you: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) This / That is the best price you could ever get. Who.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. __ 9) What was this / that news you wanted to tell me? __ 3.11. P I didn’t like all these / those lies he told me. while what has indefinite reference and implies ‘what kind of’. Write your answers in the spaces provided below. Choose the correct form of the demonstrative pronouns (P) or demonstrative determiners (D) in accordance with the statement. __ 7) Who said this / that ? __ 8) This / That guy was such a jerk.

does he think he is to speak to us like that? 10) …………. the nouns to which the relative pronouns refer. whose name I have forgotten.8. of your brothers works on this farm? 7) …………. will you have to drink? 4) ………….2. whichever) used to join the dependent clauses they introduce to their own antecedent. i. The people (that/whom) I spoke to were very helpful. way shall we go? By the stream or through the woods? 2) ………….e. John. whosoever. who is my brother. • That is used to refer to either persons or things. which.sort of film do you like best? 3) …………. umbrella did you take?’ ‘I took Jane’s umbrella?’ 3. The relative pronoun whose refers to people but can also refer to things or animals: The salesman.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. did you meet at the party? 6) …………. Relative pronouns Relative pronouns are a group of noun substitutes ( who. has become of your old friend Martin? 8) …………. house is that? 9) …………. whoever. is the man over there? 5) …………. 97 . Fill in the blanks with the appropriate interrogative pronouns.12. The watch (that/which) you gave me keeps perfect time. will be joining the school in September. • Which is used to refer to anything except persons. sold Sam a car. The choice of the relative pronoun is also conditioned by the antecedent: • Who is used when the antecedent is a person. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) ………….

. you gave the money... it.... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) The boxer .. those) specify whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the addressee.......... Reflexive pronouns (myself........ answered the phone was rather rude.. games scores. nothing.13... Demonstrative pronouns (this.....Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. which... The demonstrative determiners this/that and these/those in addition to marking an entity as known..... decimals. she said surprised me. we met was the happiest of my life. dates... 98 ... possessives.. one another) express a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject.... indefinite.e... Insert in each blank the necessary relative pronoun... Cardinal numerals provide a numerical specification and are used in: fractions. the addressee (you) and a third referent (he. 9) There are those ... The semantic function of articles (definite. bank accounts.. telephone numbers...... some. they) in a communicative act.. Quantifiers (fe w. its.. Indefinite pronouns (everybody. demonstratives and quantifiers) and the nominal substitutes (pronouns).... yours. Pronouns typically replace noun phrases.. ours) express ownership. measures... 2) The day ... career was ruined by health problems was on TV last night.. Reciprocal pronouns (each other.. definite or generic. 4) He's the guy .... Summary In this unit we have examined two types of noun phrase constituents: determiners (articles. . 8) Nothing .. i. anything) refer to entities which the speaker/writer cannot specify more exactly.... our).. that. sells stamps? 6) Is there a store around here in ... went wrong...... her. Possessive pronouns (mine.... she. calculations.... zero) is to present the referents of a noun as indefinite... Relative pronouns (who. that) are used to join the dependent clauses they introduce to their own antecedent.. brother was sacked for stealing.. prices. the nouns to which the relative pronouns refer.. I can get some stamps? 7) They blamed me for everything . we).. Personal pronouns replace nouns and distinguish between the speaker (I.. much) specify nouns in terms of quantity. Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker (my... yourself) always co-occur with nouns or pronouns in subject position...... their)...... specify whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the speaker.. 3) You'll have to speak to the person to .... 10) The man .... all... say she should not have got the job. the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text (his............. someone...... 5) Is there a shop nearby ... these.....

T/F 3) a/an can be used with all count nouns. definite and indefi nite. 178 . Syntheses in English Morphology. Hulban. 264-280. London: Longman. T/F 5) Determiners usually follow adjectives. whom and whose normally refer to people. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. Sidney and Randolph Quirk (1991). Horia (2004). Bucureşti: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. True or false? 1) 2) (5 minutes: 12 x2=24 points) English has two articles. T/F 12) Which always refers to things and or events. T/F 99 . T/F 8) Post-determiners stand after their noun. T/F 11) Who.230. 70 -128. T/F 7) The count/noncountable distinction affects the choice of determiners. Foley. T/F We don’t use the definite article with geographical names. Send-away assignment (SAA 4) A. 95 .Determiners and pronouns Key terms           article cardinal numeral definite article demonstrative pronoun determiner generic reference indefinite article indefinite pronoun interrogative pronoun ordinal numeral            personal pronoun possessive pronoun postdeterminer predeterminer pronoun quantifiers quantifying nouns reciprocal pronouns reference reflexive pronoun zero article Further reading Baciu. T/F 6) Determiners can stand in random order. T/F 4) The shows definite meaning with all common nouns. Ileana (2004). T/F 10) Possessives have the same form if they appear as pronouns and determiners. England: Longman. Functional Categories in English. Mark and Diane Hall (2003) Advanced Learner’s Grammar. Iasi. Harlow. Editura Spanda.160. 89 – 137. Greenbaum. T/F 9) Demonstratives have the same form if they appear as pronouns or as determiners.

apples or . Hidden by (16)___ blind a hundred feet away.. C. but this midmorning crush belongs to giants of (14)___ parrot world. home at 8 o’clock and arrives at ... Some are shepherding offspring. Flying on wings of royal blue with a hint of green.... (6)___ steep bank has become (7)___ pulsing.. books.. On … train I met . highest mountain in ... dinner.. 9) Which is ..30... He leaves .. but … actress has only just begun her career. an. so most arrive at (24)___ lick in pairs.. Most people eat . weighting more than three pounds and measuring more than three feet from head to tail. . (18)___ husky red-and-green macaw is (19)___ largest.. bread with their meals.. more nutritious fruit: . 100 . (20)___ slightly slimmer scarlet macaw unfurls darker blue wings with brilliant yellow shoulders.... Bleating relentlessly as their parents regurgitate clay in their mouths. January 1994... (21)___ blue-and-yellow macaw flasher feathers more turquoise and gold.? I don’t like to see . (10)___ vital but mysterious part of their diet.. corner of … street always has … fresh fish. one of (5)___ world's most dazzling wildlife gatherings is nearing its riotous peak. I never have . house without ... world. fruit on . (25)___ juveniles are perfectly capable of biting at their own clay. at 8. 130-foot-high palette of red. Would you please make . pampering them as they have since (26)___ day they were hatched. actor and . blue.. Excerpt from National Geographic Magazine. All three shake tails as long as their bodies and boast probably (22)___ most powerful bites in (23)___ bird world. actress.. but they're spoiled. Put in a. table.. tea. More than (11)___ dozen parrot species will visit (12)___ clay lick throughout (13)___ day. Everest is .. (15)___ macaws..Determiners and pronouns B... oranges? 10) I went to … London yesterday.. the or some where necessary: (10 minutes: 27 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Please put ... actor is quite well known... I’d like . I watch (17)___ congregation. Fill in the necessary articles: (15 minutes: 26 points) When (1)___ morning sun clears (2)___ Amazon tree line in southeastern Peru and strikes (3)___ gray-pink clay bank in (4)___ upper Tambopata.. . coffee after . fishmonger at .... . and green as more than (8)___ thousand parrots squabble over choice perches to grab (9)___ beakful of clay. Macaws seem to mate for life...

(5 minutes: 5x 2=10 points) 1) What would ………… like to do this morning? a) someone b) one c) yourself d) you 2) Did you enjoy …………? a) at the party b)the party c) yourself at the party d) with yourself at the party 3) One prefers to shop at Harrods. the little ginger cat prefers Tom and _____________ to you. (he or she. their) 9) People ought to realize that _____________ might need to hear the sounds of traffic sometimes.Determiners and pronouns D. a time comes when _____________ must make a difficult choice. them) 6) When she is worried about something. but I think that you and _____________ should probably leave separately. one can’t avoid _____________ basic responsibilities. her) 2) Don’t be offended. (his or her. I) 3) Neither of the men wants to take _____________ tools all the way to the blacksmith. their) 11) In any boy’s life. (his. (his or her. they) 12) Living on a small dairy farm. their) 8) Everybody I know around here walks around with _____________ headphones on all the time. (10 minutes: 15 points) 1) Some of these opinions about child-raising are completely new to John and _____________ . Total points for SAA 3: 102 101 . Complete each sentence with the most suitable word or phrase. (her. she) 7) Our school board plans _____________ programs for big merged schools where the teachers and principals were responsible for the curriculum. (me. us) 15) People say that _____________ young people are better educated than our parents are. …………? a) doesn’t one b) isn’t it c) don’t you d) isn’t one 4) Please invite ………… you like to the reception. (they. their) 13) The police say that Mazie and _____________ can find the tools that were scattered by the vandals. (its. a) one b) anyone c) ones d) all E. (they. their) 5) Their father has taught his wife and _____________ most of the accounting and management details. us) Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. they) 10) A farmer in this area doesn’t have to worry about the rain spoiling _____________ hay. From the set of options given in parentheses. (his or her. their) 4) The rain did not bother the students because most of them have _____________ own umbrellas. them) 14) Nothing will ever come between _____________ old friends now that we’ve learned how to laugh. select the correct word or word group to write in the blank. (we. (we. (she. (his or her. (he.

two thousand and eighty-nine. the nine hundred and fifty-second.. the. 2. 102 1. 1. 2) the fifth. 1. ten pounds (and) forty-five. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. 4. a. A. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3 not be comparable to those given above. the. a. 7) many. two/thirds. 11. b – 1. the twenty-third of November/November the twenty-third two thousand and three. 3.Determiners and pronouns Answers to SAQs 3. the ninth. the. 5. a. me 1. 7) a. his.1. a. 3) a. four.1. the. nought/zero point two five one.1 – 3. the two hundred and forty-third. the. the. a . me. 2. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. g – 7. 3. d – 6. 9) a. an. nine hundred and forty-one. 14. SAQ 3. forty-five Euros and ninety cents. C. 1) a. 2) much. 18. 4.13. _. SAQ 3. . _. 2. _. 4. 2. 1) much/(a) little. h – 8. the. an. 4) a. a. SAQ 3. _ 10) a. 2) _. a. a. i – 3. his. _. A. his. an. 5. I. c – 5. 6. 8. 9) few. a. the. 2. _.4. me. ours. me. 2. 16. 7. two hundred and thirty-one. us.a. 1. a. one/half. B.6. a. the. 4) little. an. 9. _. 9. an. a. 3) many/few. _. 11. a. my. his. 4) nought/zero point three four one. his. her. 20. the. 4. 6) little/much. five point four two seven. oseven-one-five-two-o-seven-two-two/double two.4. 7.1. _. an. me. the thirtieth of September/September the thirtieth seventeen eleven. I. 8) _. the. an. I. 6) a. the twenty-fourth. mine. 1. SAQ 3.3. the eighth. 3. 5. the. 10. 3.4. a. _. a. B.5. a. The. any. an. 15. 13. _. any. hers. e – 2. 1) one thousand nine hundred and five. a. hers. SAQ 3. I. 10. 10) few. 5) a few. 12. one hundred and seventy-nine. the. some. an. thirty-five dollars. _. the. The. an.2. 6. 4. 5) The second of January/January the second nineteen seventy-eight. _. a. 3) three/fifths. f – 9. my. 7. _. o-six-one-seventwo-one-o-three-four. a. any. _. a. 12. yours. a. six/eighths. the. any. 17. 5.4 not be comparable to those given above. 5. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3. a.1. _. SAQ 3. thirty-three. mine. SAQ 3. your. 6. some. 4. 8. 8) much. an. 5) a. 3. any.7. the. 3. 19.

8) anyone. (that). one another. 6. 3. that/which. 7. 1. whom. 1) Nobody. 7. 4) each other. SAQ 3. 9. 8. 7. 4. what. E. whose. 5) one another.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3.10.11. 4) anyone. 5) nothing. 2. 2. 3. 3. those (D). 6. 6) one another/one another/ one another. 1. 2) everybody. 1. 8. 9. 1. R. which/that. who. E. who. SAQ 3. 9) one another. R. which. 6) one. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3. R. who/that. SAQ 3. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. 5.2. 1. 4.6 . 2. That (D). whom. 10) everything. that (D). 9) someone. SAQ 3. SAQ 3. that (D). whose. 10) each other/each other. who/that. 5. 7. 3. which. R. that (P). this (P). 5. 10. that. 8. 4.12 not be comparable to those given above. that (D). anything. each other. what. 4.12.13. R. 8) one another.8.9. 6. These (D).whose. 10) whose.3. 6. 2. 5. 3. 7) one another. what. 8. 103 . E. which. 2. one another. this (P). 9.

3.1. have.2.1.2. Phrasal verbs 4.2. do Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 4.3 105 105 105 107 109 110 110 111 112 113 113 114 115 115 115 117 104 .1.2.2. Single-word lexical verbs 4.4. Multi-word lexical verbs 4.1.1 . Idioms 4.1.3. Prepositional phrasal verbs 4. Regular lexical verbs 4.1. The auxiliary verbs: be. Formation of verbs 4.3. Prepositional verbs 4.Verbs UNIT 4 Verbs Objectives 4. Irregular lexical verbs 4.2.4.2.

appear. have. stop) which characterize the stage of progress of an activity. i. contain. live. want). recognize verbal derivational affixes. mental verbs including both cognitive meanings (think. talk). verbs of existence or relationship (reporting a state that exists between entities (be. start. involving three inflections added to a base or stem:  The base form is used for infinitives.e. move. open). prepositional phrasal verbs and verbal idioms. permit). stay. verbs of causation (allow. seem.  The inflectional morpheme -ed is used for simple past tense and for past participles. 4.Verbs Aim In this unit. let. You will also learn about the auxiliary verbs: be. taste) and receipt of communication (read. English verbs can be classified as activity verbs (denoting voluntary or involuntary actions (buy. the meaning the speakers tend to think of first. Objectives After studying this unit. keep. Regular lexical verbs Regular lexical verbs have only four morphological variants. communication verbs (ask. hear). include. distinguish between phrasal. come.1. together with perception (see. know) and emotional meanings expressing various attitudes or desires (love. force. 105 . cause.1. you will be able to:    classify lexical verbs according to semantic criteria.  The inflectional morpheme -(e)s is used to indicate the third person singular present tense. say. continue finish. You will use new concepts in the analysis of verbs and develop practical skills by solving exercises. speak. 4. we discuss the morphological properties of lexical verbs and show how these verbs are classified according to semantic and syntactic criteria.  The inflectional morpheme -ing is used for present participles. help. which indicate that some person or inanimate entity brings about a new state of affairs. do.1. involve) and aspectual verbs (begin. explain. propositional. Single-word lexical verbs Based on their core meaning.

the final e is dropped before -ing or -ed: reduce -.tried Verbs ending in vowel + y take the usual ending –s or –ed: play – plays -. added. ʃ passes. and -ed take the form -ies and -ied respectively: copy – copies – copied try – tries . sleeps. wanted. sh. there is no doubling of the final consonant in most cases: order fail 106 ordering failing ordered failed . ʧ/: . moved. watch . falls. stopped. pushes. f/. watches. This occurs only when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter: drop admit dropping admitting dropped admitted When the preceding vowel is unstressed or spelled with two letters.passes. d/: waited. /id/ after /t. /iz/ after /s.Verbs inflection -(e)s -ing -ed look looks looking looked play plays playing played lexical verbs try tries trying tried push pushes pushing pushed reduce reduces reducing reduced -(e)s is pronounced: /s/ after voiceless consonants /p. walks. attended. k. except /s. t/: hits.pushes. or ch: pass . -(e)s is spelt –es when the final letter of the verb is: s. looked. z. reduces. /z/ after vowels and voiced consonants: tries. push . t. a single consonant letter at the end of the base is doubled before adding -ing or -ed. -ed is pronounced: /t/ after voiceless consonants: watched. recognizes.watches If the base form of the verb ends in a consonant + e. called. z. laughs.played In addition to the spelling changes described above. the endings -(e)s. moves. /d/ after vowels and voiced consonants: tried.reduced If the verb ends in a consonant + y.reducing -.

1.1. 19) travel. 10) live. 5) enjoy. 13) picnic. Irregular lexical verbs About 200 English verbs have irregular morphological variants. 17) regret. 16) refer. 3) die. Irregular verbs can be grouped as below: Class 1 verbs take a voiceless -t /t/ suffix to mark both past tense and past participle: base form build send past tense built sent past participle built sent 107 . Add -ing and -ed to the verbs below: agree -. 6) hop. 14) panic. 15) prefer. 12) offer. Irregular verbs differ from regular verbs in the formation of past tense and past participle forms. 18) stop.Verbs One exception is that final -s. 4) dye.2. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 8) hurry. 11) occur. 1) argue. -m or -l can be doubled sometimes when preceded by an unstressed vowel (British English only): focus program cancel focussing programming cancelling focussed programmed cancelled SAQ 4. …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… 4. 9) lie. 2) cancel. 7) hope. Write in the space provided below.agreeing – agreed.

with a change in the vowel for one or both: base from break choose eat fall forget give past tense broke chose ate fell forgot gave past participle broken chosen eaten fallen forgotten given Class 5 verbs have past tense and past participle forms marked only by a change in the base vowel: base form come begin find get hang past tense came began found got hung past participle come begun found got hung Class 6 verbs have past tense forms and past participle forms identical to the base form: base form cut hit let shut past tense cut hit let shut past participle cut hit let shut 108 . with a change in the base vowel: base form feel tell leave bring past tense felt told left brought past participle felt told left brought Class 3 verbs take the regular -ed suffix for past tense and the (e)n suffix for past participle: base form show flow past tense showed flowed past participle shown flown Class 4 verbs have no suffix for past tense forms but the suffix (e)n for the past participles.Verbs Class 2 verbs take a -t or -d suffix to mark both past tense and past participle.

8) Such a defeat is inevitably disheartening the football team. 7) The conflict demoralized the whole community. 4) He keeps his savings under his mattress because he distrusts the banks. 5) His decision displeased the community. 10) Parliament finally legalized trade unions. 2) They couldn’t raise funds needed to industrialize all the underdeveloped countries.3. 6) They should encourage peasant families to grow alternative crops.Verbs 4. Prefixes do not generally change the word class. Underline the derived verbs and comment on their structure. 3) Pig manure has long been used to enrich soils.2. Formation of verbs Derivational affixes can be added to existing words to form new verbs in English. a noun root or to an adjective root to form a verb with a different meaning: prefix dismisoverundedisendisenverb / noun root like (verb) lead cook do frost (noun) place courage content large derived verb dislike mislead overcook undo defrost displace encourage discontent enlarge Derivational suffixes are attached to a noun or an adjective base to form a verb with a similar meaning: suffix -ate -ify -ize -ify -ize -en noun / adjective root assassin class computer simple actual black derived verb assassinate classify computerize simplify actualize blacken SAQ 4. 109 . 1) They should have their children immunized against diphtheria. A prefix is added to a verb root.1. 9) His wife persuaded him to institutionalize his aged mother.

She brought up four children.2. which tend to be restricted the formal use of the language: The judge put off the verdict. Multi-word lexical verbs There are four major kinds of multi-word combinations that comprise relatively idiomatic units and function with a single meaning which is different from the meanings of the individual words: type of multiword combination phrasal verb prepositional verb prepositional phrasal verb idiom words that combine verb + particle verb + preposition verb + particle + preposition verb + NP + preposition verb + NP + PP verb + verb examples pick up look at get away with take a loot at take into account make do 4. give in ‘agree’.Verbs Write your answers in the space provided below. put off ‘delay’. The first has been done for you: 1) Adj. 4. They can be intransitive or transitive: Rick’s car broke down. Direct Object intransitive transitive Phrasal verbs can be replaced by single transitive verbs: bring up ‘raise’. put off).2.1. do with. 110 . leave out ‘omit’. The judge delayed the verdict. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are combinations of a lexical verb with an adverbial particle (give up. immune + -ize.

*I rely Mary on. blame sb. depend on sth.. thank sb. The verb and the preposition function as a single semantic unit. of sth.. insist on sth.. with a meaning that cannot be derived completely from the individual meanings of the two parts: My decision depends on your answer.. 4.. Prepositional verbs are different from phrasal verbs in that: a) a preposition cannot be usually placed after the Object. for sth. A few prepositional verbs are followed by two noun phrases. He acquainted her with the facts. it is placed at the end: She brought them up. of sth.. Prepositional verbs Prepositional verbs are combinations of a lexical verb and a preposition followed by an object noun phrase (deal with sth. phrasal verb b) a pronoun follows a preposition but precedes the adverbial particle of a phrasal verbs: I rely on her.. while the particle cannot: Whom do you rely on? What did he put on? On whom do you rely? *On what did he put? 111 . with sth... of / about sth.Verbs With transitive phrasal verbs the direct object can appear between the verb and the particle. Let us carry out this updated program. provide for sb. This wine reminds me of France..2. prepositional verb He put his hat on. He put it on. remind sb. When the direct object is a longer noun phrase. rely on sb. acquaint sb. the first being the Object of the verb.). the second the Object of the preposition (accuse sb... prepositional verb phrasal verb c) the preposition can be fronted in wh-questions. on /for sth. This is the normal word-order when the object is a pronoun. etc. He put on his hat. etc. congratulate sb. for sth. whereas the adverbial particle of phrasal verbs can generally precede or follow the Object: I rely on Mary. He has provided for his family well.): They blamed John for his failure. advise sb.2.

Verbs d) an adverb can be placed between the verb and the following preposition but not between a verb and its particle: I rely entirely on her.. …… 6) The committee will soon get round to your suggestion. 12) You didn't do that. Modern medicines have not done away with disease.2.. Decide whether the following verbs are: a.…. prepositional object Prepositional phrasal verbs function as a semantic unit and can sometimes be replaced by a single transitive verb with similar meaning: get out with sth.3. turn a way from sb. ‘anticipate’. The first has been done for you: 1) He turned the lights off when he went to bed. …… 10) Don’t let me keep you from going out. SAQ 4... 4. I cannot put up with your behavior any longer.…. c.. *He put quickly on his hat. go out for sth. .) consist of a lexical verb combined with a particle.... end up with sth. did you? You're not having me on. get away with sth. the ground is muddy. …… 3) The quarrel resulted in his mother leaving the house. …… 4) Why couldn't you put up with margarine for one day? …… 5) They blew the bridge up. etc.. come down to sth. prepositional phrasal verbs. 7) She set about making a new dress. etc. b. prepositional..…. catch up with sb. 11) Have we got enough food in? . are you? …… 112 . put up with sth. I think you'll end up with her. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. look forward to sth.. a preposition and a noun phrase functioning as an object after the preposition: We've come up with a solution.. ‘avoid’. …b. Write your answers in the space provided below. . 2) Raymond. …… 9) No one can figure out how the fire started. look for ward to sth. Prepositional phrasal verbs Prepositional phrasal verbs (get out of sth. …… 8) Mind where you are walking.3. phrasal.

I don't want to make an issue of it.: It's important to bear in mind two things. A few verbs. 4. let sb go/be .‘reject’. the creeps . etc.‘frighten’. give sb. have.‘be good at gardening’. Trees are planted in the deserted areas. The auxiliary verb have is used with the past participle to form perfect tenses: I have finished my work. give sb.‘act calmly’. Let him be on the tractor beside me. do. and take combine with noun phrases and prepositional phrases to form set verbal expressions: You must take time into account.‘manage’. keep/lose one’s head .‘change one’s opinion’. such as do. have. present perfect They had left before you got there? past perfect They shall have finished their work by next week. This isn't very important. future perfect 113 .2. The auxiliary verb be has two distinct functions: to mark the progressive aspect and the passive voice: They are planting trees now.3. have second thoughts . have. progressive aspect passive voice The two auxiliary uses of be can occur in the same clause: Trees are being planted in the deserted areas now. the cold shoulder . have green fingers .4.‘allow sb. That house gives me the creeps. make.‘remember’. The auxiliary verbs: be. to leave/do sth. do There are three auxiliary verbs in English: be. are you? This idiomatic category may include combinations of two verbs such as make do (with) . You're not having second thoughts. or idioms. Idioms Fixed combinations of verb plus prepositional phrase occasionally form idiomatic units.’: We must make do with the evidence we have. Some of them can be replaced by simple lexical verbs: bear in mind .Verbs 4.

Don’t forget to buy milk. She did at least write to say thank you.' 'Neither do I. wh-questions. states. doesn’t he? Did he live in a cottage? Where did he live? He lived in a cottage. Most English verbs are regular and have only four morphological variants. do is used to emphasize what you are saying: He looks tired. I don't like fish. It is followed by the negative particle not which can be contracted to n’t: They did not go to Paris. involving three suffixes added to a base: (e)s. Lexical verbs can express a wide range of meanings. He does look tired. He wrote to say thank you.Verbs The auxiliary verb do is used to form negative sentences.' 'So do I.' As an emphatic verb. She works harder than he does. About 200 verbs have irregular morphological variants for past tense and past participle forms.' 'I love peaches. that is do can replace a whole verb phrase to avoid repetition: He plays better than he did a year ago. tag questions) when the lexical verb is in the present simple or past simple: Does she write a letter every month? What does he write? He writes a letter every month. and acts of consciousness. neutral statement emphatic statement neutral statement emphatic statement Do is inverted with the subject in negative emphatic statements when a negative adverb is moved to the front: Not only does she speak Spanish. The auxiliary do is also used to make questions (yes/no questions. didn’t he? present past The verb do also serves as a pro-verb. 'Who won?' 'I did. -ing and -ed. Summary The verb expresses our perception of events. but she's also good with computers. 'I don't want to go back. She does not work hard. New verbs can be 114 .

volume 2.P. Teorie şi exerciţii.Verbs formed by suffixation from nouns and adjectives. Randolph. have. do) indicate tense and aspect. Lazlo (2000). 9-12. Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 A. Longman Group. Multi-word combinations include a verb. 2) We invert the subject and the auxiliary to form several kinds of questions. Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English. 5) Most multi-word verbs are idiomatic: their meaning cannot always be clear from the meaning of their parts. a particle. The auxiliary verbs (be. prepositional verbs. 6) There are three main types of multi-word verb: phrasal. Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms. A. prepositional and prepositional-phrasal.McCaig (1993). 24 – 69. Quirk. or by prefixation from other verbs. 8) Prepositional verbs are never transitive. 115 . Oxford. Geoffrey Leech. True or False? 10 minutes: 8x2=16 points) 1) Auxiliary verbs form tenses and express modality. a preposition and a noun phrase. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Cowie. Longman.R. Oxford University Press. 3) Linking verbs are also called copulative verbs. Mackin & I. Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Jan Svartvik (1976). Courtney Rosemary (1983). R. 4) Linking verbs connect their subject to the predicative. Sidney Greenbaum. 7) Phrasal verbs may be transitive or intransitive. UK Limited. The main classes of such combinations are known as: phrasal verbs. Key terms  auxiliary  idiom  lexical verb  multi-word lexical verb  prepositional phrasal verb  phrasal verb  prepositional verb  regular / irregular Further reading Budai. Gramatica engleză. Bucureşti: Teora. prepositional phrasal verbs.

27) grind. 24) be. 13) arise. 42) bleed. 41) swear. 23) draw. 12) ring. 5) There are red roses in the garden. lexical verbs. have. 14) tear. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. C. 31) dig. 16) eat. c) prepositional d) prepositional-phrasal (15 minutes: 10 points) 1) They rushed him off to hospital. 18) bring. 26) fight. 4) She accidentally knocked a book off the bedside table. 10) Several trees were blown down. 4) They are graduates of Portland University. 8) He gulped down his beer. 30) ride.Verbs B. b) intransitive phrasal. 6) He had a new car and a boat. 10) weep. 15) buy. 6) He blew the crumbs off his desk and shook them off his collar. 44) burst. 8) shrink. 4) write. 35) drink. 6) stick. 3) His vocation urged him on. 45) swing. 12) The ham had a smoky flavor. 20) go. 10) He doesn’t like hamburgers. 3) come. 2) weave. 43) lie. Decide whether in the following clauses the verbs be. 11) She doesn’t do her duty. 39) weep. 7) The orders were sent out yesterday. 36) wind. 9) We will do what we can to help. Classify the verbs in the sentences below as follows: a) transitive phrasal. 34) tread. Total points for SAA 4: 83 116 . 9) He raced back home. 11) sow. 9) seek. D. 2) We’ll drive over some time tomorrow. 33) see. auxiliary verbs (10 minutes: 12 points) 1) Fred was in Italy last year. 8) She had a red jacket on. do are used as: a. 38) breed. 5) He got on his bike and rode off. 2) Actually John is a good farmer. 19) meet. 3) He is being rude. 21) speed. 5) hit. 17) sew. 28) teach. 37) freeze. 32) grow. 7) bear. b. Give the three forms of the following verbs: (20 minutes: 45 points) 1) hide. 40) tell. 29) speak. 25) do. 22) cut. 7) He has already had dinner.

15) prefer -. 7. Adj. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. SAQ 4. legal + -ize. 9.3. Adj. 4. 12) offer -. 8. please revise section 4.2. 11) occur -.+ N.+ N. 19) travel – travel(l)ing – travel(l)ed. c. 7.referring – referred. Institutional + ize. en. 5) enjoy -.picnicked. 8. c. 12. 5.V. immune + -ize.stopping – stopped. dis. c. please revise section 4. 10.lying – lied. 14) panic -. heart + -en. 13) picnic -. 9) lie -. 3.Verbs Answers to SAQs 4. de. trust.2. Adj. a. Adj.offering – offered. 16) refer -. dis.+ Adj. 2) cancel – cancel(l)ing – cancel(l)ed. moral + -ize. industrial + -ize. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. 10) live -. 17) regret -.1 not be comparable to those given above.hoping – hoped.1. 8) hurry -. b. a.living – lived.3 not be comparable to those given above.5.4.dying – died. b. SAQ 4.1. 3) die -.hopping – hopped. 2. rich. SAQ 4.arguing – argued.panicking – panicked. 6.preferring – preferred.regretting – regretted.2. b. 6) hop -. en. b. 117 . a. dis. 4.3 1) argue -. 1. 1. 7) hope -. 6.picnicking -. please revise section 4. b.dying – died. 3. 9. 2. b.occurring – occurred. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. 18) stop . courage.enjoying – enjoyed.1.+ Adj.V. 4) dye -. 10. please.hurrying – hurried.1. 11. not be comparable to those given above. 5.1 .

2.4. Voice 5.2. Present progressive 5.2.1. Present progressive 5. Will – would 5. 118 119 119 120 125 128 128 128 131 132 134 134 136 138 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 148 150 153 155 157 157 159 159 160 160 160 164 165 165 166 168 . aspect.4. Past perfect progressive 5.5.4.7.2.4.2. modality and mood UNIT 5 Tense.3.1. Future simple 5.1.21.3. Past progressive 5.2.4. The simple aspect 5.4. modality and mood Objectives 5.1.1 – 5.2. Mood 5.5.2.Present simple 5.1. Subjunctive Summary Key terms Further reading: Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5. Indicative 5.4.2.3. Future progressive 5.2. Can – could 5. voice.2.5.4.2.4. Aspect 5. aspect. Past simple 5.2.4.3.2. Present perfect progressive 5.4. Conditional 5. The progressive aspect 5. Going to 5.2. Be to 5.4. Future perfect 5.2.4. Must 5.1 Present perfect simple 5.3.3.4.5. May – might 5.2.2.4. Shall – should 5. Imperative 5.1.4.6.1.2. Modality 5.5.4.3.1 Present simple 5.5.2.5.4. Tense 5.1.4.2.2. Past perfect simple 5.2.8.Tense. voice.3.2. The perfective aspect 5.2. Means of expressing future time 5.2.2.3.2. Future perfect progressive 5.3.

while the category of aspect marks the temporal contour of events. express subjective meanings such as: possibility. i. is the linguistic expression of time relations realized by verb forms. they are anticipated and therefore will take place after the moment of speaking. Each of them represents perspectives from which we view our experience of events. i. With modality we add to our statements such subjective meanings as possibility. aspect. and their markers. voice and modality are fundamental categories in grammar. Tense Time is a basic concept that exists independently of human language. their being accomplished or not. they happen at the same time. distinguish between progressive and perfect aspect. aspect. or obligation.e. probability. (stative verb) (dynamic) Many verbs however lend themselves to both interpretations: The children have nice clothes. Tense and aspect are obligatory categories. Tense. express future time in various ways. express virtual reality by means of the subjunctive mood. permission and obligation by means of modal verbs. The normal point of reference is the moment of speaking or the speech time. aspect. I wrote two letters yesterday. posterior to the moment of speech. their duration. use verbs in the present and past tense to indicate the chronology of events in time. (stative) (dynamic) 119 . between duration and completion of an event. It is a way of expressing events as occurring at points situated along the linear flow of time. ability. 5.1. Stative verbs refer to a state of affairs. modality. voice. The moment of speaking is the point versus which some events are anterior. on the other hand. i.e. voice. Tense distinctions are largely dependent on whether the verb is stative or dynamic. they take place before the moment of speech. as in: I know nothing about him. prediction. while dynamic verbs refer to a sequence of separate events. while other events are simply simultaneous with the moment of speech. i.e. they are recollected. The category of tense marks the order of events in time. They have dinner at the restaurant.Tense. Objectives By the end of this unit you will be able to:       recognize the verbal categories of tense.e. i.e. modality and mood Aim Tense. necessity.

smell. 120 . realize. Does he grow vegetables? What does he grow? He grows vegetables. wish feel. think. hurt. 5. understand disagrees. we. taste ache. voice. aspect.1. 'Will Kay come?' 'She may do. like. he does / No.' So now you know as much as I do. contain. have. doesn’t he? affirmative sentence yes-no question wh-question tag-question It is also used to form negative sentences: Don’t forget to post the letter! I don't feel like going out tonight. Freddy's solution doesn’t appeal to me. feel. he doesn’t.Tense.' I want to go home. modality and mood Stative verbs fall into several semantic groups: stative verbs verbs of relation verbs of cognition verbs of attitude verbs of involuntary perception verbs of bodily sensation examples be. hear. itch.1. The auxiliary do (or does for the third person singular) is inserted in pre-subject position to form interrogative sentences: He grows vegetables. know. dislike. belong. want. it) drink milk. resemble. they) He (she. depend. drinks milk. seem. tickle English verbs are inflected only for two tenses: present simple and past simple. The auxiliary do (does) replaces the whole verb phrase in short answers to yes-no questions or in order to avoid repeating a full verb: Does he grow vegetables? Yes. Present simple The marker of the present simple is the morpheme –(e)s for the third person singular: I (you.' 'So do I. see. Most people don't have more than a vague idea what folklore actually is. sound believe. own.

(not like) 4) …………………………. I work eight hours a day.you …………………………. negative) of the verbs in parentheses. (visit. 2. I type letters and official papers. aspect. understand. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) Fortunately. I am a secretary. her relatives. your grandma? I’m sure she …………………………. clean the house and mend the clothes. B. lay the table. Sometimes they also do the washing and ironing and look after the garden. (plant) SAQ 5. life on the planet. she …………………………. I also remind him of important appointments. me anymore? I ………………………….A. I help my boss to plan his time. I write a lot of letters every day. (teach) 2) You ever …………………………. 1. He …………………………. interrogative. My name is Susan. Fill in the gap with the correct present simple forms (affirmative. They cook the meals. a thousand saplings on the hill slopes every spring. and wash up. Read quickly in the 3rd person singular: Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.1. Housewives have to work hard. 121 . not believe. A. say) 5) Pollution …………………………. voice. modality and mood SAQ 5. 6) The foresters …………………………. the greenhouse effect and it …………………………. to lock the gate during the day. (create.B. I put papers away in the file cabinet. your brother. and meet people. at my school.1. I answer the telephone.Tense. endanger). miss) 3) My neighbor…………………………. a word of what I …………………………. (not trust.

kick. I pronounce you man and wife. He often digs his own garden and mows the lawn. After two weeks or more the plant starts to grow.e.Tense. including the speech time. Water freezes at 00 C. After that the farmer rakes the soil again so when he wants to plant a seed the farmer can put it there. i. performative verbs (that refer to actions performed while uttering the clause) In addition to these uses. After that the farmer sows the seeds. Ronaldo shoots . 122 . instantaneous present Sometimes the event is presented as coinciding with the speech time and without having any duration beyond the moment of speaking: Single event with little or no duration (knock. exist now and will continue to exist in the future: Birds fly. habitual present The present simple refers to events which repeatedly occur over an unspecified period of time: The milkman calls on Sundays. in certain limited ways. Cows eat grass. nod. I name this ship Queen Mary. A few minutes later the farmer waters the plant with a watering can. the simple present tense can be used. c.and it’s a goal! How to plant vegetables First the farmer rakes the soil to make sure it is soft for when the seed gets planted. to ‘eternal truths’. habitual or instantaneous. etc. jump. b. states of affairs that existed. Roberto Carlos passes to Zidane. The sun rises in the East. a.) sports commentaries on radio or television demonstrations or step-by-step instructions Somebody knocks on the door. modality and mood The present simple tense is used to express actions or events that occur at present and that are viewed as: generic. Bill spends a lot of money on bets every month. voice. with past or future reference. aspect. Zidane to Ronaldo. She eats vegetables every day. Then the farmer cuts the stem of the plant. generic present The present simple refers to statements that apply to all time.

In the middle of a rambling speech.) LARKIN: (Quietly) Doing nothing is the brass ring in this business. Exams begin on Monday. he puts on the ring. even though the event took place in the past: I hear that you're real good at what you do. voice. week. in order to achieve stronger effect and render the event immediate: The movie cuts to an image of the hobbits’ peaceful Shire years later. and Bilbo entertains children with tales of his adventures. year. He won't face her. rarely. usually accompanied by adverbs of future time. where the wizard Gandalf has come to celebrate Bilbo’s 111th birthday. etc. in order to dramatize the event: Iraqi head seeks arms Two sisters reunite after eighteen years  in a narrative or an anecdote. close. present for future time In main clauses. d. tell) or perception (see. which makes him invisible and runs to his house to pack his things and leave the Shire.… (The Fellowship of the Ring. seldom. understand) to suggest that the reported information is still valid. e. hear. with verbs of communicating (say. Joan looks up at the sound. once. Sound of a car. day. however. in casual conversation or fictional narrative. month. every morning (afternoon. The party is an extravagant occasion with fireworks and revelry. historical present  in newspaper headlines. Gandalf meets Bilbo back in his house and tells him . aspect. door slamming.  in reporting information. Monday). the simple present. is used to suggest that a future event is certain to take place: The train leaves at ten tonight. modality and mood Habitual present is often accompanied by frequency adverbs: often. very frequently in recounting plots of books and films.Tense. the validity of the information would no longer be emphasized: I heard that you were real good at what you did. summer. Spark Notes)  in stage directions and captions to photographs: JOAN: That's good? (Larkin moves away. I understand that you intend to represent yourself? If past tense were used in the reporting verb. 123 .

go. etc. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. One measures the coffee into a small saucepan. enjoy the sea air and live as free as birds. The verbs used to indicate planned future actions are verbs of motion: come.Tense. leave or aspectual verbs: begin. I’ll phone you. Write your answers in the space provided below. They stay in the train for half an hour and sit and stand there and read the newspapers. These men go to work by train every day. so I say no. they spend their holidays there every year and swim in the sea or sleep all the time. if I have time. A man comes to me yesterday and asks me to sign a petition. sprinkles the gelatin and leaves it to soak for five minutes. In conditional and in temporal clauses. Dogs make better pets than cats because they are more friendly. They forget their work. end. 124 . voice. 4. 3. The park opens half and hour after sunrise and closes half an hour before sunset. 6. Their holidays finish in August. SAQ 5. aspect. They understand and obey their masters. 5.2. They try to read all the news during the journey and in that way know a lot about the topics of the day. start. Underline the verbs in the present simple and comment on their meaning using the distinctions (a–e) made above. 2. 1) go--habitual present. but cats like to live their own life. Our friends leave for the seaside at three o’clock today and arrive there about seven. modality and mood The present simple indicates future actions that are considered part of an already fixed program. as soon as I arrive home. The first has been done for you: 1. the present simple renders a future time event: I’ll do it. but I don’t feel like it.

Tense. they didn’t. The auxiliary did is inserted in pre-subject position to form interrogative sentences: They grew vegetables last year.1. Did they grow vegetables? What did they grow? They grew vegetables last year. We … the sound of thunder and we … the lightening in the air. the lightening … the tree. (fall) The fire … immediately. (call. at once and … the fire. (hear. tear) The chimney … down noisily. (strike. smell) The first flash … a neighborhood tree.. didn’t they? affirmative sentence yes-no question wh-question tag question The auxiliary did replaces the whole verb phrase in short answers to yes-no questions: Did they grow vegetables? Yes. voice. SAQ 5. come. aspect.1. Irregular verbs have various past tense forms (see 4. He drove his car to the edge of the cliff. (hit) It … the bark off the tree. kill) The second flash … another neighborhood’s chimney and … out a whole row of bricks. The first has been done for you: Lightening … twice by our house last night. modality and mood 5.. A. (not burn. In the narrative below put the verbs in brackets into the simple past tense. Although the tree … . (tear). (be) The lightening … our house. (start) Our neighbors … the firemen who .A. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Write your answers in the space provided below. (miss) 1)struck.2.2): They walked along the river bank yesterday. Past simple The past tense marker on regular verbs is –ed. put out) We … lucky. 125 . (strike).3. they did. No.

etc. He took two of the eggs. etc. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.B. The definite time in the past can be indicated by means of adverbs of time (at 9 o’clock. He climbed the tree. B.Tense. He put them in his mouth. five months ago. after. voice. He needed both his hands. They tasted nice. It laid five eggs. The event was completed in the past: She phoned me at 6 o’clock.3. last week. a) definite events / states in the past The past simple is used to refer to an event that occurred at a definite time in the past. He held on to a branch with one hand. too. 126 . Tommy saw the nest. One of the branches broke. yesterday.) Questions beginning with when have the verb in the past tense because they expect an answer about the time when an event happened: When did they plant the olive trees? They planted the olive trees five years ago. modality and mood SAQ 5. Ask yes-no questions to the following sentences. a moment ago.) or it may be suggested by an adverbial clause of time (introduced by when. last summer. aspect. Did a bird make a nest in this tree? The past simple basically indicates an event that happened before the present moment. two years ago. The telephone rang as soon as I got home. He began to climb down. The first has been done for you: A bird made a nest in this tree. The eggs broke. Tommy fell and hurt his arm. as soon as.

voice. He told me that we once had worked in the same office . Farmers (have) a very hard time until they (start) to use modern farming methods. farmers (lose) many crops owing to dry weather. or drought. often (turn) the land to dust.4. In those days. Each year they (plant) the same crops. 1) lost. ask) is in the past: direct speech indirect speech ‘I have a new camera. Sometimes dry periods (last) for many years. instead of the simple present when the reporting verb (tell. Farmers themselves (make) the situation worse. someone tapped me on the shoulder and asked me if my name was Alfred. This (happen) year after year. modality and mood The past simple is also used to indicate a sequence of past events in a narrative line: One day. The first has been done for you: Before modern farming methods.… b) habitual simple past The simple past expresses past habitual or characteristic actions. by rewording what somebody said as a nominal that-clause or as an indirect question. Then winds (come) along and (blow) the good land away. 127 . while I was waiting for a bus. a long dry period. c) in indirect speech A way of rendering speech in writing. Write your answers in the space provided below. aspect. They never (give) the land a rest. SAQ 5. events that repeatedly occurred in the past: When we were living in London.Tense. In the sentences below put the verbs in brackets into the past tense simple. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.’ => He told me he had a new camera. I often went to the theatre. ‘Where are you living?’ => I was asked where I was living.

Think first! McDonald’s slogan: ‘I’m loving it!’ Is this slogan correct? Why? Why not? In case you cannot find an answer. their duration and their being accomplished or not. A shelter is being built now. 5.e.1.2. the category of aspect marks the temporal contour of events. read what follows for a (possible) solution. The bird has been building a nest.1.2). the perfect is marked by the auxiliary have + past participle.2. Aspect While the category of tense marks the order of events in time. progressive and perfective. voice. i. modality and mood 5. 128 . The simple aspect The simple aspect in English is the one we choose whenever we make an objective. They were building a cottage. the simple aspect is the unmarked one (in contrast. He may be building a shelter. The progressive aspect English has a progressive aspect realized by means of the auxiliary be and the -ing participle. By combining with tense.Tense. and modal equivalents and with the passive: progressive forms present + progressive past + progressive perfect + progressive modal + progressive present + progressive + passive past + progressive + passive example They are building a house. the simple aspect generates such forms as the present tense and the past tense (see 5.1 – 5. aspect. 5.2. Three aspectual distinctions are traditionally identified in English: simple.1. A factory was being built then. The progressive aspect combines with both present and past tenses and also with the perfect. while the progressive aspect is marked by some form of be + ing-participle of the lexical verb). with modals.2. straightforward presentation of a situation. Of the three aspectual contrasts of English. Aspect always combines with tense. Write your answer in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss it with your tutor or your colleagues.

One can say I like your coffee. in progress: Don’t knock – he may be sleeping. owe. seem. i. (temporary situation) John (usually) works in the morning. Compare the progressive and the non-progressive uses of certain verbs: 129 . etc). suppose. be. imagine. Verbs of perception combine with the progressive to refer to deliberate actions rather than involuntary perception. need. the progressive aspect is compatible with dynamic verbs either durative (blow. Last night at 6 p. but not *I am liking your coffee. weigh (=have weight) Stative verbs are typically used in the simple aspect. own. ripen) or punctual (knock): A gale of wind from the west is blowing gently. love. matter. consist of. work. measure (=have length.m. indicate temporary behavior or an attitude on the part of the speaker. Apples are ripening in the sun. prefer. For the same reason. Verbs of cognition and relation take on dynamic meanings. I was eating dinner. belong to.Tense. smell. see. guess.e. perception sound verbs of relation appear. it may imply that the situation has limited duration and is not necessarily complete (simple tenses are generally used to talk about permanent situations or completed actions): John is working in the afternoon this month. I’ve been looking for my glasses everywhere but I haven’t found them. wish believe. (permanent situation) Because of its dynamic character. contain. recognize. depend on. include. taste (=have a flavor). mean. deserve. When stative verbs are used in the progressive aspect their meaning is altered. resemble. doubt. the progressive is incompatible with the so-called ‘stative verbs’. In addition. possess. remember. lack. fit. This time tomorrow I’ll be flying to New York. The most important are: stative verbs verbs of attitude verbs of cognition examples like. hate. voice. aspect. think (=have an opinion). modality and mood The fundamental function of the progressive aspect is to indicate a dynamic action in the process of happening. dislike. feel (=have an opinion).. She was writing articles for a women’s magazine at the time. realize. understand verbs of involuntary hear. involve. know.

The first has been done for you: 1) 2) 3) I … voices. (involuntary use of senses) She is smelling a rose. I was considering buying a new house at the time. voice. (care.. (think) 6) You … gas? I … the new stove is leaking. Use the stative verbs either in the simple aspect or in the progressive. (involuntary use of senses) You will be hearing from him. modality and mood simple aspect Jane is at school. 130 .’ (be) 9) How many books . (voluntary. We … the best in life for you. (see) 5) Paul … about the exam.Tense. (meet) I didn’t consider it wise to interfere..’ (smell) 4) I . (hear) I … this pudding. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.. your school library ? (contain) 10) Speak up. (temporary situation) I’m expecting a letter form her. think) 7) Your father and I . It … good. (I believe) Eggs are costing more these days. (like.. He … it was long and difficult. he … very well (not hear). (It is my opinion) I’m thinking of my grandmother.. You are our only child. (She is a pupil) progressive aspect Jane is being rude today. I have an appointment with him. about you. I see a bird! (involuntary use of senses) I heard music. 1) hear. (I’m waiting to receive) I think he is a kind man. (smell. (I was thinking of) ---I am seeing the boss tomorrow. (It was my opinion) He likes fresh milk. deliberate action) SAQ 5. the dentist today. there is someone at the door. It smells bad.5. aspect. (temporary attitude) How much does/did this book cost? I expect she’ll come later. Write your answers in the space provided below. taste) ‘What are you doing?’ ‘I … this meat to see if it is spoiled. (get news) I smell gas. desire) 8) ‘Why … you rude today? You’ve never behaved like this before..

forever. Present progressive The present progressive is formed by means of the auxiliary be in the present tense and the -ing participle of the lexical verb.2. . Michael Swan. when this policeman walks up to me . c) The present progressive indicates a frequently repeated action which annoys the speaker.2. aspect. The typical adverbs are: always.Tense. . Jim doesn’t like to be disturbed while he’s working. minding my own business. The present progressive is also used in for ‘background’ situations in present-time narratives: So. He usually walks to school but today he is going by bus. d) The present progressive may also be used with reference to future time. limited action or behavior with an adverbial indicating present time: I live in Brasov but I’m living in Bucharest this year. Why is the baby crying? Is she hungry? How are they feeling now? b) It may also denote a temporary. voice. I’m standing there. Practical English Usage. modality and mood 5. continually. Why are you being so rude? I’m seeing a lot of Mary these days.1. They are complaining about their neighbors all the time. What are you doing this evening? e) The present progressive is used in temporal and adverbial clauses to indicate an action underway or in progress as some other action takes place: We will go for a walk while the baby is sleeping. all the time: My neighbor is always playing the piano at midnight. 131 . ‘at this moment’. It is getting warmer and warmer. The action has duration and it is not complete: I am reading War and Peace by Tolstoy. It indicates somebody’s immediate plans for the near future: We’re spending next winter holidays in Egypt. a) A verb in the present progressive indicates an action happening at the moment of speaking ‘now’.

2. modality and mood SAQ 5. Write your answers in the space provided below. aspect. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple: While I was jogging a man stopped me and asked me the time. I (work) on a project on water pollution. Would you join us? 6) By the way I (have) some people over for dinner tonight.2. They were playing tennis from six to seven yesterday evening. using the distinctions (a – e) above. please. 8) The children (grow) tired.Tense. 1) 5. The first has been done for you: I usually study in the morning. At half past seven the crowds were pouring into the subways. voice. a) It expresses an action in progress. 5) I (dine) with Susan tonight. going on precisely at a point in time or over a specified period of time: I was jogging at 10 yesterday. 2) Ann: Don’t be so sentimental. 9) How quickly you (grow)? How tall you are! 1) am studying-temporary situation. Jenny: But I (not be) sentimental. 3) I (go) to the library after school. Past progressive The past progressive is formed by means of the auxiliary be in the past and the –ing participle of the lexical verb.2. b) A verb in the past progressive also expresses an action that began before. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Put them to bed.6 Comment on the use of the present progressive in the following. but I (study) in the afternoon this week. What were you doing when I phoned you? 132 . 4) He always (give) me bad advice. 7) Stop that noisy game you (play).

Barton (pour) champagne and Mrs. When the clock struck midnight.Tense. which often annoyed the speaker: She was always ringing me up late at night. direct speech indirect speech SAQ 5. A. while the girls were watching them. 6) He always (invite) me to parties. f) A personal arrangement or plan for the near future seen from the past: He was busy packing. She turned the stereo down and stood up to answer the door. the past progressive frequently has the effect of providing certain ‘background’ information in order to highlight a sequence of events expressed in the simple past tense (heard. the past progressive is the equivalent of the present progressive: ‘I am staying at the Lido Hotel’ He told us he was staying at the Lido Hotel. e) With the adverb always it expresses a frequently repeated past action. stood up): Ann was listening to loud music on her stereo when the door bell rang. 4) Your parents (live) in this town when you were born? 5) They (have) dinner at this time yesterday. modality and mood c) In narratives. for he was leaving the next day. An old woman was standing on the steps. 7) She (stay) with some relatives when I called on her. he was drinking some wine. then comment on the use of the past progressive.7. turned down. 2) While she (eat) a sandwich. Barton cheerfully (talk) to her guests. voice. Use the distinctions (a – g) above. 1) Yesterday was December 31st. 3) She (work) in a hospital when I met her. g) In the indirect speech after a reporting verb in the past. Put the verbs in brackets in the past progressive. d) The past progressive may be used to indicate two actions going on simultaneously and lasting over a longer period of time: The boys were playing football. 133 . Mr. aspect.

). Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. I haven't really seen his car a lot lately.Tense. We typically use perfect tense to show a connection between the past and the present time. these days. 5.3. aspect.1. perfective aspect results in two simple tenses: Present Perfect and Past Perfect. since June. The adverbs of time refer to a period of time not yet over (up to now. The perfect aspect is always signaled by the auxiliary verb have followed by the past participle of the lexical verb. for two days. lately. voice. modality and mood Write your answers in the space provided below. a) anteriority The present perfect is used when the speaker does not want to refer to a definite moment in time but simply to the anteriority of the event in relation to speech time. They have not yet analyzed the data yet. etc. The action is viewed as occurring at an indefinite or unspecified time in the past. always. sometimes. 134 .3. The perfective aspect The basic meaning of the perfect aspect is anteriority of the event in relation to another moment (the speech time or a past time). in the last five years. 5. never. By combining with tense. Present perfect simple The present perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary have in the present and the –en participle of the lexical verb. The present perfect places the event in a period of time which extends up to and includes the speech time. ever. which are themselves indefinite as regards time specification: already. I've always admired him. recently.2. so far. The first has been done for you: 1) was pouring – action in progress. yet: They have already admitted that they were wrong. Adverbs that can be used with the present perfect include adverbs of frequency.2.

Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. What matters is the fact that the result of a past event is still felt at the present moment: I have recovered from my illness. the village is in danger. yet. . since (Monday. (we know each other) In such cases no adverb of time accompanies the verbs in the present perfect. for centuries) expresses the duration of a period of time. They have known each other since 1980. Fill the gaps to distinguish between past simple (a) and present perfect (b). The first has been done for you. as indicated by adverbs beginning with since or for. modality and mood b) past actions relevant at present The present perfect is often used to refer to past actions which are relevant at the speech time. (the result is ‘I am now well again) He has read the novel. For + a unit of time (for a few minutes. SAQ 5.. three years ago) 5) Questions about time (when …?) have the verb in ………………………. 6) Questions about quantity and number (How much …? How many …?) contain a verb in the ……………… . Since + a point in time (since four o’clock.. 135 . at two o’clock. two minutes ago. 1) Past tense expresses an event with no connection to the present moment. (now he can comment on the plot) I haven’t eaten anything. for an hour. three years). are: just (already.Tense. yesterday morning. A. August. c) continuative perfect The present perfect expresses an event or a state that extends over a period lasting up to the moment of speaking.. 2) ………………………. summer). voice. year. are: just now. year. today. for a week. lately). 4) The typical adverbs used with ………………………. indicates an event that has just taken place and whose effects are felt at the present. (the result is ‘Now I am hungry’) We have already met. this week (month. It has rained for a week. since yesterday. for (five minutes.8. 3) The typical adverbs used with ……………………….A. last week (month. since I was in London) expresses the beginning of a period of time. for years. 1990).. aspect. winter). five weeks ago. two weeks.

result: I’ve been reading the book. I ……………………… her several letters but she didn’t reply. Dickens wrote some very famous novels. Now practice using the verb write in the past simple or present perfect.Tense. modality and mood SAQ 5.2. ……………………… Mozart ……………………… the music? 8. The first has been done for you: 1. 5. I will post them tomorrow..3. 9. The doctor ……………………… me a prescription for sleeping pills. When ……………………… you ……………………… the poem? 4. etc. Present perfect progressive The present perfect progressive is formed by means of have + been + verb -ing. voice. It also suggests a sense of a situation in progress with limited duration: You can’t go out. 2. I have been living here for the last three weeks.. I sent them a card but they never . back... result) c) With punctual dynamic verbs..B. 7.) and since (since 5 o’clock /January /1999. aspect.. a) The meaning associated with the present perfect progressive is that of a temporal situation leading up to the present.) 136 . b) With durative dynamic verbs. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. I’ ve read the book.. Who ……………………… Harry Potter? 5. It has been raining for a few minutes... the present perfect progressive shows that the action is repeated over a period of time: I’ve been phoning you for hours! Where have you been? The typical adverbs of time are for (for many years / two weeks /a long time. the present perfect progressive emphasizes that the action is not completed... while the present perfect simple normally suggests completion. (not completed) (completed. 3.. (not write) 10. I ……………………… two letters this evening. He ……………………… for ages..8..2. B. etc. How many poems ……………………… you ………………………? 6.

voice. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. the hospital. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in parentheses... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit...’ (drive) 5) The phone ………………. (drive) ‘How long … you … the car?’ ‘I ………………. for the past five minutes. the car to work since I bought it.the child ……………….’ 4) I ………………..9. aspect. Fill the gaps to distinguish between the present perfect simple (a) and the present perfect progressive (b).… focuses on repetition and completion of the event.. (earn) 2) ‘How much ………………. A. SAQ 5.A..9. (ring) 6) His mother is very sick. uninterrupted action still going on at present.. just ………………. The first has been done for you” a) Present perfect progressive emphasizes duration.B. He ………………. TV?’ (watch) ‘For two hours.he ………………. (ring) 137 .Tense. c) Questions with How much or How many have the verb in ………………….’ (earn) 3) ‘How long ……………….. he ……………….… d) Questions with How long take a verb in the ……………… . 1) I have been earning my own living since I finished school. The first has been done for you.?’ ‘He … a lot of money lately.. B.’ ‘How many programs ………………. modality and mood SAQ 5.?’ (see) ‘Three. the car for nine years.. b) ………………….

than he went away. by the time. till. modality and mood 5. We had moved into a new house before our boy was born. as soon as. Past perfect simple The past perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary have in the past followed by the -en participle of the lexical verb: had gone. barely. than he went away. b) The adverbs hardly.Tense. then she sat down’) e) The past perfect is used in reported speech instead of the past tense or present perfect tense to indicate a backshift into a more remote past: 138 .2. no sooner + than are often used with the past perfect to indicate a past event completed immediately before another past event. When these adverbs are used at the beginning of the sentence. The focus is on the completed activity: By two o’clock she had made some phone calls. I sent it to her.3. When she had sung.3. (“she had to finish first”) As soon as I had done it. when. when it started to rain. she sat down. scarcely + when. The band had no sooner started to play. aspect. (‘she sat down while singing’) (“she saw it first”) (‘she sang first. the past often replaces the past perfect: When she saw the mouse she screamed. (“she had to see it first”) d) When the time relation is not unambiguous. c) The past perfect is used in temporal clauses beginning with after. Compare: When she sang. had played. when it started to rain. Hardly had they come out of the room. they are followed by inversion of the subject with the verb: They had hardly come out of the room. before. by January last year) or before another event in the past. she sat down. voice. (“I had to do it first”) She wouldn't sign the contract before she had seen it. until to show that the action is anterior to the one in the main clause (otherwise the past tense is used): After she had finished. No sooner had the band started to play. a) It is used to refer to an event in the past that happened before a past moment (by two o’clock. they left.

aspect. voice. He has already heard the news. 5) The car (hardly. present perfect) ‘You have annoyed the dog. 8) Betty (fill) the cake and (decorate) it with icing which she (prepare) hours before and (keep) in the fridge to harden. I told him that he had annoyed the dog. go) a mile when it (have) a flat tire. Write your answers in the space provided below.’ Reported Speech: Ann told me that John had returned from his trip two days before and he had already heard the news.Tense. enter) the house when they (begin) to argue. The first has been done for you: 1) Almost all the guests (leave) by the time we (arrived). (present perfect) SAQ 5. 3) The couple (scarcely.10 Use either the past simple or the past perfect of the verbs in parentheses. 2) John (wonder) whether he (leave) his wallet at home.’ (past simple. 7) No sooner he (leave) on holiday than he (return) because his parents (ring up) him to tell him that some burglars (break) into the house. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 6) They (be) married for seven years when they finally (have) a child. 4) The teacher (ask) the boy why he (not do) his homework. 139 . 1) had left. modality and mood Direct Speech: Ann: ‘John returned from his trip two days ago.

..3... 9) Didn’t I warn you to be careful? If only you …………..11... ?’ ‘She ………………………………..……… for the last two days. The village was saved. English by January 2004?’ (study) ‘ He ………………. modality and mood 5. Then we stopped writing and handed our papers in.……. voice. from his textbook?’ ‘He ……………………. English for five months. (rise) 6) Aunt Berth ………………. the town with her fresh vegetables for such a long time that even she couldn’t remember. I had been studying since noon.Tense.’ ‘How many programs ……………… she ………….. (listen) 140 .. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in parentheses.’ ‘How many lesson …….…… the cage before it was moved? (leave) 8) When I got to the butcher’s. Past perfect progressive The past perfect progressive (had + been + verb-ing).he ………………. (write) 5) 5) The waters of the river …………………. (supply) 7) The lion ever …………………. I had been waiting for Tom for two hours when he arrived... two programs. 15 lessons. usually accompanied by an expression of time beginning with for / since. The first has been done for you: 1) ‘How long has Mary been watching TV by 10 o’clock?’ (watch) ‘She ……………………………. aspect.’ 3) They said they ……………………………….. SAQ 5.4. is used for actions which had been going on continuously up to a past moment: It was midnight. for forty-five minutes when the bell rang. The kids were very tired because they had been playing baseball since early this morning. (plan) 4) We …………………………………. TV for an hour. Use either past perfect simple or progressive. he …………………….………….’ 2) ‘How long …….… to move to the country for a long time. Jim ……. The past perfect progressive often indicates a previous action whose result was obvious at a certain past moment: The grass was wet because it had been raining all day.. (close). Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.2.

Use it when you want to ‘say what you think will happen’: It'll be cold and damp tomorrow.4.1. voice. next autumn. Do you think he’ll come? It is also used in the main clauses of conditional sentences: You will feel better if you take your medicine regularly. Future simple The future simple (will + verb) refers to actions that will take place after the speech moment. Going to Going to future marks future planned activity and prediction based on fact. You'll be in time if you hurry.’ 5. we will eat heartily. The auxiliary will serves as the ordinary marker of the future tense (shall is old-fashioned): They will meet us at the newest café in the market. etc. either by means of specialized future tenses or by using present tenses with future meaning. next week.’ 141 . Look at the clouds.4.2.2. I’ll miss the film on TV. The future simple expresses neutral prediction and takes adverbs indicating future time (tomorrow morning.4. 5. At the feast. Bobbie will call you tomorrow with details about the agenda. aspect. intention cause With the adverb just. It also refers to the future fulfilment of present cause or intention: I’m going to stay at home and watch TV. going to future conveys the same meaning as be about to: ‘Why are you all sitting at the table?’ ‘We are just going to eat.’ ‘ No.Tense.2.2. ‘Come out for a walk.’ ‘We are (just) about to eat. It’s going to rain.). Means of expressing future time There are several ways of expressing future time in English. modality and mood 5.

A. 4) The horse is limping badly. ‘My car won’t start.3.(sink) 6) The weather forecast is excellent. (walk). Use the verbs in parentheses in the future simple or going to future. ‘There isn’t any butter in the house.Tense. All our vans now are to be re-fueled. ‘This is a terribly heavy box. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. modality and mood 5. the race.’ (come. (finish) 5) Put on your life-belts. give) 3.‘ ‘I …………………………. aspect. the place if she follows the map..2... B.’ ‘I ………………………. and ……………….12. Use future simple for unplanned intention and going to future for planned intention. ‘Why is Bob carrying his guitar?’ ‘He …………………………… it at Mary’s birthday party.B.……. I ………………………. (rain) SAQ 5. and …………………………. The ship …………………….’ (go. ‘What are you doing with that spade?’ ‘I ………………………… some apple trees. The factory is to be closed until sanitary conditions are met.’ (plant) 2. it a push.’ ‘I ………………………. to carry it. Be to Be to refers to a fixed and inevitable event or change in the future and is used in reporting of news. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) She ………………………………. get) 5. (leave) 3) As soon as the rain stops.. frequently in the passive: The government is to introduce new taxes.‘ (help) 142 .. A. some. He …………………………. It …………………….4. (find) 2) Why have they got their coats on? They ……………………….12.’ (play) 4. voice. SAQ 5.… to the baker’s to get some bread.

The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future: He will be working on the computer system for the next two weeks. the door will open. Future progressive The future progressive tense (will + be + verb-ing) is used to describe temporary actions ongoing around a given future time: We'll be cleaning up the yard Saturday afternoon. is interrupted by.4. the band will play the National Anthem. The simple present is used in temporal and conditional clauses to express a future action: When the President arrives. I’m leaving at noon tomorrow.4. 5. or occurs with reference to some other future event/time: Don't call at 6 pm. It is accompanied by an adverbial indicating future time: We start for Brasov tomorrow. Present simple The simple present with a future meaning expresses a future event as part of an official plan or arrangement regarded as unalterable.5. We have already made the arrangement.2.30.4.Tense. Use the future progressive as a polite way of asking about someone’s plans or decisions: Will you be having dinner at your parents’ tonight? 143 . because I'll be eating dinner then. The train leaves at 8. they’ll be still having dinner. If you press this button. When you arrive. modality and mood 5. I’ll be helping with the harvesting tomorrow. Present progressive The present progressive with a future meaning is used for scheduled or personally planned events: We're having a party on Saturday. aspect. I have already made my plans.2.4. 5. voice.6.2. A longer future action that overlaps.

2.8. from the seaside by September the 15th.… skiing lessons for two weeks.4. SAQ 5.. the committee will have been arguing about which candidate to interview for three hours. modality and mood 5.2. The hotel people will have scoured and vacuumed the building by the time the first guests arrive. Allen ………………………………… as a librarian for twenty years.Tense. (live) 6) By next month Mrs. (take) 4) She can sing so she …………………………………. (work) 7) She ………………………………………….4. (return) 144 . aspect. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) He ……………………………………… the winner at 10 o’clock tomorrow. It is usually recognized by the time adverbial phrases containing by or next: The play will have ended by 10 o’clock. a camera before he starts on a trip around the world. (interview) 2) Nick ……………………………………. Future perfect progressive The future perfect progressive (will + have + been + verb-ing) tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future: I will have been studying English for three years by the end of this term. duration completion By the time the meeting is over. Future perfect The future perfect (will + have + verb-en) is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future.… in the school festival. 5. before a point in the future or before another action takes place. voice. perfect or perfect progressive)..13 Use the verbs in parenthesis in the future (progressive. (perform) 5) The Martins ……………………………………… in this house for ten years by January the first. (buy) 3) By tomorrow Alice …………………………….7.

Sentences in the active voice are generally . fit.Tense. become. be by-prepositional phrase The use of tenses in English should be practiced (by the pupils). In the passive voice.2). Many active sentences do not change into passive structures if the verb is ‘stative’. voice. The house plants may have been damaged by icy winds. the subject is the undergoer. equal. but we cannot say *A new house is had by him. the participant that suffers the change occasioned by the event. He slammed the door shut.though not always . be by-prepositional phrase Only transitive verbs (those that take direct objects) can be transformed into passive constructions. It indicates whether the subject is an agent (the person is the doer of the event). The active voice is the "normal" voice. modality and mood 5. comprise. The door was slammed shut by him. resemble (for details see 5. Voice Voice refers to the semantic roles (the actual role a participant plays in some real or imagined situation) of the subject of the sentence. look like. We can say He has a new house. 145 . Patient Agent passive voice The passive voice has three formal characteristics:    the auxiliary be the lexical verb in the past participial form an optional by prepositional phrase containing the agent A long letter was written (by John). Compare: The pupil wrote an essay. In most situations.3. lack.clearer and more direct than those in the passive voice. The agent performing the action may appear in a by-phrase or may be omitted. a patient (a person or a thing which is affected) or beneficiary of an event. In the active voice. the participant that causes the change occasioned by the event. aspect. the active voice is preferable to the passive for the majority of your sentences. the subject is the agent of the action. Agent Patient active voice The essay was written (by the pupil).2. Compare: Icy winds may have damaged the house plants. Here is a brief list of such verbs that cannot passivize: agree with.

Tense. aspect." (From Text Book: An Introduction to Literary Language. Investing money in a factory is being considered by the committee. your writing may well substantiate the absurdity of this famous example. A long neck was one of the characteristics of the young gentleman. unimportant or unknown. They were being squashed together. Compare: The committee is considering investing money in a factory. Scholes. it was made the object of his precipitate movements and it became sat down upon. SAQ 5. Re-write the text and make all the necessary corrections: "It was midday. the agent is not really important but the process or principle being described is of ultimate importance: The protein concentration required to saturate the solid phase was determined and the amount of bound protein was quantified by the micro-biochoninic acid protein assay. Comley. The passive voice is effective in such circumstances because it highlights the action rather than the agent performing the action. New York: St. Nancy R. The victim was apparently struck in the early morning hours. Ulmer. eds. R. The bus was being got into by passengers. Otherwise. Remember: to use the passive voice effectively. In scientific or technical writing or lab reports. Writers in the sciences conventionally use passive voice more often than writers in other discourses. and Gregory L.) 146 . The man standing next to him was being grumbled at by the latter because of the jostling that was being inflicted on him by him. voice. It is particularly useful when the agent performing the action is obvious. The effect is to lend the article the air of objectivity. use it sparingly.14. A hat was being worn on the head of a young gentleman. as in: The aurora borealis can be observed in the early morning hours. The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. As soon as a vacant seat was espied by the young gentleman. modality and mood Sentences in the active voice are also more concise and dynamic than those in the passive voice because fewer words are required to express action in active voice than in the passive. Martin's Press (1988) 138-142.

It was midday.Tense. modality and mood Write your answers in the space provided below. You need tickets. How would you ask your friends for some more money? Write your answers in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues. voice. Passengers were squashing one another… Think first! Situation 1 You get to a show on time. The first has been done for you. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. aspect. 147 . What will you say to the person in the ticket office? Situation 2 You discover that you need two more dollars.

may. ought to. voice. might. shall-should) others are single (must. e) Modal verbs are not marked for tense and aspect. would. aspect.. necessity. Modality typically involves such notions as possibility. etc. The major syntactic properties of the modal verbs are: Modals do not have non-finite forms (infinitive or participles): *to can. *canning. will-would.4. can: *I will can go. be likely. * to must. need). should) no longer indicates past time: It may / might rain tomorrow. Was he allowed to go to the party? d) Modals cannot co-occur with each other but the periphrastic equivalents. etc. must. be permitted. dare. b) Modal verbs are inverted with the subject to form questions (yes-no question. He speaks English. vs. wh-question. I might be able to get there in time. modality and mood 5. would. be necessary. Modality Modality is a category of the verb by which speakers express their evaluation or judgment of the situations to which they refer in their statements.Tense. may-might. The forms which realize these concepts are the modal verbs: can. 148 . should. probability. ought they? c) The modal paraphrases form the interrogative by means of inversion with the subject: He is able to fly a plane. couldn’t you? They ought not to be here. Some modals have pairs (can-could. Is he able to fly a plane? He was allowed to go to the party. I speak English. volition. I can speak English. *musting a) Modals have no agreement with the subject in the 3rd person singular. tag question): Could you tell me the truth? What could you tell me? You could tell me the truth. He can speak English. obligation and permission. What is historically the past tense mark (could. such as be able to. vs.

would. might. passive The house could have been painted before they modal + have + been + verb -en sold it. modal verbs combine with a lexical verb in:  the simple infinitive to express a modalized event at present: I can/could drive a car. 149 .  the perfect progressive infinitive (have + been + verb -ing) to suggest an activity in progress in the past: She may have been reading a book when you phoned her.Tense. could.  the progressive infinitive (be + verb -ing) to show an action in progress at present: She must be reading a book.  In reported speech. I am/ was/ will be able to ski. will. must – have to: can may must. may .  In passive sentences modal verbs combine with the simple passive infinitive (be + verb -en) to refer to an event in the present and with the perfect passive infinitive (have + been + verb -en) to indicate an event in the past: active passive They could paint the house before they sell it. modality and mood Instead. she said. be allowed to. voice.be permitted to. ride a motorbike and sail a boat. may and shall: ‘I can come’. She said she could come. modal + be + verb -en active They could have painted the house before they sold it. The house could be painted before they sell it.  the perfect infinitive (have + verb -en) to indicate reference to the past: She could have phoned her friend but she didn’t. Am/ was/ will I be permitted to come in? You have to/ had to/will have to study. g) direct speech reported speech The main modal verbs have corresponding modal paraphrases which can be used in all tenses: can – be able to. He should visit his parents more often. aspect. should replace the corresponding can.

What can he see. feel every day? 150 .1. It can cause an explosion. You can’t be hungry. Can – could The pair can – could is mainly used to express ability. possibility and permission (in colloquial speech) physical or mental ability in the present in the past objective possibility permission ask for permission negative deduction (impossibility of a present event a past event) He can ride a wild horse.Tense. (physical ability) He could read when he was five. hear. She can’t type. They are usually combined with the modal verb can to indicate a state at present: He is walking along the shore now. (mental ability) Don’t light a match in this chemical factory. modality and mood Have to is the only modal paraphrase that forms the interrogative and the negative with the auxiliary do: Do I have to finish the book by next month? I don’t have to finish the book by next month.4. What does he see. The major semantic values of the modal verbs are given the following sections. hear. voice. He couldn’t have heard the news on the radio because he was sleeping then. 5. Verbs of physical perception are not used in the progressive form. aspect. You can borrow my bike. Did I have to be in time for school? I didn’t have to be in time for school. She can’t be typing a letter now. feel now? He lives in a small village on the shore. Can/ Could I use your phone? (colloquial instead of may) You’ve just had your dinner.

Tense. (‘he managed to get to the top’) He could swim so he was able to reach the shore. but now I’ve forgotten how to. 151 .15. 5) He could dance very well so he was able to win the dance contest. A.’ 1) possibility. he was able to get to the top. 6) ‘Why didn’t you invite Margaret?’ ‘I couldn’t get her phone number. but I had to stay home and take care of my baby brother. aspect. be able to is used instead of could: Though the mountaineer was very tired.’ I used to be able to make clay pots on a wheel. SAQ 5. Where artists used to be able to put on performances in their loft spaces. Betty?’ ‘I used to be able to play it. She is a member of the school choir. voice. They can’t be at home.’ 7) Who can translate this paragraph into English for next time? 8) ‘You didn’t attend all the classes. The first has been done for you: 1) What are you doing right now? What could you be doing if you were not in class? 2) Everything looks deserted. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. (‘he succeeded in reaching the shore’) To stress that a past ability no longer exists. modality and mood When an individual event was successfully performed in the past. now high-end restaurants want to move in. Write your answers in the space provided below. Comment upon the meanings of can or could in the following examples. we use the construction used to be able to: ‘Can you play chess.A. Jane?’ ‘I could have attended all the classes. 3) Can I have another piece of cake? 4) She can sing.

15.’ ‘Don’t worry. The first has been done for you: I will be able to read fast when I finish this speedreading course.’ 3) ‘I can’t speak English without an accent now. sit ‘ 6) The postman ………………………… deliver the letters because the dog barked fiercely. 8) He told me he …………………………. you …………………………. too. 7) Fortunately. he ……………… already ………………….. but now I’ve forgotten a lot of words. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 9) ‘Can you translate fluently?’ ‘I …………………………….’ ‘I’d like ………………….’ 152 . B. modality and mood SAQ 5.…… borrow umbrellas so we had to wait until the rain stopped.B.’ 4) The children ………………………… sail across the lake last week. speak better next month. Use be able to in the appropriate tense paying attention to the adverbs of time.. 2) ‘Have you ever eaten frog legs?’ ‘No.…… make many new friends since I arrived in this town.. aspect. translate fluently.Tense.……… grow roses.’ 10) ‘I wish I could grow roses in the front garden. I ……………………… face the idea. 1) 5) ‘Can the baby sit in his pram?’ ‘Yes. I…………………………. voice.

2. He might not know that we are waiting for him. You must not park here. aspect. greater uncertainty about the answer) May expressing permission can be replaced by the modal paraphrases: be allowed to or be permitted to: You may not touch the exhibits in a museum. (refusal of permission) (prohibition) 153 . Candidates may (not) bring textbooks into the examination room. The negative may not (colloquially can’t) expresses a refusal of permission and is therefore less strong than must not which expresses prohibition: You may not park here. modality and mood 5.Tense. His letter might have given him the idea. voice. please? Might I borrow your pen. May I borrow your pen. please? (less common. May – might The pair may – might is mainly used to express possibility and permission: possibility in the present (+ present infinitive) in the past (+ past infinitive) grant or refuse formal permission request permission politely He may be on the next bus. (a more remote possibility) The dog isn’t here. You must not smoke here.4. You are not allowed to touch the exhibits. He may have taken it with him.

7) I don’t know whether John signed the contract or not.’ 4) My friend is flying to Paris. 154 . Comment on the meanings of may . The first has been done for you: 1) Jane may not have time to come to Bill’s party. 8) ‘Mr. aspect. I haven’t decided yet. but may I borrow your briefcase? 10) ‘May I open the window?’ ‘No. Write your answers in the space provided below. It’s cold today. I may become a librarian or I might become a teacher.16. possibility. 1) present. but I don’t think so.’ 9) I hate to bother you.’ 11) I asked if I might invite my friends over next Sunday. He might have signed it. voice. you may not. Grant looked worried. He may/might be reading a book now.Tense. modality and mood SAQ 5.’ ‘Well.might in the following. 2) ‘What do you think he will do there?’ / ‘What might he do there?” 3) ‘He may go boating on the lake or he may visit the Village Museum. it might be there.’ 6) I am not sure what I will be when I leave school.’ ‘He might have been thinking about his sick mother. 5) ‘Perhaps your umbrella is at home. I’m not sure why. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.

Her uncle is a doctor. 155 .4.’ She didn’t need to call an ambulance. the modal paraphrase have to is used. he needn’t.’ Needn’t + perfect infinitive (have + verb -en) is used exclusively to refer to an action which took place in the past but was unnecessary: I translated the message not knowing that everybody here understood English.Tense.3. When using need in questions the speaker hopes for a negative answer: ‘Need he climb the apple tree?’ ‘No. The modal must can be used with reference to an action in the present or possibly in the future. The negative and interrogative of have to are formed with do: Why did he have to leave home so early? The pupils didn’t have to go to school on Saturday. The children were in a summer camp. He left two hours ago. I needn’t have translated the message. There are a lot of apples in the basket. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. voice. It expresses habitual obligation or obligation imposed by others (external obligation): I will have to finish the book by next month. aspect. Absence of obligation at present is expressed by needn’t and in the past by didn’t need to: ‘You needn’t wait for me. They had to chop firewood. fetch water and cook meals themselves. modality and mood 5. He must be at home now. Must Must is chiefly used to express obligation and logical necessity: obligation imposed by the speaker obligation deriving from rules/regulations logical necessity (deduction) You must be back by 10 o’clock. When specific reference has to be made to other times or aspects.

Someone must be coming. because it was clean. Jim was feeling better. 156 . voice. You can cause an explosion. The first has been done for you: 1) logical necessity (deduction). 2) We didn’t need to call an ambulance. modality and mood SAQ 5. 5) I have to go to hospital early. aspect. I am a doctor.17. 9) You needn’t help me.Tense. Comment on the meanings of must – have to – need. 6) You mustn’t smoke in here. 7) He had to stay indoors because of the heavy rain. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 1) I hear foot steps. 10) Visitors mustn’t feed the animals at the Zoo. 4) I must go to the hospital early. 3) You needn’t have washed the cardigan. I can manage. Write your answers in the space provided below. 8) In England motorists must drive on the left side of the road. My friend is sick.

(I am not sure. would They said it would rain during the night. aspect. (‘I am willing to have you here. In spring birds would return to their nests.5. A dog will obey his master. They have a fast car. 3rd pers. Ought to can be used as an alternative to should in both senses: modality expressed obligation imposed by the speaker logical necessity should/ ought to He should/ ought to pay for the broken window. will It will rain during the night. (I am sure.4. should is weaker than must. voice. they might have had a breakdown) must He must pay for the broken window. obstinacy) I will marry her tomorrow if she will have me.4. In its sense of obligation and logical necessity. She wouldn't change it.’) strong volition (insistence) You shall obey my orders. He will go swimming in dangerous waters. Shall – should The modal verb shall expresses volition while should indicates obligation and logical necessity: meaning the speaker’s volition (imposed on 2nd. Our guests should / ought to be home by now. Boys will be boys. typical behavior volition weak volition (willingness) strong volition (insistence. He said he would marry her right away if she would have him. even though she knew it was wrong. Will – would The pair will – would has two major functions: to express predictability and volition: meaning predictability concerning a future event regarding habitual.’) (‘I insist that you obey my orders. modality and mood 5. (typical behavior in the past) 5. Our guests must be at home now.Tense. subjects) weak volition (willingness) shall You shall stay with us as long as you like.4.) 157 .

please? You might tell me what she said. suggestions. It’s very good. voice. bewilderment How could my daughter have been involved in all this? 158 .Tense. requests (polite) Can / Could / Will / Would you lend me (irritated) your pen. strong command: You might post these letters for me. advice (giving advice) Can’t / Couldn’t you talk with your wife (emphatic advice) first? (expecting advice) You must see that film. Shall we see a film tonight? offers May I offer you some cake? Shall I help you? desire I could cry for joy! reproach You might have warned us that the bull was dangerous. friendly) Sunday? You must come and see me some time. aspect. invitations (polite) Could / Will you have dinner with us on (casual. modality and mood Modal verbs serve fulfill various speech acts in conversation: speech acts examples commands mild command: You can turn the TV off now. Danny. You will stay here until I come back.

Comment on the meanings of the modals will – would and shall – should. A verb in the indicative varies for tense and aspect and shows grammatical concord with the subject in the present tense: 159 . 1) typical behavior in the present. but she wasn’t. the conditional and the subjunctive.5. 5. Indicative The indicative is the most common one and is used in factual. You should have studied last night.5. 4) He should be writing the composition.Tense.1. The speaker asserts the sentence as being true (factual).’ ‘It’s too late now. Write your answers in the space provided below. In traditional terms.18. Mood Mood is a grammatical category that signals the relationship of the verb with reality and intent. he would always work at it until he found an answer. The first has been done for you: 1) She will talk for hours about clothes and films. 3) All competitors shall wear tracksuits. the imperative. there are four moods: the indicative. 5. objective statements. voice. 9) I wonder why we haven’t received any news from aunt Emily. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.’ 6) ‘Was Laura going to school when you saw her?’ 7) ‘She should have been going to school. aspect. modality and mood SAQ 5. It should rain. but he isn’t. 2) When he had a problem to solve. 5) ‘I’m going to study tonight. We should have heard from her by now.’ 8) It’s cold and cloudy.

The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would + verb). I would eat. Cows were grazing beside the river. Don't you eat it. while the verb in the subordinate clause (introduced by if. Sometimes a subject may be included. present conditional subjunctive 160 .’ The conditional mood is more frequently used to express uncertainty. give me the book please! Please. modality and mood Nick picks up the boxes.5. The imperative verb form is similar to the base form of the verb. present conditional subjunctive I would talk to her if I were you.5. ‘What would you like to do now?’ I’d like to go swimming. but I'm not hungry.3. Conditional The conditional mood is manifested in independent clauses by means of the modal auxiliary would added to the bare infinitive of the main verb: John would drink. The shepherd fetched the stick.Tense. particularly in conditional sentences. unless. but the implied subject is ‘you’. Go away! John. don't move until you've finished! An imperative sentence typically contains no grammatical subject. 5.2. request or command someone to do something. Don't you touch that butter. Sentences in the indicative can be either declarative (see above) or interrogative: Have you fed the sheep yet? Do you regularly spray your crops with pesticides? 5. in case) is in the subjunctive mood: I would buy a huge house if I had a lot of money. aspect. particularly in negative imperatives which are formed with the auxiliary verb do: Don't you dare touch that switch. voice. Imperative The imperative mood is typically used to ask. Helen has closed the window.

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

The perfect conditional (would + have + -en) shows how the past could have been different but was not: I would have come, if you had rung me. (“I did not come”)
perfect conditional past subjunctive

If anyone had asked her, she would have described herself only as nervous and worried.

5.5.4. Subjunctive
The subjunctive is rare in main clauses in present-day English, and survives in some set formulas whose subjunctive meaning is either concession or a wish: far be it from me, so be it, suffice it to say: Far be it from me to interfere with your arrangements. Come what may, I’ll help you. Be that as it may, we’ll stick to our plan. Long live the Queen! God forgive you! Curse this dog! The subjunctive is mostly used in subordinate clauses to express actions contrary to fact. The subjunctive mood has synthetic and analytical forms. The Synthetic Subjunctive is identical in form with the past simple and the past perfect: It’s time you got down to business. present subjunctive He behaves as if he owned the place. past subjunctive I wish you had brought your sister with you. If only you had asked someone’s advice! Be is the only verb which has a special present subjunctive form (were): I wish I were younger. If he were to leave, he wouldn’t hesitate to tell us. The present subjunctive expresses wishes, possibility, uncertainty present unreality, i.e. actions contrary to present fact: after It’s time after the verb wish in conditional clauses in concessive clauses in comparative clauses It’s time we went home. I wish I had a brother. If I had time, I would go on a trip. If I had had time, I would have gone on a trip. Even though he were present, I would not change my mind. He treats her as if she were a child. He treated her as if she had been a child. 161

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

SAQ 5.19.

Underline the words that use the synthetic subjunctive and put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Henry is taking his driving test for the sixth time. It’s time he (take) it. 2) ‘I am sorry I don’t speak a bit German.’ ‘I wish you (speak) German.’ 3) I would go for a walk if it (stop) raining. 4) The young man felt as if the ground (slip) beneath his feet. 5) My stomach hurt after a large meal. I wish I (not eat) so much. 6) We could have gone skating, if the river (not be) frozen. 7) Even if the work (be) twice as difficult I wouldn’t have refused to do it. 8) He looked as if he just (come) from a very long travel. 1) took;

The analytical (or periphrastic) subjunctive expresses unreality by means of a variety of modal auxiliaries + infinitive: shall / should + infinitive They decided that nobody shall be admitted without a ticket. It is not necessary that every girl should be an actress. may/ might + infinitive May you be happy in the life you have chosen! We put the milk on the shelf for fear the cat might get at it. would + infinitive I wish you would forget it. She wishes her husband would stop smoking 162

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

The analytical subjunctive should + infinitive is used after adjectives, verbs and nouns that express a wish, a suggestion, a desire, etc.: after It is/was + adjective
(crucial, necessary, essential, natural, surprising, odd, absurd, strange, urgent)

after the verbs:
ask, command, insist, order, propose, recommend, require, suggest

It is essential that they should know the truth. It is amazing that they should win the race. He proposed that we should postpone our meeting.

after the nouns:
suggestion, proposal, idea, wish, recommendation, desire

purpose clauses negative purpose clauses
after lest in expressions of fear

My desire is / was that he should leave off his work and go on a holiday. I spoke slowly so that everybody should understand the rules. The road was icy and the old woman was terrified lest she should slip and fall. If the phone should ring, please say that I’ll be back at noon.

conditional clauses
(the action is unlikely to occur)

SAQ 5.20
Underline the words requiring the analytical subjunctive with should + infinitive and put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Andy suggested that I (sell) my bicycle. 2) He made the proposal that they (buy) a car with the money. 3) It is important for children that they (learn) to share things. 4) He writes telephone numbers down lest he (forget) them. 5) They came to the agreement that they (organize) cultural exchanges. 6) The boys hid behind a bush for fear the men (see) them. 7) If Alec (win) the race, his trainer will be very proud. 8) I warned her about the danger so that she (not get hurt). 1) should sell ;

163

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

The analytical subjunctive may / might + infinitive is used in the following contexts: after the verbs: order, request, desire after expressions of fear clauses of purpose clauses of concession He desired that the boy might be left behind under his care. I’m afraid they may misunderstand my intentions. I was afraid that they might misunderstand my intentions. She gave me the key so that I might open the door. However hard he may try, he will never win the tournament.

SAQ 5.21.
Underline the words that require may/might + infinitive and comment on the use of the subjunctive. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) The driver stopped so that the children may/ might cross the street. 2) He was afraid that the news might upset her. 3) He sat with the door wide open at all times that he might hear the footsteps as they entered. 4) She was overcome with fear that I might let her down. 5) I will order that my doors may no longer be open to you. 6) She is afraid that he may leave without seeing her. 1) clause of purpose;

Summary
Tense, aspect, voice and modality are fundamental categories in grammar. Each of them represents perspectives from which we view our experience of events. Tense is the grammatical expression of time relations. In relation to the speech time, some events are simultaneous with it (present), others precede it (past) or follow it (future). English verbs are inflected only for two tenses: present and past. All other temporal forms are periphrastic (that is they are formed by means of auxiliary verbs). Aspect can be indefinite, 164

Geoffrey Leech. Sidney Greenbaum. 11. Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă. Sinteze de gramatică engleză. Modals may directly precede the bare infinitive of the lexical verb and have periphrastic counterparts: can. etc) or mood (subjunctive). Intensive English Practice. Progressive tenses (present. the conditional and the subjunctive. wish. Modal verbs (or modals) have certain characteristics that differentiate them from auxiliaries and lexical verbs: modals are not marked for tense. Hulban.Bucureşti . past. A Grammar of Contemporary English. will/would. 94-158. future) involve duration and incompletion. Editura Albatros. Randolph. The subjunctive is mainly used in counter-factual clauses: if-clauses. Quirk. Aspect combines with tense. Key terms         active voice aspect imperative mood indicative mood modality modal verbs mood passive voice        past tense perfect(ive) aspect present tense progressive aspect stative verb subjunctive mood tense Further reading: Coşer C. permission or attitudes (desire. be allowed to. modality and mood progressive or perfective. There are four moods in English: the indicative. the imperative.Tense. necessity. Vulcănescu R. aspect.275.. ought to). shall/should. Horia (2004). It can be expressed by modal verbs (can/could. be to. etc). 324 – 365. Developing competence in English. (2004). 61 – 123. Georgiana. Iasi. modal equivalents (have to. Jan Svartvik (1976). The indicative is the most common one. may. Editura Spanda. past and future) have in common the idea of anteriority and completion. be permitted to). concessive clauses and purpose clauses. Modality signals possibility. All perfective tenses (present. have got to). might (be allowed to. probability. be going to. 165 . Longman. Syntheses in English Morphology. may/might. voice. Iaşi: Polirom. could (be able to). (1987). and the verb in the indicative has tense and aspect. must (have to.

T/F 17) Will and would have the modal meanings of volition. T/F 18) Questions starting with shall/should inquire about the wishes of the person spoken to. T/F 4) The past tenses refer only to past time. modality and mood Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 A. T/F 11) Shall and will are used for pure future of prediction. When you (see) him tomorrow. He (add) that he (may) even open a business of his own. T/F 10) English has no future tense. but if he (offer) a good job he probably (take) it and (start) to work immediately. 166 . opportunity and theoretical possibility. T/F 9) The present perfect tense is incompatible with ‘past’ adverbs like yesterday. When I (ask) him what he (intend) to do he (say) he (not make up) his mind yet. T/F 7) The present tense may refer to past. I (think) he (be) far happier to work for somebody else. T/F 16) May and might are used to refer to possibility and permission. T/F 5) Sometimes we can use both the past tense or the past perfect with the same time reference.Tense. However. T/F 14) Modals are used to express attitude. permission. T/F 8) We rarely use verbs with stative meaning in the present progressive tense. you probably (be) amazed to see how much he (change) since we last (see) him. T/F 12) Modals form questions by inversion with the subject. present or future time. T/F 6) Progressive tenses are often used as background for simple present or past actions. True or false? (15 minutes: 18x2=36 points) 1) All verb forms are marked for tense and aspect. aspect. Put the verbs in parenthesis into the correct form: (10 minutes: 16 points) George (return) from England last week and tomorrow evening we (have) a party to celebrate his return. T/F 13) Modals form their negatives with not. knowing George as I do. T/F 15) Can and could usually have the modal meanings of ability. voice. T/F 3) The past tenses are marked by -ed. T/F 2) The present tenses are marked by the third person singular –s inflection. T/F B.

modality and mood C. may. 8) The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had removed their shoes. aspect. Make other changes if necessary: (10 minutes: 10 points) 1) You have the obligation to leave your shoes outside when you enter a mosque. 6) I propose that we all (be waiting) in Tim's apartment when he gets home. 9) I’m sure he is at home now. 7) Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week.Tense. must to replace the words underlined in the sentences below. otherwise he will not attend. I don't know if that is true. he left a long time ago. 10) She says that the government (regulate) the airline industry. 2) If I come earlier. voice. 4) I suggest that you (not take) the job without renegotiating the salary. 3) It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the swimming pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons. 10) Is it possible for me to borrow several books at the same time? D. 167 . 7) Are you able to keep a secret? 8) It’s possible that he’ll try again. 5) Do you think it is possible for me to prepare dinner for the next family reunion? 6) It’s very important that we speak to the neighbors before pulling down that common wall. 9) John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding. 5) Jake recommended that Susan (be hired) immediately. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in parentheses: (10 minutes: 10 points) 1) It is important that he (try) to study often 2) Donna requested that Frank (be) at the party. will I have the permission to choose my seat? 3) Do you have the ability to install Windows XP for me? 4) You are permitted to leave earlier today. Use can.

Tense. she does … looks …. however. 4.1. ______ he went upstairs to look for money. 168 . doesn’t like. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. don’t you trust. 1. and.1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form in the gaps. ______ Paul (manage) ______ to escape and he (phone) ______ the police. A. does not believe. planned future action. when The Unlucky Burglar One evening Paul (watch) ______ the television ______ (eat) ______ his supper ______ the door suddenly (open) ______ and a burglar (come) ______ in. ______ doing anything else he (tie) ______ Paul to the chair. modality and mood E. aspect. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. In his rush to get downstairs he (not see) ______ the dog (lie) ______ at the bottom of the stairs.1. Total points for SAA 5: 92 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5. 1. ______ the burglar (look for) ______ them. 3.1.21. which he (put) ______ into his sack. endangers. losing his glasses. 6. ______ unfortunately for him. then. misses. but. She is … She writes … answers… meets … types … puts … helps … reminds … works…. 3. 2. B. finally. 4. 5. announcements. 2. the police (wait) ______ for him at the end of the garden.1-5. teaches. as soon as. say. SAQ 5.2 not be comparable to those given above. Where no verb is given. 2. (15 minutes: 20 points) while. SAQ 5. habitual actions. 1. please revise section 5. creates. although. A housewife has … She cooks … lays … washes … cleans … mends .. ______ the burglar (find) ______ his glasses he (run) ______ out of the house. 6. Paul (try) ______ to free himself. plant.. 5. historical present. voice. – 5. understand. and he (fall) ______ over it. instantaneous present (cooking recipes). Her name is Susan. generic present. He (wear) ______ a mask and (carry) ______ a sack. before. ______ he (not find) ______ any money he (find) ______ a lot of jewelry. put one of the following linking words into the gaps.2. do you visit.

and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). modality and mood SAQ 5. thinks. am studying. was staying (an action that began before.Tense. 6. tastes. 8. 6. 6.1. aspect. 1. please revise section 5. am seeing. 7. 4. 6. does not hear. started. smelt. 1. did you see. 3.5. tore. killed. are you being. were your parents living (an action that began before. 5. hit. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. is giving. 8. 2. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action.? Did he need …? Did he begin …? Did one of the branches break? Did Tommy fall and hurt …? Did the eggs break? Did they taste nice? Did you last go. think. 3.. saw. 5. annoying events in the past. 4. 10. B.3. 169 . an action in progress at a certain past moment. are you growing. does your library contain.4 not be comparable to those given above. care. action happening at the speech moment. had. temporary behavior. 5. am being. 7. lasted. 4. is thinking. turned. gave. made. B. 9. 8. blew. am working. am going. planted. 1. 2.4. struck. am smelling. was drinking (simultaneous actions in progress). personal plans. Did it lay five eggs? Did Tommy see the nest? Did he climb the tree? Did he hold …? Did he take …? Did he put . NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. 5. were having (action in progress at a specified time). temporary action. called. struck. two actions going on at the same time in the past. 2. A. came. 1. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). lost. 2. plans for the near future. fell.3-5. 7. are growing. 4. heard. 7. 5. SAQ 5. with the verbs get and grow transition from one state to another SAQ 5. A. are playing.6. A. desire. missed B. were. tore. was pouring (action in progress at a specified time). contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. was always inviting (a frequently repeated past action. 4. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). 6. was eating. 3. am having. came. 2. voice. 1. am dining. happened. SAQ 5. actions annoying the speaker. was working (an action that began before.. 3.7. 1. was talking (action in progress at a specified time). did not burn. put out. 7. an action in progress at a certain past moment. like. 3. hear. which annoyed or pleased the speaker). do you smell. started. went.2 SAQ 5.

please revise section 5.4 SAQ 5. 2. wrote. has just rung. hasn’t written.2. past simple. filled.2.3. past perfect. and 5. 2. had watched.3. please revise 5. had rung him up. B. please revise section 5. SAQ 5.2.12. 4. Will she find.10. will go and get. have been driving. 3. had listened. 2. and 5. 1. 3. 1.1. hardly had the car gone. c) present prefect simple. 9. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. 4. had been rising. past perfect. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. had Jim been studying. is going to play. returned. is not going to rain. SAQ 5. 5. began. 3. 5. had not done. 6.3 and 5. have written. have (you) been driving. 2.3.3. wondered. 7. SAQ 5. 5. 1. 8. have driven. will help. 3. A. had broken. 7. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. wrote. had been watching.2. a) present perfect progressive. 1. had studied. 2.1. 6. modality and mood NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.2. wrote. 3. 2. 6. had closed. had been planning. asked. 3. had studied. 170 . voice. had the lion ever left. d) present perfect progressive. has the child been watching.2. 5.1. b) present prefect simple. had been supplying. had.2. 2.2. is going to sink.9.9 not be comparable to those given above.2 SAQ 5. past simple.10 not be comparable to those given above. 1. am going to plant. 6.2. 4. 5. had prepared. please revise section 5. 4.2. had been writing.3. 8. will walk. had been. did Mozart write.8 not be comparable to those given above. 1. 4. did you write. have you written.1. 6. aspect. 4. had.3. has he earned. had watched. wrote. decorated.8. past perfect. 5. 4. wrote. has he watched. 8. had he left.7 not be comparable to those given above. has earned. please revise section 5. is not going to finish.11 not be comparable to those given above. A. are just going to leave. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5. had kept. had been studying.11.3. arrived. 6. 9. 3. past simple. B. 5. had Mary been watching. have been earning.Tense. 10. 7.5-5.2. had scarcely entered. has been ringing. had left. will come and give. had left.

6. 2.12 not be comparable to those given above. 8. Seeing a vacant seat. please revise section 5. obligation deriving from regulations.6. permission. 4.14.Tense. will have been working. will have been living. 5. 9. logical necessity (deduction).2. 7. a less likely possibility in the past. will have been taking. past ability. permission. be likely.2. 1. aspect. have been able to. 5. 7. 1.13. 5.16 not be comparable to those given above.24. Passengers were squashing one another to get into the bus. 10.1. possibility. an action was not necessary in the past. asking for permission. 1. less likely possibility.2 SAQ 5. 2. will be interviewing. 4. possibility (note that in questions may is replaced by do you think.2. 6. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. have never been able to.4. please revise section 5. 3.4. weren’t able to. present possibility of something happening now. 7.4.15 not be comparable to those given above.14 not be comparable to those given above. future ability. obligation imposed by others.2. hadn’t been able to. 8.7 and 5. possibility that an action was going on at a certain time in the past. ability.2. SAQ 5. 5. less likely possibility in the future. 7. A.4. will be able to. will be able to.16. 8. B. will have bought. SAQ 5.8. 2.4.3. voice. not used.13 not be comparable to those given above. please revise section 5. 2. the young man precipitated toward it and sat down. 2. 6. It was midday.4. external obligation. A long-necked young man wearing a hat was grumbling at the man standing next to him because he was jostling him. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.4. refusal of permission. he is already able to. 3. wasn’t able to. SAQ 5. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. please revise section 5.3. 10. 5. 1. 171 . and 5. permission in indirect speech. past ability. 1. inability in the past. modality and mood NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. used to be able to. will have returned. obligation imposed by the speaker. 4. 9. 4.2. present possibility. you washed it although it was unnecessary. 6. please revise section 5. 5. 3. will be performing. 4.1. possibility. 7. 8. 3. 5.15. 6. negative deduction. 3. to be able to.17. SAQ 5.

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood

obligation deriving from regulations; 9. absence of obligation at present; 10. obligation deriving from regulations. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.17 not be comparable to those given above, please revise section 5.4.3.

SAQ 5.18.
1. typical behavior in the present; 2. typical behavior in the past; 3. insistence; 4. an obligation at the moment of speaking; 5. unfulfilled past obligation; 6. unfulfilled obligation to perform an ongoing action at a moment in the past; 7. logical necessity; 8. logical necessity in the past. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5.18 not be comparable to those given above, we advise you to revise sections 5.4.4.

SAQ 5.19.
1. took; 2. spoke; 3. stopped; 4. slipped; 5. had not eaten; 6.7. had been; 8. had just come.

SAQ 5.20.
1. suggested; 2. proposal, should buy; 3. important, should learn; 4. lest, should forget; 5. agreement, should organize; 6. for fear, should see; 7. if, should win; 8. so that, should not get.

SAQ 5.21.
1. so that, clause of purpose; 2. afraid, expression of fear; 3. that, clause of purpose; 4. fear, expression of fear; 5. afraid, expression of fear. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5.19 - 5.2.1 not be comparable to those given above, please revise section 5.5.4.

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Adjectives and adverbs

UNIT 6
Adjectives and adverbs

Objectives 6. 1. Adjectives 6.1.1. Semantic classes 6.1.2. Order of adjectives 6.1.3. Comparison of adjectives 6.1.4. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison 6.1.5. Formation of adjectives 6.1.5.1. Derived adjectives 6.1.5.2. Compound adjectives 6.1.5.3. Participial adjectives 6.2. Adverbs 6.2.1. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form 6.2.2. Comparison of adverbs 6.2.3. Syntactic functions of adverbs 6.2.4. Semantic classification of adverbs 6.2.5. Order of the adverbs Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6.1 – 6.11

174 174 175 176 177 178 181 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 188 192 194 194 195 195 198

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Adjectives and adverbs

Aim
This unit focuses on the basic forms, meanings and syntactic roles of adjectives and adverbs.

Objectives
By the end of this unit, you will be able to:  define the main morphological and semantic characteristics of adjectives and adverbs;  identity different semantic classes of adjectives and adverbs;  form the comparative and superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs correctly;  define the main functions of adjectives and adverbs in the clause;  form adjectives and adverbs from other word-classes by derivation;  locate adjectives and adverbs correctly in the clause.

6. 1 Adjectives
Adjectives are words that modify nouns. Adjectives commonly specify the properties or attributes of a noun referent: The house is old. I’ve bought a new car. However, they vary considerably in their form, their syntactic functions and the types of lexical and grammatical meanings they express. Adjectives may be used attributively or predicatively. As attributes, adjectives modify nominal expressions; they occur as constituents of the nouns phrase and typically precede the head noun: That is a nice old wooden cottage. In a few fixed expressions adjectives occur after the noun: attorney general, God Almighty, heir apparent, notary public, etc. Modifying adjectives can also occur as predicatives and characterize the nominal expression in subject position: Francesca was charming, but Blanche was sweet.

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Adjectives and adverbs

Certain adjectives can be used only predicatively: well, ill, and adjectives prefixed by a-: afraid, ajar, akin, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake: For several days, she was ill. Are your people still alive? Others are used only attributively: elder, live, little, sheer, mere, lonely, sick, etc.: He was a sick man. His elder brother, Richad Damory, was more prominent. Ann Catt was a lonely, devoted soul.

SAQ 6.1
Paying attention to which adjectives are normally used only attributively and which are used only predicatively, write short sentences with the adjectives shown in brackets. The first has been done for you. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) the concern (chief): the door (ajar); the kittens (asleep) the slopes (sheer) the street (main) the volunteers (ready) our dog (afraid) the reason (principal) her baby (alone) Health is her chief concern . ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ………………………………………

6.1.1. Semantic classes
Adjectives typically characterize the referent of a nominal expression: a cheerful young British nurse the little grey stone statues In addition, they are gradable in meaning, in other words they can denote degrees of a given quality. This means that they can be modified by an adverb of degree (very young, highly successful). They also take the comparative and superlative forms (younger, youngest).

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political 6. the order is the one exemplified below: det.1. or religious group to which a Democrat referent belongs) topical (giving the subject chemical. fine. They are typically non-gradable: characteristics relational / classificational / restrictive adjectives additional. final. little. Descriptors are typically gradable and denote such features as the following: meaning color/brightness size / quantity / extent and weight chronology / age / frequency emotion / evaluation adjectives black.Adjectives and adverbs We can distinguish two broad semantic groups of adjectives: descriptors and classifiers. white dark. different. general. Chinese. necessary ethnic (designate the national American. Order of adjectives When two or more adjectives modify a noun. daily. medical. late. new. (= connected with area or showing a chemistry’). The rules for the order of the adjectives are still a matter of dispute among grammarians. his the cardinal two ordinal previous future second speakeroriented disgusting possible subjectoriented angry manner friendly American thematic/ ethnic noun reaction agreements invasion 176 . human./ numeral quality age size shape color origin material purpose poss. long. by placing it in relation to other referents. good. commercial. old. official. complete. relationship with a noun) legal. large. high annual. the order is given below: det. their order is fixed to a certain degree. huge. beautiful. my two old tiny oval blue Chinese the large cinema her new French steel tennis noun vases hall racket For adjectives that modify nouns denoting events. young bad. oral. right Classifiers delimit or restrict a noun’s referent. For adjectives that modify nouns denoting objects. initial. bright big.2. following. Christian./ poss.

while longer adjectives usually take phrasal comparison. all) pumpkins (ten.1. a. their) baby (lively. oval.2. our. Comparison of adjectives Adjectives that are capable of representing degrees of a property are said to be gradable. ten) basement (cool. six-month-old) dress (satin. long) steps (narrow. medium-sized) puppy (four-week-old. the) 1) those three tiny birds. three) quilts (six. those. thick) table (low.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. type of marking inflectional phrasal comparative stronger more difficult superlative the strongest the most difficult Non-gradable adjectives are not capable of expressing degrees of a property and cannot be used in the comparative or superlative degree: *more previous *very motionless *most continuous 177 . damp. damp. her. his. round. Arrange the adjectives given in brackets in the correct order: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) birds (tiny.3. Monosyllabic adjectives usually take the inflections -er. using the degree adverbs more and most. Gradable adjectives can be specially marked to denote comparative and superlative degree either inflectionally or phrasally. warm) carpet (heavy. cement. 6. a. white. -est to mark the comparative and the superlative degree. thick.

178 .Adjectives and adverbs Some non-gradable adjectives. fierce. more full of flavor. proud. his lips had become swollen-looking.4. which is even more rude. SAQ 6. Music in France remained more dancelike.1. together with the amount of money possessed by each child. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison Certain adjectives take alternatively either inflectional or phrasal marking of the degrees of comparison. full. rude): His face was fuller. really tremendous. can be modified by emphatic adverbs: quite motionless.3 The following table gives the age. Make up clauses with adjectives in the comparative and superlative degree: Child's Name Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) Money (dollars) Compare the following: Ray – Carl Denise – group Ray – Denise Carl – group Ray is older / taller / heavier / richer than Carl. and weight of each child in a group of three children. on the other hand. Denise 12 140 40 90 Ray 11 154 43 70 Carl 10 135 45 25 6. a) Some monosyllabic adjectives (fair. And the people in that region are much ruder. height. Somebody told me the truth.

friendly. little – less – the least. nasty. -est to mark the comparative and the superlative: easy -. funny. Silent -e is omitted before adding the suffix (safe. dimmer. with varying degrees of frequency: He had a more lively personality than others. Disyllabic adjectives ending in the unstressed vowel -y (angry. lucky. lively) take both types of comparison. heavy. The addition of -er and -est can involve regular spelling changes to the adjective stem. safer. The party leaders showed livelier interest in political power than in the city's welfare. It seemed more proper to pay tribute to her in this way. rapid) take a phrasal marker of degree: The governments encourage a more rapid growth. busy. big – bigger – the biggest). c) Trisyllabic adjectives in -y sometimes take inflectional comparison: What can I do to relax? Sometimes I feel like the unhappiest. happy. depending on phonological or morphological characteristics. Adjectives ending with the suffix -ly (costly. sincere. gentle. secure): Things are mellower. Other disyllabic adjectives which are sometimes inflected are those ending in –er. The adjectives good.Adjectives and adverbs b) Disyllabic adjectives vary considerably in occurrence with inflectional or phrasal comparison. crazy. She felt much happier after the discussion. bad and the quantifiers little. to university. much / many – more – the most. Most disyllabic adjectives (proper. In conversation. or the luckiest of them all.easier -. much / many have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms more: good – better – the best. final -y is changed into -i if a consonant letter precedes it (tidy – tidier . 179 . Disyllabic adjectives such as mellow. safest).tidiest).the easiest. happier. lucky – luckier – the luckiest: I had to watch my luckier mates going to college. bad – worse – the worst. deadly. adjectives are occasionally doubly marked for degree. shallow which end in an unstressed vowel can also be inflected. pretty) usually take -er. dimmest. -le. gloomy. -re or –ure (clever. a single consonant is doubled after a single vowel letter (dim. narrow. carrying both inflectional and phrasal markers: This way it’s more easier to see the effects. unluckiest person on earth.

2) The grass is becoming increasingly green.5 Rewrite each of the following sentences in the space provided below. 1) It was increasingly dark outside and I couldn't see much. 10) She is increasingly weak because of her illness. 4) The situation is growing increasingly bad. 6) Her work is getting increasingly good.4 Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the comparative forms of the irregular adjectives given in brackets. Typically. the repeated adjectives function predicatively after the copular verb get. (little) 4) We have ___________ honey than we need. 7) The trees are growing increasingly tall. (bad) Repeated comparative adjectives Two identical comparatives are sometimes conjoined by and to form a structure that denotes an ever-increasing degree of the adjective. 180 . or become: I watched the balloon becoming bigger and bigger. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) The bread tastes even ___________ than the rolls. 3) The child’s hands were increasingly dirty. It was more and more difficult to get into the laboratory. 9) The time remaining grew increasingly short.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. The wind is becoming stronger and stronger. The wind is becoming increasingly strong. SAQ 6. (good) 2) He does not want to walk ___________ than necessary. 5) It is becoming increasingly clear that this problem will not be easily solved. grow. (much) 5) The weather was ___________ yesterday than it is today. 8) The soil is becoming increasingly dry. (far) 3) Ann drinks ___________ coffee than Jim does. using the construction in which the comparative form of the adjective is repeated. The mist became increasingly thick.

The most common derivational adjective suffixes are: noun stem person care home wood nerve verb stem eat excite correspond suffix -al -ful -less -en -ous suffix -able -ing -ent derived adjectives personal careful homeless wooden nervous derived adjective eatable exciting correspondent Having good personal relationships is the most important thing for me.1. Formation of adjectives New adjectives can be formed with derivational affixes and by compounding. and in the center of the room sat the teacher. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. In addition.1. Little boys crowded together on long wooden benches.5. The horse may be nervous of cars. I remember Grandma telling us to go hunt for some ground squirrels or anything eatable for meat.5.Adjectives and adverbs Write your answers in the space provided below. participial forms can be used as adjectives.1. 6. 181 . Derived adjectives Many adjectives are derived by affixing an adjectival suffix to a base form. Denominal and deverbal adjectives are derived respectively from nouns and verbs. 6.

(experiment) My work is still in the …………. 5. to go early.. 9.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. 6. …. by one failure. 7. The component elements can themselves be derived (bluish. The sort of people who live and work here are well educated and open-minded. Adjectives can be added to other adjectives (grey-bluish). (real) We used a more …………… approach to the problem. The following list shows the common adjectival patterns: 182 . of everything I do? (influence) He is a very ………………………….stage. Furthermore. (advise) It would be ……………………….2. 10. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. the element in an adjectival compound that is suffixed with -ed or -ing is most often a verb. You look smart in this grey-bluish suit! Parents can easily become over-protective of their children (= want to protect them too much). as in world-renowned.. many compound adjectives involve participial forms. compound adjectives take many shapes. However. day for a picnic. (courage) Don’t be ………………………. The compound open-minded is derived from a noun phrase (an open mind) to which -ed has been suffixed. 3. 8. not knowing what to do.. 2. 6. (critic) Why are you so …………………. Compounds can also be composed of an adjective plus noun (full-time) or an adverb plus adjective (over-protective).1. Looking after a child is a full-time job (= hard work that takes a lot of time). Compound adjectives Formally. (boy) Don’t be deceived by his ………………. (glory) It’s a …………………………. 4.6 Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in parentheses. (magnet) He has a …………………………… personality. (help) She stood there …………….5. protective). appearance. person.

full-time. well-timed. waisthigh classroom-based. fast-food. iron-rich. peacekeeping. whitewashed. ready-made. largescale blown-out. rapidly-growing dark-blue. wellfed. life-long. horse-drawn eye-catching. sickly-smelling duty-free.. well-meaning.7 Choose the right answer: 1) Politicians don’t seem to get hurt by criticism. good-looking. a) cold b) warm c) hot d) boiling 5) Which of the following is NOT true? ‘Easy-going people …. left-over.. new-born. gray-white.. bitter-sweet clean shaven.Adjectives and adverbs structure adjective + adjective adverb + ed-participle adverb + ing-participle adjective + color adjective adjective + other adjective adjective + ed-participle adjective + ing-participle noun+ adjective noun + ed-participle noun + ing-participle adjective + noun participle + adverbial particle compound adjectives bitter-sweet. 183 . -headed. light-blue. hair-raising.? a) medium aged b) middle-aged c) in-the-middle aged d) mid-aged 3) Which of the following “heart” adjectives does not exist? a) warm-hearted b) cold-hearted c) soft-hearted d) hothearted 4) If you loose your temper easily. yellow-brown ill-suited. they are so ….. a) thick-skinned b) left-handed c) strong-willed d) coolheaded 2) How old are you when you become . free-market. home-baked. a) get on with people they don’t know b) are very relaxed about things c) find going to places very easy d) don’t get stressed out by things. you are . paid up SAQ 6.

wretched. ragged. that wretched woman. In other cases. a negative prefix attaches to the derived participial adjective (interesting.5. as with uninterested or unemployed. A number of adjectives ending in -ed have a special pronunciation: the last syllable is pronounced /id/ instead of the normal /d/ or /t/. as in my aged aunt (formal). 9) We were (amazed / amazing) at the long registration line. 10) Billy is always (tiring / tired) after spending all afternoon in nursery school. 8) The map was badly made and actually very (confused / confusing). These are known as participial adjectives and they are analyzed as derived from verb forms: verb determine annoy inflection -ed -ing participial adjective determined annoying In some cases. though.1. nouns rather than verbs provide the base form as in interested and crowded. a wicked man. These are: aged /eid id/. 6) I am (finishing / finished) with this exercise! 7) Look! It's a (shooting / shot) star. 5) The news about Jane's surgery was (disturbed / disturbing) and the whole class was very (upsetting / upset). SAQ 6. wicked. 2) Watch out for (falling / fallen) rocks along the road.8 Choose the correct participial adjective for the context of the sentence. a learned professor (formal). 184 . 3) All the children were (excited / exciting) at the idea of going to the circus. employed) rather than directly to the verb: He makes many interesting comments.Adjectives and adverbs 6.3. learned. Participial adjectives A major subclass of adjectives can be distinguished by the -ed or -ing endings. naked. 4) The animals were (fascinating / fascinated) to the children. a ragged jacket. 1) The new recruits were ok until they took the (demoralized / demoralizing) two-hour math test.

.... 4) (fortune) ....... therefore (there + fore).. terrible – terribly). lucky – luckily. ? (athlete) He’s quite an ....... etc........... (streetwise) and –wards (forwards. add '-ally': basic – basically. economic – economically... 9) (reluctance) He went very ……………… .. There are certain changes in the spelling of derived adverbs. or '-le'.Adjectives and adverbs 6.. we may distinguish three classes of adverbs: a) simple adverbs are single words (well........ 5) (occasion) We hear him . etc.. quite.. b) compound adverbs are formed by combining two or more elements into a single word: everywhere (every + where). soon).... 6) (heart) He gave us a very . Adverbs Morphologically.. backwards)..). 7) (grace) She walks very ……………………… .... welcome.. '-ible'...... 185 .......9 Complete the following sentences: use the correct form of the word in parentheses: 1) 2) 3) (fatal) He was . If the adjective ends in '-y'...... (intention) Did he do that . happy – happily.... replace the '-e' with '-y' (propable – probably...... rather. c) derivational adverbs are formed by suffixing –ly to the base form of an adjective: adjective cheap suffix -ly adverb cheaply Not all adverbs ending in -ly are formed by the addition of -ly to an adjectival form.. 8) (hero) He behaved ………………………… . If the adjective ends in ‘able'.....……………… . noun stem week father suffix -ly -ly adjective weekly fatherly adverb weekly fatherly Other suffixes used to form adverbs are: -wise......... replace the 'y' with 'i' and add '-ly' (easy – easily..... If the adjective ends in '-ic'..... SAQ 6.. .. wounded... Some adverbs are derived from adjectives that already end in -ly: In these cases the adverb is normally formed by zero derivation. looking person... 10) (method) He works very ………………..2....... he came late and missed the train.

adverb During early childhood boys tease and bully. ___________ weather conditions have prevailed for the past ten days. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form In some cases.Adjectives and adverbs 6. (unusual) 8. adjective He was learning fast. (relative) 9. 6. SAQ 6. work late at night. 5. an adverb has the same form as a related adjective: The player hit a fast ball over the left fielder's head. (quiet) ___________ situated farms often produce higher yields than other farms. (heavy) I opened the door ___________ and stepped outside.2.10 For each of the following sentences. 1. it is necessary to distinguish between the functions of adjectives and adverbs in order to determine which form should be used in a given situation. adverbs basically modify verbs. pay attention to whether the word to be placed in the blank modifies a noun or a verb and complete the sentence with either the adjective given in brackets or the corresponding adverb. The moon appeared ___________ between the clouds. at times. (light) The path was ___________ marked. (cheerful) ___________ rain is forecast for tomorrow. 4. (brief) 186 . and. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. as appropriate.1. (hot) 10. (clear) She waved ___________. ___________ few people understand the situation. adjective The farmer must get up early. adverb adjective hard high late little long loud low much straight wide adverb hard high late little long loud(ly) low much straight wide When an adverb does not differ in form from the corresponding adjective. Whereas adjectives modify nouns. 2. It was a ___________ Easter Sunday. There was a ___________ rain in the morning. (favorable) 7. 3.

Comparison of adverbs In general.2. She walked easily now and more slowly. 187 . He sleeps less than he used to. the quantifiers much and little: positive badly far little well much comparative worse farther / further less better more superlative worst farthest / furthest least best most The local people advanced farther into unknown territory. comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for adjectives: -er or -est added to short adverbs: positive hard late fast comparative harder later faster superlative hardest latest fastest I shook him a little harder and made some noise. With adverbs ending in -ly. In some cases. an adverb can be made comparative either with the use of more or with -er inflection: The moral is: don't transplant it any oftener than you must.2. bad and far.Adjectives and adverbs 6. and are identical to the corresponding adjectives good. use more for the comparative and most for the superlative: positive quietly slowly seriously comparative more quietly more slowly more seriously superlative most quietly most slowly most seriously He had to take life more seriously. We should do that more often! Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms.

2. Some of them are very delicious indeed. linking: a) adverbs of manner express information about how an action is performed: His speed was dropping rapidly. In Rome she intended to move very slowly indeed. Most commonly. focusing. she saw less and less frequently her old friends. She sings more beautifully than him. direction or distance: They built a house nearby. 6.4. a pronoun and numeral or a noun phrase: Washed.2.) (num. adverbs may premodify an adjective. the positive form of an adverb is usually preceded and followed by as and the comparative form is followed by than: He moves as slowly as a snail. 6. She took the child outside. Enough and indeed may postmodify an adjective or adverb: It is simply not good enough for people to argue.) Misunderstanding has almost zero possibility. b) adverbs of place show position.) The struggle was over surprisingly quickly. (adv. (adj. The comparative forms of adverbs can be used in progressive comparisons: He worked harder and harder.) Nearly everyone was impressed with their success. 188 . Syntactic functions of adverbs Adverbs can be integrated into an element of the clause and serve as modifiers. (pron. circumstantial (time and place) degree. It rains more and more frequently.3.Adjectives and adverbs When used in making comparisons. Semantic classification of adverbs Adverbs express several broad meanings in clause and in phrase structures: modal (or manner). another adverb. (“increasingly frequently”) As time passed. they came out surprisingly clear and bright.

occasionally. rarely seldom. it is used in positive sentences and questions and is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary or modal verbs: He still points an accusing finger at all of us. ever. I have always been inclined to skepticism. downwards. have. I was six days going thither and coming homewards. She didn't come back for two days. sometimes. must): He never drinks milk. southwards. Is it still raining? The public may still find pleasure in public places. I want stay in bed all day. c) adverbs of time convey information about when an action happened (position in time) but also for how long (duration) and how often (frequency): Yesterday I had a bad toothache.Adjectives and adverbs Other adverbs of place: ending in '-wards'. Adverbs indicating position in time and duration are typically placed at the end of the sentence: We sold our horse last year. northwards. never) are usually placed before the main verb but after auxiliary or modal verbs (be. etc. may. (after the modal verb) I have never seen a tiger. forwards. 189 . (before the main verb) You can always come and stay with us. expressing movement in a particular direction: backwards. onwards. often. frequently. normally. (between auxiliary and main verb) Some other adverbs of definite frequency (expressing the exact number of times an action happens) are usually placed at the end of the sentence: Scrub the room once a week. Still expresses continuity. Adverbs expressing indefinite frequency (always. Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences and is placed at the end of the sentence or after not: Have you heard anything from him yet? The street cleaner had not yet been around. usually. homewards. You must also look upwards to see people. upwards.

Commenting adverbs (definitely. honestly! (“this is my opinion”) (“what I say is true”) These adverbs are usually placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence and are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. surprisingly. Additive adverbs can occur at clause level or phrase level: Shade trees. believes in good intentions. too. I don't blame him I didn’t tell anyone. e) adverbs of certainty express how sure we feel about something. The train has obviously been delayed. but they go in a different position . Adverbs of certainty (certainly.after the verb to be and before the main verb: I honestly can't remember. f) additive adverbs show that one item is being added to another (too. I definitely remember sending the letter. probably. This would surely be a major step toward better living conditions. This tool can also be made with a lathe. They emphasize the importance of one part of the proposition by restricting the truth value of the proposition to that part (especially. are a big help so keep them if you can. He. often tell false stories. personally. g) restrictive adverbs focus attention on a certain element of a clause. If the sentence contains an auxiliary (except do). seriously. undoubtedly) tell us about the speaker's viewpoint or opinion about an action or make some comment on the action: Personally. The job also covers a number of other items. too. undoubtedly. these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the main verb: He has certainly forgotten us. only): People of your age. definitely. certainly. especially boys. also). simply) are very similar to viewpoint adverbs and often the same words. This is surely a major work. surely. 190 .Adjectives and adverbs d) adverbs of viewpoint or attitude (honestly. obviously. surely) go before the main verb but after the copulative verb to be: I certainly did not want to go back.

enough. who was going to look after my son?  summation: altogether. (adjective) (adverb) Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' goes before adjectives and adverbs.  apposition: namely One group of people seems to be forgotten. just. slightly. secondly. (adjective) (adverb) I) linking adverbs are used to connect stretches of the text: clauses sentences. less. Altogether it was a great evening. namely pensioners. This tea is too sweet. an adjective or another adverb. half of them were serious candidates. overall In the general election the number of candidates in the fifteen constituencies was 14. Adverbs of degree are usually placed:  before the adjective or adverb they are modifying: This was a slightly different matter. 191 . Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree' normally comes after the adjectives and adverbs it modifies Is your tea sweet enough? You don’t drive fast enough. rather. secondly. completely. too. paragraphs or longer thus contributing to its cohesion. quite. The main semantic categories are:  enumeration and addition (first. He drives too fast. quite) tell us about the intensity or degree of an action. thirdly. Overall. Firstly. very.  before the main verb: The pain in his chest nearly brought him down again. additionally) The problems were numerous. scarcely. I didn’t know exactly when I was going to America. The food was good and we loved the atmosphere and the people. nearly.Adjectives and adverbs h) adverbs of degree (almost.

The universities have expanded. however Urbanization appears to be an important factor in the disintegration of this group. I was pleased it was over.5. an over-simplification. 192 . This conclusion is. for an hour. therefore. return to this item at our next meeting. time If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence. Order of the adverbs If several adverbs appear in a clause they are typically used in the order: manner/place/time sequence: She sang He waited beautifully in the town hall quietly in the room manner place last night. Strange though it may sound.Adjectives and adverbs  result or inference: therefore. This type of window would not be suitable for a festoon or ruched blind. We. alternatively. 1995. it would have to be fitted outside the window reveal.  contrast or concession: though. thus allowing many more people the chance of higher education.2. use them in this order: duration – frequency – time: I worked on a farm for five days every week last year. duration frequency time Several adverbs expressing the precise time when the event took place are ordered from the shortest to the longest unit of time: He was born at 10 o’clock in the morning on 2 November. 6. however. Alternatively. thus There is still much to discuss.

11 Rewrite the following in the most straightforward word order. 1) for some years / in France /this may be the last time a competition is organized 2) every day of the week / in the park / after lunch / We see John running 3) to first year students / enthusiastically / Jim lectures / about folk art 4) on the main campus / the coach works / at the gym / every day of the week / in his office 5) at the edge / all summer / rapidly / in the marshes / of the pond / bacteria grow 6) in Cleveland / in the backroom / My father was born / of a farmhouse / 7) next week / to see her doctor / Jane made an appointment / at two o'clock 8) during the months of December and January / after dark / she leaves the island 9) the children whispered / on Christmas Eve / excitedly / in front of the tree 10) on Monday/ before we leave/ try to get back. 193 . compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. When you have finished. 1) This may be the last time a competition is organized in France for some years.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. Write your answers in the space provided below. The first has been done for you.

Adjectives can be formed with derivation affixes (painful. The comparative and the superlative can be marked either inflectionally (long. Like adjectives. homeless) and compounding (openminded. longest) or phrasally (more beautiful. In the clause adverbs occupy various positions: initial. most beautiful). mid or final position. adverbs can express a large number of meanings. Adverbs express a variety of meanings. A major class of adjectives. typically preceding the noun (beautiful building) or predicatively. manner. Many adjectives can denote degrees of a given quality and are therefore gradable. Key terms             additive adverbs adjective adverb attributive adjectives classifier comparison comparative compound adjectives degree adverb focus adverbs frequency adverbs gradable / ungradable            intensifier linking adverbs manner adverb negative adverb participial adjectives place adverb predicative adjectives restrictive adverbs superlative time adverbs viewpoint adverbs 194 . A significant number of adverbs are formed from adjectives with the suffix -ly. Semantically. frightened).Adjectives and adverbs Summary Adjectives specify the properties of the referent of the noun they modify. In a clause adverbs typically serve as verbal modifiers. Gradable adjectives modify to express grammatical meanings associated with the category of comparison. identified by the – ing or -ed ending. following a copulative verb (Sue is charming). relative (or linking) adverbs. critically-ill). adverbs can express the comparative and the superlative either inflectionally or phrasally. is represented by participial adjectives (charming. focusing. the most important being circumstantial (time. viewpoint. They may be used either attributively. longer. Nongradable adjectives do not share these characteristics. degree. place). which means that they can take the comparative and superlative forms.

A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. 160 – 175. Jan Svartvik (1976). Editura Spanda. Horia (2004). Labrador. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Uncle Carl is really ___________ man. London: Longman. 229297. a) fancyest b) fanciest c) most fanciest 2. Hulban. Sydney and Randolph Quirk (1991). 216-243. Most adjectives are identifiable as such by their form. reading a several. a puppy. Geoffrey Leech. Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 A. old c) a sweet old 195 . Advanced Learner’s Grammar. Longman. The attributive position is before a noun. my sensitive. Randolph. Place the adjectives in the proper order: (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) cute. powerful C. gorgeous. Quirk. Iasi. Mark and Diane Hall (2003). old. Think about adjectives. Several adjectives modifying a noun appear in a fixed order. True or False? (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Adjectives may be gradable or non-gradable. Russian. Choose the right word paying attention to spelling: (10 min: 10 points) 1. intelligent. Sidney Greenbaum. little a dress.Adjectives and adverbs Further reading Foley. a) an old sweet b) a sweet. B. weightlifters. granddaddy. Those are probably the ___________ curtains in the store. London: Longman. 129-203. The predicative position for adjectives is after a linking verb. Syntheses in English Morpgology. old-fashioned. Greenbaum. wedding dear.

They grew up in ___________ house in New York. a) the less competent b) the least competent c) the competentest 9. 3) There are two classes of pedestrians: the quick and the dead. Jill wanted to take a course with ___________ professor. 196 . 4) Her hair was clean and brushed straight down to her shoulders. economics 8. Decide whether the underlined words are adjectives or adverbs: (5 min: 8 points) 1) Take her easy. a) that interesting new Japanese economics b) that Japanese interesting. The Austin used to be ___________ sports car. new economics c) that interesting. 5) I’ll put it away if you don’t behave right. The Titanic is the ___________ movie I've ever seen. 8) Present is a point. Everyone was home for the holidays. a) foggy b) more foggier c) foggier 10. just passed. new. little b) as little. a) comfortable. Of all the mechanics in the shop. 6) This coffee tastes too sweet. My cold is definitely ___________ this morning. Japanese. Jerry is surely ___________. 2) Try to be early from now on. the valleys tend to be ___________ than the hilltops. 7) Something has gone terribly wrong. comfortable c) a comfortable little 6. a) most excited b) most exciting c) most excitable 7.Adjectives and adverbs 3. a) a fine English b) an English. What could make for ___________ Christmas than that? a) a merryer b) the merriest c) a merrier 5. English 4. In the fall. fine c) a fine. a) worse b) worst c) worser D.

True or False? (5 min: 9x2=18 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) There are three clause positions for adverbs: front. T/F F. interrogative. (15 min: 14x=28 points ) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Jenny does not quite know what she will do after graduation. He is well connected. I regularly forget my homework. Insert in the following adverbs in appropriate places: (5 min: 7x2=14 points) historically. constitutionally. 197 . 10) The Martins built a lovely house nearby. How do brown cows steadily eat green grass and always give white milk? Surely you can’t be serious? (Be careful. Jack quietly asked Helen to wait patiently for him. racially. politically. formally 1) 2) Though not ‘true enemies’. Underline the adverbs in each sentence and identify them by their type: manner. place. T/F Most adverbs of time can take front-position. T/F Sentence adverbs never take end-position. they are unyielding. Tell me why you were getting home late.Adjectives and adverbs E. mid and end-position. T/F Adverbials appear in a manner/place/time sequence. T/F Most adverbs are gradable. Theoretically. T/F Adverbs of place are usually not found in mid-position. certainty. G. Think about adverbs. T/F Common adverbs end in -ly.) 9) You obviously enjoyed your vacation. you should always drive the speed limit. stylistically. T/F No word can operate as both adjective and adverb. time. This is not interrogative. socially. The puppies devoured their food greedily. relative and viewpoint or commenting. degree. T/F Adverbs can premodify pronouns.

At nine thirty / the exam starts / on Thursday the fifth / promptly. 2. After lunch / to your place / actually / to return the money / if it’s convenient / I could come.1. The kittens are asleep. Joanna made an appointment next summer to see her doctor next July at two o’clock on the first Thursday. a European rock star. 1. The war was the culmination of the nineteenth century. Dry the car with a soft fluffy towel carefully. Make sentences from the following elements. Correct the following sentences: (5 min: 7x2=14 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) She only grew to be four feet tall. Assume no special emphasis is needed but aim to write wellbalanced sentences: (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I’m / there / to tell you the truth / when he’s on duty / very rarely. Is that music loud enough? She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually. 5.Adjectives and adverbs 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The sentences are too long and complex. The dog is afraid (of people).11. 4. …the sheer slopes…. Matthew’s Church fervently for her grandmother’s recovery. A fine old woman / here / two weeks ago / in London / I met. I. Their chief concern was to solve the problem. The British are mixed. Total points for SAA 6: 122 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6. 198 . The door is ajar. for all that. Most of the new towns are still villages. . – 6. Steadily / for the rest of the day / in the garden / they worked. better than capitalism. Bad socialism isn’t. had issued a new album on the six o’clock news. 6. They reported that John Brown. The volunteers are ready. Maria prays at St. 3. …the principal reason… 9. 8.Her baby is alone. This is the main street. SAQ 6. 7.1. H. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor.

gracefully. athletically. SAQ 6. Denise is the oldest / tallest / heaviest / richest child in the group. 5. 10. 7. 9. 2. please revise sections 6. 3. magnetic. 6. less.4 – 6. a. damp. 9.1. 2. She is weaker and weaker because of her illness.1. those three tiny birds. 1. finished. heartily. 4. a thick. 2. c. boyish. 3. 6. disturbing. The soil is becoming drier and drier. influential. heavy. 7.3. Carl is the youngest / shortest / lightest / poorest child in the group.3. our warm. 10.3.5. occasionally. 3. 8. farther. realistic. 1. 4. helpless. 4. 4.1 – 6. 4. experimental. Fortunately. fatally. her lively. 1. falling. 1 – 6. 1.1. excited. Her work is getting better and better. 1. 10. 5. not be comparable to those given above. 8. heroically. SAQ 6. Ray is older / taller / heavier / richer than Carl. not be comparable to those given above.1. fascinating. Should your answers to SAQs 6. 1. demoralizing. their low. not be comparable to those given above. 8. six-monthold baby. tired. It was darker and darker outside and I couldn't see much. 4. the cool. 3.8. 2. 5.1 – 6.5. 3.5.9. his ten mediumsized pumpkins. 8. 3.6 – 6. discouraged. 2. worse SAQ 6. The grass is becoming greener and greener.7. better.8. a. The trees are growing taller and taller. 199 . four-week-old puppy. The child’s hands were dirtier and dirtier. 5. 7. intentionally. 2.6. damp basement. 7. Ray is younger / shorter / lighter / poorer than Denise. 1.3.2. amazed. d. 2. shooting. methodically.5. 6. 6. glorious. 9. round carpet. SAQ 6. Should your answers to SAQs 6. The time remaining grew shorter and shorter. 5. ten narrow cement steps. SAQ 6. The mist became thicker and thicker. more.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. please revise sections 6. a long white satin dress. 4.4. 10. 7. all six thick quilts. 10. critical. 3. 5. b. confusing.1. SAQ 6. Should your answers to SAQs 6. 9. 9. 8. 2. The situation is growing worse and worse. please revise sections 6. 3. 1. 4. advisable SAQ 6. 8. 5. oval table. 6. reluctantly. It is becoming clearer and clearer that this problem will not be easily solved.4.

2. 4. 7. SAQ 6. clearly. The children whispered excitedly on Christmas Eve in front of the tree. 1. quietly. 200 . 10. 6. 4. We see John running in the park after lunch every day of the week. Jane made an appointment to see her doctor at two o’clock next week. This may be the last time a competition is organized in France for some years. Jim enthusiastically lectures to his students about folk art. Relatively. Should your answers to SAQs 6. The coach works at the gym in his office on the main campus every day of the week. heavy. 10.11 be comparable to those given above. 7. 8. please revise section 6.10.9 – 6. 2.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. 8. 9. cheerfully. hot. Unusual.11. Bacteria grow rapidly at the edge of the pond in the marshes all summer. 3. 3. She leaves the island after dark in the months of December and January. Try to get back before we leave on Monday. 5. My father was born in the backroom of a farmhouse in Iowa. 6. briefl. Favorably. 9.2. 1. light. 5.

An adverb is a word that typically modifies any class of words (except nouns) such as adjectives (extremely hot). An adjective can be intensified by an adverb (as in very strong. and may take comparative (taller) and superlative (tallest) degrees.g. Affixes can also be called inflectional and derivational morphemes. Aspect is a grammatical category characteristic of verbs that expresses a temporal contour of events. etc. A phrase with an adjective as its head. may be intensified. if it is gradable. Adjective An adjective is a word that modifies nouns. more popular). other adverbs (really superbly). Adjective phrases function as modifiers of nouns (fertile land) or as predicatives (The land is fertile).e. -s and -ed in play-s and play-ed). ripe apples Adjective phrase Adverb Adverb phrase Affix Aspect Attributive adjectives 201 . manner (She speaks softly). aspect does not locate an action/state in time. color (red tulips). A phrase with an adverb as its head. thing. verbs (to work slowly). i. terribly difficult. their duration (She is writing a letter now) and their being accomplished or not (She has just written a letter). Aspect is often indicated by verbal affixes or auxiliary verbs. An affix may be a prefix or a suffix. The term attributive refers to the position of an adjective in a noun phrase. place or direction. Jack has woken up.Glossary of grammatical terms Glossary of grammatical terms Active voice There is no morphological marker of the active voice. I will come back soon.) An affix is a bound morpheme which adds lexical or grammatical information to a root or stem. In contrast to tense. An adjective. An adjective qualifies the person. The head may be preceded by an intensifier (another adverb: even faster. or sentences for such categories as time (He left early). We say that an adjective is attributive or is used attributively when it comes before a noun (and therefore is part of a noun phrase): a young student. too abruptly) and followed by a postmodifier (usually a clause: more slowly than he expected. Typically. age (an old woman). Adjectives typically give us information about size (a tall man). The English verb phrase can be marked for two different aspects: the progressive (be –ing) and the perfective (have –en). to which the noun refers. etc. the subject of an active verb phrase is the 'doer of an action': Ann is drinking coffee. (e.

Case refers to the form of a noun to show whether it is subject. tall. Clauses can be main clauses or subordinate clauses. Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic or semantic function of a noun or pronoun. and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb. 202 . object. or dependent. person or number or non-finite when the verb form does not express these. and they can be finite or non-finite. such as person. that is when the verb is in the infinitive. non-finite gerundial clause Seen from the distance.Glossary of grammatical terms Auxiliary An auxiliary verb is a verb which accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase. finite clause non-finite (present) participial clause finite clause When arriving there. government) that may be considered either as individuals or as one larger entity. marked by ’s. a clause may be independent. tense. The group includes adjectives of size and dimension (big. old. non-finite (past) participial clause Collective noun A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of entities (family. and may be used attributively or predicatively. -ing participle. when the verb form expresses tense. small). have. they found the village deserted. and voice. aspect. number. the village seemed deserted. sentences. (boy’s). Central adjectives are adjectives which fulfill all the criteria for the adjective class: they are gradable. a clause is finite. do. young) A clause is a grammatical unit that includes a predicate and a subject. and adjectives of time (new. they found the village deserted. English distinguishes a common case. and expresses a complete thought. unmarked (boy) and a genitive case. coordinate clause main clause coordinate clause subordinate clause They irrigated the land when they got the pumps. in two ways by means of coordination or subordination: They irrigated the land and used fertilizers. Syntactically. that is complete in itself. etc. they found the village deserted. army. gerund. -en participle: When they arrived there. Depending on the form of the verb. The auxiliary verbs are be. On arriving there. necessarily related to an independent clause: John works on a farm. can be modified by an adverb of degree. independent dependent Clauses can combine into larger units of thought. independent Case Central adjectives Clause John works on a farm where pesticides are used.

a horse-drawn cart (compound adjective). a quality (courage). which have physical existence: a doctor. verbs of perception: look. a prepositional phrase (The trees are in flower) or a clause (The trouble is that the car is too expensive). Compound Concrete noun Copulative verb Countable / Uncountable A countable noun is a noun. distinct from the singular one (book). The positive is the base form (good. Copulative verbs are mostly verbs of existence: be. many). quickly). Comparative Comparison The declension of adjectives/adverbs to indicate degree: the positive. an animal (cat). A noun is uncountable when we do not normally use a/an in front of it and it has no plural (water). It has the ability to take a plural form (books). a noun phrase (You are a good student). most quickly). and to occur with cardinal numerals. taste or verbs that express a process of change: turn.Glossary of grammatical terms Common noun A common noun is a noun that signifies a nonspecific member of a group: a person (teacher). You should drive more carefully. rice. a thing (book). A copulative/link verb is a verb which links a subject to a predicative realized by an adjective phrase (John is/looks very sick). an action (laughter). exist. become. smell. The room smelt damp. to occur with characteristic determiners (such as a/an. which refers to separate entities. tall. taller. fairly. the comparative. tallest. rather quite. The comparative indicates a higher degree (better. Adverbs: He works harder / quicker than me. That book looks interesting. She turned pale. a dog. and the superlative. very. feel. A compound is a word that is made up of two (or more) roots: blackboard (compound noun). more quickly). sound. and the superlative indicates the highest degree (best. grow His voice sounded strange on the phone. which broadly answer the question To what extent? Degree adverb 203 . An old tractor is less expensive than an old one. Comparatives of adjectives and adverbs are formed with –er … (than) or more /less … (than) Adjectives: My coffee is hotter (than yours). The term refers to adverbs like enough. A concrete noun refers to people or things.

In a double genitive. her). Some have only foreign plurals (sg. our. what. possessive adjectives (my. The distinction between stative and dynamic verbs is relevant for the use of the progressive aspect and the passive voice. has read. etc. had read. their).Glossary of grammatical terms Determination A category specific of nouns. interrogative determiners (which. i. numerals. voice. is reading. preceded by up to four auxiliaries. A dynamic verb refers to an activity. read. both constructions appear in the same phrase: a horse of my uncle’s (“one of my uncle’s horses”). your. just. voice. demonstrative adjectives (this/these. The features of grammatical meanings which can be expressed in an extended VP include the following: tense. these/those). whose). cactus – pl. demonstrative determiners (this/that. Examples include the definite article (the) and indefinite articles (a/an). action or event: talk. The term refers to adverbs like always. and is marked for: tense. The term refers to some plurals of nouns of foreign origin that are not formed with s. her. run. Examples: reads. that/those) and quantifiers (few. The order in which the auxiliaries occur is fixed and depends upon the grammatical meaning they convey. possessive determiners (my. merely. and only which can precede the word they modify to focus attention on it: Only Mary succeeded. will read. may be walking. Determiners are words that express the reference of a noun. they ‘determine’ the meaning of the noun. your. The extended verb phrase consists of a lexical verb at the head. the). modality. others also have anglicized forms (sg. aspect. its. Focus adverbs are adverbs like even. number. basis pl. usually which answer the question How often? Determiner Double genitive Dynamic verb Extended verb phrase Finite verb form Focus adverbs Foreign plurals Frequency adverbs 204 .e. which). or an s-genitive. fly. Nouns of foreign origin are frequently used in scientific and technical contexts. cacti /cactuses). proximity and ownership. which refers to such meanings as number. A finite verb is a verb form that occurs in an independent clause. It is realized by several classes of determiners: articles (a/an. aspect. Verbs which are not dynamic are referred to as 'stative’. person. definiteness. both of which occur mostly with dynamic verbs. his. Examples: will have arrived. The genitive can be expressed by ’s-genitive (the farmer’s tools) or the of-genitive (the tools of the farmer). bases). relative determiners (whose. little). often. indefinite determiners (some/any).

Prepositional Object Head (of a phrase) The head of a phrase is the element that determines the syntactic function of the whole phrase. for things. The genitive can be expressed in two ways in English: with apostrophe’s (John’s house). Here are some kinds of grammatical relations: subject. mood. A noun or a pronoun denoting a male (boy. and to some adverbs. Complement. In English nouns denoting humans have natural gender while inanimate nouns are neuter. 205 . Object. voice. himself) is of masculine gender. enough (very good. mother.Glossary of grammatical terms Gender Gender is a grammatical category that groups nouns and some pronouns in three classes: masculine. So we can use an adjective with very. Genitive case (also called the possessive case) indicates possession. the head is the noun that refers to the same entity to which the whole phrase refers. Most adjectives are gradable. agreement. he. Verbs are characterized by tense. participation in such operations as passivization. These are the nominal grammatical categories. aspect. In a noun phrase. Adverbial Modifier Apple trees were planted on the hill Subject Adverbial Modifier by the villagers. A grammatical relation (Subject. object The villagers planted Subject Genitive Gradable / ungradable Grammatical category Grammatical relation apple trees Object on the hill. Gradable is a term applied to adjectives. case. and a female noun (girl. These are the verbal grammatical categories. father. the latter. for example medical. This means that we can imagine degrees in the quality referred to. too. and cannot make comparative and superlative forms. such as horse in a fine black horse. the term refers to such notions as gender. neuter. good enough) or form a comparative or superlative: shorter/ shortest. number. feminine. Adjectives are ungradable when we cannot modify them with very. Natural gender indicates that nouns may be classed in correlation with natural sex distinctions. unique. she. Adverbial Modifier) is a role of a noun phrase that determines syntactic behavior such as word position in a clause. The former is mainly used for people. more interesting/most interesting. In nouns. or with the of-phrase (the door of the house). A grammatical category is a set of syntactic and semantic features that characterize word classes. herself) is of feminine gender.

and in showing grammatical concord with the subject in the present tense. I don't trust you. reads is inflected for person (3rd person) and number (singular) by the suffix -s. that expresses a grammatical meaning such as: agreement (in person and number).Glossary of grammatical terms Imperative (mood) The imperative is typically used to make commands: Go away. An imperative sentence characteristically contains no grammatical subject. Inflection is variation in the form of a word. A sentence such as Let's go home! where the implied subject includes the speaker as well as the hearer(s). Sometimes a subject may be included. aspect. 206 . There are three classes of adverbs ending in –ly: Adverbs of manner: badly. The verb working in must be working is a lexical verb. but the implied subject is 'you'. and mood. Intensifiers are adverbs which are used with gradable adjectives and adverbs (very slow/ very slowly) and in some cases. Compare: Your work is good. is also imperative. such a/an. so. Don’t talk. verbs (I entirely agree). Indicative (mood) The indicative mood represents an action as a fact or as in close relationship to reality. and –ly adverbs instead of very (extremely). typically by means of an affix. The indicative is used for most communicative purposes. tense. An intensifier normally strengthens the meaning. Your work is very good. Inflection Intensifier Lexical verb -ly adverb A lexical verb is a verb that belongs to the primary verb vocabulary of a language. or person/number. but it does not vary for tense. The indicative verb form differs from the others in varying for tense and aspect. In the sentence She reads a story. Frankly. Typical intensifiers are very. particularly in negative imperatives: Don't you dare say that. He is extremely tired. Sentences in the indicative can be either declarative or interrogative. aspect. happily: Intensifiers: extremely: Viewpoint adverbs: frankly: We played badly. The imperative verb form (identical to the base form of the verb) is finite.

person and number: working (present participle). experience. 207 Mood Morpheme Morphology Non-finite verb form . necessity. shall/should. Morphemes can be lexical (in which case they refer to something). possibility. the conditional. This term is often used in connection with adverbs of frequency. there are four moods: the indicative. and before the main verb (I never drink coffee). the head of the construction. could Possibility: may. after the first auxiliary (He has often gone to the USA). could Ability: can. to work (infinitive). Depending on their position in the phrase. A premodifier precedes the head. bookish) or more (unreadable). ought to. which normally come after be when it is the only verb in the clause (He’s always late). impossibility. inflectional (in which case they represent grammatical suffixes). can. shall. happily. ability or probability). Adverbs of manner answer the question How? Most of them end in –ly and are formed from adjectives: badly. There can only be one modal auxiliary proper in a verb phrase. may/might. modifiers are of two types: premodifiers and postmodifiers. while the post modifier follows the head. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit. should. or derivational (in which case they represent an affix which changes the meaning and often the class of the word to which it is added). A verb that expresses modality (obligation. the imperative. In the phrase the hot soup. and the subjunctive. or an event is carried out. and adverbials: Willingness/readiness: will. In traditional terms. must. need Permission: may. can. the constituent hot is a modifier of soup. The modal verbs are can/could. might. dare Obligation: must. will/would. have to. These modals have no nonfinite forms. Morphology is the study of how morphemes combine into words. Modality is a type of meaning. ought to. Modality can be expressed by verbs (particularly modals). A nonfinite verb is a verb that is not fully inflected for the categories of tense. might. others of two (books. could Mid position Modal verb Modality Modifier A modifier is an optional constituent in a phrase that conveys information relating to the head of the construction. Some words are made up of one morpheme (book). Mood is a verbal category that signals the relationship of the verb with reality and intent. and of how words are inflected. would. etc. permission. involving the affirmation of possibility.Glossary of grammatical terms Manner adverb Manner is a semantic role that notes how the action.

A noun phrase is a phrase that has a noun as its head. things. The first auxiliary in an extended verb phrase. Number is a grammatical category of nouns and pronouns that expresses distinctions such as "one" or "more than one".played . The category also applies to a certain extent to verbs. plural number is marked by the suffix -s. in order to identify them. A noun phrase generally includes one or more modifying words (the man next door). The past perfect: past tense + perfective aspect (He had come back) expresses that something took place at a point before another moment or action in the past. The agent (= the doer of the action) may be specified by means of a prepositional phrase (by Joe) or not. In the word boys. Nouns may act as subjects.played). The fascinated audience applauded enthusiastically. In irregular verb conjugation. places. and that this action may have some relevance to the present. He told us a fascinating story. The subject of a passive clause is typically an affected participant (the letter). etc. such as will in She will be coming. Noun phrase Number Operator Participial adjectives Passive (voice) The passive is a category of the verb phrase. object of a preposition or attribute of a noun.Glossary of grammatical terms Noun Nouns are names given to people. the pronoun him has a different form in the plural them. In English the perfective aspect is realized by the grammatical auxiliary have followed by a past participle. The passive voice is marked by the grammatical auxiliary be + past participle: The letter is/was written by Joe. write .wrote written). as in No new errors were being made.went . which have special present tense forms for third person singular subjects (the girl sings vs. The past tense form of regular verbs ends in –ed: (play . Past tense Past tense verbs most commonly refer to actions / events / states that belong to the past. the past tense form is the second form cited (go . or do in Do you study English? A participial adjective is the same form as a present participle of a verb (fascinating) or the past participle of a verb (fascinated ) and is used exactly like an adjective. (direct or indirect) objects of the verb. The perfect or perfective aspect is a verbal category showing that something is completed. The present perfect: present tense + perfective aspect (He has come back) expresses that something took place at an unspecified point in the past. Perfective aspect 208 . the girls sing).gone.

put up with. me. verb phrases. etc. us. turn away from. come down to. them. and determiners. my. on the left) The term predicative refers to the position of an adjective in a clause. themselves. An adjective is predicative or is used predicatively when it comes directly after be. second person (you. yourself/yourselves. ourselves. look forward to. first person plural. whose meaning is often not predictable from the meaning of the verb + the meaning of the particle (give + up). your. yours). That cottage is old. You seem happy. Place adverb Predicative adjectives 209 . but if it is realized as a full noun phrase. adjective phrases. himself. etc. Compare with prepositional verb. her. his. it. Phrasal verbs can occur in the passive voice: The word was looked up. catch up with. and third person (he. itself. We distinguish between first person (I. him. A phrase is named after the most important word in it (the head): noun phrases. The verb and the particle form a close semantic unit. do with. get back to. herself. pronouns. away. it tends to be placed after the particle: I looked this word / it up. The verb system has special present tense forms with third person singular subjects: I like him He likes me. we. ours). The category of person combines with that of number. and thus accompanied by a direct object. etc. our. Adverbs of place are words or phrases that answer the question Where? Where to? Where from? They may be: single words (here. their. mine. it is placed between the verb and the particle. upstairs) or phrases (in hospital. adverb phrases. hers. A phrasal verb may be transitive. I looked up this word. seem. Phrasal verb Phrase A phrase is a word or group of words which can fulfil a syntactic function in a clause. end up with) consist of a lexical verb combined with an adverbial particle plus a preposition. theirs). become. she. switch off. take after). so that we get first person singular. get away with. If the object is realized as a pronoun. its.Glossary of grammatical terms Person Person is a grammatical category of nouns. there. go out for. myself. they. Prepositional phrasal verb Prepositional phrasal verbs (get out of. Phrasal verbs are combinations of a lexical verb with an adverbial particle (give up.

with the perfective aspect (he has slept). in that the verb + preposition form a single semantic unit. Present tense Present tense verbs usually refer to actions/events/states that belong to the present time. below. in front of). on. support. Prepositional phrase Prepositional verb A prepositional verb consists of a verb + a preposition. Prepositional phrases can function as adverbials at clause level (He worked in the field). The present tense form is identical to the base form of the verb. before. or any combination of aspect and voice (he has been sleeping). at. under). in. He is in dispute with his parents about what to do in life / what he should do in life. the preposition is closely connected to the verb. or as postmodifiers of noun phrases (The man with a black hat is my father) or complements of adjectives/adverbs at phrase level (He is fond of music). Some prepositional verbs can also occur in the passive voice. Prepositions may also combine with a preposition or an adverb to form complex prepositions (out of. the preposition in a prepositional verb always precedes the object: She pleaded with her friend not to go. opposition. the complement of the preposition can be an -ing clause or an indirect question: He boasts about having seen all the countries in America. However.Glossary of grammatical terms Preposition Prepositions generally express a relation. In contrast to the particle in phrasal verbs. because of. often in time or space. for a week). etc. when the verb ends in -s. or with the passive voice (he has been asked questions). They can also express relations of agency. in which case the preposition stays with the verb rather than with the noun phrase. followed by an object. Prepositions introduce prepositional phrases (after lunch). means. over. Besides noun phrases. except for third person singular subjects. 210 . Compare: He looked after the dog. What follows the preposition is called the complement of the preposition. or that have general validity. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition + a noun phrase (in China. cause. by. The dog was looked after. of. (after. manner. apart from. or they may combine with a verb to form a prepositional verb (to depend on). A present tense form can combine with the progressive aspect (he is sleeping).

four) or indefinite number (few. (an old car. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun. When the progressive aspect combines with the perfective aspect. while ity is a derivational affix (morpheme). which is thought to be unique.. In the word popularity. the progressive aspect denotes progress and incompletion (She is watching a film on TV). as these verbs denote permanent situations. and it may combine with derivational and inflectional affixes. Here is an example of reference: the noun man refers to a person. The progressive aspect is realized by the auxiliary be followed by an-ing participle. some with both kinds (plenty of books/time). the progressive aspect denotes duration in the past and possible incompletion (She was reading last night -. the root is popular. the meaning is that an activity stretched from the past up to a specified point of time (They’ve been working all day). i. An adjective describes or qualifies the person or thing. and which cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units. A root is a lexical morpheme. Proper noun Qualify Quantifier Reference Root 211 . We use adjectives to say what a person or a thing is like. etc. Some quantifiers combine with countable nouns (a few books). Articles are not generally used with proper nouns. Reference is the relationship that a linguistic expression has with the concrete entity or abstraction it represents. the noun pen refers to an object. plenty of) or amount (many. a pretty woman).the emphasis is on the activity of reading). A proper noun is used for a particular person (Julia). little. etc. place (Australia). It is normally spelt with a capital letter. It can function as a stem.Glossary of grammatical terms Progressive / non-progressive The progressive aspect is a verbal category with two meaning components: (limited) duration and (possible) incompletion. Combined with the past tense. a word or part of a word which has meaning. to which it refers. the months of the year (March). etc.e. much). the noun storm refers to a natural phenomenon. others with uncountable nouns (little time). Combined with the present tense. A quantifier expresses a referent's definite (two. The progressive aspect does not usually occur with stative verbs.

A complex sentence consists of an independent (main) clause and one or more clauses dependent on the main clause. It follows that John is the agent (the doer) of the action. I bought mother a present. someone named John deliberately hits someone else named Ben. Semi-modals can be used either as auxiliaries. coordinate clause coordinate clause Sentence 212 . In both clauses. before. a horse). Unlike auxiliaries. The main semantic roles are: Agent: Patient Beneficiary: Force: Instrument: Experiencer: Peter wrote the essay. i. Mary loves cats. each sentence has a phonetic shape. Mother opened the door. Compare: John hit Ben and Ben was hit by John. and subordinated to it by means of a subordinating conjunction (when. the prepositional object. after. but. have to. an intonational contour and a graphic form. Ben has the semantic role of patient. if. while Ben is the patient (the one who suffers the effect). A simple sentence consists of an independent clause. or as main verbs (You need money). A compound sentence involves two or more clauses coordinated by means of coordinating conjunctions (and. nor).) Simple sentence: They irrigated the land. The semantic role of John is the same (agent) in both sentences. Semi-modal Also known as marginal modal auxiliaries. At the semantic level. semantic and phonological properties: The man feeds a horse. It is the actual role a participant plays in a situation. or. semi-modals require doinsertion in negative and interrogative sentences (Do you need money?). Compound sentence: They irrigated the land and used fertilizers. John cut the bread with a knife.Glossary of grammatical terms Semantic roles A semantic role is the relationship that a participant in a situation has with the main verb in a clause. although in the first John is the Subject of the clause. Sentences consist of one or more clauses. need. In both sentences. A sentence is a grammatical unit with syntactic. semi-modals (dare. a sentence is representable as a logical relation between a predicate (feed) and its arguments (the man. At the syntactic level a sentence consists of a relation of predication between a NP functioning as the Subject of the sentence [NPThe man] and a VP functioning as the Predicate of the sentence [VP feeds a horse]. when used as main verbs. etc. while in the second. without do-insertion in interrogative and negative sentences (You need not help her).e. used to) are verbs which carry the same kind of meaning as the modal verbs. The thunder struck the tree. At the phonological level. because.

contain. regulation. understand) behave as stative verbs when denoting involuntary perception/cognition. declaratives function as statements. the singular form of a noun (field). main clause subordinate clause Sentence form / type Sentence form refers to the typical word order of a clause/sentence. sometimes in combination with derivational affixes. but does not vary for person or number. and usually no subject. I would go on a trip to Paris. have. and imperative (marked by the word order V. desire or plan in the mind of the speaker. imperatives as commands and exclamatory sentences express strong emotional states: Declarative: They saw a beautiful landscape. In British English. wh-interrogative (marked by the word order wh-word+V+S). since neither combines easily with stative verbs. In main clauses. such as the base form of a verb (write). know. resemble. long live the Queen. The root is 'farm'. the positive form of adjectives (nice) and adverbs (quickly). In formal (written) American English. with the verb in the imperative. hear). Note that verbs of perception (see. the stem is farmer.Typically. It consists of a root. Sentences express different types of meaning. (If I had money. yes/no interrogative (marked by the word order V+S). and 'er' is a derivational suffix. The stem is the main part of a word to which inflectional morphemes may be added. please! Stative Stative verbs refer to a state. The subjunctive is used in counter-factual clauses (if – clauses. the subjunctive also survives in some set formulas such as be that as it may. but as a wish. The sentence types in English are declarative (marked by the word order S+V).Glossary of grammatical terms Complex sentence: They irrigated the land when they got the pumps. (= I don’t have money) or concessive clauses. The distinction between stative and dynamic verbs is relevant for the use of the progressive aspect and the passive voice. Interrogative: What did they see? Exclamatory: What a beautiful landscape! Imperative: Take a photo of this landscape. should + infinitive is generally used instead (She insisted that they should come in time). or obligation (She insisted that they come in time). believe. The word disgraceful is a stem consisting of the root 'grace' and the two affixes 'dis-' and '-ful'. so be it. and require no action on the part of the subject: be. they provide information about situations or states. and 's is an inflectional suffix. A subjunctive verb form is finite. In all other cases the subjunctive is expressed by the base form of the verb. interrogatives function as questions. and verbs of opinion and of thinking (think. Be is the only verb which has a subjunctive past tense form (were). In the word farmers. Stem Subjunctive (mood) 213 . The subjunctive mood represents an action or a state not as an actual reality. the so-called mandative subjunctive is used in that-clauses expressing a demand.

and in which order they can occur. Only finite verbs can show tense. must have been drinking. definite time (today. tenses which have special forms rather than combinations of forms): present tense and past tense.e. The definite article the is used before a superlative: Adjectives: This is the hottest summer/the most comfortable sofa. Harvesting starts today. e. Tense Time adverbs Adverbs of time are words or phrases that answer the questions When? How long? How often? They refer to duration (since Monday. for three years). It places an action in time relative to the 'here and now' of the speaker. indefinite time (another time). Verb phrase A verb phrase is a phrase that is composed of a main verb (the head) and auxiliary verbs or particles related to the verb (drinks. drank up). the order of modifiers and head.g. Adverbs: John drives the most carefully. or the number/types of modifiers that go with a head). Syntax An area of grammatical study. 214 . while verbs in the past tense generally refer to 'before now'. i.e.Glossary of grammatical terms Superlative The superlatives of adjectives and adverbs are formed with –est or the most/least. or to how clause elements are combined. syntax refers to how the words in the phrase can be combined. English has only two morphological tenses (i. Both the present and the past tense can combine with the progressive and the perfective aspect. Tense is a category of the verb phrase. frequency (always. Compare: She lives in London. on Friday). never): I'm going away for a few days. We use the superlative when we compare one person or thing with others in the same group. She lived in London. Verbs in the present tense generally refer to 'now'. what kinds of clause elements can occur together.

Complement. Predicate. Voice Voice is a category of the verb that expresses the semantic functions attributed to the Subject of a clause. James. Word Syntactic function Zero 215 . Their meaning is similar (someone by the name of James ate the cake) but. For example. I don’t think he’s right. in the former the agent (or doer). while the next is in the passive voice: The cake was eaten by James.Glossary of grammatical terms Viewpoint adverbs Viewpoint adverbs express the speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying. the agent is the prepositional object (by John). and are marked off by commas. or of letters) and a content side (an independent meaning). a speaker may use the adverbs clearly or evidently to tell us that he/she is drawing conclusions. generally or normally to make generalizations: Frankly. Adverbial Modifier. frankly or honestly to impress us with his/her sincerity. A word has an expression side (combination of sounds. the patient or the recipient of the action/state of the verb. A syntactic function is the grammatical relationship of one constituent to another within a clause. They do not affect the word order of the rest of the clause. Viewpoint adverbs modify the whole clause (that is why they are also called sentence adverbs). whether it is the agent. A zero morpheme marks the plural of sheep. while in the latter. They come at the beginning of the clause. The most important are: Subject. The following clause in the active voice: James ate the cake. is the subject of the clause. Object. A zero is a constituent proposed in an analysis to represent an element held to be present at an abstract level but not realized in the data. The word is the smallest linguistic unit that can have a syntactic function.

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