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Formarea profesională a cadrelor didactice din învăţământul preuniversitar pentru noi oportunităţi de dezvoltare în carieră
MORPHOLOGY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH
Remus BEJAN Camelia BEJAN
Program de conversie profesională la nivel postuniversitar pentru cadrele didactice din învăţământul preuniversitar Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul I
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Morphology of Contemporary English
Acest manual a fost elaborat în cadrul "Proiectului pentru Învăţământul Rural", proiect co-finanţat de către Banca Mondială, Guvernul României şi comunităţile locale. Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei, Cercetării, Tineretului şi Sportului.
Objectives of the course Specific competences Presentation of content Course tasks Evaluation, assessment and testing Plan your study Summary Further reading Diagnostic test Answers to diagnostic test
2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 8 10 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 I
UNIT ONE. Basic concepts
Objectives of the unit 1.1. Grammatical units 1.2.The phrasal constituents 1.2.1.The noun phrase 1.2.2.The verb phrase 1.2.3.The adjective phrase 1.2.4.The adverb phrase 1.2.5.The prepositional phrase 1.3. Words 1.3.1. Word vs. lexeme 1.3.2. Morphological structure of words 1.3.3. Word classes 184.108.40.206. Lexical words Nouns Lexical verbs Adjectives Adverbs 220.127.116.11. Function words Determiners Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Modal verbs Prepositions Adverbial particles Coordinators Subordinators The negative particle ‘not’ The infinitive marker ‘to’ Numerals Summary Key Terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 1 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.1– 1.7
Quantifiers 3.1.1. Common nouns 2.3. Numerals 3. Demonstrative pronouns 3. The genitive case 2.2. Possessive pronouns 3.2. Relative pronouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 3 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 3. Articles 3.3.1.Cont ents UNIT TWO.2. Types of nouns 2.1.1 – 18.104.22.168.1.3.13 II .1. Reciprocal pronouns 22.214.171.124.4.2.1. Morphological expression of gender 2.6. Indefinite article 126.96.36.199. Irregular plural formation 2.3. Case 2.2.1. Lexical expression of gender 188.8.131.52. Definite article 184.108.40.206 -3.3.1. 10 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 38 39 39 39 46 48 49 51 51 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 59 62 65 66 66 67 68 70 72 76 76 77 81 85 87 87 89 90 91 92 95 96 72 98 99 99 99 102 UNIT THREE.1.5.2. Indefinite pronouns 3. Number 220.127.116.11. Interrogative pronouns 3.3. Gender 2. Semi-determiners 3. Countable vs. Aero article 3.5. Personal pronouns 3. Determiners and pronouns Objectives of the unit 3. Dual gender nouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA)2 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 2. Possessive determiners 18.104.22.168.2. Regular plural formation 2. Proper nouns 2.1.5. uncountable nouns 2.1. Determiners 3. Demonstrative determiners 3. Foreign plurals 22.214.171.124.2.5.5. Compound nouns 2.4. Reflexive pronouns 3.4. Nouns Objectives of the unit 126.96.36.199.2.1.1. Nouns resistant to number contrast 2. Derived nouns 2. Pronouns 188.8.131.52. Noun formation 184.108.40.206. The common case 2.2.3.
220.127.116.11. Irregular lexical verbs 18.104.22.168.4. Single-word lexical verbs 4.2. Going to 5.1.2. Shall – should III .2. Present progressive 5. Past perfect progressive 5. Present perfect progressive 5. The perfective aspect 5.4.6. Past progressive 5.2. Auxiliary verbs: be. Phrasal verbs 4.2.4.Cont ents UNIT FOUR.3.2.1. Present perfect simple 22.214.171.124.3.3. Will – would 5. modality and mood Objectives of the unit 5. Modality 126.96.36.199. Must 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. Can – could 5.4. The simple aspect 5.3.1. Means of expressing future time 5.4.1. Future perfect progressive 5.2.1. voice. Idioms 4. Be to 220.127.116.11.2.3. Aspect 18.104.22.168.4.4. Past simple 5. Regular lexical verbs 4. Present progressive 5.2. do Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 4.2. Verbs Objectives of the unit 4. Tense.22.214.171.124.1.2. Multi-word lexical verbs 4.2. Formation of verbs 4. Future simple 5.8.2. Past perfect simple 5.1. Voice 5.2. Present simple 5.7. Tense 5.3.3. Present simple 5.4.2. have.2.1 -4.5.3 104 105 105 105 107 109 110 110 111 112 113 113 114 114 114 114 117 118 119 119 120 125 128 128 128 131 132 134 134 136 138 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 148 150 153 155 157 157 UNIT FIVE.3.4.1. Prepositional phrasal verbs 4.4.4. Future progressive 5.2. Prepositional verbs 126.96.36.199.4.2.3. aspect. Future perfect 5. May – might 5.5. The progressive aspect 5.
188.8.131.52 -5. Derived adjectives 184.108.40.206. Semantic classification of adverbs 6. Subjunctive Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5.2. Adjectives and adverbs Objectives of the unit 6.11 Glossary of grammatical terms Bibliography IV .220.127.116.11. Adjectives 18.104.22.168.5.2. Comparison of adverbs 22.214.171.124. Order of adverbs Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 126.96.36.199.5.1.2. Participial adjectives 6. Syntactic function of adverbs 6.Cont ents 5. Order of adjectives 6.1.21 159 159 160 160 160 164 165 165 166 168 173 174 174 175 176 177 178 181 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 188 192 194 194 195 195 198 195 211 UNIT SIX. Formation of adjectives 6. Imperative 5.5. Adverbs 6.1. Semantic classes 188.8.131.52.1.1 -6. Compound adjectives 6. Comparison of adjectives 6. Conditional 5. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form 184.108.40.206.2. Mood 5.5. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison 6.2.5. Indicative 5.1.
Introduction Introduction 1. assessment and testing 220.127.116.11. Introduction 18.104.22.168. Plan your study Summary Further reading Diagnostic test Answers to diagnostic test 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 7 7 9 1 . Presentation of content 1. Specific competences 1. Objectives of the course 1. Evaluation. Course tasks 1.
positioning of adjectives and of adverbs in the clause.). Specific competences By the end of the course you will be able to: recognize the main word classes (noun. 1. carry out complex morphological analysis of sentences (identify word classes and grammatical categories). Morphology is that part of the grammar of a language that studies the internal structure of words. correlate observations concerning the morphological structure of words with phonetic.Introduction 1. at an advanced level and meet the fundamental objectives of teaching English. Introduction The study of grammar traditionally includes morphology and syntax. phonological. determination. adjective. aspect. as well as become aware. mood. recognize the elements that make up the structure of the word (morphemes. which will allow you to communicate efficiently in the language (orally and in writing). It assumes a low intermediate standard of knowledge and operational ability in the language and seeks to fulfill the following aims: to develop your knowledge of English through exploration and analysis . grammatical markers). 2 . The Morphology of Contemporary English is a mandatory course. etc. the adjectival/adverbial category of comparison). Objectives of the course The course will help you demonstrate your capacity of understanding and using the basic structures of English. case. syntactic and semantic observations. recognize grammatical categories (the nominal categories of gender.2.1. produce correct sentences observing morphological rules (the use of tenses and aspect. through personal experience. 1. verb. the verbal categories of tense. etc. to provide you with a basic terminology which will enable you to make these relationships explicit. of the difficulties met in learning English. part of pack 1 (specialism). while syntax involves the study of word combinations or sentence structure.). to enable you to see grammar in general and morphology in particular as providing means of understanding the relation of form to meaning and of meaning to situation .
together with the glossary of grammatical terms at the end of the book are meant to reinforce the main grammatical aspects discussed. Presentation of content This book will introduce you to the study of English morphology. We encourage you to experiment and apply the ideas and the techniques used in the course in your own activity. aspect. The grammatical content of the book is presented in 6 independent units. adjective and adverb). each unit specifies what you will be able to do when you have finished it. as follows: Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Basic concepts Nouns Determiners and pronouns Verbs Tense. These and any work in English that you consider relevant to your training should be collected at any time for future reference. Through its objectives. modality and mood Adjectives and adverbs Unit 1 gives a bird’s eye view of the whole course and defines the basic units of grammar (phrase. to reflect upon the results and develop ideas and procedures adapted to the environment in which you work. They are designed to assist you in your preparation and offer a review for study purposes. pronoun. We advise you to build up a portfolio of the tasks to be undertaken.3. Units from 2 to 6 give a detailed description of the main word-classes of English (noun. each one being conceived as a learning component with appropriate practice tasks. word and morpheme). determiner. voice. Each of the six study units which make up the course is accompanied by intensive practical work. The summary and the list of key terms organized alphabetically. which we have placed at the end of every unit. verb. Reflection points (Think first!) are signaled by a question mark. The units are further divided into sections. Every unit begins with a statement of the aim and lists its main objectives.Introduction 1. quantifier. The objectives will help you monitor your own progress and decide on the work that you need to do in order to get the best possible results. each unit contains a variable number of topics for reflection and study. To stimulate your interest in studying this course. 3 . They will also assist your preparation for the progress tests and the final examination.
and you should resist the temptation at all costs. as you progress through the course. to a great extent. Evaluation.4. We believe that study should not attend solely to the attainment of certain practical end-results. amplified or omitted. 1. others call for the manipulation and completion of classes of words in various meaningful ways. Its value lies. according to need. assessment and testing Your level of performance will be assessed periodically throughout the semester (which counts 40 % of the overall end-of-semester grade). adapted.5. This coursework assessment will consist in submitting to your tutor the six obligatory send-away assignments (SAAs). This will support your learning experience and contribute to the work you need to do for successfully meeting the specific objectives of the course. not only in the results themselves. Some involve the observation and identification of morphological elements and their semantic functions or of the relations between them. in the thinking that goes in the process of ensuring results. Self-assessed questions (SAQs) are in-text questions that break down the text in order to clarify and consolidate certain teaching points. 1. Those proposed can be selected. The premature reference to a key negates the whole purpose of the tasks. 4 . on the date set by the course map.Introduction Note down any thoughts or experiences you consider useful in your portfolio. The send-away assignments (SAAs) are signaled by an envelope and a mail-box. Course tasks The different areas of grammar lend themselves to a wide variety of practical linguistic tasks limited only by the time factor. you will find answers at the end of each unit. For all of them. Self-assessed questions (SAQs) are signaled by a fountain-pen.
which you will find at the end of each unit. we strongly advise you to re-read the relevant sections of the course. In case you fail to solve any of the items. Remember that your tutor has planned his or her time around these deadlines. You will have to spend about 60 minutes in doing each assignment. are based on the material you have studied in the units. 5 . error identification. Your grammar knowledge will also be demonstrated by your ability to produce sentences. the time allotted by the syllabus for dealing with them. Your grammar competence will be evaluated by means of a variety of testing structures such as multiple choice. refer to the glossary of grammatical terms to revise basic definitions and other material suggested in the ‘Further reading’ and in the general bibliographic list. You will also sit a written examination (which counts for 60% of the overall mark) at the end of the semester. word/clause order. depending on the specific learning tasks that derive from the objectives mentioned at the beginning of each unit. and he or she will send feedback on all of them (commentary and assessment) within two weeks. your knowledge of vocabulary for thinking and about and discussing grammar. the difficulty that you are likely to face in their realization. It is of utmost importance that you meet the deadlines specified in the course map. provided you have completed all the tasks required by the unit. Once completed. Every SAQ and every SAA contain a variable number of exercises and items. modified cloze. word changing. your competence in the mechanics of writing (demonstrated in your writing) and in communicating grammatical concepts to others. You will have to answer various questions and do exercises covering the major problems dealt with in the course (units 1-6). paraphrase. we have taken into account the relative importance of objectives covering the content of the unit. text completion. In establishing the weight of each SAA (see table on page 5). If you do not observe them. At the beginning of each assignment you will find detailed instructions on how to do it. both written and oral. We would prefer that you type your assignments but writing them legibly will do as well. send them to your tutor. their degree of complexity and novelty. You can use extra material if you wish (you might find the suggestions for further reading at the end of each unit useful). For each exercise. which are perceived as grammatically correct. he or she may be unable to read your assignment and send feedback quickly to you. Your grade will be based on your ability to understand and describe the structure of English sentences (form and function).Introduction These assignments. a 50% success rate should be considered as minimal. true – false.
aspect. The following units give details about the noun. Reflection points (Think first!) allow to link your study with your own activity. Throughout the book we use a number of icons to identify the main types of activities. the verb. At the end of each unit. whenever you can find some time to learn. the phrase. the word and the morpheme. case (for nouns). It will take you about 28 hours to go through the whole course and accomplish all the assignments required. a Send-away assignment (SAA) tests what you have learned in the respective unit. the adverb and the grammatical categories associated with them: gender. Each unit contains a significant number of exercises of different types (SAQs) that will allow you to practice the most important problems studied. mood (for verbs). in a manner that best suits you. the adjective. Plan Your Study Distance learning encourages and relies on those skills and competences that allow you to work independently. tense.Introduction 1. 6 . Unit 2 is important in the sense that it provides the essential information about the basic units of grammatical analysis: the clause. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Week Units Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 6 Revision Revision Assignments Diagnostic test SAA 1 due SAA 2 due SAA 3 due SAA 4 due SAA 5 due SAA 6 due 40 % 6% 7% 8% 5% 8% 6% Date Summary The material for study is divided in six rather independent units. number.6. You can learn at your own pace.
Introduction Further reading We strongly encourage you to consult other works that will help you find additional information on special grammar aspects. you will find useful recommendations. when you do this. I’ll lend you the newspaper. but to weigh and consider. a) her job is b) she’s a c) her job is an d) does d) she’s d) been d) I c) rare d) seldom 4) How long ……… sitting here? a) have you been b) are you c) have you 5) Would you like ……… help? a) a b) some c) me 6) They ……… go to the cinema. You are advised to spend not more than 15 minutes on this test. remember to read critically. a) anyone b) some people c) not anybody d) someone 8) If he ……… about it. not to find talk and discourse. we’re all human. Diagnostic test This diagnostic test is designed to give you a quick way of assessing the approximate level of your knowledge of English grammar and usage. too. a) tomorrow b) much 7) In life ……… can make a mistake. Sir Francis Bacon once said: Read not to contradict and confute. a) do b) is c) work 3) I think ……… doctor. 1) Did you ……… anywhere interesting last weekend? a) go b) going c) was d) went 2) I work as a teacher and my wife ………. not to believe and take for granted. At the end of each unit. However. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence grammatically. a) will have looked b) looked c) have looked d) look 7 . I’m sure he’d help. a) had known b) knew c) has known d) knows 9) When I ……… through it.
a) more expensive b) expensiver expensive c) much expensive 17) I made one or two mistakes. the express to London or to Edinburgh? a) Which b) How c) Whose d) What 19) Mary takes the dog for a walk ……… the evening. but ……… of my answers were correct. a) few b) a few c) a little d) little 8 . . a) a pair of b) a set of c) two d) a 25) Would you like some more tea? There's still ……… left. a) no b) any c) none 21) George can't ……… to you now. a) talked b) to talk c) talking talk 22) He's a friend of ………. a) much b) most c) more d) few 18) . a) them b) there’s their 23) I ……… drink beer than wine. a) to your mother this letter c) letter this to your mother c) avoiding driving b) this letter your mother d) this letter to your mother c) lots d) a very lot d) 15) Marian has ……… old books. .Introduction 10) Mum gave ……… her job when I was born. a) very much b) a lot of 16) A Jaguar is ……… than a Fiat. train are you taking. a) would like more b) prefer rather c) theirs d) some d) d) c) had better d) would 24) I gave her ……… earrings for Christmas. We have plenty of time. a) avoiding to drive b) to avoid to drive d) to avoid driving 14) You should give ………. a) in b) at c) on d) to 20) We haven't got ……… English friends. we ……… hurry. He's busy. a) mustn’t b) shouldn’t c) can’t d) needn’t 12) You have a terrible fever! ……… call a doctor? a) Shall I b) Do I c) Must I d) Will I 13) Please try ……… ……… at night. a) in b) up c) off d) away 11) It's all right.
your grammar is good! Answers to diagnostic test 1) a. 17) b. 30) d 9 . 11) d. a) by b) for c) on d) in 27) The language school that I attend is 20 kilometers ………. you should consider your level as elementary. 7) a. 21) d. congratulations. 2) d. a) would start b) would have started c) had started d) will start 29) Tom has two sisters. If your score is higher than 75% . 25) c. You will have to work hard to make significant improvements. a) a work b) the work c) an work d) work If your score is 50% or less. A score of 50-70% is acceptable. 28) c. 5) b. 26) c. 13) d. 19) a. but some areas of English grammar need to be given special attention. 15) b. a) both b) any c) either d) neither 30) George goes to ……… by car. 20) b. but he doesn't speak to ……… of them. 9) c. 10) b. a) far b) away c) distance d) long 28) Many adult students of English wish they ……… their language studies earlier. 22) c. 27) b. 24) a. 3) b. 4) a. 23) d. 18) a. 8) a.Introduction 26) I didn't realize that the shop was ……… the other side of the road. 12) a. 16) a). 14) d. 29) c. 6) d.
3.3. 7. The adjective phrase 22.214.171.124.3.Basic concepts UNIT 1 Basic concepts Objectives 1. Words 1. The noun phrase 1.3.1 Lexical words Nouns Lexical verbs Adjectives Adverbs 1.2. Grammatical units 1.3.2. Morphological structure of words 1.2.2. Function words Determiners Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Modal verbs Prepositions Adverbial particles Coordinators Subordinators The negative particle ‘not’ The infinitive marker ‘to’ Numerals Summary Key terms Further reading Send – away assignment (SAA) 1 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1. Word classes 1. Word vs.3.3. The adverb phrase 1. 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 10 .3. lexeme 1. The prepositional phrase 1. The phrasal constituents 1.2.1. The verb phrase 1.1 – 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.
each phrase is made up of one or more words. you should be able to: • recognize and identify the phrasal constituents of the clause: the noun phrase. can be broken down into meaningful linguistic units. base/stem. the adjective phrase. 1. • define and exemplify simple. possibly. We will examine the constituents of the simple sentence. a complement and optional adjuncts. affix. inflection. The clause is made up of one or more phrases. the prepositional phrase. the verb phrase. language use is governed by rules. Objectives After you have completed the study of this unit and have done all the tasks recommended. It is made up of a subject. the morpheme being the smallest meaningful unit. • analyze the structure of phrases. root. complex or compound words. either spoken or written. • explain how words are formed. with a view to enhancing your awareness of the relationship between grammatical form and meaning. Stretches of language. 11 .1. Grammatical units are characterized in terms of their a) internal structure (a clause consists of clause elements. a phrase consists of a head.Basic concepts Aim This unit will introduce. a word consist of a stem and. the major word-classes and their characteristics. • give brief definitions and examples of the following terms: morpheme. affixes) b) syntactic role and c) meaning. a predicate and usually expresses a complete thought: John works on a farm. which follow a regularly repeated pattern. the structure of the word and will sketch the context in which any correct grammatical analysis should be carried out. define and illustrate the terminology used in the grammatical analysis of English. In English four types of units are usually recognized and hierarchically arranged on a rank scale: clause → phrase → word → morpheme Thus. Each word can be further analyzed as being made up of one or more morphemes. the adverb phrase. Grammatical units In spite of the bewildering variety of forms. a clause is the maximal grammatical unit.
in the verb (are). that is the agreement in grammatical form between elements in a clause or a phrase. Thus in (c) the plural noun head farmers determines changes in the demonstrative adjective (those). The head. hardworking). g. Consider the bracketed structures with the noun farmer(s) as the main part: a. [That farmer with a shovel in his hand] is my uncle. 1. • the premodifiers. especially prepositional phrases ( with the shovel in his hand). the word around which the other components group together and which controls concord. those). Each phrase.Basic concepts 1. [That farmer] is my uncle. and the predicative (my neighbors).2. The noun phrase The noun phrase (NP) is called so because the word which acts as its main part is typically a noun. [John] is [a farmer]. adverbial phrases and prepositional phrases. adjectival phrases. adjectives (tall. Minimally. there are noun phrases. it may consist in a noun only. b. can consist of the head only. as in (a) below. relative clauses ( who is feeding the cattle in the stables) and non-finite clauses (feeding the cattle in the stables). The phrasal constituents The words that build up a clause can be put together in meaningful groups or phrases. • the postmodifiers. comprising all the items placed after the head.1. all of which are thus marked as plural. as the most important element of the phrase determines the relationships and the behavior of the phrase as a whole. Often. [Those farmers] are my neighbors. which provide information relating to it. Depending on the head. [That tall hardworking farmer feeding the cattle] is my uncle. d. 12 . [That tall hardworking farmer] is my uncle. f. the noun that is central to the phrase may be accompanied by other words. postmodification premodification premodification premodification e.2. except the prepositional phrase. and other nouns. c. which include all the items placed before the head: determiners (that. which may be accompanied by other elements. [That tall hardworking farmer who is feeding the cattle in the stables] is my uncle. verb phrases. postmodification postmodification In describing noun phrases we may distinguish: • the head (farmer).
. The premodifiers and the postmodifiers will be treated in the next chapter of this course. premodifiers and postmodifiers. Object predicative: They chose him ‘Farmer of the Year’. there is a class . The noun phrase can typically act as subject. as in the first example above. Indirect Object: They gave the farmers all the documents. The main morphological characteristics of the noun will be discussed in the following pages. many people in the developing world do not eat enough. etc. Increased consumption can help avoid eating foods high in fats. Underline the noun phrases and analyze them into their determiners. Attribute: The farmers’ meeting was postponed. Subject predicative: My neighbors are good farmers. Though developing countries largely contribute to the global supply of fruit and vegetables and production can still be improved.1.Basic concepts Within the set of noun premodifiers. in a clause: Subject: Some farmers have new machinery. Consumption is often low amongst lower socio-economic groups. Prepositional Object: We rely on farmers. indirect object or prepositional object. determiners are more necessary to the noun phrase structure than modifiers. or predicative. attribute. Eating a wide variety of fruit and vegetables helps ensure an adequate intake of most micronutrients and dietary fibers. SAQ 1.the determiners . Direct Object We helped the farmers. direct object. sugar and salt. heads. The only situation in which the noun phrase has no expressed determiner is when it has a ‘zero’ article. 13 . However.which show whether the entity denoted by the noun is known or not to the speaker. The structure of the noun phrase could thus be re-written as: Noun Phrase (NP) (Determiners(s)) (Premodifier(s)) Head (Postmodifier(s)) The parentheses remind you that the determiners and the modifiers can be left out. says a UN agency.
This year prospects may be better. the auxiliaries and/or the modals. cognition. progr. 1. passive. possibility. progr. which is a lexical verb. The verb phrase The verb phrase (VP) usually consists of a head.) and grammatical meaning (tense. person. Lexical verbs express both lexical meaning (motion. etc. In addition.Basic concepts Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. preceded by the optional elements. modal modal modal modal perf. etc. [motion + past] [cognition + present] Modal verbs add to the lexical verb a special semantic component such as: ability. They follow modals and occur in the order: perfect. obligation. perception. progressive. perf. [ability] [possibility] [obligation] Auxiliary verbs (be. do) carry grammatical meaning only. I know no secret recipe for certainty. perf. V V V V V V V V V V writes has written is writing has been writing will write will have written will be writing will have been writing is written has been written progr. aspect. (some of them may be omitted). wide – premodifier.: You can build this vacation cottage yourself. of fruit and vegetable – postmodifier. necessity.2. permission. have. progr. passive passive . all finite VPs are also marked for tense (T): T T T T T T T T T 14 perf. perf. number): She went back to New York. The problem must be faced squarely. The first has been done for you: a – determiner.2. variety – head.
1. The adjective phrase Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns. “How do you feel?” Charlie asked me.4. rather. Sam is very angry with John. etc. Specifiers typically indicate the degree of the quality denoted by the adjective. 15 .Basic concepts The first auxiliary is usually called operator. Adjectives commonly specify the properties or the attributes of a noun referent: The house is old. which combine to form the following basic structures: specifier very so head old angry fond complement with John of music The head of the adjectival phrase is always realized by an adjective. The adjectival phrase (AP) typically consists of a head. the specifier and the complement: He made up hid mind. He is so fond of music.2. Complements generally take the form of prepositional phrases. The operator is involved in forming interrogative sentences (the operator is inverted with the subject) and negative sentences (the negative particle not is attached to the operator): He has been working as an engineer for five years.).3. Hanck did not abandon his scheme. too. which may function alone. The elements following the head serve to complete the meaning of the adjective and are generally called complements. The adverb phrase Adverb phrases (AdvP) are normally composed of three elements: the head.2. or may be optionally accompanied by specifiers (very. 1. so. Has he been working as an engineer for five years? He hasn’t been working as an engineer for five years. He made up his mind quite independently of me. He made up his mind independently. a specifier and a complement.
He was interested in what they were up to. gerundial clauses. The prepositional phrase English makes extensive use of prepositions. They function as Adverbial Modifiers of Manner. Prepositions are semantically bound with the noun following them: He put the book right on the shelf. right near here. He insisted on being paid at once. Place or Time. Prepositions never appear alone but in combination with a noun phrase. They are at odds. and occasionally by adjectives and adverbs: He was taken completely by surprise. He knew them from before the war. specifier right head on behind at complement the shelf him odds The complement of the preposition is typically realized by nouns and pronouns but also by wh-finite clauses. I know where he is.Basic concepts specifier quite head independently independently complement of me Complements are typically realized by prepositional phrases. Adverb phrases are frequently optional in the sense that they can be omitted without the clause becoming ungrammatical. At last the call came.2.5. 1. (prep + noun) (prep + prep + noun) (prep + adv) (prep + adj) (prep + gerundial clause) (prep + indirect question) 16 . that acts as complement of the preposition.
11) every bridge over the river 12) so efficient in his work. The first has been done for you. Tonight. 3) pretty soon. 1) anti-terrorist laws. 1. (in reply to a question like: Who phoned?) (in reply to a question like: When shall we meet?) c) being assigned one. b) being the minimal possible unit in an utterance: John. Although they look familiar to everyone. a son: How old is your little boy? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) The manner in which the above-mentioned conditions are met varies considerably and depends on the nature of each word. 4) the urban young. the possibility of being preceded or followed by pauses in speech or separated from one another by means of spaces and punctuation marks. 17 .3. a male child or a male person in general: The boys wanted to play football.Basic concepts SAQ 1. The first has been done for you: 1) NP. in writing: The boy is reading a book. 6) a small black bag. 2) quite hot. 2. AdvP). VP. 9) rather carelessly. 5) in a hurry. Words are however identifiable by such criteria as: a) a regular stress pattern. 10) before the war.2. 7) a student of Physics. 8) very kind to Mary. or more dictionary meanings: boy 1. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Words Phrases are made up of words. their definition is far from simple. AP. Identify the type of phrase (NP.
together with the corresponding word forms. is identical to the word. and the latter. that is. However. can be divided into three syllables (a-ni-mal). playing play plays (pl. For instance. a morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning. -mal) bears a meaning of its own. Word vs.2. The word animal.3. which retains the original threesyllable structure. play’s. while the noun would have other forms: verb lexeme: forms of the lexeme: noun lexeme: forms of the lexeme: play. Morphemes are different from syllables. None of the smaller units (a-. play would have two entries in the dictionary. play. Look up the entries for study and intellectual in a dictionary. represented by -s (/z/ in speech) signifying “more than one”. meaning “a creature”.3. These are the lexemes. yet it consists of one morpheme only. Identify the lexemes for each. for example. a meaningful sequence of sounds which is not divisible into smaller meaningful units.Basic concepts 1.1. Morphological structure of words A word is built up of smaller constituents called morphemes. lexeme A lexeme is a word in roughly the sense that would correspond to a dictionary entry. consists in two morphemes: the former is animal. Morphemes are classified by linguists as free morphemes or bound morphemes and as roots or affixes. By definition. plays. the plural form animals.). which in this case. -ni-. 1. the basic forms. 18 . plays’ (genitive) SAQ 1. played. as a verb and as a noun. The verb would appear in various forms when used in sentences. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit.3.
rest. and it typically has semantic content. Actually. repeat Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. derivational prefixes or suffixes. box. cannot be broken down into smaller bits. “an area of land.) and has to be attached to other morphemes to build words: replay. etc. 19 . used for growing crops and/or keeping animals”. resistance. in our case. inhuman. There are two types of affixes: prefixes (added to the beginning of a word) and suffixes (added to the end of a word): unmis-ful -tion unnecessary. The morpheme farm. and the buildings on it. reunification. for this reason. generate new words and. When all affixes are removed the root is not further analyzable into meaningful elements. untold misunderstand. humanly humanism. Their semantic content is more difficult to isolate. humanitarian.is a bound root? rewrite. careful construction. dislike. -er. misfortune fruitful. to be more precise. together with some suffixes. affixes attach to the root (of the word). task.4.Basic concepts A free morpheme is one which can stand alone (farm. they are called derivational morphemes. job. redo. reevaluate. farmer. dis-. SAQ 1. education. child. being morphologically simple and carries the main portion of meaning of the words in which it appears: humanize. man. A root is the portion of a word that is common to a set of derived or inflected forms. Decide in which of the following words re. revolution. exploitation Prefixes. -tion. A bound morpheme is one which cannot occur as an independent word (re-. etc. humans. Bound morphemes are typically called affixes. for instance.).
A.5. whose inflectional forms are cares (present. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) impossible 2) cloudiness 3) childhood 4) teacher 5) development 6) peacefully 7) exceptionally 8) parental 9) friendship 10) industrialize 20 . words may have more than one stem.Basic concepts That part of a word to which affixes are added is called a stem. SAQ 1. Identify the roots for the following words. The root is always a stem. but a more complex derived word structure may also be a stem. Unlike roots. Consider the word carelessness: care [root] care [root and stem 1] + less [derivational suffix 1] > careless (adj) careless [stem 2] + ness [derivational suffix 2] > carelessness (n) Care is also the stem of the verbal lexeme to care. 3rd person singular). cared (past tense or past participle) and caring (present participle). A.
Basic concepts SAQ 1. aspect. falling fallen carts farmer’s warmer warmest It follows from this. Inflectional morphemes are endings added to noun or verbal stems to specify grammatical meanings such as number. -ment. -ive. fy. sg.B. –hood. It is difficult to explain the popular____ of a singer who cannot actually sing. Democracy is fundamental to good govern____. aspect. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) The tap water is not safe to drink. that inflections distinguish between large classes of words: nouns (whose inflections indicate: number. Yes. the bottled water is drink____. My grandmother is very forgetful. 21 . However.able. B. Most of the mistakes can be forgiven. -ize. -ible.5. my great-aunt also suffers from forgetful____. it is difficult to priorit____.. Which assignment is your priority? I don’t know. falls worked working. these basic errors are unforgiv____. Complete the words in italics with the correct derivational suffix: -ness. The most widely used inflections are given in the table below: inflection -s -ed -ing -en -s ‘s -er -est grammatical meaning 3 pers. However. etc. case. present verb past verb progressive verb past participle verb plural noun possessive noun comparative adjective superlative adjective rd example works. Please noti____ all the students concerned about the room change. tense. case) verbs (whose infections indicate: tense. It is difficult to cope with the strains of single parent____. The factory has been very product____ this year. -ity. voice) and adjectives/adverbs (whose inflections indicate degrees of comparison). The court was unable to determine the own____ of the property.
Which words contain a derivational affix and which inflectional affix? Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: eggs. jobs. The first has been done for you. singing. B. walked. Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 1) John’s – genitive. capitalism. The tallest student studies in Bill's class. quickest. 6. goodness. 3. 4. B. A. A. Identify and name all inflected forms. Fred may have written the longest essay. employee. The boys studied longer than you. I am waiting for the student who o wns this book. 1. 2. derivational affix inflectional affix SAQ 1.6. react. John's house looks older than this. 5. given. faster.6. 2) 22 . worker. John claimed that he had tried to find you. John's.Basic concepts SAQ 1.
3. (nice. teacher. land. are morphologically variable.Basic concepts 1.3. manner) in which an action takes place (here.2. their role is to express grammatical relationships between lexical words or between lexical words and larger units. Lexical verbs Lexical verbs typically denote actions ( work. numerals. develop. people and phenomena expressed by nouns. fear. write. processes (change. play). increase) or states (sleep. Nouns Nouns typically refer to concrete people and things as well as to abstract ideas and phenomena (John.3. words can be broadly grouped into: lexical words and function words. modals. peace. Lexical words have a complex internal structure. the infinitive marker to coordinators auxiliaries. the negator not. slowly). 1. 1.3. pronouns. rain). There are four main lexical words in English: nouns.1 Lexical words Lexical words are the main bearers of meaning and they form the primary vocabulary of a language. no w. wh-words. frighten).3. characteristics and properties of objects.3. adjectives and adverbs. easy) Adverbs Adverbs specify the circumstances (place. time. Adjectives Adjectives typically describe qualities. verbs. Function words Function words have little or no lexical meaning. Word classes According to their grammatical behavior and their main function. and they can be heads of phrases. prepositions 23 . Function words can be conveniently grouped according to the lexical word to which they are associated: grammatical unit clause clause/ phrase verb phrase noun phrase function words subordinators. adverbial particles determiners. book. difficult.
clauses or sentences. that/those) indicates whether the referent of the noun phrase is close or remote in distance. The most important are: a) The definite article (the) specifies that the referent is known to the speaker: There was a horse in the field. The horse was black. it. b) The indefinite article (a/an) typically signals that something is mentioned for the first time and thus represents new information: She was talking to an old woman. they/them): Tell them the news. herself) show coreference with the subject: She must be very proud of herself. 24 . your. e) Quantifiers (some. much) specify the number or amount of something: I don't have much money with me. our. Pronouns A pronoun is a pro-form (a word. replacing other words. yourself. (close in time) d) Possessive determiners (my. a) Personal pronouns identify the participants in a communication situation: the speaker (I/me. whose meaning is understood from the linguistic or extra linguistic context) which functions like a noun and replaces a noun phrase. her. we/us). phrases. b) Reflexive pronouns (myself. many. their) express ownership: Their parties are always fun. and a third referent that is neither speaker nor addressee (he/him. (remote in distance) I saw her this morning (= today in the morning). she/her. c) Demonstrative determiners (this/these. the addressee (you).Basic concepts Determiners Determiners are words that modify noun phrases. or time: Look at that man over there. his. few.
Have specifies perfective aspect: He has known Mary for two years. f) Indefinite pronouns (one. g) Relative pronouns (who. ] e) Reciprocal pronouns (each other. For a few brief minutes they had all been part of one little drama. (progressive) (passive] 25 . She was seen at the theater. which.Basic concepts c) Possessive pronouns (mine. have and do are used to form up complex verb phrases. On that date Huff left his home. theirs. The auxiliary be marks the progressive aspect and the passive voice: They are taking a course in fertilizers. somebody. what. d) Demonstrative pronouns (this/that. anybody) indicate that the referents are not identifiable: There's someone at the door. We all try and help one another. one another) express a mutual sentiment or action among the referents of a plural subject: Don and Susie really loved each other. and are co-referential to the word modified by the relative clause: Houses which overlook the lake cost more. ours) express ownership: This piece of land is mine. be. what) introduce a relative clause. these/those) indicate a referent’s spatial or temporal location: This is the best project. h) Interrogative pronouns (who. which) are questions to stand for the item questioned: Which of the applicants has got the job? Who is that woman? What are your political opinions? used in Auxiliary verbs The three auxiliary verbs of English.
forth. would and must. shall. could. Adverbial particles Adverbial particles are invariable words (a way. bring about. etc). ought to. Moreover. up). such as: give up. There's nothing you can do about it now. may. Modal verbs can express a wide range of meanings (possibility.Basic concepts The auxiliary do is used as operator in interrogative and negative independent clauses when there is no other auxiliary present: What do you read? I didn’t meet them in London. Their basic meaning is of motion and result. They are closely connected with the verb: Working in the slums brought her up against the realities of poverty. 26 . a number of multiword verbs such as have to. by. at. permission. make up. necessity. need (to). obligation. had better. have got to. There are nine modal auxiliaries in English: can. of. The verbs dare (to). used to can be regarded as marginal auxiliaries. should. down. off. Prepositions Preposition (about. Modal verbs Modal verbs are used to build up complex verb phrases. different from adverbs and prepositions. in. back. will. The kids were playing in the street.) are invariable words that introduce prepositional phrases and connect them with other elements of the clause. do wn. past. which are used to build phrasal verbs. The stone rolled down the hill. Several characteristics differentiate modals from other verbs and auxiliaries. etc. might. be going to are close in meaning to modal verbs.
. even if I have to walk. or). than). comparison (as. while). but. The negative particle ‘not’ The main use of the particle not (shortened form n’t) is to negate a clause or a constituent: She did not / didn't see him. I'll get there.Basic concepts Coordinators Coordinators or coordinating conjunctions link phrases and clauses that have the same syntactic function. She managed to escape. You can go swimming while I'm having lunch. reason (because). It's twenty years since I've seen her. (addition) (alternative) (alternative) (contrast) Subordinators Subordinators or subordinating conjunctions are words that introduce finite dependent clauses. Is your sister older or younger than you? Well. Not everybody agrees.. They indicate the meaning relationship between the dependent clause and the superordinate clause: time (after. Coordinators express the meanings of addition.. but his father might. since. I did it because he told me to. His mother won't be there.. Both his mother and his father will be there. It was much better than I'd expected. 27 . condition (if. or) or correlative (both . even if). They can be simple (and. (clausal negation) (constituent negation) The infinitive marker ‘to’ To is often used before the base form of a verb to show that the verb is in the infinitive: I set out to buy food. I think she's either Russian or Polish. alternative or contrast. either . and. as.
SAQ 1. Her mother had just given birth to another child. the second). that expresses a number. holiday Determiner: Pronoun: Adjective: Numeral: Verb: Adverb: Preposition: Conjunction: 28 . Write your answers in the space provided below and then compare them with those given at the end of the unit: Two elephants went on holiday and sat down on the beach. People arrived in twos and threes. such as one of the following: quantity. They go there twice a week. It was the first time they had ever met. Identify the word classes in the following text. distributive (by threes. her fifth. ordinal (the first. four times). frequency. two). multiplicative (once. There are four distinctive sets of numerals: cardinal (one.Basic concepts Numerals A numeral is a word. in twos) and partitive (two thirds. half): Ten people were invited but only five turned up. and fraction.7. sequence. functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun. It was a very hot day and they fancied having a s wim in the sea. twice. and relation to the number. Unfortunately they couldn't: they only had one pair of trunks! Noun: elephants.
Jan Svartvik (1976). Morphology. Words can be grouped into lexical words (noun. Harlow. adverb phrases and prepositional phrases. England: Longman. phrase. prepositions. meanings and syntactic roles: clause. tense. auxiliaries. adjective and adverb) and function words (pronouns.Basic concepts Summary Grammar is a description of a language. London. gender. Randolph. Tokyo. Toronto. Longman. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Sidney Greenbaum. Greenbaum. Key terms • • • • • • • • • • affix aspect case clause comparison determination grammatical category grammatical meaning inflection mood • • • • • • • • • modality morpheme phrase root sentence stem tense voice word Further reading Downing. Geoffrey Leech. Sidney and Randolph Quirk (1991). Morfologia. Angela and Philip Locke (1995). mood. New York. Limba englezã contemporanã. word and morpheme. Quirk. Bucuresti: Editura Didacticã si Pedagogicã. as a traditional part of grammar. case. aspect. conjunctions). Phrases can be classified with regard to their head into noun phrases. There are four fundamental grammatical units characterized by a specific internal structure. Levitchi. voice. deals with words and the changes that affect their forms to express various grammatical meanings associated with such categories as number. Sydney. 29 . or comparison. A University Course in English Grammar. Leon (1970). verb. verb phrases. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. Singapore: Phoenix ELT. adjectival phrases.
Send – away assignment (SAA) 1
Complete the following test to find out how much you know about basic morphology. A. How many different lexemes are there in the following list? man, men, girls, girl, mouse, work, play, walk, leave (10 minutes: 10 points) B. Each underlined word in the following passage ends with an inflectional suffix. Write beside each word the morpheme label for the inflectional suffix it contains (-pl., poss, -prs, -ed, -en, -ing, -er, -est). (15 minutes: 10 points) At a certain season of our life we are accustomed to consider every spot as the possible site of a house. I have thus surveyed the country on every side within a dozen miles (pl) of where I live. In imagination I have bought all the farms ( ) in succession, for all were to be bought, and I kne w their price. I walked ( ) over each farmer's ( ) premises ( ), tasted ( ) his wild apples ( ), discoursed on husbandry with him, took his farm at his price, at any price, mortgaging ( ) it to him in my mind; even put a higher ( ) price on it. This experience entitled me to be regarded as a sort of real-estate broker by my friends ( ).
Henry David Thoreau, Walden, Ch. 2. “Where I Lived, and What I Lived For”
C. Briefly define or explain the following terms (50-60 words): (30 minutes: 30 points) 1) grammatical meaning 2) lexeme 3) clause 4) noun phrase 5) affix 6) inflection 7) word 8) gender 9) stem 10) grammar Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. Total points for SAA 1: 50
Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 1.1 – 1. 7. SAQ 1.1.
a an a det. premodifier wide adequate UN increased developing global many lower socioeconomic head variety intake agency consumption foods countries supply production people consumption groups postmodifier of fruit and vegetables of most micronutrients and dietary fibers high in fats, sugar and salt of fruit and vegetables in the developing world
1. NP; 2. AP; 3. AdvP; 4.NP; 5. PP; 6. NP; 7. NP; 8. AP; 9. AdvP; 10. PP; 11. NP; 12. AP.
study, studies (noun); studies, studying, studied (verb); intellectual (adjective); intellectual, intellectuals, intellectuals’ (noun) Should your answers to SAQs 1.1 – 1.3 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise sections 1.1. – 1.2. rewrite, redo, reevaluate, reunification
SAQ 1.4. SAQ 1.5.
A. 1. possible; 2. cloud; 3. child; 4. teach; 5. develop; 6. peace; 7. exception; 8. parent; 9. friend; 10. industrial. B. 1. drinkable; 2. prioritize; 3. forgetfulness; 4. unforgivable; 5. parenthood; 6. productive; 7. government; 8. owner; 9. notify; 10. popularity. A. Inflectional affix: eggs, walked, singing, John's, faster, given, quickest. Derivational affix: react, goodness, capitalism, worker, employee, jobs. B. 1. John’s (genitive); looks (simple present tense); older (comparative); 2. boys (plural); studied (past tense); longer (comparative); 3. written (past participle); longest (superlative); 4. claimed (past tense); tried (past participle); 5. am (present tense); waiting (present participle); owns (present tense); 6. tallest (superlative); studies (present tense); Bill’s (genitive). 31
NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 1.4 – 1.6 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise section 1.3.2.
word class noun determiner pronoun adjective numeral verb adverb preposition conjunction
item elephants, holiday, beach, day, s wim, sea, pair, trunks the, a it, they hot two, one went, sat, was, fancied, having, couldn’t, had down, very, unfortunately, only on, in, of and
NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 1.7 not be comparable to those given above, we strongly advise you to revise section 1.3.3.
Objectives 2.1. Types of nouns 2.1.1. Proper nouns 2.1.2. Common nouns 2.2. Noun formation 2.2.1. Derived nouns 2.2.2. Compound nouns 2.3. Number 2.3.1. Countable v. uncountable nouns 2.3.2. Regular plural formation 2.3.3. Irregular plural formation 2.3.4. Foreign plurals 2.3.5. Nouns resistant to number contrast 2.4. Case 2.4.1. The common case 2.4.2. The genitive case 2.5. Gender 2.5.1. Lexical expression of gender 2.5.2. Morphological expression of gender 2.5.3. Dual gender nouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send away assignment (SAA) 2 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs )2.1 – 2.10
34 34 34 35 36 36 38 39 39 39 46 48 49 51 51 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 59 62
places (London).1. proper nouns are marked by an initial capital letter.1. natural phenomena (thunder) and others. You will study the nominal categories of gender. 34 . Nouns can be broadly grouped into a number of classes. Proper nouns designate specific people (Bill Gates). 2. Proper nouns Proper nouns name unique entities that are known to the speaker and the hearer in a given speech situation. 2. you will be able to: • explain how nouns are formed. although their capitalization is strictly a matter of convention. There is an important semantic distinction between proper nouns and common nouns. • identify and use classes of nouns in the plural form.1. • explain the difference between countable and uncountable nouns. Objectives After studying this unit. Orthographically. • classify nouns according to morphological and semantic criteria. objects. Types of nouns Nouns refer semantically to concrete entities such as persons. • distinguish between nouns in the masculine. You will learn a number of important concepts used in the analysis of nouns as well as develop practical skills by solving exercises. institutions (The UNO. which differ in meaning and grammatical properties. as basic elements of noun phrases.Nouns Aim This unit will introduce you to the morphological characteristics of nouns. The Parliament) and rank from single words to fairly lengthy strings of words. feminine and neuter. number and case. which will facilitate your understanding of the correct use of the noun in communication. places but also to actions (laughter). abstractions (thought). • illustrate the various meanings of the genitive constructions.
periods: World War II. Helen. The Industrial Revolution. the Old Vic (Theatre). Romania. Parliament. a Republican. Geographical names: Britain. emotions (anger). However. such as hotels. there are many proper nouns that are regularly preceded by the definite article. a Democrat. geographic areas): the Alps. the Suez Canal. straits. the Metropolitan (Opera). forests. phenomena (rain) and others. n) Names of ships. Historical events. March. peninsulas. Holidays. institutions. persons (girl). Monday. Adjectives and common nouns derived from proper nouns: a Marxist. law. qualities (beauty). Some important groups are: k) Plural geographical names (mountain groups. Common nouns Common nouns refer to ordinary things (book). a Frenchman. the Straits of Magellan. relations (friendship).1. months and days of the week: Easter. The referent may be perceived as a countable [C] entity (dog – dogs). museums. or as an indivisible. followers of particular religions and some religious concepts: Christianity. abstractions (suggestion). Muslim. deserts. Italy. Oxford University. Political parties and their members: The Republican Party. The Declaration of Independence. restaurants. island groups. l) Other geographical names such as rivers. p) Points on the globe: The North Pole. the Yucatan Peninsula. The Eiffel Tower. Many nouns which are basically uncountable also have countable uses with a difference of meaning: 35 . Victorian. m) Public institutions. Persons and bodies with unique public functions: The President. o) Many newspapers and periodicals: The Guardian. uncountable [U] mass entity (sugar). seas. The Mayflower. theaters. and canals: the Danube. Languages: English. Public buildings. the Sahara. God. libraries: the Ritz (Hotel). mostly those well-known in history: The Titanic. The Equator. animals (horse) but also denote actions (work). Religions. Proper nouns do not normally take any determiner because they refer to an entity whose identity is already known. the Persian Gulf. Romanian and nationalities: a German. places (countryside). the Bahamas.2. the Black Forest. The Washington Post. the Middle East.Nouns The most familiar proper nouns are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Personal names: John. 2. the Caspian. New Yorker. the Smithsonian (Museum). the Albert Hall. Congress. the Devil. monuments: The British Museum. gulfs. Buddhist. the National Gallery.
For instance. They have some chickens and two turkeys. among’ ‘small’ ‘one’ ‘not’ ‘outside.1.+ colonialism (noun) → neocolonialism The most productive prefixes are: a) Prefix antiautocounterhyper interminimonononoutprepseudoresemisubsuperteleunder36 basic meanings ‘against. In addition to derivation and compounding. above’ ‘distant’ ‘below. opposite to’ ‘self’ ‘against’ ‘extreme’ ‘between.Nouns I had ham. Derived nouns Most derivational prefixes have their own meanings which combine in various ways with the meaning(s) of the word to which they attach. there is conversion. ‘meat’ ‘bird’ [U] [C] 2. (verb) (noun) 2. We could hear the happy sounds of children at play. Noun formation New nouns can be formed by derivation and compounding.2. Prefixes usually do not change the word class: added to a noun root they form a new noun with a different meaning: neo. Derived nouns are formed by adding affixes (suffixes or prefixes). separate’ ‘before’ ‘false’ ‘again’ ‘half’ ‘below’ ‘more than. chicken and fish for dinner. also known as “zero derivation”. too little’ examples antiabortionist autobiography counterargument hyperinflation interaction minibus monotheism nonconformist outgrowth predecessor pseudo-democracy reconstruction semicircle submarine superhero teleshopping underachievement (noun) .2. no morpheme marks the change of the verb (play) into the corresponding noun (play) as below: You'll have to play inside today. Compound nouns are formed from two words combined to form a single noun (bed + room → bedroom) [the arrow shows the direction of derivation].
withdis-. hyper-. under-.Nouns Many of the derivational prefixes in English are of native Germanic origin. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) (help) (sincere) (confide) (precede) (drama) A feeling of utter …………... up-. In the example below. Here are some examples: Germanic: Latin: Greek: for-. I don’t doubt his ………. tele- SAQ 2. bio-. others are of foreign origin. the meanings of suffixes is rather vague. Latin or Greek. of good music. used for V-ing’ amount that fills N’ ‘person concerned with N’ ‘action of V-ing’ ’doctrine of N’ ‘person believing in N-ism’ ‘state of quality of being A’ ‘state of being N’ ‘skill as N’ examples assistance assistant freedom employee farmer computer handful mathematician reading Marxism Marxist blindness friendship craftsmanship 37 . non-. The derivational process may also bring about changes in spelling and pronunciation: b) Suffix -ance -ant. out-. mis-.1.. sub-.. writes plays for the theater. I’d like to speak to you in ………. neo-..... She shows little ……………. over-. psycho-. the suffix is added to a verb to form a noun: employ (verb) + er → employer (noun).. -ent -dom -ee -er -ful -ician -ing -ism -ist -ness -ship meanings ‘action/state of V-ing’ ‘person who V-s’ ‘state of being A/N’ ‘person who has been V-ed’ ‘person who V-s’ ‘smth.. geo-. A …. In contrast with prefixes.. washed over him. pro-... suffixes can be added to words belonging to various classes. pre-. transanti-. You should give your schoolwork ………….... super-.. 6) (appreciate) While prefixes are attached to nouns to produce other nouns. macro-.. television or radio.. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in parentheses.
screwdriver housekeeping blackbird cookbook printing-press go-between. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 38 a factory producing paper a story about war a person training teachers the door of the garage a headline in a newspaper soup made of chicken a paste for cleaning teeth the light to the moon the waves of the sea a case for books a paper factory _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ . c) a number of nouns are formed by means of conversion or ‘zero derivation’. input SAQ 2.2. Compound nouns Compounding is the most productive process by means of which the vocabulary of the English language expands. In compounding.Nouns Derivational suffixes are more productive than derivational prefixes.2. sometimes more than two. Some major patterns are illustrated in the following table: pattern noun + noun noun+verb-er noun+verb-ing adjective+noun verb+noun verb-ing+noun verb+particle particle+verb example database bookseller.e. combine to form new words. without the benefit of an affix: (verb) drink (verb) cut (verb) move (adjective) poor (adjective) young → → → → → (noun) drink (noun) cut (noun) move (noun) the poor (noun) the young Do you want me to cut the cake? (verb) A cut of 1% in interest rates was announced yesterday. i. (noun] 2. Express the following ideas using a noun + noun structure. dropout income. two words.2.
countable entities one paper . Number The grammatical category of number in nouns correlates with the notion of countability.lands box . The number system has two terms: singular. ‘Mountainous forested watersheds are the most important freshwater-yielding areas in the world but also the source area for landslides.1.3.farms land .’ Food and Agriculture Organization. identify the nouns in the following paragraph and state whether they denote countable entities or amounts of substance. which denotes ‘more than one’. The FAO report on forests and water stresses the need to improve environment policy in support of the management of mountain forests and upland areas. Think first! Before reading the next section. Write your answers in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues. The singular is not marked while the plural of most nouns is marked by simply adding the –s or –es: farm . Loss of forest cover threatens freshwater supplies. with separate singular and plural forms.two forests substance water 2.buses 39 . and plural. uncountable nouns The vast majority of English nouns are countable. torrents and floods.Nouns 2. which denotes ‘one’. Countable v.two papers one forest .3.boxes bus .
They are invariable.Nouns Uncountable nouns refer to entities which cannot be counted. furniture. flowers handful of salt. information. plateful. fish basket of eggs. all waiting to be checked and loaded. soap. scores of animals. progress. gas. wood There's heaps of time before the plane leaves. c) standardized measure terms pint. salt. equipment) or abstract nouns (knowledge. gram. meter of material. they cannot change their number. Both countable and uncountable nouns can enter constructions denoting the part of a whole. tea sack of grain. milk. pound. matches. tone of aluminum. hundreds. fruit. accidents dozens. bricks. books There were scores of boxes and crates. liter of beer. millions of dollars. gallon. rice. They are usually names of materials (cotton. news. water. rocks. flowers box of chocolate. pencils 40 . blankets pile of bills. milk). kilo(gram) of cheese. collections of things (baggage. bricks d) plural numerals tens. luck. sand.e. mouthful. butter. flour ton. wire. quart. i. Quantifying nouns vary in number like ordinary countable nouns: He drank a cup / three cups of tea. The major types of quantifying nouns are: a) nouns denoting the type of container barrel of brandy. advice). bellyful. teaspoonful: armful of straw. e) nouns ending in -ful: the suffix –ful can be added to almost any noun denoting some kind of container to form a quantifying noun: basketful. Such partitive constructions consist of a quantifying noun indicating the part or the quantity and an ofphrase specifying the type of matter referred to. inch. books cup of coffee. water foot. grass. potatoes. mail b) nouns denoting shape heap of leaves. cloth ounce. yard. pocketful.
. hands.A. sheet.3. boys I've seen her a couple of times before. item. please? Put another ……… of coal on the fire. . SAQ 2. gloves. socks couple of days. Complete each sentence with one suitable word from the list.Nouns She scooped up handfuls of loose earth. B. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Let me give you a ……… of advice. ants ducks horses rabbits bees fish locusts sheep cattle flies mares trout chickens geese oxen turkeys cows goat pigeons wolves dogs hen pigs Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit: a colony / an army of a swarm of a herd of a brood a pack of _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ 41 .B. set. A. hours. slice. Do you want another ……… of toast? We bought Mary a ……… of cutlery for a wedding present. flight. Use each word once only: blade. A ……… of stairs takes you to the top of the house. She’s going to buy a new pair of shoes. piece. Use a dictionary to decide what you call a group of . 9) There was not a single ……… of grass left standing. Can I have another ……… of paper. SAQ 2. head. f) nouns denoting two items: pair of eyes. lump. Helen has a lovely ……… of hair.3. There is an interesting ……… of news in the paper.
-f. potato ……………………………………………………………………….. bush.……………………………………………………………………… . poppy. ………………………………………………………………………. How is the plural of these nouns formed? When do you add –es instead of –s to form the plural of a noun? ……………………………………………………………………….Nouns a flush / team of a shoal of a flock of a herd / team of a plague of a stud of a team / yoke of a flight / flock of a colony / bury /nest of a hover of _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Think first! Write the plural form of cat. dog. How do you form the plural of nouns ending in –y. and –fe ? ………………………………………………………………………. fox. tomato. .……………………………………………………………………… . 42 . . Write your answers in your portfolio too and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and/or your colleagues. church. Write the plural form of the nouns day. knife. wolf. . .
2.3.2. Regular plural formation
The regular plural is formed by means of an –s suffix which is pronounced [s] or [z]. The plural ending is pronounced /s/ when the singular ends with a voiceless consonant / p, t, k, f, θ/: /p/ /t / /k/ /f / /θ / map – maps cat – cats book – books cliff—cliffs, roof—roofs, gulf--gulfs moth – moths
The plural ending is pronounced /z/ when the singular ends with a vowel or with a voiced consonant: /b/ /d/ /g/ rib – ribs bed – beds pig – pigs
The plural ending -es , pronounced [iz], is added when the noun ends in sibilants [s, ʃ ʧ z, ʒ ] , ,, : /s / /ʃ / /ʧ / /z / /ʒ / horse – horses bush – bushes church – churches prize – prizes mirage – mirages
Attention should be paid to certain spelling points concerning nouns ending in –y, -f / -fe and –o: Nouns ending in –y: If the singular form ends in a vowel +y, add –s for the plural: boy – boys day – days If the singular form ends in a consonant +y, the plural ends in -ies: poppy – poppies factory – factories
Nouns ending in –f or –fe, have the plural in -ves: calf – calves wolf – wolves half – halves wife – wives leaf – leaves shelf-- shelves
With some nouns, both regular plurals in –s and –ves plurals are possible: scarf – scarfs/ scarves hoof – hoofs / hooves 43
Nouns ending in –o have the plural form –s if the noun ends in vowel +o: radio – radios, or in nouns of foreign origin: kilo – kilos, photo – photos However, if the singular noun ends in consonant +o, the plural is –es: hero – heroes, potato – potatoes, tomato – tomatoes Abbreviations take the regular –s plural ending: PCs, CDs, DVDs.
A. Write the plural form of the nouns ending in –y: 1) He withdrew the key from his pocket where he had been toying with it. 2) There is a growing tendency among employers to hire casual staff. 3) He waited for the students’ reply. 4) A grand jury called 10 witnesses yesterday. 5) The Secretary of State has repeated a warning. 6) Finding a doctor can be difficult in a foreign country. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit:
Write the plural form of the nouns ending in -o: 1) It was just a potato and tomato salad but it was the best John had ever had. 2) If you listen carefully, you will hear the echo coming back from the mountain. 3) In times of trouble anybody can become a hero. 4) On the piano there was a framed photo taken ten years ago at their wedding ceremony. 5) Granny was watching too many soap operas on TV and she never listened to the radio. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit:
Simple nouns get the –s/-es marker of the plural attached at the end of the word. What about compound nouns? Underline the correct plural form: A grown-up is requested to pay all the fees. Grown-ups / growns up are requested to pay all the fees. A gentleman farmer was invited to attend the meeting. Several gentleman farmers / gentlemen farmers were invited to attend the meeting. Write your answers in your portfolio too and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues.
Compound nouns form the plural in different ways: a) plural in the first element: attorney general notary public passer-by mother-in-law grant-in-aid attorneys general notaries public passers-by mothers-in-law grants-in-aid
b) plural in both first and last element: gentleman farmer manservant woman doctor c) plural in the last element: grown-up stand-by forget-me-not sit-in grown-ups stand-bys forget-me-nots sit-ins gentlemen farmers menservants women doctors
With the nouns illustrated so far, the plural form is fully predictable from the singular, i.e. they have the regular plural.
2.3.3. Irregular plural formation
Irregular plurals are by definition unpredictable. For this simple reason the plurals of the nouns that follow such a pattern have to be learned as individual lexical units. In many cases where foreign words are involved, it is helpful to know about pluralization in the relevant languages, particularly Latin and Greek. Vowel change In a small number of nouns, there is a change of vowel sound and spelling (‘mutation plurals’) without an ending, which distinguishes the singular form from the plural one: goose – geese tooth – teeth foot – feet man – men woman – women
/’w u m ə / n /wimin /
mouse – mice louse – lice
a) Nouns naming animals. and terribly proud of their country.Nouns Zero plural Some nouns have the same form both in the singular and in the plural. There is a strong tendency for units of number. they have the regular –s plural: Aren’t those pheasants beautiful? b) Nouns of quantity. When these animals are not seen as a pray. especially when viewed as prey: They shot two reindeer. Sheep. They fall into three main categories: names of animals. Other animals. quantifying nouns and nationality names. birds and fishes can have zero plurals. The woodcock/ pheasant/ herring/ trout/ salmon/ fish are not very plentiful this year. though this is strictly forbidden. c) Nationality names ending in –ese (Portuguese. Chinese. when not preceded by numerals. These nouns take a verb either in the singular or in the plural: This sheep has just had a lamb. Thousands of people had lived in the flooded area. of length. 47 . honest. Japanese) also have zero plurals: The Chinese are friendly. deer and cod though countable have the same form for the singular and the plural. these nouns have normal plural forms: Dozens (and dozens) of people crowded into the room. These sheep have just had lambs. of value and of weight to have a zero plural when premodified by another quantitative word: three dozen / hundred people many thousand / million insects eight ton of coal ten head / yoke of oxen three pound / stone of potatoes However.
3. and Greek.4. In some cases. -ix with plural –ices /isi:z/: index matrix indices matrices f) Nouns in –is /is/ with plural –es /i:z/: analysis axis basis crisis hypothesis parenthesis thesis analyses axes bases crises hypotheses parentheses theses g) Nouns in –on /ən/ with plural –a /ə/: criterion phenomenon criteria phenomena 48 . especially Latin. there are two plurals: an English regular form used in everyday language and the foreign plural preferred in technical discourse: a) Nouns in –us /əs/ with plural –i /ai/: bacillus stimulus bacilli stimuli b) Nouns in –us /əs/ with plural –a /ə/ (only in technical use): corpus genus corpora genera c) Nouns in –a /ə/ with plural –ae /i:/ or /ai/: regular plural formula vertebra foreign plural formulas vertebras formulae vertebrae d) Nouns in –um /ə with plural –a /ə/: m/ : curriculum curricula stratum strata e) Nouns in –ex. Foreign plurals Numerous nouns adopted from foreign languages. retain the foreign inflection for plural.Nouns 2.
synthesis -us → -i -a → -ae -um → -a -ex.5.Nouns h) Some nouns from French sometimes retain a French plural in writing. dominoes 49 . uranium abstract mass nouns: music. Write them in the corresponding row. such nouns will be grouped into: a) Singular nouns (also known as singularia tantum) are nouns that have no plural form.5. -ix → -ices -is → -es -on → -a nucleus. Accordingly. larva. criterion. formula. syllabus. dirt. a regular English plural: regular plural bureau plateau foreign plural bureaus /-əuz / plateaus bureaux /-əu/ plateaux SAQ 2. with the French zero ending in speech or. fungus. curriculum.3.nuclei/ nucleuses 2. acoustics names of diseases: mumps. homework proper nouns: London. Some nouns have two plural forms: the original one. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit: bacterium. The most familiar are: concrete mass nouns: silver. The following nouns have retained in English their original Latin or Greek plural forms. the Danube. datum. Nouns resistant to number contrast Number essentially involves the distinction between ‘one’ and ‘more than one’. more usually. thesis. measles names of games: billiards. and a second one following the English rules of plural formation. phenomenon. index. Mary certain nouns ending in –s: news names of sciences ending in –ics: physics. but there are singular nouns that cannot ordinarily be plural (meat) and plural nouns that cannot ordinarily be singular (binoculars).
pants. team. 6) The police has / have no idea about the identity of the murderer. the collective noun is followed by a verb in the singular: The average British family has 3-6 members. If collective nouns are considered as denoting a group of individuals doing personal things or involved in performing certain activities.Nouns b) Plural nouns (also pluralia tantum) are nouns with only one form. tongs). ministry. government. staff. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) My family always spend / spends their Easter holiday up in the North of Moldavia. My children are playing and my wife is watching them.6. union. 7) The police is / are looking for the murderer. SAQ 2. Underline the correct form of the verb. 5) The whole team has / have been working on the same project since May. Collective nouns agree with the verb either in the singular or in the plural depending on their meaning. They refer to entities which comprise two parts: tools and instruments (scissors. shorts. trousers): These scissors are too blunt. scales. c) Collective nouns are common nouns that refer to groups of people: class. an abstract entity. pajamas. They do all they can for me. and articles of dress (jeans. family. jury. forceps. 2) The press was / were asked to leave the hall. they are followed by a verb in the plural and plural pronouns: My family are at the seaside. They are all on the beach now. These trousers don’t match your shirt. committee. 10) Cattle is / are feeding on the banks of the river. 50 . the plural. When the emphasis is on the group as an impersonal unit. My firm was founded in the 19th century. The set includes binary nouns (also known as summation plurals). etc. My firm are wonderful. 3) The press was / were asked to take their seats 4) The team has / have been working in different places since May. party. 8) In this village it is the community that decide / decides 9) The staff is / are arguing fiercely with their opponents. firm.
4.Nouns 2. That is why it is sometimes called the ‘possessive’ case.4.” “The parents consented. (Dative. Patient) 2.4.” “the cheeses produced in England. However.2. The common case Nouns in English have the same form when they are used in the nominative.” “The car has a wheel. Consequently. (Accusative. Case Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic function and the semantic role of a noun. besides showing possession the genitive has other meanings related to some basic sentence structure: Genitives a) possessive genitive Mary’s passport the car’s wheel subjective genitive the parents’ consent genitive of origin the girl’s story England’s cheeses objective genitive the family’s support the boy’s release descriptive genitive a women’s college a doctor’s degree Analogues “Mary owns a passport. dative or accusative case. English nouns have two cases: the unmarked common case and the marked genitive case.1. (Nominative. (Nominative. The genitive case The genitive is mainly used to express possession. 2. Morphologically. these cases are collectively known as ‘the common case’: A farmer uses fertilizers to improve the crop.” “The girl told / wrote a story.” “somebody supports the family” “somebody released the boy” “a college for women” “a doctoral degree / a doctorate” b) c) d) e) 51 . Agent) A farmer loves his land. Beneficiary ) Liz married a farmer. Experiencer) The neighbors gave direct help to the farmer.
it is reasonable to regard the genitive as having two forms: a) the ’s genitive (the inflected genitive) indicated in writing by the apostrophe ’s suffix or apostrophe only. The following four animate noun classes take the ’s genitive. after the modifying noun: modifying noun head modifying noun head the boy’s toys the students’ fault b) the of genitive (the periphrastic genitive) consisting of the modifying of-phrase after the head of the noun phrase: The The toys of the children head head modifying of-phrase modifying of-phrase fault of the students Choice of the ’s genitive The choice of the ’s-genitive depends on the gender of the noun in the genitive case. can be very similar to geographical names and are often written with initial capital letter: 52 .. the ’s genitive is favored by the animate nouns. Generally speaking. the similarity in meaning and function has caused the latter to be called the ‘of genitive’. institutions.Nouns The genitive constructions We frequently find a choice between using a premodifying genitive and a postmodifying prepositional phrase with of. etc. Thus. that is persons and animals with personal gender characteristic. but the of-genitive is also possible in most cases: personal names personal nouns collective nouns higher animals George Washington’s statue the boy’s new shirt the government’s decision the horse’s neck The ’s genitive is also used with certain kinds of inanimate nouns: a) geographical names: continents: countries: cities/towns: universities: Europe’s future Spain’s immigrants London’s water supply Harvard’s Linguistics department b) ‘locative nouns’ denote regions.
for order’s sake 53 . a doll’s house at ten miles’ distance the mind’s development. with some phrases connected to nature. yesterday’s ne ws. the bank’s clients. 9. 4. 5. 2. with words expressing dimension or value. 6. the herd’s head 20 euros’ worth. d. the horse’s tail Romania’s population the sun’s rays. science’s future Mary’s car. with geographical names or places.Nouns the world’s economic organization the Church’s mission the country’s population c) temporal nouns: the decade’s events a day’s work this year’s sales a week’s holiday d) nouns of ‘special interest to human activity’ the body’s needs the car’s performance SAQ 2. cow’s milk. with words expressing time. Match the situations when the ’s genitive is used with the corresponding examples. with words expressing distance. when the first noun is the user or producer of something expressed by the second. 3.7. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) bird’s nest. When you have finished compare your answers with those at the end of the unit: 1. with nouns of special interest to human activity. when the first noun is a person or a big animal. 7. The first has been solved for you. with words followed by sake. when the first noun refers to a group of living creatures or an organization. 8. 10.
The town has a name. The village road has an end. 8. Mary has a niece. 14. 7. The accident has a cause. Inanimate nouns regularly take of genitive. for example. 15. 4. The pupil has made a mistake. will equally well admit both genitive constructions: the car’s engine the book’s title the to wn’s population the engine of the car the title of the book the population of the town SAQ 2. The cow gives milk. 11. A walk takes five minutes. The fence is colored.8. The mayor has approved the funding. The cottage has two windows. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. The following nouns. 10. Rewrite the following sentences using ’s or the ofgenitive as appropriate. The project lasted for two years.Nouns Choice of the of genitive The of-genitive is chiefly used with nouns denoting lower animals and with inanimate nouns. The newspaper was published yesterday. Dad has consented to our marriage. 3. 9. Mary’s niece ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… 54 . 2. In certain cases both options are possible. This word has a meaning. 13. 5. 12. 6. but many inanimate nouns occur with the ’s genitive. The mountain is covered with forests.
2. Such distinctions are not normally made in the case of nouns referring to ’things’. consequently.sister son . and he was a male nurse.1.5. It is therefore connected to distinctions of sex and.mother brother .Nouns 2.nun Lexical means are also used to express gender with a number of animate nouns: bull .queen monk . They ordered the drinks from a female bartender. which are therefore classified as neuter.5.ewe boar – saw cock .cow fox . Gender Gender is a grammatical category characteristic of nouns that have male and female referents.hen stallion . 55 . the corresponding nouns tend to be in separate classes.mare stag .hind In compound nouns either the first constituent or the second one is lexically marked for the masculine – feminine distinction: a) the first constituent male nurse (male) student boy-friend Jack ass he-goat cock sparrow tom cat (female) nurse (female) student girl-friend Jenny ass she-goat hen sparrow tabby cat He was in the police you know.daughter spinster – bachelor lord – lady uncle .aunt nephew . Lexical expression of gender Nouns denoting family relationships (a) and social position (b) are lexically marked for gender (pair of different words): father . These were female prisoners convicted of violent crimes. namely masculine and feminine. Judy told a story about a British female reporter.vixen ram .niece king .
Compounds ending in -person(s) and -people are sometimes used to express reference to both males and females and to avoid sex-bias associated with the use of the corresponding masculine forms: Mrs. Morphological expression of gender A few English nouns have gender-specific derivational suffixes. 2. We have a vacancy for an experienced salesperson. A State Department spokesman explained the situation. Most of the personal nouns refer to positions and jobs.Nouns b) the second constituent: chairman spokesman businessman congressman chairwoman spokeswoman businesswoman congresswoman A spokeswoman for the company announced the decision. In most cases the feminine noun is derived from the masculine one: masculine actor governor mayor mister god hero feminine → actress → governess → mayoress → mistress → goddess → heroine [the arrow → shows the direction of derivation] There are a few exceptions to this rule: masculine widower bride <= <= feminine widow bridegroom 56 . their Chairperson. was interviewed yesterday. Moon.5.2. Jane was the spokesperson for the delegation.
9. special problems arise. child. pupil. Underline the nouns marked for gender and give the corresponding masculine or feminine pairs. Some grammarians call them dual gender nouns: journalist. student. The first has been done for you: 1) Parents of the bridegroom are Mr. where the sex of the referent is unidentified or irrelevant. doctor. fo wl. sheep. 2. 5) "God save the King!” 6) She is a very high-powered businesswoman. baby. pig. and Mrs. etc. Traditionally. horse. friend. 1) bridegroom (M) – bride (F). etc. but she failed. 57 .5. masculine pronouns have been used: The individual can deal directly with his employer if he chooses so. 4) The old woman had a nephew from Northern Italy.Nouns SAQ 2. 8) The Congresswoman tried hard. teacher. Nobody in his right mind punishes a quarter-century-old dereliction. When referring to nouns of dual gender and pronouns such as anybody or nobody. 7) The hunters had killed a lioness. deer. there are several nouns in English where the distinction male/female is neutralized. fox. Write your answers in the spaces provided below and compare them with those given at the end of the unit. however. Dual gender nouns Within personal nouns. Ferguson 2) The hero of this novel is a man fighting injustice. 9) They have a she-goat in the barn.3. the same noun naming both. A. 3) Gavin's stallion was in the barn.
Animate nouns are masculine or feminine. feminine of dual gender noun (wherever possible). a plural form pronoun is preferred as a way of purposely not specifying the sex of the person referred to (although the expressions he or she. did they? Everyone thinks they are in the centre of the universe. SAQ 2. him or her may also be used): Nobody came. the ’s genitive being favored by animate nouns. the grammatical category of gender is closely connected with sex distinctions. The English case system consists in the unmarked common case (corresponding to the nominative. while uncountable have only one form. which name ordinary things. ‘zero plural’. and common nouns. The choice is between a premodifying ’s genitive and a postmodifying genitive (ofgenitive) and depends on gender distinctions. Once you have let anybody in they'd chop you up and put you in their next stew. Although most English common nouns mark the plural by means of an –s suffix. Fill in the table below.Nouns Nowadays. further grouped into countable and uncountable. dative and accusative cases) and the marked genitive case. a large number of nouns do not follow this pattern and use other markers: vowel change.10. Inanimate nouns are neuter. etc. which name unique entities. and ‘more than one’. indicating the corresponding masculine. either in the singular or in the plural). 58 . Such distinctions correlate with different grammatical patterns (countable nouns have singular and plural number. The category of number indicates the opposition between ‘one’. In English. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: masculine ram engineer stag chairman feminine niece spinster nanny-goat widow dual pig sheep engineer goat horse hen Summary In this unit we have discussed the morphological criteria used to identify a number of noun classes: proper nouns.
Editura Spanda. Developing competence in English. The English Noun Phrase. T/F 9) Nouns denoting persons are either masculine or feminine. T/F 6) All nouns have singular and plural forms. 11-40. 16 – 95. Hortensia (1995). Iasi. Intensive English Practice. (2004). Polirom. Ileana (1999). T/F 3) Both proper and common nouns start with a capital letter. Bucuresti: Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti. T/F 4) Derived nouns are formed by means of affixes. Georgiana. Gramatica limbii engleze. A generative perspective.Nouns Key terms case collective noun common noun compound noun countable uncountable foreign plurals gender genitive noun number proper noun quantifier zero plural Further reading Baciu. 195 . True or false? Choose as appropriate. T/F 7) All nouns in the genitive case express possession. English Morphology: Word Formation. pp 71 – 93. Horia (2004) Syntheses in English Morphology.209. T/F 5) Nouns in the plural always end in –s. Editura didacticã si pedagogicã. pp. Ecaterina Comisel (1982). T/F 10) All nouns get either prefixes or suffixes to express gender. Timisoara. T/F 8) The ‘s-genitive is preferred for inanimate nouns. Gãlãteanu. Bucuresti. (5 minutes: 10 points) 1) Nouns may be countable or uncountable. Iasi. Vulcãnescu R. T/F 2) Some concrete nouns are uncountable. Parlog. Hestia Publishing House. Send away assignment (SAA) 2 A. Hulban. T/F 59 . Coser C.
Something had awoken her from her too long sleep and suddenly she knew that she had to leave that house and try her luck somewhere else. 60 . they didn’t show their feelings. or she will find some work. 7) The farmer bought ( worth / Euro 20) of seeds. She was afraid the noise would wake Joe who was lying with mumps in the other room. 4) (legs / chair) were not very well glued. Underline the uncountable nouns in the following text and put them into one of the categories below: (10 minutes: 26 points) substances: coffee human qualities: feelings: activities: abstract ideas: subjects of study: sports events: games: illnesses: She left her coffee on the table. All she felt was a great feeling of relief now that she had made the decision. 2) Although (Ann / reply) amazed her relatives. 3) They were satisfied with (work / that day). She had to try at least. She headed towards the pantry to pack some food and on the way she tripped over the checkers that Marty had left on the floor when he left for the athletics class. so Jim fell when he sat down. untouched. If everything went wrong she could still continue her career in politics. 5) She rubbed (floor/ kitchen) clean and then continued with the ( windows / sitting room). 6) Jane was pleased with her (holiday/two weeks) in the mountains.Nouns B. A feeling of pride overwhelmed her. Courage had almost left her but her patience was over. Rewrite the sentences using the correct possessive form of the nouns given in parenthesis: (10 minutes: 7 points) 1) (roof / shed) was blown off by the storm last week. But she didn’t stop.’ C.
and the cutlery will be on it: knife on the right. people will leave the money on the table with a tip. Nouns with the same form for both singular and plural: _____________________________________ c. 7) Jamie put down the scissors in front of the mirror next to the pincers. Smoking is forbidden. fork on the left. 4) Women are as efficient in managerial jobs as men. Nouns that refer to single items that have two linked parts: _____________________________________ 1) During the three years he had spent in the jungle. menu in the middle. there’ll be a spoon and a special knife for the fish but no teaspoon since people might prefer a piece of fruit instead of an ice cream or a cake. 3) She taught the children to take good care of their teeth. 5) The sheep were grazing in the field when he came to gather them. Life in the Iron-Mills guests. Underline the nouns in the text below and write their plural form: (10 minutes: 34 points) ‘You have to be waiting for the guest if he has had a reservation.___________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ E. Read the following sentences. Irregular nouns: child – children _____________________________________ b. 2) Joe put the meat on the scales before cutting it up into small pieces. The table has to be ready with a sparkling tablecloth and a matching napkin for each person. No ashtray in this room. There’s always a flower or a bunch in a vase in the middle of the table. If you want to have some dessert. Have the bill ready when they ask for it but leave the table immediately: don’t worry.’ Rebecca Harding Davis.Nouns D. 61 . b. Identify the nouns belonging to the different categories a. you bring in the trolley so they can choose. 6) The astronaut wrote two series of numbers on the board. Harris identified several new species of plants. For a special event. c and give some more examples for each category: (10 minutes: 13 points) a.
1. housework. I only do the washing up. Fill in the blank space with a suitable word. We will basically manage alone. But they don't lay eggs. Choose from the list below. 5) How much ______ have we got to finish the project? 6) I do not have to do much __________. 6. sincerity. help. a war story. chicken. 1. fish. 62 . time. the garage door. dramatist. 1. 8) I won't take too much ___________ with me. 10) We do not need as much ____________ as last time. 2.’ 4) He does not eat much _____________. a newspaper headline. 7. 4. tooth paste.2. a teacher trainer.1 – 2. 8.10 SAQ 2. He likes only carp. chicken soup. luggage. Some of the nouns may not be useful. 3. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. only a suitcase and a handbag. 5. 9) They have not caught many ____________ from the river. money. precedence.Nouns 8) Tom had left his glasses on the shelf and now he couldn’t see the trout because of the sun glistening in the water. F. news. moonlight. 6. 5. 4. confidence. experience. times. children. furniture. things. appreciation. Total points for SAA 2: 93 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 2. a paper factory. wine 1) ‘How many ________ do they have?’ Six. (5 minutes: 10 points) cars. coffee.’ 3) ‘How much ___________ would you like with your rice?’ ‘Just a little. helplessness. 9. fish. 3. SAQ 2. chickens. please.’ 2) ‘How much ________ have you received from your friend?’ ‘I haven't heard from him lately. 10. bookcase. 2. the sea waves. 7) I have got so many__________ to tell you.
goats. wolves. radios. has. a stud of mares. 8. have. spend. cows. 9. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. are. a drove / herd / sounder of pigs. 3. 8. heroes. a colony / an army of ants. are. the mayor’s approval of the funding. have. a hover of trout. A. were. 5. flight. 7. yesterday’s newspaper. 2.1 – 2. 5. 1. potatoes. 4. 10. 2. a colony / bury / nest of rabbits. 5.1 . [-us > -i] nucleus – nuclei /nucleuses fungus –fungi / funguses syllabus – syllabi / syllabuses [-ix. 8.criteria SAQ 2. 7. the pupil’s 63 . the town’s name/ the name of the town.3. a brood / peep of chickens. was. A. 5. 1. lump.5. e. SAQ 2. a. b. h. turkeys. authorities. 6. 8. 7. clap B. -ex > -ices] index – indices [-a > -ae] formula formulae /formulas larva – larvae – [-um > -a] datum – data curriculum curricula bacterium bacteria – – [-is > -es] thesis – theses synthesis – syntheses [-on > -a] phenomenon – phenomena criterion . 9. countries. decides. 1. SAQ 2. set. a pack of dogs. pianos. a swarm of bees. 10.2. g. a brood of hens. sheet. piece. 3.7. 3. f. are. 4. c. 10. 2. keys. 7. the cause of the accident. j. 6. A. 3. a shoal of fish. two year project. 6. replies. 4. echoes.4.8. a flight / flock of pigeons. a flush / team of ducks. a herd of cattle. secretaries. juries. 9. 1. d.3 SAQ 2. a plague of locusts. SAQ 2. 5. slice. a flock of geese. B. 4. 1. 5.6. the color of the fence.Nouns SAQ 2. 4. 1. tomatoes. 4. head. 3. a team / yoke of oxen. 2. 6.6 not be comparable to those given above. 3. blade. a drove / herd / stable / team of horses. i. item. flies. we strongly advise you to revise sections 2. 6. sheep. 2.
11. lion. 5.5. 15. we strongly advise you to revise section 2.8 not be comparable to those given above. businessman. 13. niece. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. SAQ 2. mare. 4. the end of the village road. 9. queen. 8. the mountain’s forests / the forests of the mountain. 2.10.9. 3. A. 9. 6. hog nephew ram bachelor engineer billy-goat widower stag stallion chairman cock sow niece ewe spinster female engineer nanny goat widow hind mare chairwoman hen pig sheep engineer goat deer horse chairperson - NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 2. we strongly advise you to revise section 2.2. the cow’s milk.2.10 not be comparable to those given above. Dad’s consent to our marriage. the meaning of the word.Nouns mistake.9 . 7. 10. 64 .7 . he-goat.4. congressman. 12. 1. heroine. 14. the windows of the cottage. a five minutes’ walk / a walk of five minutes. bride. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) SAQ 2.
The zero article 184.108.40.206.5. Pronouns 3. Relative pronouns Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA 4) Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 220.127.116.11. Reflexive pronouns 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.2. Semi-determiners 3. Determiners 126.96.36.199.13 66 66 67 68 70 72 76 76 77 81 85 87 87 89 90 91 92 955 966 977 98 99 99 99 102 65 . Demonstrative determiners 3.Determiners and pronouns UNIT 3 Determiners and pronouns Objectives 3. Interrogative pronouns 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. Possessive pronouns 3.2. Reciprocal pronouns 220.127.116.11 – 3. Indefinite pronouns 3.1. Demonstrative pronouns 3.1. The indefinite article 3.2.2. The definite article 3.1. Quantifiers 3. Possessive determiners 3.1.2. Numerals 3. Personal pronouns 3.1.1. The article 3.6.
generically called determiners. interrogative). define and identify three types of articles: definite.e. 66 . measurements.e. thing(s) or event(s) that is/are close in time or space: How long have you been living in this country? He never comes to see me these days. quantifiers. reflexive. a.Determiners and pronouns Aim In this unit we will continue our study of the noun phrase by focusing on those items that precede the head . identify different types of pronouns (personal. demonstratives. they cannot be used simultaneously in the same noun phrase. define quantifiers and explain how they modify nouns. your. 3.1. his. that. with three subgroups: a) articles: the. b) demonstrative determiners: this. Among determiners. Determiners Determiners are words that specify the reference of a noun. possessives. reciprocal. The combinations of nouns with certain determiners differ depending on the type of noun. you will be able to: recognize different types of determiners (articles. numerals and semi-determiners) and explain their role in noun phrases. Objectives After studying this unit. (= now. possessive. the entity in the real world to which a noun refers. use numerals to express dates. i. three sub-groups may be identified according to their position: 1) Central determiners. This (sg) and these (pl) are used to refer to a particular person(s). those c) possessive determiners: my. indefinite and zero and account for their correct use. The second section will examine various types of pronouns and their function as substitutes for nouns in appropriate contexts. indefinite. demonstrative. as compared with the past). explain their role in the noun phrase or in the clause and account for their correct use. i. calculations. etc Central determiners are mutually exclusive. these. apply your understanding to the analysis of linguistic material.
Thus. I was living with my parents at that time. If a vowel is the first sound in the word.1. use an: a horse /`hɔ: s. The article The definite article (the) and the indefinite article (a) are the most common determiners. The semantic function of articles is to present the referents of a noun as indefinite. other. latter. Sometimes the written form of a noun may be misleading. definite or generic. a barn). an orchard). These two colors don't look right together. 3.Determiners and pronouns In contrast. As their name indicates. half and multipliers like double. I'm gradually losing all my friends. a European / wu / a woman. both. once. / wʌ/ a one-time hero The choice of the correct form of the indefinite article depends on pronunciation and not on spelling. last and next b) cardinal numerals six. that (sg) and those (pl) are used for referring to a person/persons or thing(s) that is/are not near the speaker or as near to the speaker as another/others: Look at that man over there. ten and quantifying determiners much. You should pay attention to nouns spelt with initial h. a union / ju / a Euro. 2) Predeterminers: all. former. second and the semideterminers same.1. predeterminers precede central determiners: There is much truth in both these charges. I think you'll find these shoes more comfortable than those. with two sub-groups: a) ordinal numerals first. many Post determiners follow central determiners: The disappearance of my former partner is extremely troubling. 3) Post determiners. Compare the initial sounds (not the letters) of the following nouns: /a / /e / an umbrella an egg / ju / a university. If h is pronounced as the consonant /h/ then use a./ a hotel /həu`tel/ an hour /`auə/ 67 . and an before nouns that begin with vowels (an apple. an is used when the word begins with an actual vowel sound and a when the word begins with a consonant or a consonant-like sound /ju/ or /wu/. The indefinite article is used before singular countable nouns or before nouns that begin with consonants (a cow.
10.e. … unintentional mistake. … honest refusal. 20. … ear-ring. 68 . the nouns diamond ring and cat take the indefinite article when used for the first time. 6. 2. … Australian student. 15. … heiress to the throne.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. 7. In these examples. instead of one: a couple. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the indefinite article (a. 12. … wall. Subsequent references to the same entity generally take the form of definite nouns or personal pronouns: He bought a diamond ring. The cat / It was black. Compare our answers with those at the end of the unit: 1. 13. 17. Laura tutored my older brother Johnny three times a week. six miles an hour: I take a walk at lunchtime. 14. b) in numbers.1. … elephant. a quarter. 3. 18. … honorable person. the relationship between two groups of people or things that is represented by two numbers showing how much larger one group is than the other: 16p a kilo.1. 16. … hare. … European journey. a hundred c) to indicate jobs: He is an engineer.1. a couple of miles a day. … engineer. five times a year. 5. When used for the second time. an) in the following noun phrases. … Ukrainian skater. … useful book. i. Joan is a teacher. Mary saw a cat. She accepted the ring / it . … owl. because they are new information in the discourse.1. 3. … unilateral agreement. The indefinite article The indefinite article is used to introduce a new entity in the discourse. 8. 11. Some special uses of the indefinite article a) in ratios (= “per”). they take the definite article (or are replaced by pronouns) because they are already known information. … one-man band. 9. … one-way street. 19. … historical speech. … worm. … Englishman. 4.
m. make.. I think I’ve got … cold […] . to indicate an action: have a talk / a walk / a sleep have/take a bath / a look / a rest / an interest in go for a ride / a run / a s wim / a walk make a(n) attempt / a fuss / a mistake / a speech You can have a sleep tonight. The first has been done for you: 1. We had … fish […] and … chips […] for … lunch […]. I’m going on … business […] . go. He is … vegetarian […] . Write your answers in the spaces provided below. It’s not … enormous salary […] but after all you are … completely unskilled man […] . Compare our answers with those at the end of the unit. SAQ 3. 7. 6. I hope you have … lovely time […] and … good weather […]. Decide whether the nouns are countable [C] or uncountable [U] and use the correct form of the indefinite article. I’ll pay you … hundred […] … week […] . I have … headache […] and … sore throat […] . 69 . 8. … travel agent would give you … information […] about … hotels […]. let’s ask him for … advice […] about color films. If I'm lucky I will go for a ride on my stallion. Would you like to come? 10. My neighbor is a photographer [C]. 2. 3. He’ll give you … nut cutlet […] . If you go by … train […] you can have quite … comfortable journey […] . you won’t get … meat […] at his house. 4. 5. etc. take.2. But I’m not going for … holiday […].Determiners and pronouns d) in idiomatic expressions with verbs like have. 9. I’m having … few friends […] in to … coffee […] tomorrow evening. We’d better go by … taxi […] – if we can get … taxi […] at such … hour […] as 2 a.
that is why the absent article is called the ‘zero’ article. Notice that the ‘zero’ article does not mean that the article has been omitted as in this newspaper headline: FARMERS CLAIM FAIR TREATMENT Reference is generic when the noun phrase refers to a whole class rather than to an individual person or thing. (to a certain church) We are at university. (we are students) (a certain meeting place) 70 . A horse is a domestic animal. (to attend service) They go to the nearest church. However.Determiners and pronouns 3. (in a certain hospital to visit a patient) (they are sick) They go to church on Sunday.2. The absence of the article in these cases indicates that the noun is generic. Some special uses of the zero article: Institutions In some fixed expressions indicating place.1. while a horse refers to any member of the species. not milk).1. and plural countable nouns (He hasn’t read books for years) are used without an article. Though close in meaning (both are generic). They’re in the hospital. we may use either the definite or the indefinite article to express generic reference. Let’s meet at the university. we use the zero article (the focus is on the type of institution rather than on a specific entity): at / to / from school at / to / from university (college) at / in / from / to church in / into / out / to / from hospital Notice the difference in meaning when the same noun is used with the zero article or with the definite article: They’re in hospital. The zero article There are situations when uncountable nouns (I drink coffee. as in: The horse is a domestic animal. with singular countable nouns. the horse refers to the species as a whole.
He woke up in the middle of the night. at dawn. days. In contrast. the definite article is used if a special meal is singled out: They had lunch at a cafe overlooking the intersection.Determiners and pronouns Meals The zero article refers to the general term ‘meal’. means of transport and communication Prepositional phrases opening with the preposition by take a noun with the zero article: (go) (travel) (contact) (send) by bus / car / coach / plane / taxi / train by air / horse / trail / car by radio / telephone by mail / post / satellite link a) times of the day The zero article is used especially with some prepositional phrases indicating time: at noon. they will freeze. Will the children be left alone at night? However. months and seasons We use the ‘zero’ article with the names of the days of the week and months of the year: In April came a rapid thaw that produced high waters. but when somebody gains a unique position. at night: The bell in the church tower rang before and after Mass and at noon. the use of the definite article shows a certain period of the day: She sat and waited for the dawn. a unique position Jobs and positions normally require an indefinite article. 71 . Jack grabbed the lunch from the table and went out. He was elected chairman of the committee. When winter comes in 12 weeks. the zero article is used: Queen Elizabeth had lunch with President Bush.
book titles. but the rod must be flexible and the line very strong. The use of the definite article may also reflect the situational context. They walked hand in hand along the path.Determiners and pronouns double expressions The zero article is sometimes found in combinations of identical or semantically related nouns. The entity to which the noun phrase refers is assumed to be known to the speaker. Reference may be to a unique event or to an ordinary. h) block language The zero article is normal with noun phrases in block language.3. 72 . Situational reference depends on the immediate speech situation or on the larger shared context. (unique reference) Go to the door. a line and some hooks are all you need. The hooks can't be too small. The definite article The definite article specifies the referent of the noun phrase.e. labels.1.1. common one: (immediate speech situation. newspaper headlines. Week by week he grew a little stronger. It may be obvious from the situation which particular object(s) is/are being referred to. both interlocut ors are in a room with one door) How do I get to the bus station? (larger shared cont ext) The sun sets in the west. and notices. where communication needs strip language of all but the most information-bearing forms: CEREAL STOCKS CONTINUE DECLINE NEW BAR ON EMIGRANTS KEY WITNESS DISAPPEARS 3. i. particularly with prepositions: arm in arm day after day day by day from cover to cover from top to toe hand in hand shoulder to shoulder week by week He traveled from country to country. This knowledge could be based on the preceding text: A rod. the special type of language used in public notices.
ordinal numbers. You look quite a sight in your red dress. intelligence. whole (of). The pupils had used the same dictionary. last. Notice however that when we talk about the parts of the body as affected by some external action. soul. A fragment of the tooth came off and hit me straight in the eye. Poor George! The only boy. e) with parts of the body and the human make-up (mind. Do you believe in the soul? Usually if we talk about a person’s body.): The second / next / best chapter was ready. The dog bit him in the leg. The definite article is stressed and pronounced / ði: /: Tom Cruise? Not the Tom Cruise? At that time London was the place to be. Yet in energy terms the UK is the best placed country in the whole of Europe. next. or about their possessions. intellect. etc. 73 . The majority of children will benefit by orthodontic treatment. b) with first. will) referred to generally: Heavy drinking will damage the liver. we use the possessive adjective: He broke his leg during a football match. we prefer a prepositional phrase + the: He wouldn't look Thomas in the face. the better. main. I was struck with the expression of his face. c) with "superlative" nouns: majority. superlative and superlativelike adjectives (only. the family darling.Determiners and pronouns Some special uses of the definite article: a) to show that the person or thing referred to is famous or important. She kissed the baby on the forehead. d) with interdependent comparatives: The sooner we get a way from here. etc. heart. right. same. wrong. minimum.
thumb with a hammer when I was hanging the picture. scrubbing the kitchen floor. 5) The lioness bit him in …………………………. the English. the Transylvanian Plateau. the Far East. the rich. the Moon. face.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3.a.. 3) I have a pain in ………………. the poor. The Eminescu Library. From the knowledge you have acquired about the use of determiners with nouns denoting parts of the human body. 10) I hit …………………. the Danube. The Sunday Times. d. the Carpathians. the Sun. The following illustrate the use of the definite article. f. hands with the host. the Arabian Gulf. 11) I saw him raise ………………. 8) You’ll strain …………………… eyes if you read in bad light. The University of Phoenix. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. the Panama Canal. chin thoughtfully. fill in the gaps either with an article or with a possessive determiner. knees. 1) The bullet struck him in ………. The Globe. shoulder. Match the statements to each set of examples: a. 6) We shook ………………………. 74 . the Pacific.3. 4) He stroked ……………………. the French. B. the Gobi. b. The British Museum.b. The Observer Magazine. if necessary. 9) She was soon on ……………. 2) Someone threw an egg which struck the speaker on ………. The National Gallery. shoulder.3.. 7) He is a selfish man. right hand and take an oath. the British Isles.. arm. SAQ 3. The Odeon. A. the Danube Delta. the Black Sea. leg.. 12) There was a shot and a policeman came out with ………… blood running down …………………. he wouldn’t lift ………………. e. c. finger to help anyone..
i. When …………. please. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. names of languages when determined by the word language.. plateaus. gulfs. 8.. the best. Smith?’ 75 . SAQ 3.Determiners and pronouns g. bays. deserts. Smith. 2. ………. Titanic was crossing ………… Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow. There’ll always be a conflict between ……… old and …. cinemas and theaters. h. things that are unique. …………. seas. hospitals. 1. place names: geographical regions. 9. ‘I’d like to see Mr. the Romanian language.3. names of peoples.. 3. 6. island groups. 7. mountain groups. libraries. the English language. 3. youngest boy has just started going to ………. 2. C. 5. the most beautiful. Insert the definite article if necessary. ……. passengers into ……. Write your answers in the space provided below.… young.. captain ordered ……… crew to help ………. oceans. ……. Smith who works in ……… box office or ………… other Mr. change but ……… old people want ………. nouns formed from adjectives. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. school. universities. young people want ………. ordinal numbers. The first has been done for you: a-4. some newspapers and magazines. eldest boy is at ………… college. 4. the fifth. boats. rivers.’ ‘Do you mean ………… Mr. same. the second. the superlative of adjectives. public buildings: hotels. 4. the biggest. things to stay ………. museums and art galleries.c.
Black celebrates her birthday [C] on Tuesday.): Mrs. b) something is done or produced by a particular person and for himself or herself: She makes all her own clothes.1.1. 76 . The set of possessive determiners corresponds to a set of personal pronouns (see 3. Which is their house? that The possessive adjective o wn is frequently used to emphasize a) something belongs to or is connected with a person: It was her own idea. Demonstrative determiners The demonstrative determiners this/that and these/those are closely related in meaning with the definite article. However. He has to cook his own meals. in addition to marking an entity as known. Is the car your own? Your day off is your own.3. its. her. However.Determiners and pronouns 3. the plural demonstrative determiners combine with countable plural nouns only: This soup [U] is really delicious – how do you make it? Have you heard from that Scottish boy [C] you used to go out with? These areas [C] are frequently affected by floods. We encourage students to develop their own ideas. our). the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text or given in the speech situation (his.1.2. their). (“you can spend it as you wish”) Our children are gro wn up and have children of their own. they specify the number of the referent (singular or plural) and whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the speaker: near distant singular this book that book plural these books those books The singular demonstrative determiners combine with both countable and uncountable nouns. Possessive determiners Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker (my. 3.2.
Frequently they also express whether something is near or distant in time (cf. (referring to a photo the speaker is looking at) Give me that photo.1. quantifiers of large quantity (much. they are generally followed by of: all money some money much money all of the money some of the money much of the money all girls. no). The demonstrative determiner reflects the speaker’s perception of distance: Who's this? A teacher in our school. many). Each and every refer to the individual members of a group and only combine with singular nouns. both. They combine with both definite and indefinite noun phrases. each. then) The effects of their decision will be seen by this autumn. Situational reference is very common in conversation. He suffered multiple fractures of both ankles. Each stresses the separate individual. Quantifiers Some determiners specify nouns in terms of quantity and are therefore called quantifiers. few. it combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. every indicates the individual as a member of the group: Eve and I were each allotted $5000. of moderate or small quantity (some. 3. will you? The use of demonstrative determiners is not just a matter of physical location in relation to the speaker. In the latter case. little). He gave every patient the same medicine. a) Inclusive All refers to the whole of a group or a mass. some girls. 77 . every). He’s been entirely different all spring [U]. now vs.4. It was a merry Christmas for me that year. over there. Both is used with reference to two entities with plural countable nouns: The US Government pays for all its overseas workers [C]. arbitrary or negative quantifiers (any.Determiners and pronouns The reference of noun phrases with demonstrative determiners may be established on the basis of the situation or on the preceding or following text. many girls Quantifiers can be broadly divided into four main groups: inclusive quantifiers (all.
[U] He has bought some aspirins. [U] He did not translate many books from English into Italian. c) Moderate or small quantity Some /sə m/ usually specifies a moderate or indefinite quantity or number and is used with both uncountable and plural countable nouns: I need some medicine. 78 . a lot of and lots of. plenty of. Gymnastics requires a great deal of character. They are typically used in questions and in negative contexts: Did you have much trouble [U] with the customs? Have you read many English books [C.Determiners and pronouns Each can be used with reference to two entities. [C] Some /sʌ m/ also has other uses that need to be distinguished from the one above. and a little.] ? His performances have not attracted much attention. [C. [U] A good deal of English [U] was spoken on the beach. pl] Other determiners specifying quantity are a great/ good many (with plural countable nouns). a great/ good deal of (with uncountable nouns). few and several with plural countable nouns. little with uncountable nouns. The business makes less money every year. b) Large quantity Many and much specify large quantity. every with reference to three or more: She had a child holding on to each hand. as in: This is some man! Determiners specifying small quantity are a few. many with plural countable nouns. Lots of patience [U] is needed. and much with uncountable nouns. [C] A lot of my friends [C] are thinking about emigrating. He has got plenty of money [U] / plenty of friends. The last three combine with both uncountable and plural countable nouns. They are characteristic of casual speech: A good many pages [C] of the book are an account of his life. Lots of citizens [C] think it’s time for an election. pl. too. It expresses admiration or approval and it is strongly stressed.
Either day is OK. few people can understand it. It is often used in questions and negative clauses: The decision does not discriminate against any applicant [C]. the former generally. I can’t get there – there’s no bus. It combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. They suggest that the quantity is less than expected: He has little time to spend on writing letters. (almost no time) This theory is very difficult. No and neither have negative reference. (not many) d) Arbitrary / negative member or amount Any refers to an arbitrary member of the group or amount of a mass. the latter with reference to two entities: No action has been taken on such major problems. Either has a similar meaning. 79 . but it refers to two entities and combines only with singular countable nouns: Come on Tuesday or Wednesday.Determiners and pronouns A few and a little have a positive meaning similar to some: Would you like a little (some) champagne [U]? There are a few (some) eggs [C] in the fridge. Few and little have a negative meaning. There's a door at either end of the corridor. Neither parent realized what was happening. You never give me any help [U].
a lot of. If there’s ……………. 4. any. There isn’t __________ food left. of John’s friends is coming to the party? 7. is there? – ‘There’s __________ bread and soup. 4) They say __________ knowledge is a bad thing. There are too __________ weeds.’ 2) How __________ material are we expected to read in one week? 3) I’ve had __________ headaches already because of stress. 10) __________ of my neighbors ignore their grass. many.4. I’ve got ………… interesting ideas if you are willing to hear them. put it in the fridge.b. 6. Fill in the spaces in the sentences below with some. and the grass is turning brown and dying. a fe w. Can I offer you ………… wine? 5.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. 5) I know __________ instances where that proves true. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 2. 7) Our yard looks awful this summer. Do you know if ………. There aren’t ………… buses but you can take the train. milk left.4. a little. 6) I've paid __________ attention to how __________ rain we've had. 80 . 3. 8) I didn't use __________ fertilizer last spring. of the new cars have acceptable prices. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1.. They never have ………… fun. Hardly …………. fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers: much. 1) SAQ 3. few. and that has made a difference. In the following sentences. and they have better lawns this year.a. A. B. little. no. 9) I'm afraid it's rained __________ times this summer.
5 Numerals A numeral is a word. There are two main types of numerals: cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. they are used to express how many objects are referred to: There were some papers to be filled in. functioning most typically as a modifier of a noun that expresses quantity or sequence. zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four thirty ordinal numeral first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth thirtieth 81 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 30th . as can be seen below: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30 cardinal numeral naught. on the other hand. with few exceptions. they are formed by adding suffixes to other numbers.Determiners and pronouns 3. They designate position in a sequence and are more like semideterminers: The first paper to be filled in was on the table. specify nouns in terms of order.1.e. (cardinal numeral) Ordinals. (quantifying det erminer) There were four papers to be filled in. Cardinals are clearly related to quantifying determiners but differ from these in providing a numerical rather than a more general specification. English numerals are systematic in the sense that. i.
902nd fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth one hundredth one hundred and first one thousandth one thousand and first one thousand.000 British one thousand million one billion American one billion one trillion In British English they always use and before the tens in a number.Determiners and pronouns 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 1.902 1.000th 1.000 forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred one hundred and one one thousand one thousand and one one thousand. nine hundred and two one million 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 1.000.000.000 1. as shown below: a. In American English and can be dropped: 310 Br. decimals.000. two hundred and fifty fourth two thousandth one hundred thousandth six hundred and fiftyeight thousand. games scores. bank accounts.254th 2. etc.001st 1. nine hundred and second 1.E. three hundred and ten three hundred ten Numerals are used in: fractions. measures.000. dates.000.000 1. two hundred and fiftyfour two thousand one hundred thousand six hundred and fifty-eight thousand.000.000th 100.254 2. Am.000 100..000th one millionth Other numerals 1.E.000 658. prices.000th 658.001 1. calculations. Fractions Simple fractions are expressed by using ‘ordinal numbers’: 1/8 1 5/9 over: 82 ‘an eighth (or one eighth)’ ‘one and five ninths’ More complex fractions are often expressed by using the word 310/ 605 ‘three hundred and ten over six hundred and five’ .000. telephone numbers.
but non-metric measures are still widely used. Sums of money are named as follows: 1p ‘one penny’ or ‘one p’ /pi:/ (informal) 5p ‘five pence’ or ‘five p’ (informal) £3.5 ‘nought point five or point five’ (US: ‘zero point five)’ 5. write and read write and read 2 March 1996 or 2nd March. America uses mainly non-metric units. 1996 ‘March the second nineteen ninety-six’ d. Decimals Decimal fractions are said with each figure separate. Expressing the date There is a difference between British English and American English when expressing the date: Br. Approximate values are given below: 1 inch (in) 1 foot (ft) = = 12 inches = 2.E. Sums of money are named very much as in British English. five-cent coins are nickels. Measures In recent years. twenty-five cent coins are quarters. Am. tencent coins are dimes.Determiners and pronouns Fractions expressing time or distance are read: ¾ hour‘three quarters of an hour’ 7/10 mile ‘seven tenths of a mile’ b. 1996 ‘the second of March nineteen ninety-six’ March 2. Britain has adopted some metric measurement units.375 ‘five point three seven five’ c. e. Prices in British and American money There are 100 pence in a pound.E. The full stop (called ‘point’) not a comma is used before fractions: 0.50 ‘three pounds seventy-five (pence)’ or ‘three pounds and seventy-five pence’ (more formal) There are 100 cents in a dollar. Some coins have special names: one-cent coins are called pennies.5 cm 30 cm 83 .
6 km 0. I weigh eight stone six.760 yards = 90 cm 1.E. British people usually measure their weight in stones and pounds. The car park is straight on.4 kg 2.78 litres Height is measured in feet. Calculations 2x2 =4 7-4 =3 Two and two is / are four.2 pounds (2.000 feet.840 square yards = 640 acres = = = = = 1 ounce (1 oz) 1 pound (1 lb) 1 stone (British only) 1 kg 1 British pint 1 US pint 1 gallon 1 British gallon 1 US gallon = = = = = 28 g 16 ounces = 455 g 14 pounds = 6. Two plus two equals / is four. Americans just use pounds: Br.2 lb) 568 cl 473 cl 8 pints (8 pt) 4. (formal) Three twos are six. (informal) (formal) Four from seven is / leaves three.Determiners and pronouns 1 yard (yd) 1 mile (m) 1 acre 1 square mile = = = = 3 feet = 1. (informal) Seven minus four equals / is three. ‘thirty meters by forty-eight meters’ A room is 12 x 12 ft. (informal) (informal) (formal) (informal) (formal) 3x2 =6 9:3 =3 84 . about 500 yards on the right. Areas are given in square feet or square meters: A garden is 30m x 48m. Nine divided by three equals / is three. while distance can be measured in feet or yards: We are now flying at an altitude of 28. Three multiplied by two equals / is six.55 litres 3. (informal) Seven take away four is / leaves three.4 hectares 259 ha 4. f. ‘twelve by twelve feet’ The total area is twelve feet square. Three times two is six. Three(s) into nine goes three times.
The figure 0 In British English the figure 0 is called nought. last and next. 941.341.1711. ½. Dates: 2. Ordinal numbers: 5th. 5. $ 35.5. 2. there are some determiner-like words which are often described as adjectives. When referring to team games it becomes nil: Manchester three. 6.Determiners and pronouns g. 85 .427.2003. These teams carried out the same operations in different areas. 33. 9th. 3. Semi-determiners In addition to the determiners proper. 179. 23.09. 3. In telephone numbers or accounts it is read like the letter O [əu]: My account number is 41206090. Most semi-determiners co-occur either only with the definite article or with the indefinite article but not with both. Decimals: 0. Same may be added after the definite article to emphasize that the reference is exactly to the person or thing mentioned before: We were almost the same age. Read the following numbers. There are four major parings of semi-determiners: same and other. In measurements (for instance of temperature) 0 is called zero: zero degrees Fahrenheit=17. SAQ 3. 231.45.01.11.251. She was fifteen and I was twelve. 4.8 degrees below zero Centigrade In American English the figure 0 is called zero. Prices: £10.6.089. 952nd. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. 6/8. 2/3. 061-721034.1. Fractions: 3/5. 2. 7. certain and such. former and latter. Phone numbers: 071-520722. 8th. My account number is four one two o six o nine o.1978.90. Liverpool nil. 4. 0. 5. 243rd. They differ from adjectives however in that they have no descriptive meaning. 30. Euro 45. 21st. Both the British and the Americans use love for tennis game scores. Cardinal numbers: 1995.
Helen had to adjust to another approach to collaboration. Certain singles out a specific person/thing or some specific persons/things. The committee analyzed its defeat of last autumn. after a numeral or it may occur as the only determiner in indefinite noun phrases (in which case it takes the form another): The / His / T wo other cases were also under investigation. except when used in time expressions (such as last week. They do our country great harm by such actions. next Thursday): In the next chapter they will give attention to the style of writing. meaning “that used to have a particular position or status in the past”: He is married to the former Audrey Knecht. The views of one leader may not be the same as the views of another one. The pigment in shells was the same one as that in mussels. or they can combine like adjectives with one(s) to occupy a nominal position: Others admitted he was absolutely correct. Last and next are like ordinal numerals in specifying items in terms of order. They regularly combine with the definite article or some other definite determiner. Former and latter may be added after the definite article to discriminate between the first and the second of two things or people already mentioned: He presented two solutions. It may be added after the definite article. The town has a cinema and a theater. I hate these earphones but the other ones hurt my ears. possessive determiners. The latter seems much better. Former and latter can also be used with reference to time. Such refers to a person/thing or people/things of a particular kind: Certain areas are better than others in keeping bees. The former was built in 1950. Other uses of semi-determiners Apart from certain. 86 .Determiners and pronouns Other is the opposite of same and specifies that the reference is to an entity different from the one mentioned previously. Shirley was a former student of North Texas State University. the semi-determiners can also be used as pronouns. Certain and such differ from the other semi-determiners in being used only in indefinite noun phrases.
etc.Determiners and pronouns In addition to occurring as determiners and pronouns. The English pronominal system consists of: a) b) c) d) e) f) personal pronouns (I. 3. demonstrative pronouns (this / that. him.).2. and it typically refers to specific individuals. he. Pronouns A pronoun is a word which replaces a noun.). some of these forms have other uses: last and next as adverbs (When did you last see him?). Further. etc. which. while it normally has nonpersonal reference. such as the speaker (I/me. you. she/her. relative pronouns (who. which. that. these / those). 3. possessive determiners. they/them). certain as adjective (Are you certain?).’ 87 . etc). etc. ourselves. possessive pronouns and reflexive pronouns. she. they. Personal pronouns A personal pronoun distinguishes between the participants in communication. There are corresponding series of personal pronouns. reflexive pronouns (herself. what). interrogative pronouns ( who. theirs. we and us generally have personal reference. him.1. we/us) the addressee (you). me.). The plural pronouns they /them are commonly used with both personal and non-personal reference: ‘Where’s Jane?’ ‘She is at the hairdresser’s. possessive pronouns (mine.2. and referents which are neither speaker nor addressee (he/him. as shown in the table below: personal pronoun nominative accusative possessive determiner pronoun reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them my your his her its our your their mine yours his hers ours yours theirs I. there is a distinction between nominative and accusative case for most personal pronouns.
He/him or she/her may also be used with reference to animals when we think of them as having personal qualities and feelings characteristic of human beings. 'Who’s there?‘ ‘It’s only ……. our neighbor and ……. is the usage. do.’ 4. Then he’s as real as I. ‘I can’t believe this! All my friends get paid more than ……. ‘ 3. You think it's him? (formal) (informal) After the adjectives in the comparative degree both nominative and accusative forms occur: She's as bad as me and you ! Joe was older than he and suffering from high blood pressure.6. both nominative and accusative forms can be used: It is I. is the grammatically correct form but ……. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. particularly with pets and domestic animals. dad. ‘My father. my friend Thomas and ……. went fishing on Sunday morning.’ 5. SAQ 3.. that …….’ 88 . ‘When knocking at a friend’s door. Pronouns used either in the accusative or in the nominative After forms of the verb be. it seems to …….’ 2. were the only ones to agree to the proposal. It was he. Fill the gaps with the appropriate form of the first person personal pronoun. It s me.Determiners and pronouns John killed the spider by hitting it. ‘My secretary and ……. The personal pronoun I is considered overcorrect. do you say ‘It’s …… ?’ or ‘It’s ……. ?’ ‘Well. so in informal speech me is used instead.
7.Determiners and pronouns 3. They are typically used when the head noun is recoverable from the preceding text: Alice took my hands in hers. which is parallel to the double-genitive: She is a friend of my wife’s . SAQ 3. lend me a pencil.2. Several people waved theirs at Bobbie and smiled as she went by. Please. Everyone seemed to have a newspaper in their hands that morning. I can’t recognize his voice. The possessive pronoun also occurs in a post-modifying ofphrase. My brother and I have bicycles but ……. 5. My hair is very fine. is better quality than ……. is stronger than ……. A relative of mine had a son called Rick..2. 89 . is older than ……. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the possessive pronoun. I forgot ……. 4. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1.. He took a fancy to a cousin of mine. but ……. but I never mistake ……... 3. (one of her friends) This construction makes it possible for a noun to be specified with both a determiner and a possessive marker. 2. Possessive pronouns The possessive pronouns express possession. Yours is much thicker. We have a new tennis racket and Mary has a new one too. She is a friend of hers. even when you whisper. who was learning brick-laying at a local college. ‘What happened?’ ‘ Your guess is as good as mine’. Mary and John drink coffee but …….
With subject noun phrases.e. She cried herself to sleep. 90 .3. they may also be placed later in the clause and have greater positional mobility.Determiners and pronouns 3. Reflexive pronouns also show emphasis. i. the reflexive pronouns are stressed and are usually placed immediately after (or nearby) the noun phrase they relate to. it is typically an object: So I consoled myself by reading books. Having reached the place himself. Reflexive pronouns The reflexive pronouns form a set corresponding to the personal and possessive forms and show co-reference with the subject. They are called emphatic reflexive pronouns and their function is to underline the identity of the referent: I’ll go and see the President himself if I have to. he ran tiptoe down the steps.2. The mayor spoke to me himself. they are identical in reference with the subject of the same clause. John forced himself to smile. In this use. Compare: The mayor himself spoke to me. The reflexive pronoun however carries a different syntactic role. Do pull yourself together! The reflexive pronoun oneself refers to people in general: It is only through study that one really begins to know oneself.
91 . Determiners and pronouns Are the pronouns in the following sentences reflexive or emphatic (R/E)? Write your answers in the spaces below. How much time do you give yourself to get ready? … 5. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1. Don’t tell me to check the lights! Check them yourself. However. One another is used when we refer to more than two people or when making very general statements: Jane and Mary talk to each other a lot. There are plenty of cakes. You don’t seem to feel too well. Help yourselves! … 8. One can easily lose oneself in the woods. They differ from the reflexive pronouns in that the reference is to more than one entity and in that there is a mutual relationship between the entities. R 2. in modern English.SAQ 3. … 3. We visited the gardens but the museum itself was closed. usually in subject position: They visit each other a lot. Reciprocal pronouns The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another are coreferent with a preceding noun phrase within the same clause.4. Each other is used when only two people are involved. … 4. most people make no difference between these two pronouns. Her friends were talking to one another. people were getting one another out and trying to save one another. … 6. Both reciprocal pronouns can have possessive forms: We avoided one another's / each other’s eyes.2. Despite the chaos. … 3. … 7.8. The lights switch themselves on as soon as it gets dark. You yourself have to take this decision. You’d better check yourself.
Kennedy always knew everything about everybody..……………………... …..…………………….. on the back.. 5) Dear Lord. Somebody..…………………….... each derived from a quantifier: quantifier every some any no everybody somebody anybody nobody indefinite pronouns everyone everything someone something anyone anything no one nothing Reference is always to an indefinite person or thing: ‘I feel fine! Where is everybody?’ Mr.…………………….... 9) Europeans learn a little more about …... Now no one said anything at all.... while anybody. Can anybody believe stories like that? 92 ..……………………. Write your answers in the spaces below. and to help…...……………………. by name in the village...... Fill in the gaps with the correct reciprocal pronoun.... 8) A committee of parents try to help …. 2) Jane and Maggie used to help …........Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3.........5. 4) Ann and I allow …... 3) The government and rebel delegations had begun to build up some trust in …......…………………find accommodation. 6) The two smile at . help each of us to care for ... with their Maths lessons..……………… ... and pat ... to love ….……………………. and then move to hold one hand together.. someone and something are usually used in affirmative sentences.... absolute freedom.9...... Compare them with those given at the end of the unit: 1) Hearing the noise the three boys became silent and looked at ….2...... Indefinite pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to entities which the speaker cannot specify more exactly.. 3. anyone.. 10) Jerry holds his arms out and they both hug …... 7) Everyone knew …. anything are distributed in interrogative sentences: Something or someone frightened him off.. There are four main sets of indefinite pronouns. And nobody knew anything about aquafarming...
. I'd cook anything. b) the negatives never. When possessives and pronouns refer back to everybody or everyone they can be either singular (more formal) or plural (less formal): 'How's everything with you?' 'Fine. Anybody can see that it's wrong. Conversely. Neither team think they're going to gain anything from that. i. no. tell him or her I’m sick in bed. anyone. reluctant. words with a negative meaning: fail. when the basic meaning is assertive: Why don't you just hire somebody else? (‘I strongly suggest you hire somebody else’) (‘the speaker expects that someone will call’) If somebody calls. etc. thanks. For all this. He was reluctant to meet anyone that day. comparison with too: The problem was too difficult for anyone to solve. neither. Everybody. d) in conditional clauses If they have to take anything. prevent.e. anyone and anything can be used with stress in clauses with the meaning ‘no matter who’. nor. Nor is there anyone willing to do that. . scarcely. compounds of some can be used in negative. everyone and everything are used with singular verbs. anything also occur in negative sentences generated by: a) negating the verb with the negative particle not: I opened the door but I couldn’t see anybody. hardly. hard. This was too risky for anybody to do it. they'd rather take the money. (informal) 93 .: Never lend money or anything else to a stranger. interrogative or conditional clauses. anybody.Determiners and pronouns Anybody. ‘no matter what’: I enjoy cooking. (formal) I know everybody's got their own arguments but . They worked hard for anything they got. I'll be there all day if anyone can help me. difficult. Hardly anyone noticed her as she passed by.' (informal) Everyone held his or her breath. c) the ‘implied’ negatives.
....... breathe a word about this! 2) ........ in addition to being used as a numeral: a) substitute one One is often used to replace or to avoid repeating a noun... who can advise me about tax? 7) Nothing is more precious than ............................................ It is a rather formal and impersonal pronoun in this use: What can one do to protect oneself from these awful people? There is also a possessive one’s and a reflexive pronoun oneself: One’s family can be a real nuisance at times.. he denied .............. b) generic one One may also refer to people in general (‘including you and me’)............. One should always give oneself plenty of time to pack................................................ Fill in the blanks with the corresponding indefinite pronouns...........Determiners and pronouns The pronoun one has two pronominal uses....... stand up! 3) Have you had ............... 9) Should we call a doctor or ..... 6) Is there ...... to go with.. 8) I forbid ............ 5) They’ve got ...? 10) When we confronted him.... to play with....... 94 .............. A singular noun is replaced by one......... a plural noun by ones: May I have a melon – a nice ripe one? The new designs are much better than the old ones............. to touch that clock................... to eat......10...... SAQ 3... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) ..’s life..................... Peter? 4) I haven’t got ...
b) to refer to somebody or something that have already been mentioned: There was a court case resulting from this incident. as compared with the past).2. c) with periods of time related to the present: this week / month / year: I saw her this morning (today in the morning). Which do you want? This one or that one? The demonstrative pronouns have a number of special uses: The demonstrative pronouns are used: a) to introduce somebody or show something to somebody: Hello. or more vaguely to the preceding text: He doesn't want her to speak to him angrily. This is the captain speaking. This breaks his heart. Do you want me to come this Monday (Monday of this week) or next Tuesday?* Do it this minute (now). this is Maria Diaz (= on the telephone).6. What’s this I hear about you getting married? The singular forms of the demonstrative pronoun may refer to a preceding clause or sentence. He never comes to see me these days (now. 95 .Determiners and pronouns 3. these) or distant (that. Do it like this (= in the way I am showing you). Kate. those) in relation to the addressee: Make up your mind. this is John (= when you are introducing them). the demonstrative pronouns specify whether the referent is near (this. Demonstrative pronouns In addition to marking something as known.
whom and whose have only personal reference: ‘Who are you?’.’ ‘What is he drinking?’ ‘He is drinking lemon juice. __ 9) What was this / that news you wanted to tell me? __ 3. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.7. Choose the correct form of the demonstrative pronouns (P) or demonstrative determiners (D) in accordance with the statement.’ Which and what may have both personal and non-personal reference: I can see five girls in this photo.’ ‘Whose are these books?’ ‘These books are Mary’s . whom. __ These / Those shoes are expensive but I like them very much. distant.’ Which is selective and usually implies that the speaker has a limited number of choices in mind. Who. The first as been done for you: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) This / That is the best price you could ever get. Which is yours? ‘What is she?’ ‘She is a Chemistry teacher. while what has indefinite reference and implies ‘what kind of’. __ Just listen. Which is your sister? There are several umbrellas here. Interrogative pronouns The interrogative pronouns (who. __ 7) Who said this / that ? __ 8) This / That guy was such a jerk. __ Did you hear this / that heavy rain last night? __ This / That outcome was not in the least wanted.2. Write your answers in the spaces provided below. P I didn’t like all these / those lies he told me. which and what) are used in questions. unfinished or unwanted. close or happening now and that/those for something that is over there.11. Use this/these for something that is here. whose.’ ‘Whom have you asked about your assignment?’ ‘My teacher.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. ‘I’m Jane. They replace the item questioned. 96 . this / that will make you laugh.
whoever. of your brothers works on this farm? 7) …………. The watch (that/which) you gave me keeps perfect time. did you meet at the party? 6) …………. who is my brother. will you have to drink? 4) …………. whichever) used to join the dependent clauses they introduce to their own antecedent.12. is the man over there? 5) …………. way shall we go? By the stream or through the woods? 2) …………. 97 . • That is used to refer to either persons or things. Relative pronouns Relative pronouns are a group of noun substitutes ( who. i. The relative pronoun whose refers to people but can also refer to things or animals: The salesman. John. • Which is used to refer to anything except persons. sold Sam a car. The choice of the relative pronoun is also conditioned by the antecedent: • Who is used when the antecedent is a person.sort of film do you like best? 3) …………. will be joining the school in September. whose name I have forgotten. which.8.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. does he think he is to speak to us like that? 10) ………….e. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate interrogative pronouns. has become of your old friend Martin? 8) …………. house is that? 9) …………. umbrella did you take?’ ‘I took Jane’s umbrella?’ 3.2. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) …………. the nouns to which the relative pronouns refer. whosoever. The people (that/whom) I spoke to were very helpful.
.... calculations......... Pronouns typically replace noun phrases. 5) Is there a shop nearby . she said surprised me.... The demonstrative determiners this/that and these/those in addition to marking an entity as known.. the addressee (you) and a third referent (he.... yours.. anything) refer to entities which the speaker/writer cannot specify more exactly... Cardinal numerals provide a numerical specification and are used in: fractions..... answered the phone was rather rude. Summary In this unit we have examined two types of noun phrase constituents: determiners (articles.. games scores........ 10) The man .. it.... those) specify whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the addressee... Insert in each blank the necessary relative pronoun.. specify whether the referent is near or distant in relation to the speaker.................. say she should not have got the job....... went wrong.. Demonstrative pronouns (this........ they) in a communicative act. the nouns to which the relative pronouns refer. which. indefinite. the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text (his... we).. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) The boxer ... measures.... brother was sacked for stealing....13. 8) Nothing . someone.. Quantifiers (fe w.. 4) He's the guy . sells stamps? 6) Is there a store around here in . career was ruined by health problems was on TV last night..... yourself) always co-occur with nouns or pronouns in subject position. ......e. nothing.... zero) is to present the referents of a noun as indefinite... Possessive pronouns (mine.. dates. prices. decimals.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3... possessives.... that.. you gave the money. our)... 9) There are those ...... Indefinite pronouns (everybody. we met was the happiest of my life. ours) express ownership.. her. its. all..... their)...... i. these.. some.. I can get some stamps? 7) They blamed me for everything .. Reflexive pronouns (myself. demonstratives and quantifiers) and the nominal substitutes (pronouns). Relative pronouns (who. 98 ....... telephone numbers. definite or generic. that) are used to join the dependent clauses they introduce to their own antecedent. much) specify nouns in terms of quantity. Reciprocal pronouns (each other. 2) The day . Personal pronouns replace nouns and distinguish between the speaker (I. 3) You'll have to speak to the person to ..... The semantic function of articles (definite... Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker (my.. bank accounts. one another) express a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject.. she.
89 – 137. Iasi. T/F 9) Demonstratives have the same form if they appear as pronouns or as determiners. T/F 6) Determiners can stand in random order. Functional Categories in English. T/F 12) Which always refers to things and or events.Determiners and pronouns Key terms article cardinal numeral definite article demonstrative pronoun determiner generic reference indefinite article indefinite pronoun interrogative pronoun ordinal numeral personal pronoun possessive pronoun postdeterminer predeterminer pronoun quantifiers quantifying nouns reciprocal pronouns reference reflexive pronoun zero article Further reading Baciu. Send-away assignment (SAA 4) A. True or false? 1) 2) (5 minutes: 12 x2=24 points) English has two articles. Sidney and Randolph Quirk (1991). Mark and Diane Hall (2003) Advanced Learner’s Grammar. Horia (2004). 95 . London: Longman. T/F 11) Who. 178 . T/F 7) The count/noncountable distinction affects the choice of determiners. whom and whose normally refer to people. England: Longman. Greenbaum. T/F 10) Possessives have the same form if they appear as pronouns and determiners. Ileana (2004).230. Editura Spanda. 70 -128. Syntheses in English Morphology. T/F 8) Post-determiners stand after their noun. definite and indefi nite. T/F 4) The shows definite meaning with all common nouns. T/F We don’t use the definite article with geographical names. Foley. T/F 99 .160. Harlow. Hulban. T/F 5) Determiners usually follow adjectives. Bucureşti: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. T/F 3) a/an can be used with all count nouns. 264-280.
.....Determiners and pronouns B. (10)___ vital but mysterious part of their diet.. fishmonger at . bread with their meals. (21)___ blue-and-yellow macaw flasher feathers more turquoise and gold. and green as more than (8)___ thousand parrots squabble over choice perches to grab (9)___ beakful of clay. I never have . house without ... Flying on wings of royal blue with a hint of green.. .. highest mountain in . 9) Which is . 130-foot-high palette of red. Some are shepherding offspring. On … train I met .. but this midmorning crush belongs to giants of (14)___ parrot world. so most arrive at (24)___ lick in pairs. (15)___ macaws.. corner of … street always has … fresh fish... .. blue..... Macaws seem to mate for life... but … actress has only just begun her career. actress..... Would you please make . table. Everest is ... He leaves . Put in a. but they're spoiled. at 8. C. tea. Excerpt from National Geographic Magazine... an. I watch (17)___ congregation.. More than (11)___ dozen parrot species will visit (12)___ clay lick throughout (13)___ day. (18)___ husky red-and-green macaw is (19)___ largest. books. I’d like ... All three shake tails as long as their bodies and boast probably (22)___ most powerful bites in (23)___ bird world. actor is quite well known. oranges? 10) I went to … London yesterday. world.. fruit on . Hidden by (16)___ blind a hundred feet away. Most people eat . (25)___ juveniles are perfectly capable of biting at their own clay. more nutritious fruit: . apples or .. the or some where necessary: (10 minutes: 27 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Please put .. (6)___ steep bank has become (7)___ pulsing. home at 8 o’clock and arrives at . 100 .. coffee after . (20)___ slightly slimmer scarlet macaw unfurls darker blue wings with brilliant yellow shoulders. actor and .. .. one of (5)___ world's most dazzling wildlife gatherings is nearing its riotous peak.. pampering them as they have since (26)___ day they were hatched. Bleating relentlessly as their parents regurgitate clay in their mouths...30. January 1994. Fill in the necessary articles: (15 minutes: 26 points) When (1)___ morning sun clears (2)___ Amazon tree line in southeastern Peru and strikes (3)___ gray-pink clay bank in (4)___ upper Tambopata..? I don’t like to see ... weighting more than three pounds and measuring more than three feet from head to tail. dinner.
her) 2) Don’t be offended. Complete each sentence with the most suitable word or phrase. they) 12) Living on a small dairy farm. the little ginger cat prefers Tom and _____________ to you. one can’t avoid _____________ basic responsibilities. (they.Determiners and pronouns D. them) 6) When she is worried about something. she) 7) Our school board plans _____________ programs for big merged schools where the teachers and principals were responsible for the curriculum. (his or her. (her. (me. From the set of options given in parentheses. a) one b) anyone c) ones d) all E. (his. (10 minutes: 15 points) 1) Some of these opinions about child-raising are completely new to John and _____________ . (5 minutes: 5x 2=10 points) 1) What would ………… like to do this morning? a) someone b) one c) yourself d) you 2) Did you enjoy …………? a) at the party b)the party c) yourself at the party d) with yourself at the party 3) One prefers to shop at Harrods. (we. their) 5) Their father has taught his wife and _____________ most of the accounting and management details. (they. us) 15) People say that _____________ young people are better educated than our parents are. their) 9) People ought to realize that _____________ might need to hear the sounds of traffic sometimes. (he or she. (his or her. them) 14) Nothing will ever come between _____________ old friends now that we’ve learned how to laugh. their) 13) The police say that Mazie and _____________ can find the tools that were scattered by the vandals. (his or her. us) Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. a time comes when _____________ must make a difficult choice. their) 11) In any boy’s life. their) 4) The rain did not bother the students because most of them have _____________ own umbrellas. but I think that you and _____________ should probably leave separately. their) 8) Everybody I know around here walks around with _____________ headphones on all the time. Total points for SAA 3: 102 101 . (its. (she. select the correct word or word group to write in the blank. …………? a) doesn’t one b) isn’t it c) don’t you d) isn’t one 4) Please invite ………… you like to the reception. (his or her. (he. (we. I) 3) Neither of the men wants to take _____________ tools all the way to the blacksmith. they) 10) A farmer in this area doesn’t have to worry about the rain spoiling _____________ hay.
19. 14. the ninth. _ 10) a. me. forty-five Euros and ninety cents. 4. h – 8. me 1. the. 5) The second of January/January the second nineteen seventy-eight.6. 3) a. 2) the fifth. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3 not be comparable to those given above. any. me. 6) little/much. 9. 4) little. _. _. 2. the. a. 9) few. yours. the. _. I. 5. _.4. 3. SAQ 3. a. nought/zero point two five one.1. The. the twenty-fourth. his. his. a.7. the. 9. oseven-one-five-two-o-seven-two-two/double two. us. the.2. an. SAQ 3. 1) a. a. a.1. o-six-one-seventwo-one-o-three-four. 12. I.4. 6. me. an. two/thirds. . 4. an. 15. 1) much/(a) little. 3. 10) few. the. my. 13. I. the. a. the. C. the. e – 2. four. a. thirty-five dollars. a. the eighth. B. a. 3. me. _. an. any. a. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3. _. 1. any. a. _. 2.1 – 3. 18. 6. 7. my. _. 9) a. SAQ 3. f – 9. 10. i – 3. d – 6. two hundred and thirty-one. 3) many/few. SAQ 3. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. the. 10. 4. one/half. _. hers. 5. 5. the. 17. 8. a. one hundred and seventy-nine. I. the. the nine hundred and fifty-second. five point four two seven. the. a. 8) much. the. a.13. 5) a.Determiners and pronouns Answers to SAQs 3.5. 2) _. your. 8) _.a. the. 12. an. g – 7. 7) a. 3. an. the. his. six/eighths. a. 11. 4. 2. an. 4. any. 7. B. his. _. an. hers. The. the two hundred and forty-third. 1. a. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. 2. ours. c – 5. 1. A. a. 2) much. A. 4) nought/zero point three four one. 5. SAQ 3. 102 1. any. 11. a. 6. 2. 7. _. ten pounds (and) forty-five.3. _. her. a . nine hundred and forty-one. a. b – 1. 5. mine. _. SAQ 3.4.. some. an. two thousand and eighty-nine. 1) one thousand nine hundred and five. a.4 not be comparable to those given above. 5) a few. _. 16. the thirtieth of September/September the thirtieth seventeen eleven. an. 4) a. _. his. 20. mine. thirty-three. 1. 4. SAQ 3. a. 6) a. 3) three/fifths. some. 3. 2. an. 3.1. the twenty-third of November/November the twenty-third two thousand and three. 7) many.1. 8.
4) anyone. whom. each other. who. 3.Determiners and pronouns SAQ 3. SAQ 3. 8.whose. 6) one another/one another/ one another. what. what. this (P). 2. 6) one. 9. 3. which. 2. E. R. 6. 9) someone. 7. E. that (D). whose. 7. 9.9. 1. that (D).11. 9) one another. E. 2. 1. 8) one another. that (D). 6. that/which. 6. which/that. 10) everything.10. 4. SAQ 3. who.13. what. 1. 7. SAQ 3. 5) one another.12. who/that. R. 3. R. which. 7. 7) one another. That (D).8. SAQ 3. which. whom. anything. R.6 . 5. one another. 2) everybody. 10) each other/each other. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 3. 3. 4. 5) nothing. this (P). who/that. 4) each other. These (D). (that). 10) whose. 5. we strongly advise you to revise section 3. 8. that. 3. 5. 1. that (P). 1) Nobody.2. 4.3. 8. 10. 6. 103 . 5. 8) anyone. 9. 2. one another. R. 1. SAQ 3. those (D). 2.12 not be comparable to those given above. 8. 4. whose.
have.3. do Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 4. Multi-word lexical verbs 4.2. Irregular lexical verbs 4.Verbs UNIT 4 Verbs Objectives 4.1 .18.104.22.168. Prepositional phrasal verbs 4.2.1. Idioms 4. The auxiliary verbs: be.1.2. Formation of verbs 22.214.171.124 105 105 105 107 109 110 110 111 112 113 113 114 115 115 115 117 104 .2.1. Prepositional verbs 4. Single-word lexical verbs 4.1. Regular lexical verbs 126.96.36.199. Phrasal verbs 4.
i.1. open). distinguish between phrasal. help. continue finish. Single-word lexical verbs Based on their core meaning. Objectives After studying this unit. The inflectional morpheme -ing is used for present participles. know) and emotional meanings expressing various attitudes or desires (love.e. live. You will also learn about the auxiliary verbs: be. we discuss the morphological properties of lexical verbs and show how these verbs are classified according to semantic and syntactic criteria. speak. appear. hear). seem. Regular lexical verbs Regular lexical verbs have only four morphological variants. together with perception (see. mental verbs including both cognitive meanings (think. let.1. want). which indicate that some person or inanimate entity brings about a new state of affairs. contain. verbs of causation (allow. include. have. propositional. communication verbs (ask. talk). 105 . verbs of existence or relationship (reporting a state that exists between entities (be. do. start. you will be able to: classify lexical verbs according to semantic criteria. 4. 4.Verbs Aim In this unit. cause. The inflectional morpheme -ed is used for simple past tense and for past participles. stop) which characterize the stage of progress of an activity. come. move. The inflectional morpheme -(e)s is used to indicate the third person singular present tense. permit). prepositional phrasal verbs and verbal idioms. keep. say. involve) and aspectual verbs (begin. You will use new concepts in the analysis of verbs and develop practical skills by solving exercises. involving three inflections added to a base or stem: The base form is used for infinitives. recognize verbal derivational affixes. taste) and receipt of communication (read.1. stay. explain. English verbs can be classified as activity verbs (denoting voluntary or involuntary actions (buy. the meaning the speakers tend to think of first. force.
z. push . and -ed take the form -ies and -ied respectively: copy – copies – copied try – tries . moves.played In addition to the spelling changes described above. d/: waited.passes. -ed is pronounced: /t/ after voiceless consonants: watched. recognizes. walks. f/. ʃ passes. sh. except /s. -(e)s is spelt –es when the final letter of the verb is: s. t. /d/ after vowels and voiced consonants: tried.reducing -. watches. /iz/ after /s. t/: hits. falls.pushes. laughs. looked. or ch: pass . attended. called. sleeps. z.tried Verbs ending in vowel + y take the usual ending –s or –ed: play – plays -. a single consonant letter at the end of the base is doubled before adding -ing or -ed. k. reduces. ʧ/: . added. stopped.Verbs inflection -(e)s -ing -ed look looks looking looked play plays playing played lexical verbs try tries trying tried push pushes pushing pushed reduce reduces reducing reduced -(e)s is pronounced: /s/ after voiceless consonants /p. there is no doubling of the final consonant in most cases: order fail 106 ordering failing ordered failed . This occurs only when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter: drop admit dropping admitting dropped admitted When the preceding vowel is unstressed or spelled with two letters. /id/ after /t. /z/ after vowels and voiced consonants: tries. pushes. moved. watch . wanted.reduced If the verb ends in a consonant + y.watches If the base form of the verb ends in a consonant + e. the endings -(e)s. the final e is dropped before -ing or -ed: reduce -.
agreeing – agreed. 17) regret. 10) live. 15) prefer. 9) lie. 16) refer. 19) travel. 8) hurry. 18) stop. 6) hop. 12) offer. 14) panic. Irregular lexical verbs About 200 English verbs have irregular morphological variants. 11) occur. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… 4.1.1. -m or -l can be doubled sometimes when preceded by an unstressed vowel (British English only): focus program cancel focussing programming cancelling focussed programmed cancelled SAQ 4. 7) hope. Irregular verbs differ from regular verbs in the formation of past tense and past participle forms. 5) enjoy. Write in the space provided below. Irregular verbs can be grouped as below: Class 1 verbs take a voiceless -t /t/ suffix to mark both past tense and past participle: base form build send past tense built sent past participle built sent 107 .2. 13) picnic. 2) cancel. Add -ing and -ed to the verbs below: agree -.Verbs One exception is that final -s. 1) argue. 3) die. 4) dye.
with a change in the vowel for one or both: base from break choose eat fall forget give past tense broke chose ate fell forgot gave past participle broken chosen eaten fallen forgotten given Class 5 verbs have past tense and past participle forms marked only by a change in the base vowel: base form come begin find get hang past tense came began found got hung past participle come begun found got hung Class 6 verbs have past tense forms and past participle forms identical to the base form: base form cut hit let shut past tense cut hit let shut past participle cut hit let shut 108 . with a change in the base vowel: base form feel tell leave bring past tense felt told left brought past participle felt told left brought Class 3 verbs take the regular -ed suffix for past tense and the (e)n suffix for past participle: base form show flow past tense showed flowed past participle shown flown Class 4 verbs have no suffix for past tense forms but the suffix (e)n for the past participles.Verbs Class 2 verbs take a -t or -d suffix to mark both past tense and past participle.
Verbs 4.2. 8) Such a defeat is inevitably disheartening the football team. A prefix is added to a verb root. 3) Pig manure has long been used to enrich soils.1. 4) He keeps his savings under his mattress because he distrusts the banks. 7) The conflict demoralized the whole community. Formation of verbs Derivational affixes can be added to existing words to form new verbs in English. 9) His wife persuaded him to institutionalize his aged mother. a noun root or to an adjective root to form a verb with a different meaning: prefix dismisoverundedisendisenverb / noun root like (verb) lead cook do frost (noun) place courage content large derived verb dislike mislead overcook undo defrost displace encourage discontent enlarge Derivational suffixes are attached to a noun or an adjective base to form a verb with a similar meaning: suffix -ate -ify -ize -ify -ize -en noun / adjective root assassin class computer simple actual black derived verb assassinate classify computerize simplify actualize blacken SAQ 4. 10) Parliament finally legalized trade unions. Underline the derived verbs and comment on their structure. 2) They couldn’t raise funds needed to industrialize all the underdeveloped countries.3. Prefixes do not generally change the word class. 1) They should have their children immunized against diphtheria. 6) They should encourage peasant families to grow alternative crops. 109 . 5) His decision displeased the community.
put off ‘delay’. The first has been done for you: 1) Adj. Direct Object intransitive transitive Phrasal verbs can be replaced by single transitive verbs: bring up ‘raise’. She brought up four children.2. Multi-word lexical verbs There are four major kinds of multi-word combinations that comprise relatively idiomatic units and function with a single meaning which is different from the meanings of the individual words: type of multiword combination phrasal verb prepositional verb prepositional phrasal verb idiom words that combine verb + particle verb + preposition verb + particle + preposition verb + NP + preposition verb + NP + PP verb + verb examples pick up look at get away with take a loot at take into account make do 4. leave out ‘omit’. give in ‘agree’.2. which tend to be restricted the formal use of the language: The judge put off the verdict. put off). immune + -ize. They can be intransitive or transitive: Rick’s car broke down.1. do with.Verbs Write your answers in the space provided below. 110 . Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are combinations of a lexical verb with an adverbial particle (give up. 4. The judge delayed the verdict. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.
Prepositional verbs Prepositional verbs are combinations of a lexical verb and a preposition followed by an object noun phrase (deal with sth. provide for sb.): They blamed John for his failure. 4. congratulate sb. for sth..2. the first being the Object of the verb. He put it on.Verbs With transitive phrasal verbs the direct object can appear between the verb and the particle. He put on his hat. *I rely Mary on.2. of / about sth. of sth. of sth. This is the normal word-order when the object is a pronoun. on /for sth.. blame sb. etc.. remind sb. phrasal verb b) a pronoun follows a preposition but precedes the adverbial particle of a phrasal verbs: I rely on her. thank sb.. acquaint sb.. the second the Object of the preposition (accuse sb. insist on sth. depend on sth. for sth. it is placed at the end: She brought them up.)... prepositional verb phrasal verb c) the preposition can be fronted in wh-questions. whereas the adverbial particle of phrasal verbs can generally precede or follow the Object: I rely on Mary. Prepositional verbs are different from phrasal verbs in that: a) a preposition cannot be usually placed after the Object. When the direct object is a longer noun phrase.. prepositional verb He put his hat on. while the particle cannot: Whom do you rely on? What did he put on? On whom do you rely? *On what did he put? 111 . The verb and the preposition function as a single semantic unit. This wine reminds me of France.. etc.. He has provided for his family well. Let us carry out this updated program. rely on sb. with a meaning that cannot be derived completely from the individual meanings of the two parts: My decision depends on your answer.. He acquainted her with the facts. advise sb. A few prepositional verbs are followed by two noun phrases.. with sth.
Verbs d) an adverb can be placed between the verb and the following preposition but not between a verb and its particle: I rely entirely on her. 2) Raymond. I cannot put up with your behavior any longer. get away with sth. The first has been done for you: 1) He turned the lights off when he went to bed... b. Modern medicines have not done away with disease.. . *He put quickly on his hat. SAQ 4. look for ward to sth. …… 4) Why couldn't you put up with margarine for one day? …… 5) They blew the bridge up.…. …… 9) No one can figure out how the fire started. the ground is muddy. put up with sth. are you? …… 112 .3. …… 3) The quarrel resulted in his mother leaving the house. prepositional object Prepositional phrasal verbs function as a semantic unit and can sometimes be replaced by a single transitive verb with similar meaning: get out with sth.3. look forward to sth. c.…. 4. ‘anticipate’. prepositional.. go out for sth. phrasal. a preposition and a noun phrase functioning as an object after the preposition: We've come up with a solution. etc. Decide whether the following verbs are: a.…. …… 10) Don’t let me keep you from going out. …… 6) The committee will soon get round to your suggestion. 7) She set about making a new dress.. 11) Have we got enough food in? . Write your answers in the space provided below. . I think you'll end up with her. did you? You're not having me on.) consist of a lexical verb combined with a particle. etc.. catch up with sb. 12) You didn't do that.. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. Prepositional phrasal verbs Prepositional phrasal verbs (get out of sth..2.. ‘avoid’.. come down to sth.. prepositional phrasal verbs. …… 8) Mind where you are walking. turn a way from sb.. end up with sth. …b.
’: We must make do with the evidence we have. keep/lose one’s head . make. have.2.‘frighten’. to leave/do sth. let sb go/be .4. A few verbs. have second thoughts . or idioms. The auxiliary verb have is used with the past participle to form perfect tenses: I have finished my work. do There are three auxiliary verbs in English: be. give sb.‘allow sb. future perfect 113 . the creeps . and take combine with noun phrases and prepositional phrases to form set verbal expressions: You must take time into account.‘remember’. This isn't very important. The auxiliary verbs: be. have green fingers . 4.‘manage’. give sb. That house gives me the creeps. are you? This idiomatic category may include combinations of two verbs such as make do (with) . the cold shoulder . Some of them can be replaced by simple lexical verbs: bear in mind . Let him be on the tractor beside me.: It's important to bear in mind two things. Idioms Fixed combinations of verb plus prepositional phrase occasionally form idiomatic units. The auxiliary verb be has two distinct functions: to mark the progressive aspect and the passive voice: They are planting trees now. have.‘act calmly’. etc. progressive aspect passive voice The two auxiliary uses of be can occur in the same clause: Trees are being planted in the deserted areas now.‘be good at gardening’. I don't want to make an issue of it.3. such as do. Trees are planted in the deserted areas. have.‘reject’.‘change one’s opinion’. present perfect They had left before you got there? past perfect They shall have finished their work by next week. You're not having second thoughts. do.Verbs 4.
About 200 verbs have irregular morphological variants for past tense and past participle forms.' 'Neither do I. The auxiliary do is also used to make questions (yes/no questions.' As an emphatic verb. Summary The verb expresses our perception of events. doesn’t he? Did he live in a cottage? Where did he live? He lived in a cottage. 'I don't want to go back. involving three suffixes added to a base: (e)s. neutral statement emphatic statement neutral statement emphatic statement Do is inverted with the subject in negative emphatic statements when a negative adverb is moved to the front: Not only does she speak Spanish. but she's also good with computers. New verbs can be 114 . It is followed by the negative particle not which can be contracted to n’t: They did not go to Paris.Verbs The auxiliary verb do is used to form negative sentences. states. -ing and -ed.' 'So do I. do is used to emphasize what you are saying: He looks tired. She did at least write to say thank you. He wrote to say thank you.' 'I love peaches. wh-questions. I don't like fish. He does look tired. Lexical verbs can express a wide range of meanings. She does not work hard. She works harder than he does. 'Who won?' 'I did. and acts of consciousness. didn’t he? present past The verb do also serves as a pro-verb. Most English verbs are regular and have only four morphological variants. that is do can replace a whole verb phrase to avoid repetition: He plays better than he did a year ago. tag questions) when the lexical verb is in the present simple or past simple: Does she write a letter every month? What does he write? He writes a letter every month. Don’t forget to buy milk.
Sidney Greenbaum. Gramatica engleză. a particle. Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms. 4) Linking verbs connect their subject to the predicative. or by prefixation from other verbs. Jan Svartvik (1976). 9-12. The auxiliary verbs (be. Courtney Rosemary (1983). Longman Group. Multi-word combinations include a verb. do) indicate tense and aspect. Randolph. Geoffrey Leech. Longman. Mackin & I. 3) Linking verbs are also called copulative verbs. a preposition and a noun phrase. Oxford.P. UK Limited. volume 2. True or False? 10 minutes: 8x2=16 points) 1) Auxiliary verbs form tenses and express modality. 7) Phrasal verbs may be transitive or intransitive. prepositional and prepositional-phrasal. 115 . 8) Prepositional verbs are never transitive.Verbs formed by suffixation from nouns and adjectives. Quirk.R. Key terms auxiliary idiom lexical verb multi-word lexical verb prepositional phrasal verb phrasal verb prepositional verb regular / irregular Further reading Budai. Lazlo (2000). A Grammar of Contemporary English. Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English. The main classes of such combinations are known as: phrasal verbs. have. prepositional phrasal verbs. Send-away assignment (SAA) 4 A. Teorie şi exerciţii. 5) Most multi-word verbs are idiomatic: their meaning cannot always be clear from the meaning of their parts. 2) We invert the subject and the auxiliary to form several kinds of questions. 24 – 69. R. 6) There are three main types of multi-word verb: phrasal. Cowie. A. Bucureşti: Teora. prepositional verbs. Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs.McCaig (1993).
5) He got on his bike and rode off. lexical verbs. 16) eat. 30) ride. b. 21) speed. 45) swing. 34) tread. 8) He gulped down his beer. 4) She accidentally knocked a book off the bedside table. 22) cut. 6) He blew the crumbs off his desk and shook them off his collar. have. 14) tear. 36) wind. 17) sew. 8) shrink. 4) They are graduates of Portland University. do are used as: a. 10) He doesn’t like hamburgers. D. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. Give the three forms of the following verbs: (20 minutes: 45 points) 1) hide. 12) ring. 5) There are red roses in the garden. b) intransitive phrasal. 23) draw. 8) She had a red jacket on.Verbs B. 7) He has already had dinner. 3) His vocation urged him on. 4) write. 32) grow. 13) arise. 40) tell. auxiliary verbs (10 minutes: 12 points) 1) Fred was in Italy last year. 25) do. 39) weep. 9) seek. 7) bear. 19) meet. 28) teach. 9) We will do what we can to help. 5) hit. 11) She doesn’t do her duty. Classify the verbs in the sentences below as follows: a) transitive phrasal. 38) breed. 35) drink. 2) We’ll drive over some time tomorrow. 6) stick. 2) Actually John is a good farmer. Total points for SAA 4: 83 116 . 3) come. 31) dig. 26) fight. 42) bleed. c) prepositional d) prepositional-phrasal (15 minutes: 10 points) 1) They rushed him off to hospital. 7) The orders were sent out yesterday. 20) go. 37) freeze. 24) be. 12) The ham had a smoky flavor. 18) bring. 29) speak. 2) weave. 6) He had a new car and a boat. 9) He raced back home. 15) buy. 27) grind. 41) swear. 43) lie. 33) see. 44) burst. 10) Several trees were blown down. 3) He is being rude. 11) sow. 10) weep. C. Decide whether in the following clauses the verbs be.
8) hurry -. Adj. SAQ 4.1. immune + -ize. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. Adj.3 1) argue -.occurring – occurred. b.1. 7) hope -. b. 17) regret -. a. 10.lying – lied. 3. 7. dis.1 not be comparable to those given above.hurrying – hurried.+ Adj. SAQ 4.living – lived. Adj. SAQ 4.picnicking -. 3. 12. rich. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. 9. 8. dis. 1.1. en. 18) stop . 4. 5.Verbs Answers to SAQs 4.enjoying – enjoyed. industrial + -ize. 8.5.V.+ Adj. b. 4) dye -. heart + -en. 5.picnicked.stopping – stopped. 9) lie -.referring – referred. 5) enjoy -. please. 9. en.2.2.V. 6. 19) travel – travel(l)ing – travel(l)ed. 2.offering – offered.+ N.3 not be comparable to those given above.4. 2) cancel – cancel(l)ing – cancel(l)ed. a. dis. 117 . c. 14) panic -.regretting – regretted. Institutional + ize. 6.+ N. c. 1. 7. please revise section 4. b.panicking – panicked. please revise section 4.hopping – hopped.dying – died.preferring – preferred. b. 4. moral + -ize. 12) offer -. please revise section 4.3. 11) occur -. 13) picnic -. legal + -ize.dying – died.1 . 16) refer -. a.hoping – hoped. de. courage. Adj. 15) prefer -. b. 3) die -.arguing – argued.1. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 4. not be comparable to those given above. 2.2. 10) live -. 11. c. trust. 10. 6) hop -.
1 – 5.4.Tense. modality and mood Objectives 5.5. Aspect 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.4.1. voice.3. 118 119 119 120 125 128 128 128 131 132 134 134 136 138 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 148 150 153 155 157 157 159 159 160 160 160 164 165 165 166 168 . The simple aspect 5.7. Means of expressing future time 5.1. Future progressive 5. Imperative 5.3.4. Past progressive 5. Future perfect progressive 5. Present progressive 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. Going to 188.8.131.52.1 Present perfect simple 5.3.3. Be to 5.1. Can – could 184.108.40.206.2.4. Subjunctive Summary Key terms Further reading: Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 220.127.116.11.2.4. Must 5.4. Past perfect progressive 5. Present progressive 5.Present simple 5. Past simple 5. Past perfect simple 18.104.22.168.5. Tense 5.1. Indicative 5. Shall – should 5.8. modality and mood UNIT 5 Tense.2. voice.5.5. Future simple 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2.4.2. Conditional 5.4. Mood 5.4.4. aspect.4. Voice 5.5. The perfective aspect 5. Future perfect 5.2. The progressive aspect 5. Present perfect progressive 5. aspect.1 Present simple 5.2.2. Will – would 5. May – might 5.3. Modality 5.
voice. express subjective meanings such as: possibility. (stative) (dynamic) 119 . Stative verbs refer to a state of affairs. voice and modality are fundamental categories in grammar. i. use verbs in the present and past tense to indicate the chronology of events in time. aspect. With modality we add to our statements such subjective meanings as possibility. Tense distinctions are largely dependent on whether the verb is stative or dynamic.e. while dynamic verbs refer to a sequence of separate events. probability.e. their duration. posterior to the moment of speech. they are anticipated and therefore will take place after the moment of speaking. while other events are simply simultaneous with the moment of speech. between duration and completion of an event.Tense. i. It is a way of expressing events as occurring at points situated along the linear flow of time. ability. i. they are recollected. aspect. i. prediction. they happen at the same time. modality and mood Aim Tense. i. on the other hand. as in: I know nothing about him. while the category of aspect marks the temporal contour of events. or obligation. Tense. their being accomplished or not. is the linguistic expression of time relations realized by verb forms. I wrote two letters yesterday. and their markers. Tense and aspect are obligatory categories. Objectives By the end of this unit you will be able to: recognize the verbal categories of tense. necessity. They have dinner at the restaurant. modality. they take place before the moment of speech.e. Tense Time is a basic concept that exists independently of human language.e.1. The category of tense marks the order of events in time. express future time in various ways. Each of them represents perspectives from which we view our experience of events. distinguish between progressive and perfect aspect. 5.e. The normal point of reference is the moment of speaking or the speech time. (stative verb) (dynamic) Many verbs however lend themselves to both interpretations: The children have nice clothes. voice. The moment of speaking is the point versus which some events are anterior. express virtual reality by means of the subjunctive mood. permission and obligation by means of modal verbs. aspect.
Present simple The marker of the present simple is the morpheme –(e)s for the third person singular: I (you.' 'So do I. Most people don't have more than a vague idea what folklore actually is. resemble. feel. 120 . drinks milk. doesn’t he? affirmative sentence yes-no question wh-question tag-question It is also used to form negative sentences: Don’t forget to post the letter! I don't feel like going out tonight. smell. hear. want. contain.1. The auxiliary do (does) replaces the whole verb phrase in short answers to yes-no questions or in order to avoid repeating a full verb: Does he grow vegetables? Yes. understand disagrees. they) He (she. depend. own. he does / No. we. realize.1. aspect. dislike. he doesn’t. voice.Tense. see. taste ache.' I want to go home. it) drink milk. itch. Freddy's solution doesn’t appeal to me. modality and mood Stative verbs fall into several semantic groups: stative verbs verbs of relation verbs of cognition verbs of attitude verbs of involuntary perception verbs of bodily sensation examples be. belong. 5. sound believe. 'Will Kay come?' 'She may do. know.' So now you know as much as I do. The auxiliary do (or does for the third person singular) is inserted in pre-subject position to form interrogative sentences: He grows vegetables. like. have. wish feel. hurt. tickle English verbs are inflected only for two tenses: present simple and past simple. Does he grow vegetables? What does he grow? He grows vegetables. think. seem.
me anymore? I …………………………. and wash up. A. her relatives. interrogative. 6) The foresters …………………………. not believe. endanger). (not like) 4) …………………………. I type letters and official papers. life on the planet. They cook the meals. your grandma? I’m sure she …………………………. Read quickly in the 3rd person singular: Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. Housewives have to work hard. lay the table. (plant) SAQ 5. a thousand saplings on the hill slopes every spring. say) 5) Pollution ………………………….you ………………………….Tense. (create. 121 . a word of what I …………………………. miss) 3) My neighbor…………………………. voice. (not trust. B. 2. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) Fortunately. I help my boss to plan his time. 1. at my school.A. I am a secretary. aspect. I write a lot of letters every day. He …………………………. (teach) 2) You ever …………………………. your brother. I answer the telephone.1. clean the house and mend the clothes.1. the greenhouse effect and it …………………………. negative) of the verbs in parentheses. (visit.B. I put papers away in the file cabinet. modality and mood SAQ 5. Fill in the gap with the correct present simple forms (affirmative. understand. I work eight hours a day. she …………………………. Sometimes they also do the washing and ironing and look after the garden. to lock the gate during the day. and meet people. My name is Susan. I also remind him of important appointments.
jump. performative verbs (that refer to actions performed while uttering the clause) In addition to these uses. After two weeks or more the plant starts to grow. Then the farmer cuts the stem of the plant. kick. A few minutes later the farmer waters the plant with a watering can. to ‘eternal truths’. habitual present The present simple refers to events which repeatedly occur over an unspecified period of time: The milkman calls on Sundays. the simple present tense can be used. nod. She eats vegetables every day. After that the farmer rakes the soil again so when he wants to plant a seed the farmer can put it there. b. i. a.and it’s a goal! How to plant vegetables First the farmer rakes the soil to make sure it is soft for when the seed gets planted. Water freezes at 00 C. Ronaldo shoots . etc. He often digs his own garden and mows the lawn. Cows eat grass. states of affairs that existed.Tense. I name this ship Queen Mary. in certain limited ways. including the speech time. 122 .e. Zidane to Ronaldo. Roberto Carlos passes to Zidane. voice. instantaneous present Sometimes the event is presented as coinciding with the speech time and without having any duration beyond the moment of speaking: Single event with little or no duration (knock. generic present The present simple refers to statements that apply to all time. The sun rises in the East. After that the farmer sows the seeds. habitual or instantaneous. I pronounce you man and wife. c. Bill spends a lot of money on bets every month.) sports commentaries on radio or television demonstrations or step-by-step instructions Somebody knocks on the door. aspect. exist now and will continue to exist in the future: Birds fly. with past or future reference. modality and mood The present simple tense is used to express actions or events that occur at present and that are viewed as: generic.
rarely.) LARKIN: (Quietly) Doing nothing is the brass ring in this business.… (The Fellowship of the Ring. He won't face her. every morning (afternoon. with verbs of communicating (say. Monday). and Bilbo entertains children with tales of his adventures. I understand that you intend to represent yourself? If past tense were used in the reporting verb. d. tell) or perception (see. usually accompanied by adverbs of future time. etc. summer. even though the event took place in the past: I hear that you're real good at what you do. the validity of the information would no longer be emphasized: I heard that you were real good at what you did. which makes him invisible and runs to his house to pack his things and leave the Shire. he puts on the ring. Joan looks up at the sound. in order to achieve stronger effect and render the event immediate: The movie cuts to an image of the hobbits’ peaceful Shire years later. Spark Notes) in stage directions and captions to photographs: JOAN: That's good? (Larkin moves away. once. in casual conversation or fictional narrative. in order to dramatize the event: Iraqi head seeks arms Two sisters reunite after eighteen years in a narrative or an anecdote. month. aspect. e. day. in reporting information. historical present in newspaper headlines. where the wizard Gandalf has come to celebrate Bilbo’s 111th birthday. modality and mood Habitual present is often accompanied by frequency adverbs: often. is used to suggest that a future event is certain to take place: The train leaves at ten tonight. Sound of a car.Tense. seldom. voice. door slamming. year. very frequently in recounting plots of books and films. close. however. present for future time In main clauses. the simple present. Exams begin on Monday. Gandalf meets Bilbo back in his house and tells him . 123 . hear. understand) to suggest that the reported information is still valid. week. In the middle of a rambling speech. The party is an extravagant occasion with fireworks and revelry.
I’ll phone you. Our friends leave for the seaside at three o’clock today and arrive there about seven. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. modality and mood The present simple indicates future actions that are considered part of an already fixed program. They try to read all the news during the journey and in that way know a lot about the topics of the day. 4. so I say no. 124 . The verbs used to indicate planned future actions are verbs of motion: come. but cats like to live their own life. Write your answers in the space provided below. SAQ 5. etc. The first has been done for you: 1. In conditional and in temporal clauses. start. Dogs make better pets than cats because they are more friendly. but I don’t feel like it. Underline the verbs in the present simple and comment on their meaning using the distinctions (a–e) made above. 5. 6. A man comes to me yesterday and asks me to sign a petition. they spend their holidays there every year and swim in the sea or sleep all the time. aspect. as soon as I arrive home. end. The park opens half and hour after sunrise and closes half an hour before sunset. 3. 2. 1) go--habitual present. They understand and obey their masters. Their holidays finish in August. One measures the coffee into a small saucepan. sprinkles the gelatin and leaves it to soak for five minutes. enjoy the sea air and live as free as birds. They stay in the train for half an hour and sit and stand there and read the newspapers. the present simple renders a future time event: I’ll do it.Tense. if I have time.2. They forget their work. These men go to work by train every day. go. voice. leave or aspectual verbs: begin.
(call. kill) The second flash … another neighborhood’s chimney and … out a whole row of bricks. Past simple The past tense marker on regular verbs is –ed. (hit) It … the bark off the tree. A.3. at once and … the fire. Did they grow vegetables? What did they grow? They grew vegetables last year. (hear. put out) We … lucky. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. they did. (fall) The fire … immediately. (strike). Although the tree … . SAQ 5.1. We … the sound of thunder and we … the lightening in the air.2. No. Write your answers in the space provided below. tear) The chimney … down noisily. modality and mood 5.. The auxiliary did is inserted in pre-subject position to form interrogative sentences: They grew vegetables last year. (start) Our neighbors … the firemen who . voice. aspect. (miss) 1)struck.2): They walked along the river bank yesterday. He drove his car to the edge of the cliff. come. smell) The first flash … a neighborhood tree. (tear). 125 . (be) The lightening … our house. didn’t they? affirmative sentence yes-no question wh-question tag question The auxiliary did replaces the whole verb phrase in short answers to yes-no questions: Did they grow vegetables? Yes. the lightening … the tree. The first has been done for you: Lightening … twice by our house last night.A. (not burn. (strike. they didn’t. In the narrative below put the verbs in brackets into the simple past tense.1. Irregular verbs have various past tense forms (see 4..Tense.
modality and mood SAQ 5.3. The eggs broke. voice. 126 . last week.) Questions beginning with when have the verb in the past tense because they expect an answer about the time when an event happened: When did they plant the olive trees? They planted the olive trees five years ago. He held on to a branch with one hand. Tommy saw the nest. He needed both his hands. Tommy fell and hurt his arm.B. aspect. two years ago. a) definite events / states in the past The past simple is used to refer to an event that occurred at a definite time in the past. etc. etc. as soon as. One of the branches broke. too. He took two of the eggs. five months ago. It laid five eggs. Write your answers in the space provided below. after. last summer. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The definite time in the past can be indicated by means of adverbs of time (at 9 o’clock. They tasted nice. He put them in his mouth. yesterday. Ask yes-no questions to the following sentences. He began to climb down.Tense. The event was completed in the past: She phoned me at 6 o’clock. B. The telephone rang as soon as I got home. He climbed the tree. Did a bird make a nest in this tree? The past simple basically indicates an event that happened before the present moment.) or it may be suggested by an adverbial clause of time (introduced by when. The first has been done for you: A bird made a nest in this tree. a moment ago.
This (happen) year after year. instead of the simple present when the reporting verb (tell. a long dry period. Farmers themselves (make) the situation worse. Sometimes dry periods (last) for many years. events that repeatedly occurred in the past: When we were living in London. ‘Where are you living?’ => I was asked where I was living.Tense. someone tapped me on the shoulder and asked me if my name was Alfred. They never (give) the land a rest. farmers (lose) many crops owing to dry weather. The first has been done for you: Before modern farming methods. by rewording what somebody said as a nominal that-clause or as an indirect question. modality and mood The past simple is also used to indicate a sequence of past events in a narrative line: One day. He told me that we once had worked in the same office . In those days. SAQ 5. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. In the sentences below put the verbs in brackets into the past tense simple. or drought. aspect. Farmers (have) a very hard time until they (start) to use modern farming methods. Write your answers in the space provided below. Each year they (plant) the same crops. voice. 1) lost. ask) is in the past: direct speech indirect speech ‘I have a new camera. while I was waiting for a bus.4.’ => He told me he had a new camera. c) in indirect speech A way of rendering speech in writing. often (turn) the land to dust.… b) habitual simple past The simple past expresses past habitual or characteristic actions. Then winds (come) along and (blow) the good land away. I often went to the theatre. 127 .
i. while the progressive aspect is marked by some form of be + ing-participle of the lexical verb). The simple aspect The simple aspect in English is the one we choose whenever we make an objective. Think first! McDonald’s slogan: ‘I’m loving it!’ Is this slogan correct? Why? Why not? In case you cannot find an answer.2. The progressive aspect English has a progressive aspect realized by means of the auxiliary be and the -ing participle. read what follows for a (possible) solution. modality and mood 5. The bird has been building a nest.1 – 5. 5. Aspect always combines with tense. Three aspectual distinctions are traditionally identified in English: simple.2. the category of aspect marks the temporal contour of events. Write your answer in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss it with your tutor or your colleagues. Of the three aspectual contrasts of English. the simple aspect is the unmarked one (in contrast. with modals. the simple aspect generates such forms as the present tense and the past tense (see 5.1.2).2.Tense.1.1. They were building a cottage. He may be building a shelter.e. straightforward presentation of a situation. 128 . voice. A factory was being built then. progressive and perfective. A shelter is being built now. 5. their duration and their being accomplished or not. and modal equivalents and with the passive: progressive forms present + progressive past + progressive perfect + progressive modal + progressive present + progressive + passive past + progressive + passive example They are building a house. By combining with tense. Aspect While the category of tense marks the order of events in time. aspect. the perfect is marked by the auxiliary have + past participle. The progressive aspect combines with both present and past tenses and also with the perfect.2.
voice.m. aspect. perception sound verbs of relation appear. know. but not *I am liking your coffee. Apples are ripening in the sun. indicate temporary behavior or an attitude on the part of the speaker. the progressive is incompatible with the so-called ‘stative verbs’. work. dislike. belong to. in progress: Don’t knock – he may be sleeping. measure (=have length. doubt. see. i. ripen) or punctual (knock): A gale of wind from the west is blowing gently. it may imply that the situation has limited duration and is not necessarily complete (simple tenses are generally used to talk about permanent situations or completed actions): John is working in the afternoon this month. I’ve been looking for my glasses everywhere but I haven’t found them. Verbs of cognition and relation take on dynamic meanings. remember. etc). think (=have an opinion). deserve. lack. feel (=have an opinion). suppose. seem. imagine. hate. She was writing articles for a women’s magazine at the time. guess.e. Verbs of perception combine with the progressive to refer to deliberate actions rather than involuntary perception. smell. This time tomorrow I’ll be flying to New York. depend on. One can say I like your coffee. need. weigh (=have weight) Stative verbs are typically used in the simple aspect. include. The most important are: stative verbs verbs of attitude verbs of cognition examples like.Tense. possess. fit. taste (=have a flavor). mean. In addition. own. involve. prefer. owe. consist of. contain. (permanent situation) Because of its dynamic character. Last night at 6 p. When stative verbs are used in the progressive aspect their meaning is altered. realize. understand verbs of involuntary hear. Compare the progressive and the non-progressive uses of certain verbs: 129 . wish believe. recognize. For the same reason. (temporary situation) John (usually) works in the morning. I was eating dinner. resemble. modality and mood The fundamental function of the progressive aspect is to indicate a dynamic action in the process of happening. be. matter.. the progressive aspect is compatible with dynamic verbs either durative (blow. love.
(think) 6) You … gas? I … the new stove is leaking. It … good. he … very well (not hear). The first has been done for you: 1) 2) 3) I … voices. desire) 8) ‘Why … you rude today? You’ve never behaved like this before. (It is my opinion) I’m thinking of my grandmother. your school library ? (contain) 10) Speak up. Write your answers in the space provided below. (care.’ (be) 9) How many books .5. 130 . 1) hear. (It was my opinion) He likes fresh milk. (I believe) Eggs are costing more these days. (voluntary. (meet) I didn’t consider it wise to interfere.. (involuntary use of senses) She is smelling a rose. taste) ‘What are you doing?’ ‘I … this meat to see if it is spoiled.Tense. (temporary situation) I’m expecting a letter form her. the dentist today. (see) 5) Paul … about the exam. (temporary attitude) How much does/did this book cost? I expect she’ll come later. (I was thinking of) ---I am seeing the boss tomorrow. (She is a pupil) progressive aspect Jane is being rude today. there is someone at the door.. (like. (hear) I … this pudding... I see a bird! (involuntary use of senses) I heard music. (involuntary use of senses) You will be hearing from him. deliberate action) SAQ 5. think) 7) Your father and I . I was considering buying a new house at the time. modality and mood simple aspect Jane is at school. about you. I have an appointment with him. voice.. We … the best in life for you. It smells bad. (I’m waiting to receive) I think he is a kind man. (smell. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. (get news) I smell gas. He … it was long and difficult.. You are our only child. aspect. Use the stative verbs either in the simple aspect or in the progressive.’ (smell) 4) I .
Tense. 131 . when this policeman walks up to me . Why is the baby crying? Is she hungry? How are they feeling now? b) It may also denote a temporary. Practical English Usage. .2. It is getting warmer and warmer. modality and mood 5. He usually walks to school but today he is going by bus. Present progressive The present progressive is formed by means of the auxiliary be in the present tense and the -ing participle of the lexical verb. all the time: My neighbor is always playing the piano at midnight. ‘at this moment’. minding my own business. voice. It indicates somebody’s immediate plans for the near future: We’re spending next winter holidays in Egypt. Jim doesn’t like to be disturbed while he’s working. They are complaining about their neighbors all the time.2. The present progressive is also used in for ‘background’ situations in present-time narratives: So. aspect. Why are you being so rude? I’m seeing a lot of Mary these days.1. limited action or behavior with an adverbial indicating present time: I live in Brasov but I’m living in Bucharest this year. What are you doing this evening? e) The present progressive is used in temporal and adverbial clauses to indicate an action underway or in progress as some other action takes place: We will go for a walk while the baby is sleeping. . I’m standing there. The typical adverbs are: always. The action has duration and it is not complete: I am reading War and Peace by Tolstoy. c) The present progressive indicates a frequently repeated action which annoys the speaker. a) A verb in the present progressive indicates an action happening at the moment of speaking ‘now’. Michael Swan. d) The present progressive may also be used with reference to future time. continually. forever.
please. 5) I (dine) with Susan tonight. Write your answers in the space provided below. aspect.2. At half past seven the crowds were pouring into the subways. 4) He always (give) me bad advice. but I (study) in the afternoon this week. Would you join us? 6) By the way I (have) some people over for dinner tonight.2. Put them to bed. going on precisely at a point in time or over a specified period of time: I was jogging at 10 yesterday. 9) How quickly you (grow)? How tall you are! 1) am studying-temporary situation.Tense. b) A verb in the past progressive also expresses an action that began before. What were you doing when I phoned you? 132 . Past progressive The past progressive is formed by means of the auxiliary be in the past and the –ing participle of the lexical verb. Jenny: But I (not be) sentimental. 2) Ann: Don’t be so sentimental. using the distinctions (a – e) above.6 Comment on the use of the present progressive in the following. 7) Stop that noisy game you (play). 8) The children (grow) tired. 1) 5. The first has been done for you: I usually study in the morning. modality and mood SAQ 5. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. a) It expresses an action in progress. I (work) on a project on water pollution. They were playing tennis from six to seven yesterday evening. voice. 3) I (go) to the library after school.2. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple: While I was jogging a man stopped me and asked me the time.
for he was leaving the next day. 133 . 6) He always (invite) me to parties. which often annoyed the speaker: She was always ringing me up late at night. 7) She (stay) with some relatives when I called on her. Put the verbs in brackets in the past progressive. he was drinking some wine. f) A personal arrangement or plan for the near future seen from the past: He was busy packing. e) With the adverb always it expresses a frequently repeated past action. She turned the stereo down and stood up to answer the door. Barton cheerfully (talk) to her guests.Tense. d) The past progressive may be used to indicate two actions going on simultaneously and lasting over a longer period of time: The boys were playing football. the past progressive frequently has the effect of providing certain ‘background’ information in order to highlight a sequence of events expressed in the simple past tense (heard. then comment on the use of the past progressive. aspect. 1) Yesterday was December 31st. turned down. stood up): Ann was listening to loud music on her stereo when the door bell rang. the past progressive is the equivalent of the present progressive: ‘I am staying at the Lido Hotel’ He told us he was staying at the Lido Hotel. modality and mood c) In narratives. 2) While she (eat) a sandwich. g) In the indirect speech after a reporting verb in the past.7. while the girls were watching them. An old woman was standing on the steps. Use the distinctions (a – g) above. A. voice. direct speech indirect speech SAQ 5. When the clock struck midnight. 3) She (work) in a hospital when I met her. Mr. 4) Your parents (live) in this town when you were born? 5) They (have) dinner at this time yesterday. Barton (pour) champagne and Mrs.
The perfect aspect is always signaled by the auxiliary verb have followed by the past participle of the lexical verb. 5. modality and mood Write your answers in the space provided below. Present perfect simple The present perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary have in the present and the –en participle of the lexical verb. yet: They have already admitted that they were wrong.2. always. sometimes.3. They have not yet analyzed the data yet. etc. The present perfect places the event in a period of time which extends up to and includes the speech time. perfective aspect results in two simple tenses: Present Perfect and Past Perfect. I haven't really seen his car a lot lately. aspect.1. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.). so far. since June. never. 5. voice. We typically use perfect tense to show a connection between the past and the present time. The first has been done for you: 1) was pouring – action in progress. lately. in the last five years. The action is viewed as occurring at an indefinite or unspecified time in the past. for two days. these days. ever. a) anteriority The present perfect is used when the speaker does not want to refer to a definite moment in time but simply to the anteriority of the event in relation to speech time. Adverbs that can be used with the present perfect include adverbs of frequency. recently. I've always admired him. 134 . By combining with tense.3. The perfective aspect The basic meaning of the perfect aspect is anteriority of the event in relation to another moment (the speech time or a past time). which are themselves indefinite as regards time specification: already.Tense. The adverbs of time refer to a period of time not yet over (up to now.2.
winter). two weeks. 2) ………………………. 1990). five weeks ago. two minutes ago. today. this week (month. . are: just (already. for an hour. 6) Questions about quantity and number (How much …? How many …?) contain a verb in the ……………… . the village is in danger. year. yet. for centuries) expresses the duration of a period of time. Since + a point in time (since four o’clock.. since I was in London) expresses the beginning of a period of time. (we know each other) In such cases no adverb of time accompanies the verbs in the present perfect. lately). The first has been done for you. A. What matters is the fact that the result of a past event is still felt at the present moment: I have recovered from my illness. (now he can comment on the plot) I haven’t eaten anything. (the result is ‘Now I am hungry’) We have already met. voice. are: just now.8. at two o’clock. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. They have known each other since 1980... summer). three years). c) continuative perfect The present perfect expresses an event or a state that extends over a period lasting up to the moment of speaking. modality and mood b) past actions relevant at present The present perfect is often used to refer to past actions which are relevant at the speech time. August. as indicated by adverbs beginning with since or for. SAQ 5. last week (month. (the result is ‘I am now well again) He has read the novel. It has rained for a week. 3) The typical adverbs used with ………………………. 1) Past tense expresses an event with no connection to the present moment. yesterday morning. for a week. 4) The typical adverbs used with ……………………….A. 135 . three years ago) 5) Questions about time (when …?) have the verb in ………………………. Fill the gaps to distinguish between past simple (a) and present perfect (b).Tense. since (Monday. aspect. For + a unit of time (for a few minutes. since yesterday.. for years. year. for (five minutes. indicates an event that has just taken place and whose effects are felt at the present.
3.) 136 . while the present perfect simple normally suggests completion. back. I ……………………… her several letters but she didn’t reply.2.. How many poems ……………………… you ………………………? 6. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. aspect. 7. ……………………… Mozart ……………………… the music? 8.. The first has been done for you: 1. the present perfect progressive shows that the action is repeated over a period of time: I’ve been phoning you for hours! Where have you been? The typical adverbs of time are for (for many years / two weeks /a long time.. etc... modality and mood SAQ 5. a) The meaning associated with the present perfect progressive is that of a temporal situation leading up to the present. Dickens wrote some very famous novels. (not completed) (completed.B. I sent them a card but they never .) and since (since 5 o’clock /January /1999. I ……………………… two letters this evening. 5. I’ ve read the book. The doctor ……………………… me a prescription for sleeping pills... (not write) 10.. voice. b) With durative dynamic verbs. Now practice using the verb write in the past simple or present perfect. etc. I have been living here for the last three weeks. It also suggests a sense of a situation in progress with limited duration: You can’t go out.. It has been raining for a few minutes. result) c) With punctual dynamic verbs.Tense. Who ……………………… Harry Potter? 5. I will post them tomorrow.. B.. When ……………………… you ……………………… the poem? 4.8. Present perfect progressive The present perfect progressive is formed by means of have + been + verb -ing.. 3. 2... 9. He ……………………… for ages. the present perfect progressive emphasizes that the action is not completed.2. result: I’ve been reading the book.
Tense. uninterrupted action still going on at present. the hospital. (earn) 2) ‘How much ………………. the car to work since I bought it. Fill the gaps to distinguish between the present perfect simple (a) and the present perfect progressive (b). he ……………….. b) ………………….he ………………..’ 4) I ………………... He ………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.’ ‘How many programs ……………….… d) Questions with How long take a verb in the ……………… ..9. The first has been done for you. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.B. (ring) 137 . c) Questions with How much or How many have the verb in …………………. B.?’ ‘He … a lot of money lately..’ (drive) 5) The phone ………………. TV?’ (watch) ‘For two hours. 1) I have been earning my own living since I finished school. A. voice.… focuses on repetition and completion of the event. (drive) ‘How long … you … the car?’ ‘I ………………. just ………………. aspect.9.the child ………………. modality and mood SAQ 5.A.. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in parentheses.?’ (see) ‘Three.. for the past five minutes. the car for nine years... (ring) 6) His mother is very sick. SAQ 5. The first has been done for you” a) Present perfect progressive emphasizes duration.’ (earn) 3) ‘How long ………………..
No sooner had the band started to play. before. till. (“she had to see it first”) d) When the time relation is not unambiguous. c) The past perfect is used in temporal clauses beginning with after. a) It is used to refer to an event in the past that happened before a past moment (by two o’clock. had played. than he went away. she sat down. The focus is on the completed activity: By two o’clock she had made some phone calls.Tense. When she had sung. by January last year) or before another event in the past. when it started to rain. than he went away. modality and mood 5.2.3. I sent it to her. they left. (“she had to finish first”) As soon as I had done it. then she sat down’) e) The past perfect is used in reported speech instead of the past tense or present perfect tense to indicate a backshift into a more remote past: 138 . barely.3. aspect. until to show that the action is anterior to the one in the main clause (otherwise the past tense is used): After she had finished. when. Hardly had they come out of the room. When these adverbs are used at the beginning of the sentence. Compare: When she sang. when it started to rain. We had moved into a new house before our boy was born. the past often replaces the past perfect: When she saw the mouse she screamed. scarcely + when. Past perfect simple The past perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary have in the past followed by the -en participle of the lexical verb: had gone. b) The adverbs hardly. voice. no sooner + than are often used with the past perfect to indicate a past event completed immediately before another past event. as soon as. they are followed by inversion of the subject with the verb: They had hardly come out of the room. by the time. she sat down. The band had no sooner started to play. (‘she sat down while singing’) (“she saw it first”) (‘she sang first. (“I had to do it first”) She wouldn't sign the contract before she had seen it.
1) had left. I told him that he had annoyed the dog.’ Reported Speech: Ann told me that John had returned from his trip two days before and he had already heard the news. 6) They (be) married for seven years when they finally (have) a child. aspect. voice. 3) The couple (scarcely. go) a mile when it (have) a flat tire. Write your answers in the space provided below. 139 . modality and mood Direct Speech: Ann: ‘John returned from his trip two days ago.Tense. 7) No sooner he (leave) on holiday than he (return) because his parents (ring up) him to tell him that some burglars (break) into the house. enter) the house when they (begin) to argue. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 2) John (wonder) whether he (leave) his wallet at home.10 Use either the past simple or the past perfect of the verbs in parentheses. The first has been done for you: 1) Almost all the guests (leave) by the time we (arrived). He has already heard the news.’ (past simple. 5) The car (hardly. 8) Betty (fill) the cake and (decorate) it with icing which she (prepare) hours before and (keep) in the fridge to harden. (present perfect) SAQ 5. 4) The teacher (ask) the boy why he (not do) his homework. present perfect) ‘You have annoyed the dog.
The past perfect progressive often indicates a previous action whose result was obvious at a certain past moment: The grass was wet because it had been raining all day... from his textbook?’ ‘He …………………….’ ‘How many lesson …….… to move to the country for a long time. TV for an hour... for forty-five minutes when the bell rang. Jim ……. usually accompanied by an expression of time beginning with for / since. I had been waiting for Tom for two hours when he arrived. the town with her fresh vegetables for such a long time that even she couldn’t remember. aspect. 15 lessons. English by January 2004?’ (study) ‘ He ………………. he ……………………. (write) 5) 5) The waters of the river ………………….’ ‘How many programs ……………… she …………. ?’ ‘She ………………………………. (supply) 7) The lion ever …………………. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Then we stopped writing and handed our papers in. modality and mood 5..……… for the last two days. voice.……. The kids were very tired because they had been playing baseball since early this morning. SAQ 5. two programs. The first has been done for you: 1) ‘How long has Mary been watching TV by 10 o’clock?’ (watch) ‘She …………………………….. (listen) 140 ..…………. (plan) 4) We …………………………………. (rise) 6) Aunt Berth ………………....3. English for five months..he ……………….2.4.11. The village was saved.. is used for actions which had been going on continuously up to a past moment: It was midnight.’ 2) ‘How long …….…… the cage before it was moved? (leave) 8) When I got to the butcher’s. I had been studying since noon.Tense. (close). 9) Didn’t I warn you to be careful? If only you ………….’ 3) They said they ………………………………. Past perfect progressive The past perfect progressive (had + been + verb-ing). Use either past perfect simple or progressive... Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
You'll be in time if you hurry. going to future conveys the same meaning as be about to: ‘Why are you all sitting at the table?’ ‘We are just going to eat. intention cause With the adverb just. At the feast. next week. I’ll miss the film on TV.’ ‘We are (just) about to eat.’ 141 . The future simple expresses neutral prediction and takes adverbs indicating future time (tomorrow morning. Bobbie will call you tomorrow with details about the agenda.’ ‘ No.’ 5.4. modality and mood 5. It’s going to rain. Do you think he’ll come? It is also used in the main clauses of conditional sentences: You will feel better if you take your medicine regularly. Future simple The future simple (will + verb) refers to actions that will take place after the speech moment.). aspect. we will eat heartily. It also refers to the future fulfilment of present cause or intention: I’m going to stay at home and watch TV.1. Going to Going to future marks future planned activity and prediction based on fact. ‘Come out for a walk. The auxiliary will serves as the ordinary marker of the future tense (shall is old-fashioned): They will meet us at the newest café in the market.2.2.Tense. 5.2. voice. Look at the clouds. either by means of specialized future tenses or by using present tenses with future meaning.4. Use it when you want to ‘say what you think will happen’: It'll be cold and damp tomorrow. next autumn.2.4. Means of expressing future time There are several ways of expressing future time in English. etc.
.’ (play) 4. and ………………. ‘This is a terribly heavy box. He ………………………….4. ‘My car won’t start. modality and mood 5..3.’ (come. (walk).12. give) 3.‘ ‘I …………………………. to carry it.. get) 5. 4) The horse is limping badly. some.12.…….2.Tense. All our vans now are to be re-fueled.(sink) 6) The weather forecast is excellent. The ship ……………………. A. A. Be to Be to refers to a fixed and inevitable event or change in the future and is used in reporting of news. I ………………………. aspect. (find) 2) Why have they got their coats on? They ………………………. B.… to the baker’s to get some bread. and …………………………. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1.’ (plant) 2. (rain) SAQ 5. it a push.. It ……………………. ‘What are you doing with that spade?’ ‘I ………………………… some apple trees.’ ‘I ………………………. The factory is to be closed until sanitary conditions are met. the race.’ (go. the place if she follows the map. voice. Use the verbs in parentheses in the future simple or going to future.’ ‘I ………………………. Use future simple for unplanned intention and going to future for planned intention. ‘There isn’t any butter in the house. ‘Why is Bob carrying his guitar?’ ‘He …………………………… it at Mary’s birthday party. (finish) 5) Put on your life-belts. SAQ 5.‘ (help) 142 .B. (leave) 3) As soon as the rain stops.. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) She ………………………………. frequently in the passive: The government is to introduce new taxes.
4. Present progressive The present progressive with a future meaning is used for scheduled or personally planned events: We're having a party on Saturday. aspect.5. I have already made my plans.4. The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future: He will be working on the computer system for the next two weeks.2. We have already made the arrangement.Tense. 5. The train leaves at 8. they’ll be still having dinner.4. is interrupted by. I’ll be helping with the harvesting tomorrow. The simple present is used in temporal and conditional clauses to express a future action: When the President arrives. voice. Present simple The simple present with a future meaning expresses a future event as part of an official plan or arrangement regarded as unalterable. If you press this button.2. I’m leaving at noon tomorrow. the band will play the National Anthem.30. When you arrive. because I'll be eating dinner then. 5.2. It is accompanied by an adverbial indicating future time: We start for Brasov tomorrow. Use the future progressive as a polite way of asking about someone’s plans or decisions: Will you be having dinner at your parents’ tonight? 143 . or occurs with reference to some other future event/time: Don't call at 6 pm. A longer future action that overlaps. the door will open. Future progressive The future progressive tense (will + be + verb-ing) is used to describe temporary actions ongoing around a given future time: We'll be cleaning up the yard Saturday afternoon. modality and mood 5.6.4.
2. (buy) 3) By tomorrow Alice ……………………………. It is usually recognized by the time adverbial phrases containing by or next: The play will have ended by 10 o’clock. duration completion By the time the meeting is over. (work) 7) She …………………………………………. aspect..8. (perform) 5) The Martins ……………………………………… in this house for ten years by January the first. (return) 144 . (interview) 2) Nick ……………………………………. 5. Future perfect progressive The future perfect progressive (will + have + been + verb-ing) tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future: I will have been studying English for three years by the end of this term. Future perfect The future perfect (will + have + verb-en) is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future.Tense.2.7. voice. from the seaside by September the 15th.… in the school festival.4.… skiing lessons for two weeks. SAQ 5. Allen ………………………………… as a librarian for twenty years.. the committee will have been arguing about which candidate to interview for three hours.4. modality and mood 5. perfect or perfect progressive). Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) He ……………………………………… the winner at 10 o’clock tomorrow. (live) 6) By next month Mrs. a camera before he starts on a trip around the world. (take) 4) She can sing so she ………………………………….13 Use the verbs in parenthesis in the future (progressive. The hotel people will have scoured and vacuumed the building by the time the first guests arrive. before a point in the future or before another action takes place.
It indicates whether the subject is an agent (the person is the doer of the event). Voice Voice refers to the semantic roles (the actual role a participant plays in some real or imagined situation) of the subject of the sentence. become. Compare: The pupil wrote an essay. The active voice is the "normal" voice. the subject is the agent of the action. In most situations.clearer and more direct than those in the passive voice.3. He slammed the door shut. the subject is the undergoer. the participant that suffers the change occasioned by the event. In the passive voice. the active voice is preferable to the passive for the majority of your sentences. equal. look like. The house plants may have been damaged by icy winds. comprise. be by-prepositional phrase Only transitive verbs (those that take direct objects) can be transformed into passive constructions. Patient Agent passive voice The passive voice has three formal characteristics: the auxiliary be the lexical verb in the past participial form an optional by prepositional phrase containing the agent A long letter was written (by John). 145 . We can say He has a new house.Tense. The agent performing the action may appear in a by-phrase or may be omitted. fit.2). the participant that causes the change occasioned by the event. voice. lack.though not always . The door was slammed shut by him.2. be by-prepositional phrase The use of tenses in English should be practiced (by the pupils). Compare: Icy winds may have damaged the house plants. a patient (a person or a thing which is affected) or beneficiary of an event. resemble (for details see 5. Many active sentences do not change into passive structures if the verb is ‘stative’. Agent Patient active voice The essay was written (by the pupil). Here is a brief list of such verbs that cannot passivize: agree with. Sentences in the active voice are generally . but we cannot say *A new house is had by him. In the active voice. aspect. modality and mood 5.
as in: The aurora borealis can be observed in the early morning hours. Otherwise. Comley. eds. Investing money in a factory is being considered by the committee. the agent is not really important but the process or principle being described is of ultimate importance: The protein concentration required to saturate the solid phase was determined and the amount of bound protein was quantified by the micro-biochoninic acid protein assay. A hat was being worn on the head of a young gentleman. and Gregory L. The man standing next to him was being grumbled at by the latter because of the jostling that was being inflicted on him by him. Ulmer. aspect. In scientific or technical writing or lab reports. Re-write the text and make all the necessary corrections: "It was midday. It is particularly useful when the agent performing the action is obvious. Martin's Press (1988) 138-142. Remember: to use the passive voice effectively. Writers in the sciences conventionally use passive voice more often than writers in other discourses. R.) 146 . Scholes.Tense. The passive voice is effective in such circumstances because it highlights the action rather than the agent performing the action. The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. your writing may well substantiate the absurdity of this famous example. SAQ 5. The effect is to lend the article the air of objectivity. voice. Nancy R. A long neck was one of the characteristics of the young gentleman.14. unimportant or unknown. modality and mood Sentences in the active voice are also more concise and dynamic than those in the passive voice because fewer words are required to express action in active voice than in the passive. New York: St. Compare: The committee is considering investing money in a factory. The victim was apparently struck in the early morning hours. They were being squashed together. The bus was being got into by passengers. As soon as a vacant seat was espied by the young gentleman." (From Text Book: An Introduction to Literary Language. it was made the object of his precipitate movements and it became sat down upon. use it sparingly.
Passengers were squashing one another… Think first! Situation 1 You get to a show on time. How would you ask your friends for some more money? Write your answers in your portfolio and be prepared to discuss them with your tutor and your colleagues. voice. The first has been done for you. What will you say to the person in the ticket office? Situation 2 You discover that you need two more dollars. modality and mood Write your answers in the space provided below. You need tickets. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. aspect. 147 . It was midday.Tense.
* to must. What is historically the past tense mark (could. Is he able to fly a plane? He was allowed to go to the party. must. wh-question. necessity. such as be able to. might.. 148 . The forms which realize these concepts are the modal verbs: can. I might be able to get there in time. would. I can speak English. couldn’t you? They ought not to be here. can: *I will can go. b) Modal verbs are inverted with the subject to form questions (yes-no question. be permitted. need). be necessary. Modality typically involves such notions as possibility. *canning. Was he allowed to go to the party? d) Modals cannot co-occur with each other but the periphrastic equivalents. He can speak English. He speaks English. tag question): Could you tell me the truth? What could you tell me? You could tell me the truth. will-would. ought they? c) The modal paraphrases form the interrogative by means of inversion with the subject: He is able to fly a plane. obligation and permission. aspect. Some modals have pairs (can-could. Modality Modality is a category of the verb by which speakers express their evaluation or judgment of the situations to which they refer in their statements. e) Modal verbs are not marked for tense and aspect.Tense. shall-should) others are single (must. etc. The major syntactic properties of the modal verbs are: Modals do not have non-finite forms (infinitive or participles): *to can. etc. voice. vs. vs. may-might. would. probability. *musting a) Modals have no agreement with the subject in the 3rd person singular. dare. volition. ought to. may. I speak English. should. modality and mood 5. should) no longer indicates past time: It may / might rain tomorrow. be likely.4.
Tense. modal verbs combine with a lexical verb in: the simple infinitive to express a modalized event at present: I can/could drive a car. In reported speech. voice. 149 . modality and mood Instead. ride a motorbike and sail a boat. the progressive infinitive (be + verb -ing) to show an action in progress at present: She must be reading a book. the perfect progressive infinitive (have + been + verb -ing) to suggest an activity in progress in the past: She may have been reading a book when you phoned her. She said she could come. would. the perfect infinitive (have + verb -en) to indicate reference to the past: She could have phoned her friend but she didn’t. In passive sentences modal verbs combine with the simple passive infinitive (be + verb -en) to refer to an event in the present and with the perfect passive infinitive (have + been + verb -en) to indicate an event in the past: active passive They could paint the house before they sell it. could. Am/ was/ will I be permitted to come in? You have to/ had to/will have to study. passive The house could have been painted before they modal + have + been + verb -en sold it. must – have to: can may must. be allowed to. I am/ was/ will be able to ski. may . she said. The house could be painted before they sell it. g) direct speech reported speech The main modal verbs have corresponding modal paraphrases which can be used in all tenses: can – be able to. He should visit his parents more often. may and shall: ‘I can come’. should replace the corresponding can. aspect.be permitted to. will. might. modal + be + verb -en active They could have painted the house before they sold it.
hear. She can’t be typing a letter now. What can he see. Can – could The pair can – could is mainly used to express ability. Verbs of physical perception are not used in the progressive form. aspect. What does he see.1. (physical ability) He could read when he was five. Can/ Could I use your phone? (colloquial instead of may) You’ve just had your dinner. You can borrow my bike. hear.Tense. 5. modality and mood Have to is the only modal paraphrase that forms the interrogative and the negative with the auxiliary do: Do I have to finish the book by next month? I don’t have to finish the book by next month. They are usually combined with the modal verb can to indicate a state at present: He is walking along the shore now. voice. possibility and permission (in colloquial speech) physical or mental ability in the present in the past objective possibility permission ask for permission negative deduction (impossibility of a present event a past event) He can ride a wild horse. feel every day? 150 . The major semantic values of the modal verbs are given the following sections.4. He couldn’t have heard the news on the radio because he was sleeping then. feel now? He lives in a small village on the shore. You can’t be hungry. It can cause an explosion. Did I have to be in time for school? I didn’t have to be in time for school. She can’t type. (mental ability) Don’t light a match in this chemical factory.
aspect. She is a member of the school choir. 3) Can I have another piece of cake? 4) She can sing. (‘he succeeded in reaching the shore’) To stress that a past ability no longer exists.’ 1) possibility. SAQ 5. Jane?’ ‘I could have attended all the classes. They can’t be at home. 5) He could dance very well so he was able to win the dance contest. Write your answers in the space provided below. we use the construction used to be able to: ‘Can you play chess. but I had to stay home and take care of my baby brother. The first has been done for you: 1) What are you doing right now? What could you be doing if you were not in class? 2) Everything looks deserted. but now I’ve forgotten how to.Tense. 6) ‘Why didn’t you invite Margaret?’ ‘I couldn’t get her phone number. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.’ I used to be able to make clay pots on a wheel. be able to is used instead of could: Though the mountaineer was very tired.’ 7) Who can translate this paragraph into English for next time? 8) ‘You didn’t attend all the classes. Where artists used to be able to put on performances in their loft spaces.15. modality and mood When an individual event was successfully performed in the past. Betty?’ ‘I used to be able to play it. (‘he managed to get to the top’) He could swim so he was able to reach the shore.A. Comment upon the meanings of can or could in the following examples. he was able to get to the top. 151 . A. now high-end restaurants want to move in. voice.
modality and mood SAQ 5.Tense.’ 4) The children ………………………… sail across the lake last week. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.15. aspect...’ ‘Don’t worry.’ 152 .’ 10) ‘I wish I could grow roses in the front garden. voice. B. too.……… grow roses.’ 3) ‘I can’t speak English without an accent now. 1) 5) ‘Can the baby sit in his pram?’ ‘Yes. translate fluently.B. he ……………… already …………………. speak better next month.’ ‘I’d like …………………. but now I’ve forgotten a lot of words. 9) ‘Can you translate fluently?’ ‘I ……………………………. you …………………………. sit ‘ 6) The postman ………………………… deliver the letters because the dog barked fiercely. Use be able to in the appropriate tense paying attention to the adverbs of time.…… make many new friends since I arrived in this town. 8) He told me he …………………………. 2) ‘Have you ever eaten frog legs?’ ‘No. The first has been done for you: I will be able to read fast when I finish this speedreading course. I ……………………… face the idea. 7) Fortunately.…… borrow umbrellas so we had to wait until the rain stopped. I…………………………..
Tense.4. aspect. He may have taken it with him. He might not know that we are waiting for him. The negative may not (colloquially can’t) expresses a refusal of permission and is therefore less strong than must not which expresses prohibition: You may not park here. His letter might have given him the idea.2. (refusal of permission) (prohibition) 153 . May I borrow your pen. Candidates may (not) bring textbooks into the examination room. please? Might I borrow your pen. voice. modality and mood 5. May – might The pair may – might is mainly used to express possibility and permission: possibility in the present (+ present infinitive) in the past (+ past infinitive) grant or refuse formal permission request permission politely He may be on the next bus. You must not smoke here. greater uncertainty about the answer) May expressing permission can be replaced by the modal paraphrases: be allowed to or be permitted to: You may not touch the exhibits in a museum. please? (less common. You are not allowed to touch the exhibits. (a more remote possibility) The dog isn’t here. You must not park here.
It’s cold today.’ ‘Well. voice. Grant looked worried. aspect.’ ‘He might have been thinking about his sick mother. you may not. possibility. modality and mood SAQ 5.might in the following. 8) ‘Mr. I may become a librarian or I might become a teacher.’ 6) I am not sure what I will be when I leave school.’ 9) I hate to bother you. 7) I don’t know whether John signed the contract or not. but I don’t think so. but may I borrow your briefcase? 10) ‘May I open the window?’ ‘No. 1) present. 154 .’ 11) I asked if I might invite my friends over next Sunday. 5) ‘Perhaps your umbrella is at home.16. I haven’t decided yet.Tense. 2) ‘What do you think he will do there?’ / ‘What might he do there?” 3) ‘He may go boating on the lake or he may visit the Village Museum. The first has been done for you: 1) Jane may not have time to come to Bill’s party. He might have signed it. Write your answers in the space provided below. it might be there.’ 4) My friend is flying to Paris. I’m not sure why. Comment on the meanings of may . He may/might be reading a book now. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.
He must be at home now. 155 . the modal paraphrase have to is used. The children were in a summer camp. They had to chop firewood. I needn’t have translated the message. When using need in questions the speaker hopes for a negative answer: ‘Need he climb the apple tree?’ ‘No. The negative and interrogative of have to are formed with do: Why did he have to leave home so early? The pupils didn’t have to go to school on Saturday. He left two hours ago. Her uncle is a doctor.3.4. voice. Must Must is chiefly used to express obligation and logical necessity: obligation imposed by the speaker obligation deriving from rules/regulations logical necessity (deduction) You must be back by 10 o’clock. When specific reference has to be made to other times or aspects. modality and mood 5.’ Needn’t + perfect infinitive (have + verb -en) is used exclusively to refer to an action which took place in the past but was unnecessary: I translated the message not knowing that everybody here understood English. Absence of obligation at present is expressed by needn’t and in the past by didn’t need to: ‘You needn’t wait for me.’ She didn’t need to call an ambulance. he needn’t.Tense. aspect. It expresses habitual obligation or obligation imposed by others (external obligation): I will have to finish the book by next month. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. The modal must can be used with reference to an action in the present or possibly in the future. There are a lot of apples in the basket. fetch water and cook meals themselves.
modality and mood SAQ 5. 1) I hear foot steps.17. because it was clean. The first has been done for you: 1) logical necessity (deduction). 9) You needn’t help me. Jim was feeling better. 7) He had to stay indoors because of the heavy rain. 8) In England motorists must drive on the left side of the road. I can manage. 156 . My friend is sick. 10) Visitors mustn’t feed the animals at the Zoo. voice. Someone must be coming. You can cause an explosion. I am a doctor. Write your answers in the space provided below.Tense. 2) We didn’t need to call an ambulance. 6) You mustn’t smoke in here. 4) I must go to the hospital early. Comment on the meanings of must – have to – need. aspect. 5) I have to go to hospital early. 3) You needn’t have washed the cardigan. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit.
) 157 . (‘I am willing to have you here. subjects) weak volition (willingness) shall You shall stay with us as long as you like.4. In spring birds would return to their nests. voice. He will go swimming in dangerous waters. Shall – should The modal verb shall expresses volition while should indicates obligation and logical necessity: meaning the speaker’s volition (imposed on 2nd. A dog will obey his master.5. He said he would marry her right away if she would have him. (I am sure. In its sense of obligation and logical necessity. Will – would The pair will – would has two major functions: to express predictability and volition: meaning predictability concerning a future event regarding habitual. She wouldn't change it.4. (typical behavior in the past) 5. (I am not sure. Our guests should / ought to be home by now. typical behavior volition weak volition (willingness) strong volition (insistence. Boys will be boys.Tense. should is weaker than must. They have a fast car.4. would They said it would rain during the night.’) strong volition (insistence) You shall obey my orders. Ought to can be used as an alternative to should in both senses: modality expressed obligation imposed by the speaker logical necessity should/ ought to He should/ ought to pay for the broken window. they might have had a breakdown) must He must pay for the broken window. modality and mood 5. obstinacy) I will marry her tomorrow if she will have me. will It will rain during the night. even though she knew it was wrong. Our guests must be at home now.’) (‘I insist that you obey my orders. aspect. 3rd pers.
voice. aspect. please? You might tell me what she said. requests (polite) Can / Could / Will / Would you lend me (irritated) your pen. strong command: You might post these letters for me. advice (giving advice) Can’t / Couldn’t you talk with your wife (emphatic advice) first? (expecting advice) You must see that film. suggestions. friendly) Sunday? You must come and see me some time. bewilderment How could my daughter have been involved in all this? 158 . It’s very good. modality and mood Modal verbs serve fulfill various speech acts in conversation: speech acts examples commands mild command: You can turn the TV off now. You will stay here until I come back. invitations (polite) Could / Will you have dinner with us on (casual. Shall we see a film tonight? offers May I offer you some cake? Shall I help you? desire I could cry for joy! reproach You might have warned us that the bull was dangerous. Danny.Tense.
5) ‘I’m going to study tonight. but he isn’t. It should rain. voice. modality and mood SAQ 5. We should have heard from her by now. 9) I wonder why we haven’t received any news from aunt Emily. 1) typical behavior in the present. but she wasn’t. aspect. there are four moods: the indicative. A verb in the indicative varies for tense and aspect and shows grammatical concord with the subject in the present tense: 159 . objective statements.18. Comment on the meanings of the modals will – would and shall – should. The speaker asserts the sentence as being true (factual). 2) When he had a problem to solve. Write your answers in the space provided below. the imperative.Tense. You should have studied last night.5. 3) All competitors shall wear tracksuits. The first has been done for you: 1) She will talk for hours about clothes and films.5.’ 8) It’s cold and cloudy.’ ‘It’s too late now. 4) He should be writing the composition. he would always work at it until he found an answer.1. 5. the conditional and the subjunctive. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. Indicative The indicative is the most common one and is used in factual. Mood Mood is a grammatical category that signals the relationship of the verb with reality and intent. In traditional terms.’ 6) ‘Was Laura going to school when you saw her?’ 7) ‘She should have been going to school. 5.
Don't you touch that butter. Sometimes a subject may be included. Conditional The conditional mood is manifested in independent clauses by means of the modal auxiliary would added to the bare infinitive of the main verb: John would drink. Don't you eat it. present conditional subjunctive I would talk to her if I were you. Cows were grazing beside the river. The shepherd fetched the stick. request or command someone to do something. Sentences in the indicative can be either declarative (see above) or interrogative: Have you fed the sheep yet? Do you regularly spray your crops with pesticides? 5. The imperative verb form is similar to the base form of the verb. but the implied subject is ‘you’.Tense. 5. aspect. give me the book please! Please. voice. in case) is in the subjunctive mood: I would buy a huge house if I had a lot of money. ‘What would you like to do now?’ I’d like to go swimming. unless. but I'm not hungry. The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would + verb).5. present conditional subjunctive 160 .5. Helen has closed the window. modality and mood Nick picks up the boxes. I would eat. Imperative The imperative mood is typically used to ask. particularly in conditional sentences. while the verb in the subordinate clause (introduced by if.3. Go away! John. particularly in negative imperatives which are formed with the auxiliary verb do: Don't you dare touch that switch.’ The conditional mood is more frequently used to express uncertainty. don't move until you've finished! An imperative sentence typically contains no grammatical subject.2.
Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood
The perfect conditional (would + have + -en) shows how the past could have been different but was not: I would have come, if you had rung me. (“I did not come”)
perfect conditional past subjunctive
If anyone had asked her, she would have described herself only as nervous and worried.
The subjunctive is rare in main clauses in present-day English, and survives in some set formulas whose subjunctive meaning is either concession or a wish: far be it from me, so be it, suffice it to say: Far be it from me to interfere with your arrangements. Come what may, I’ll help you. Be that as it may, we’ll stick to our plan. Long live the Queen! God forgive you! Curse this dog! The subjunctive is mostly used in subordinate clauses to express actions contrary to fact. The subjunctive mood has synthetic and analytical forms. The Synthetic Subjunctive is identical in form with the past simple and the past perfect: It’s time you got down to business. present subjunctive He behaves as if he owned the place. past subjunctive I wish you had brought your sister with you. If only you had asked someone’s advice! Be is the only verb which has a special present subjunctive form (were): I wish I were younger. If he were to leave, he wouldn’t hesitate to tell us. The present subjunctive expresses wishes, possibility, uncertainty present unreality, i.e. actions contrary to present fact: after It’s time after the verb wish in conditional clauses in concessive clauses in comparative clauses It’s time we went home. I wish I had a brother. If I had time, I would go on a trip. If I had had time, I would have gone on a trip. Even though he were present, I would not change my mind. He treats her as if she were a child. He treated her as if she had been a child. 161
Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood
Underline the words that use the synthetic subjunctive and put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Henry is taking his driving test for the sixth time. It’s time he (take) it. 2) ‘I am sorry I don’t speak a bit German.’ ‘I wish you (speak) German.’ 3) I would go for a walk if it (stop) raining. 4) The young man felt as if the ground (slip) beneath his feet. 5) My stomach hurt after a large meal. I wish I (not eat) so much. 6) We could have gone skating, if the river (not be) frozen. 7) Even if the work (be) twice as difficult I wouldn’t have refused to do it. 8) He looked as if he just (come) from a very long travel. 1) took;
The analytical (or periphrastic) subjunctive expresses unreality by means of a variety of modal auxiliaries + infinitive: shall / should + infinitive They decided that nobody shall be admitted without a ticket. It is not necessary that every girl should be an actress. may/ might + infinitive May you be happy in the life you have chosen! We put the milk on the shelf for fear the cat might get at it. would + infinitive I wish you would forget it. She wishes her husband would stop smoking 162
Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood
The analytical subjunctive should + infinitive is used after adjectives, verbs and nouns that express a wish, a suggestion, a desire, etc.: after It is/was + adjective
(crucial, necessary, essential, natural, surprising, odd, absurd, strange, urgent)
after the verbs:
ask, command, insist, order, propose, recommend, require, suggest
It is essential that they should know the truth. It is amazing that they should win the race. He proposed that we should postpone our meeting.
after the nouns:
suggestion, proposal, idea, wish, recommendation, desire
purpose clauses negative purpose clauses
after lest in expressions of fear
My desire is / was that he should leave off his work and go on a holiday. I spoke slowly so that everybody should understand the rules. The road was icy and the old woman was terrified lest she should slip and fall. If the phone should ring, please say that I’ll be back at noon.
(the action is unlikely to occur)
Underline the words requiring the analytical subjunctive with should + infinitive and put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) Andy suggested that I (sell) my bicycle. 2) He made the proposal that they (buy) a car with the money. 3) It is important for children that they (learn) to share things. 4) He writes telephone numbers down lest he (forget) them. 5) They came to the agreement that they (organize) cultural exchanges. 6) The boys hid behind a bush for fear the men (see) them. 7) If Alec (win) the race, his trainer will be very proud. 8) I warned her about the danger so that she (not get hurt). 1) should sell ;
Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood
The analytical subjunctive may / might + infinitive is used in the following contexts: after the verbs: order, request, desire after expressions of fear clauses of purpose clauses of concession He desired that the boy might be left behind under his care. I’m afraid they may misunderstand my intentions. I was afraid that they might misunderstand my intentions. She gave me the key so that I might open the door. However hard he may try, he will never win the tournament.
Underline the words that require may/might + infinitive and comment on the use of the subjunctive. Write your answers in the space provided below. Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. The first has been done for you: 1) The driver stopped so that the children may/ might cross the street. 2) He was afraid that the news might upset her. 3) He sat with the door wide open at all times that he might hear the footsteps as they entered. 4) She was overcome with fear that I might let her down. 5) I will order that my doors may no longer be open to you. 6) She is afraid that he may leave without seeing her. 1) clause of purpose;
Tense, aspect, voice and modality are fundamental categories in grammar. Each of them represents perspectives from which we view our experience of events. Tense is the grammatical expression of time relations. In relation to the speech time, some events are simultaneous with it (present), others precede it (past) or follow it (future). English verbs are inflected only for two tenses: present and past. All other temporal forms are periphrastic (that is they are formed by means of auxiliary verbs). Aspect can be indefinite, 164
the imperative. Jan Svartvik (1976). must (have to. modal equivalents (have to. be permitted to). could (be able to). There are four moods in English: the indicative. The indicative is the most common one. (2004). and the verb in the indicative has tense and aspect. Editura Albatros. Modal verbs (or modals) have certain characteristics that differentiate them from auxiliaries and lexical verbs: modals are not marked for tense. Hulban. Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă. necessity.275. be going to. Iaşi: Polirom. etc). the conditional and the subjunctive. Vulcănescu R. etc) or mood (subjunctive). future) involve duration and incompletion. Editura Spanda. A Grammar of Contemporary English. voice. 165 . Progressive tenses (present. Horia (2004). wish. be allowed to. modality and mood progressive or perfective.Bucureşti . concessive clauses and purpose clauses. probability. It can be expressed by modal verbs (can/could. Quirk. 61 – 123. will/would. 94-158. might (be allowed to. aspect. Syntheses in English Morphology. Sinteze de gramatică engleză. (1987). have got to). be to.. past and future) have in common the idea of anteriority and completion. Iasi. 11. may. Modality signals possibility. Randolph. Modals may directly precede the bare infinitive of the lexical verb and have periphrastic counterparts: can. Intensive English Practice. Geoffrey Leech. shall/should. All perfective tenses (present. may/might. Aspect combines with tense. past. 324 – 365. Key terms active voice aspect imperative mood indicative mood modality modal verbs mood passive voice past tense perfect(ive) aspect present tense progressive aspect stative verb subjunctive mood tense Further reading: Coşer C. The subjunctive is mainly used in counter-factual clauses: if-clauses.Tense. Longman. ought to). Developing competence in English. Sidney Greenbaum. Georgiana. permission or attitudes (desire.
However. T/F 18) Questions starting with shall/should inquire about the wishes of the person spoken to. T/F 4) The past tenses refer only to past time. but if he (offer) a good job he probably (take) it and (start) to work immediately. He (add) that he (may) even open a business of his own. T/F 8) We rarely use verbs with stative meaning in the present progressive tense. knowing George as I do. T/F 2) The present tenses are marked by the third person singular –s inflection. 166 . When I (ask) him what he (intend) to do he (say) he (not make up) his mind yet. T/F 13) Modals form their negatives with not. T/F 5) Sometimes we can use both the past tense or the past perfect with the same time reference. T/F B. T/F 7) The present tense may refer to past. T/F 12) Modals form questions by inversion with the subject. T/F 11) Shall and will are used for pure future of prediction. Put the verbs in parenthesis into the correct form: (10 minutes: 16 points) George (return) from England last week and tomorrow evening we (have) a party to celebrate his return. T/F 3) The past tenses are marked by -ed. T/F 14) Modals are used to express attitude. voice. T/F 17) Will and would have the modal meanings of volition. T/F 10) English has no future tense. modality and mood Send-away assignment (SAA) 5 A.Tense. present or future time. you probably (be) amazed to see how much he (change) since we last (see) him. permission. aspect. T/F 6) Progressive tenses are often used as background for simple present or past actions. When you (see) him tomorrow. T/F 16) May and might are used to refer to possibility and permission. True or false? (15 minutes: 18x2=36 points) 1) All verb forms are marked for tense and aspect. T/F 15) Can and could usually have the modal meanings of ability. I (think) he (be) far happier to work for somebody else. opportunity and theoretical possibility. T/F 9) The present perfect tense is incompatible with ‘past’ adverbs like yesterday.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in parentheses: (10 minutes: 10 points) 1) It is important that he (try) to study often 2) Donna requested that Frank (be) at the party. 8) The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had removed their shoes. 7) Are you able to keep a secret? 8) It’s possible that he’ll try again. 2) If I come earlier.Tense. 3) It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the swimming pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons. aspect. Make other changes if necessary: (10 minutes: 10 points) 1) You have the obligation to leave your shoes outside when you enter a mosque. 7) Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week. 10) She says that the government (regulate) the airline industry. 9) John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding. will I have the permission to choose my seat? 3) Do you have the ability to install Windows XP for me? 4) You are permitted to leave earlier today. Use can. modality and mood C. may. must to replace the words underlined in the sentences below. voice. 167 . 6) I propose that we all (be waiting) in Tim's apartment when he gets home. I don't know if that is true. 10) Is it possible for me to borrow several books at the same time? D. otherwise he will not attend. 5) Do you think it is possible for me to prepare dinner for the next family reunion? 6) It’s very important that we speak to the neighbors before pulling down that common wall. 9) I’m sure he is at home now. 4) I suggest that you (not take) the job without renegotiating the salary. 5) Jake recommended that Susan (be hired) immediately. he left a long time ago.
instantaneous present (cooking recipes). Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form in the gaps. plant.1-5. before. 2. understand. In his rush to get downstairs he (not see) ______ the dog (lie) ______ at the bottom of the stairs. doesn’t like. teaches. 2. generic present. losing his glasses. 1. creates. ______ he went upstairs to look for money. 168 .2. and. does not believe. ______ Paul (manage) ______ to escape and he (phone) ______ the police. 4. 3. historical present. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. 1. habitual actions. 2. and he (fall) ______ over it.Tense. SAQ 5. Where no verb is given. say. SAQ 5. Her name is Susan. which he (put) ______ into his sack. modality and mood E.1. finally. but. 6. A. Paul (try) ______ to free himself.1.1.. ______ he (not find) ______ any money he (find) ______ a lot of jewelry. the police (wait) ______ for him at the end of the garden.2 not be comparable to those given above. B. then. however. Total points for SAA 5: 92 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 5. planned future action. 1. ______ unfortunately for him. aspect. don’t you trust. endangers. 3. She is … She writes … answers… meets … types … puts … helps … reminds … works…. announcements. she does … looks …. 4. ______ doing anything else he (tie) ______ Paul to the chair.. 6. 5. voice.1. He (wear) ______ a mask and (carry) ______ a sack. when The Unlucky Burglar One evening Paul (watch) ______ the television ______ (eat) ______ his supper ______ the door suddenly (open) ______ and a burglar (come) ______ in. 5. – 5.21. ______ the burglar (find) ______ his glasses he (run) ______ out of the house. misses. (15 minutes: 20 points) while. do you visit. A housewife has … She cooks … lays … washes … cleans … mends . please revise section 5. as soon as. put one of the following linking words into the gaps. ______ the burglar (look for) ______ them. although.
4 not be comparable to those given above. made. please revise section 5. think. 1. am working. SAQ 5. are playing. were your parents living (an action that began before. do you smell. 1. tore. 7. saw. killed. was always inviting (a frequently repeated past action. 5. 3. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). temporary behavior. was drinking (simultaneous actions in progress). B. 5. 5. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). A. started. 6. was working (an action that began before. 1.. 2. 3. 5. was talking (action in progress at a specified time). struck. are growing. voice. 7. and probably continued after a shorter action expressed by a verb in the past simple). NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. came. 1. 4. personal plans. am studying. am having. lost. thinks. 1. like. aspect. 8. 6.2 SAQ 5. gave. went. 4. SAQ 5. two actions going on at the same time in the past. does your library contain. missed B.? Did he need …? Did he begin …? Did one of the branches break? Did Tommy fall and hurt …? Did the eggs break? Did they taste nice? Did you last go.6. B. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. 3. am smelling. 8. struck. put out.. blew. plans for the near future. 2. 6.3. 6. A. 6. am going. 7. which annoyed or pleased the speaker). were.3-5. came. 1. contrast between a prolonged action and a momentary action. an action in progress at a certain past moment. desire.Tense. heard. am dining.5. lasted. 2. 8. Did it lay five eggs? Did Tommy see the nest? Did he climb the tree? Did he hold …? Did he take …? Did he put . smelt. is giving. 169 . 4. 3. modality and mood SAQ 5. fell. was pouring (action in progress at a specified time). 4. was staying (an action that began before. called. am seeing. 2. A. actions annoying the speaker. did you see. 7. turned. 7. annoying events in the past. are you growing. did not burn.4. happened. does not hear. was eating. were having (action in progress at a specified time). 3. 4. are you being. am being. 10. hear. 5.1. an action in progress at a certain past moment. 9. tore. tastes. with the verbs get and grow transition from one state to another SAQ 5. is thinking. planted.7. had. started. hit. care. 2. temporary action. action happening at the speech moment.
did Mozart write. am going to plant. 2.3.5-5. had Mary been watching. had been supplying. and 5. has been ringing. 9. did you write. will come and give. had Jim been studying. past perfect. had been studying. 2.3. B.3. had scarcely entered. arrived.2. 6. past perfect. 2. 4.2. 5. has the child been watching. 4. 1. 2. wrote.12. had been watching. modality and mood NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. b) present prefect simple. had rung him up. had. had not done. and 5.Tense. has just rung. 8. 8.2. 7. B. 2. are just going to leave.10. had broken. voice. is going to play. please revise section 5. wrote. will walk. 5. 1.8.3. 6. a) present perfect progressive. A. have (you) been driving. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5. hasn’t written. 2. 8. had been. have you written. wondered.2. had the lion ever left. SAQ 5.2. have driven.7 not be comparable to those given above. d) present perfect progressive.11 not be comparable to those given above. had he left.1. had been planning. 9. 188.8.131.52 and 5. 5. 5.1. have written. SAQ 5.9 not be comparable to those given above. 6. past simple. had left. returned. 3. 3. 2. 6. had studied. had listened. 4. began. had been writing. have been earning. 3. has earned. have been driving. wrote.3. please revise 5.2. 1. 6.2. had closed. 10. Will she find. 7. 7. is going to sink.2.3. 4. 5. had prepared. had watched.11.4 SAQ 5. 4. had been rising. 3. please revise section 5. 6. A.3. SAQ 5. 5. decorated. will go and get. will help. past simple. c) present prefect simple. 1. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. wrote. had watched. past simple. is not going to rain.2 SAQ 5. 4. please revise section 5. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.2. wrote.1. 3. 4. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. had. is not going to finish. hardly had the car gone. had kept. had studied. aspect. past perfect.9. has he earned. asked.8 not be comparable to those given above. 5. had left. filled. has he watched.2. 1. 3.10 not be comparable to those given above. 3. 170 . please revise section 5.
SAQ 5. It was midday. possibility (note that in questions may is replaced by do you think. you washed it although it was unnecessary. possibility. 4. possibility that an action was going on at a certain time in the past.6. 8.12 not be comparable to those given above.13. will be interviewing. 5. 3. 5. an action was not necessary in the past. and 5. 7.2 SAQ 5. less likely possibility in the future. Seeing a vacant seat. 3.3. he is already able to. future ability.2. be likely. 6. less likely possibility. 4. 2. 5. 1.24.14 not be comparable to those given above. refusal of permission.4.1. obligation imposed by the speaker. 5.13 not be comparable to those given above. 2.4. external obligation. 2. 7. will be able to. 9. 8. 1. 171 . 10. past ability. 7. possibility. A. 1. 8. will be performing. logical necessity (deduction). will be able to.2.8.17. 1.4. 3. 5.3. negative deduction. 184.108.40.206 and 5. SAQ 5. the young man precipitated toward it and sat down. will have been living. please revise section 5. 10.2. 8. voice. have been able to.Tense. obligation deriving from regulations. past ability.4. 9. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. permission in indirect speech. have never been able to. please revise section 5. present possibility.2. inability in the past. asking for permission.2. weren’t able to. will have returned. aspect. 5. 4. a less likely possibility in the past. 5. Passengers were squashing one another to get into the bus. not used. please revise section 5. B. 6.15 not be comparable to those given above. will have been working. 4. 2. 6. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. modality and mood NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. permission. 3.1. 6.4. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. 6. 7. hadn’t been able to. will have bought.15.2.4. obligation imposed by others. SAQ 5. 2. wasn’t able to. A long-necked young man wearing a hat was grumbling at the man standing next to him because he was jostling him. will have been taking.4. used to be able to. 7.16 not be comparable to those given above. permission. 3. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5. present possibility of something happening now. to be able to. 4. SAQ 5. please revise section 5. please revise section 5. ability.
Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood
obligation deriving from regulations; 9. absence of obligation at present; 10. obligation deriving from regulations. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQ 5.17 not be comparable to those given above, please revise section 5.4.3.
1. typical behavior in the present; 2. typical behavior in the past; 3. insistence; 4. an obligation at the moment of speaking; 5. unfulfilled past obligation; 6. unfulfilled obligation to perform an ongoing action at a moment in the past; 7. logical necessity; 8. logical necessity in the past. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5.18 not be comparable to those given above, we advise you to revise sections 5.4.4.
1. took; 2. spoke; 3. stopped; 4. slipped; 5. had not eaten; 6.7. had been; 8. had just come.
1. suggested; 2. proposal, should buy; 3. important, should learn; 4. lest, should forget; 5. agreement, should organize; 6. for fear, should see; 7. if, should win; 8. so that, should not get.
1. so that, clause of purpose; 2. afraid, expression of fear; 3. that, clause of purpose; 4. fear, expression of fear; 5. afraid, expression of fear. NOTE: Should your answers to SAQs 5.19 - 5.2.1 not be comparable to those given above, please revise section 5.5.4.
Adjectives and adverbs
Adjectives and adverbs
Objectives 6. 1. Adjectives 6.1.1. Semantic classes 6.1.2. Order of adjectives 6.1.3. Comparison of adjectives 6.1.4. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison 6.1.5. Formation of adjectives 220.127.116.11. Derived adjectives 18.104.22.168. Compound adjectives 22.214.171.124. Participial adjectives 6.2. Adverbs 6.2.1. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form 6.2.2. Comparison of adverbs 6.2.3. Syntactic functions of adverbs 6.2.4. Semantic classification of adverbs 6.2.5. Order of the adverbs Summary Key terms Further reading Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6.1 – 6.11
174 174 175 176 177 178 181 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 188 192 194 194 195 195 198
Adjectives and adverbs
This unit focuses on the basic forms, meanings and syntactic roles of adjectives and adverbs.
By the end of this unit, you will be able to: define the main morphological and semantic characteristics of adjectives and adverbs; identity different semantic classes of adjectives and adverbs; form the comparative and superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs correctly; define the main functions of adjectives and adverbs in the clause; form adjectives and adverbs from other word-classes by derivation; locate adjectives and adverbs correctly in the clause.
6. 1 Adjectives
Adjectives are words that modify nouns. Adjectives commonly specify the properties or attributes of a noun referent: The house is old. I’ve bought a new car. However, they vary considerably in their form, their syntactic functions and the types of lexical and grammatical meanings they express. Adjectives may be used attributively or predicatively. As attributes, adjectives modify nominal expressions; they occur as constituents of the nouns phrase and typically precede the head noun: That is a nice old wooden cottage. In a few fixed expressions adjectives occur after the noun: attorney general, God Almighty, heir apparent, notary public, etc. Modifying adjectives can also occur as predicatives and characterize the nominal expression in subject position: Francesca was charming, but Blanche was sweet.
Adjectives and adverbs
Certain adjectives can be used only predicatively: well, ill, and adjectives prefixed by a-: afraid, ajar, akin, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake: For several days, she was ill. Are your people still alive? Others are used only attributively: elder, live, little, sheer, mere, lonely, sick, etc.: He was a sick man. His elder brother, Richad Damory, was more prominent. Ann Catt was a lonely, devoted soul.
Paying attention to which adjectives are normally used only attributively and which are used only predicatively, write short sentences with the adjectives shown in brackets. The first has been done for you. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) the concern (chief): the door (ajar); the kittens (asleep) the slopes (sheer) the street (main) the volunteers (ready) our dog (afraid) the reason (principal) her baby (alone) Health is her chief concern . ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ………………………………………
6.1.1. Semantic classes
Adjectives typically characterize the referent of a nominal expression: a cheerful young British nurse the little grey stone statues In addition, they are gradable in meaning, in other words they can denote degrees of a given quality. This means that they can be modified by an adverb of degree (very young, highly successful). They also take the comparative and superlative forms (younger, youngest).
Order of adjectives When two or more adjectives modify a noun. Christian. white dark. initial.Adjectives and adverbs We can distinguish two broad semantic groups of adjectives: descriptors and classifiers. or religious group to which a Democrat referent belongs) topical (giving the subject chemical. young bad. the order is given below: det. official. good. complete. (= connected with area or showing a chemistry’). large. relationship with a noun) legal. old. For adjectives that modify nouns denoting objects./ poss. daily. the order is the one exemplified below: det. my two old tiny oval blue Chinese the large cinema her new French steel tennis noun vases hall racket For adjectives that modify nouns denoting events. beautiful. medical. high annual. late. bright big. by placing it in relation to other referents. fine. his the cardinal two ordinal previous future second speakeroriented disgusting possible subjectoriented angry manner friendly American thematic/ ethnic noun reaction agreements invasion 176 . new. following. little. long. their order is fixed to a certain degree. general./ numeral quality age size shape color origin material purpose poss. right Classifiers delimit or restrict a noun’s referent.1. political 6. The rules for the order of the adjectives are still a matter of dispute among grammarians. human. different.2. Descriptors are typically gradable and denote such features as the following: meaning color/brightness size / quantity / extent and weight chronology / age / frequency emotion / evaluation adjectives black. Chinese. huge. commercial. They are typically non-gradable: characteristics relational / classificational / restrictive adjectives additional. final. necessary ethnic (designate the national American. oral.
ten) basement (cool. while longer adjectives usually take phrasal comparison. all) pumpkins (ten. Gradable adjectives can be specially marked to denote comparative and superlative degree either inflectionally or phrasally. those. type of marking inflectional phrasal comparative stronger more difficult superlative the strongest the most difficult Non-gradable adjectives are not capable of expressing degrees of a property and cannot be used in the comparative or superlative degree: *more previous *very motionless *most continuous 177 . three) quilts (six. medium-sized) puppy (four-week-old. 6. thick.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. his. damp. our. her. using the degree adverbs more and most. Comparison of adjectives Adjectives that are capable of representing degrees of a property are said to be gradable.2. oval. the) 1) those three tiny birds. their) baby (lively. -est to mark the comparative and the superlative degree.1.3. damp. warm) carpet (heavy. long) steps (narrow. white. Monosyllabic adjectives usually take the inflections -er. round. cement. Arrange the adjectives given in brackets in the correct order: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) birds (tiny. a. six-month-old) dress (satin. a. thick) table (low.
And the people in that region are much ruder. fierce. and weight of each child in a group of three children.Adjectives and adverbs Some non-gradable adjectives. Make up clauses with adjectives in the comparative and superlative degree: Child's Name Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) Money (dollars) Compare the following: Ray – Carl Denise – group Ray – Denise Carl – group Ray is older / taller / heavier / richer than Carl. SAQ 6.4. Somebody told me the truth.3 The following table gives the age. Alternative inflectional or phrasal comparison Certain adjectives take alternatively either inflectional or phrasal marking of the degrees of comparison. Denise 12 140 40 90 Ray 11 154 43 70 Carl 10 135 45 25 6. proud. his lips had become swollen-looking. rude): His face was fuller. which is even more rude. Music in France remained more dancelike. can be modified by emphatic adverbs: quite motionless. full. on the other hand. more full of flavor. really tremendous. together with the amount of money possessed by each child.1. a) Some monosyllabic adjectives (fair. height. 178 .
Disyllabic adjectives such as mellow. carrying both inflectional and phrasal markers: This way it’s more easier to see the effects. c) Trisyllabic adjectives in -y sometimes take inflectional comparison: What can I do to relax? Sometimes I feel like the unhappiest. secure): Things are mellower. rapid) take a phrasal marker of degree: The governments encourage a more rapid growth. Most disyllabic adjectives (proper. adjectives are occasionally doubly marked for degree. bad and the quantifiers little. lively) take both types of comparison. dimmer. gentle. big – bigger – the biggest). dimmest. -le.Adjectives and adverbs b) Disyllabic adjectives vary considerably in occurrence with inflectional or phrasal comparison. safer. lucky – luckier – the luckiest: I had to watch my luckier mates going to college. The party leaders showed livelier interest in political power than in the city's welfare. crazy. or the luckiest of them all. shallow which end in an unstressed vowel can also be inflected.tidiest). happy.the easiest. -est to mark the comparative and the superlative: easy -. -re or –ure (clever. lucky. narrow. busy. much / many – more – the most. 179 . In conversation. The adjectives good. happier. little – less – the least. It seemed more proper to pay tribute to her in this way. unluckiest person on earth. heavy. pretty) usually take -er. a single consonant is doubled after a single vowel letter (dim. bad – worse – the worst. with varying degrees of frequency: He had a more lively personality than others. She felt much happier after the discussion. depending on phonological or morphological characteristics. to university. The addition of -er and -est can involve regular spelling changes to the adjective stem. sincere. deadly. funny. Silent -e is omitted before adding the suffix (safe. Disyllabic adjectives ending in the unstressed vowel -y (angry. final -y is changed into -i if a consonant letter precedes it (tidy – tidier .easier -. nasty. friendly. Other disyllabic adjectives which are sometimes inflected are those ending in –er. Adjectives ending with the suffix -ly (costly. safest). much / many have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms more: good – better – the best. gloomy.
the repeated adjectives function predicatively after the copular verb get. 8) The soil is becoming increasingly dry.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. 6) Her work is getting increasingly good. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1) The bread tastes even ___________ than the rolls. SAQ 6.5 Rewrite each of the following sentences in the space provided below. 4) The situation is growing increasingly bad. (bad) Repeated comparative adjectives Two identical comparatives are sometimes conjoined by and to form a structure that denotes an ever-increasing degree of the adjective. The wind is becoming stronger and stronger. It was more and more difficult to get into the laboratory. 7) The trees are growing increasingly tall. or become: I watched the balloon becoming bigger and bigger. 10) She is increasingly weak because of her illness. Typically. 1) It was increasingly dark outside and I couldn't see much. (little) 4) We have ___________ honey than we need. The wind is becoming increasingly strong. 3) The child’s hands were increasingly dirty. 5) It is becoming increasingly clear that this problem will not be easily solved. 2) The grass is becoming increasingly green. using the construction in which the comparative form of the adjective is repeated. The mist became increasingly thick. (much) 5) The weather was ___________ yesterday than it is today. (good) 2) He does not want to walk ___________ than necessary. 180 . (far) 3) Ann drinks ___________ coffee than Jim does.4 Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the comparative forms of the irregular adjectives given in brackets. grow. 9) The time remaining grew increasingly short.
Compare them with those given at the end of the unit. 6.5. and in the center of the room sat the teacher. Denominal and deverbal adjectives are derived respectively from nouns and verbs. Derived adjectives Many adjectives are derived by affixing an adjectival suffix to a base form. 6.1. I remember Grandma telling us to go hunt for some ground squirrels or anything eatable for meat.5. participial forms can be used as adjectives.Adjectives and adverbs Write your answers in the space provided below.1. 181 . In addition. Formation of adjectives New adjectives can be formed with derivational affixes and by compounding. The most common derivational adjective suffixes are: noun stem person care home wood nerve verb stem eat excite correspond suffix -al -ful -less -en -ous suffix -able -ing -ent derived adjectives personal careful homeless wooden nervous derived adjective eatable exciting correspondent Having good personal relationships is the most important thing for me. Little boys crowded together on long wooden benches.1. The horse may be nervous of cars.
(courage) Don’t be ………………………. The compound open-minded is derived from a noun phrase (an open mind) to which -ed has been suffixed. (advise) It would be ……………………….. (help) She stood there …………….1. appearance. 8. Furthermore. Adjectives can be added to other adjectives (grey-bluish). protective). 3.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. (experiment) My work is still in the ………….6 Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in parentheses. of everything I do? (influence) He is a very …………………………. person. many compound adjectives involve participial forms. by one failure.2. (magnet) He has a …………………………… personality. 7.5.. The component elements can themselves be derived (bluish. 4. 6.stage. Compound adjectives Formally. (boy) Don’t be deceived by his ………………. 6. You look smart in this grey-bluish suit! Parents can easily become over-protective of their children (= want to protect them too much). Compounds can also be composed of an adjective plus noun (full-time) or an adverb plus adjective (over-protective). 9. to go early. (critic) Why are you so …………………. However. (glory) It’s a …………………………. (real) We used a more …………… approach to the problem. compound adjectives take many shapes. …. as in world-renowned.. 10. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit: 1. 2. 5. the element in an adjectival compound that is suffixed with -ed or -ing is most often a verb. Looking after a child is a full-time job (= hard work that takes a lot of time). The following list shows the common adjectival patterns: 182 . not knowing what to do. day for a picnic. The sort of people who live and work here are well educated and open-minded.
183 . rapidly-growing dark-blue. light-blue. full-time. you are . sickly-smelling duty-free. a) cold b) warm c) hot d) boiling 5) Which of the following is NOT true? ‘Easy-going people ….. free-market. whitewashed. good-looking. -headed. wellfed.7 Choose the right answer: 1) Politicians don’t seem to get hurt by criticism. life-long. a) get on with people they don’t know b) are very relaxed about things c) find going to places very easy d) don’t get stressed out by things.Adjectives and adverbs structure adjective + adjective adverb + ed-participle adverb + ing-participle adjective + color adjective adjective + other adjective adjective + ed-participle adjective + ing-participle noun+ adjective noun + ed-participle noun + ing-participle adjective + noun participle + adverbial particle compound adjectives bitter-sweet. waisthigh classroom-based. iron-rich. yellow-brown ill-suited. hair-raising. ready-made. largescale blown-out.. left-over. well-meaning. a) thick-skinned b) left-handed c) strong-willed d) coolheaded 2) How old are you when you become .. gray-white. well-timed. new-born. bitter-sweet clean shaven.. paid up SAQ 6. home-baked. fast-food. horse-drawn eye-catching. they are so ….? a) medium aged b) middle-aged c) in-the-middle aged d) mid-aged 3) Which of the following “heart” adjectives does not exist? a) warm-hearted b) cold-hearted c) soft-hearted d) hothearted 4) If you loose your temper easily. peacekeeping.
5. a ragged jacket. wretched. Participial adjectives A major subclass of adjectives can be distinguished by the -ed or -ing endings. naked. 1) The new recruits were ok until they took the (demoralized / demoralizing) two-hour math test. though. 9) We were (amazed / amazing) at the long registration line. 184 . 5) The news about Jane's surgery was (disturbed / disturbing) and the whole class was very (upsetting / upset).1. 8) The map was badly made and actually very (confused / confusing). These are known as participial adjectives and they are analyzed as derived from verb forms: verb determine annoy inflection -ed -ing participial adjective determined annoying In some cases. as with uninterested or unemployed. ragged.8 Choose the correct participial adjective for the context of the sentence. 3) All the children were (excited / exciting) at the idea of going to the circus. that wretched woman. These are: aged /eid id/. In other cases. learned. 6) I am (finishing / finished) with this exercise! 7) Look! It's a (shooting / shot) star. 4) The animals were (fascinating / fascinated) to the children. employed) rather than directly to the verb: He makes many interesting comments. a negative prefix attaches to the derived participial adjective (interesting. a learned professor (formal). 2) Watch out for (falling / fallen) rocks along the road. as in my aged aunt (formal).3. nouns rather than verbs provide the base form as in interested and crowded. A number of adjectives ending in -ed have a special pronunciation: the last syllable is pronounced /id/ instead of the normal /d/ or /t/. a wicked man. 10) Billy is always (tiring / tired) after spending all afternoon in nursery school. wicked. SAQ 6.Adjectives and adverbs 6.
.. lucky – luckily... 4) (fortune) . 7) (grace) She walks very ……………………… .. '-ible'. If the adjective ends in '-y'. SAQ 6...... (streetwise) and –wards (forwards. backwards). b) compound adverbs are formed by combining two or more elements into a single word: everywhere (every + where). 10) (method) He works very ………………. ? (athlete) He’s quite an ... There are certain changes in the spelling of derived adverbs...2... 185 . rather...... add '-ally': basic – basically.. .. terrible – terribly). economic – economically... 6) (heart) He gave us a very ... (intention) Did he do that .. c) derivational adverbs are formed by suffixing –ly to the base form of an adjective: adjective cheap suffix -ly adverb cheaply Not all adverbs ending in -ly are formed by the addition of -ly to an adjectival form.. replace the '-e' with '-y' (propable – probably..)..... quite..... If the adjective ends in ‘able'. therefore (there + fore)... 8) (hero) He behaved ………………………… ... If the adjective ends in '-ic'..... soon)...Adjectives and adverbs 6... we may distinguish three classes of adverbs: a) simple adverbs are single words (well........ replace the 'y' with 'i' and add '-ly' (easy – easily..... welcome..……………… . 5) (occasion) We hear him ... etc. etc.................. Some adverbs are derived from adjectives that already end in -ly: In these cases the adverb is normally formed by zero derivation. noun stem week father suffix -ly -ly adjective weekly fatherly adverb weekly fatherly Other suffixes used to form adverbs are: -wise......9 Complete the following sentences: use the correct form of the word in parentheses: 1) 2) 3) (fatal) He was . Adverbs Morphologically.... he came late and missed the train........ 9) (reluctance) He went very ……………… ..... or '-le'.. looking person.... happy – happily.... wounded.
(brief) 186 .1. ___________ weather conditions have prevailed for the past ten days. adjective The farmer must get up early. 1. It was a ___________ Easter Sunday. adverbs basically modify verbs. 5.2. (unusual) 8. (clear) She waved ___________. 4. (relative) 9. ___________ few people understand the situation. 3. There was a ___________ rain in the morning. 6.10 For each of the following sentences. it is necessary to distinguish between the functions of adjectives and adverbs in order to determine which form should be used in a given situation. (favorable) 7. (quiet) ___________ situated farms often produce higher yields than other farms. (light) The path was ___________ marked. Whereas adjectives modify nouns. adverb During early childhood boys tease and bully. The moon appeared ___________ between the clouds. (cheerful) ___________ rain is forecast for tomorrow.Adjectives and adverbs 6. an adverb has the same form as a related adjective: The player hit a fast ball over the left fielder's head. pay attention to whether the word to be placed in the blank modifies a noun or a verb and complete the sentence with either the adjective given in brackets or the corresponding adverb. at times. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form In some cases. SAQ 6. (hot) 10. (heavy) I opened the door ___________ and stepped outside. adjective He was learning fast. adverb adjective hard high late little long loud low much straight wide adverb hard high late little long loud(ly) low much straight wide When an adverb does not differ in form from the corresponding adjective. Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit. 2. and. as appropriate. work late at night.
comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for adjectives: -er or -est added to short adverbs: positive hard late fast comparative harder later faster superlative hardest latest fastest I shook him a little harder and made some noise. use more for the comparative and most for the superlative: positive quietly slowly seriously comparative more quietly more slowly more seriously superlative most quietly most slowly most seriously He had to take life more seriously.2. With adverbs ending in -ly. He sleeps less than he used to. an adverb can be made comparative either with the use of more or with -er inflection: The moral is: don't transplant it any oftener than you must. In some cases. bad and far.Adjectives and adverbs 6. Comparison of adverbs In general. We should do that more often! Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms.2. 187 . the quantifiers much and little: positive badly far little well much comparative worse farther / further less better more superlative worst farthest / furthest least best most The local people advanced farther into unknown territory. and are identical to the corresponding adjectives good. She walked easily now and more slowly.
She took the child outside. focusing. (“increasingly frequently”) As time passed. Enough and indeed may postmodify an adjective or adverb: It is simply not good enough for people to argue.) The struggle was over surprisingly quickly. adverbs may premodify an adjective. (adv. It rains more and more frequently. 188 .) Nearly everyone was impressed with their success. Syntactic functions of adverbs Adverbs can be integrated into an element of the clause and serve as modifiers. 6.3. direction or distance: They built a house nearby. Semantic classification of adverbs Adverbs express several broad meanings in clause and in phrase structures: modal (or manner). 6.2. She sings more beautifully than him.2. (adj. (pron.4.) (num. Most commonly. she saw less and less frequently her old friends.Adjectives and adverbs When used in making comparisons. a pronoun and numeral or a noun phrase: Washed. b) adverbs of place show position. The comparative forms of adverbs can be used in progressive comparisons: He worked harder and harder. the positive form of an adverb is usually preceded and followed by as and the comparative form is followed by than: He moves as slowly as a snail. circumstantial (time and place) degree. In Rome she intended to move very slowly indeed. they came out surprisingly clear and bright. linking: a) adverbs of manner express information about how an action is performed: His speed was dropping rapidly. another adverb.) Misunderstanding has almost zero possibility. Some of them are very delicious indeed.
Adverbs indicating position in time and duration are typically placed at the end of the sentence: We sold our horse last year. I was six days going thither and coming homewards. upwards. I have always been inclined to skepticism. (after the modal verb) I have never seen a tiger. may. I want stay in bed all day. downwards. never) are usually placed before the main verb but after auxiliary or modal verbs (be. southwards. She didn't come back for two days. c) adverbs of time convey information about when an action happened (position in time) but also for how long (duration) and how often (frequency): Yesterday I had a bad toothache. have. it is used in positive sentences and questions and is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary or modal verbs: He still points an accusing finger at all of us. Is it still raining? The public may still find pleasure in public places. frequently. onwards. normally. expressing movement in a particular direction: backwards. homewards. occasionally. sometimes. Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences and is placed at the end of the sentence or after not: Have you heard anything from him yet? The street cleaner had not yet been around. Still expresses continuity. must): He never drinks milk. Adverbs expressing indefinite frequency (always. You must also look upwards to see people. etc. usually. northwards. ever. (before the main verb) You can always come and stay with us. rarely seldom. (between auxiliary and main verb) Some other adverbs of definite frequency (expressing the exact number of times an action happens) are usually placed at the end of the sentence: Scrub the room once a week.Adjectives and adverbs Other adverbs of place: ending in '-wards'. 189 . often. forwards.
If the sentence contains an auxiliary (except do). especially boys.Adjectives and adverbs d) adverbs of viewpoint or attitude (honestly. often tell false stories. The job also covers a number of other items. too. undoubtedly.after the verb to be and before the main verb: I honestly can't remember. undoubtedly) tell us about the speaker's viewpoint or opinion about an action or make some comment on the action: Personally. too. believes in good intentions. honestly! (“this is my opinion”) (“what I say is true”) These adverbs are usually placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence and are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. personally. f) additive adverbs show that one item is being added to another (too. This would surely be a major step toward better living conditions. but they go in a different position . only): People of your age. He. They emphasize the importance of one part of the proposition by restricting the truth value of the proposition to that part (especially. are a big help so keep them if you can. I don't blame him I didn’t tell anyone. definitely. This tool can also be made with a lathe. probably. seriously. surprisingly. The train has obviously been delayed. e) adverbs of certainty express how sure we feel about something. 190 . these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the main verb: He has certainly forgotten us. obviously. surely) go before the main verb but after the copulative verb to be: I certainly did not want to go back. This is surely a major work. Additive adverbs can occur at clause level or phrase level: Shade trees. Commenting adverbs (definitely. Adverbs of certainty (certainly. I definitely remember sending the letter. surely. also). certainly. simply) are very similar to viewpoint adverbs and often the same words. g) restrictive adverbs focus attention on a certain element of a clause.
namely pensioners. Adverbs of degree are usually placed: before the adjective or adverb they are modifying: This was a slightly different matter. Overall. Altogether it was a great evening. Firstly. The main semantic categories are: enumeration and addition (first. scarcely. slightly. enough. quite) tell us about the intensity or degree of an action. half of them were serious candidates. who was going to look after my son? summation: altogether. This tea is too sweet. paragraphs or longer thus contributing to its cohesion. (adjective) (adverb) I) linking adverbs are used to connect stretches of the text: clauses sentences. The food was good and we loved the atmosphere and the people. less. very. thirdly. quite. rather. (adjective) (adverb) Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' goes before adjectives and adverbs. secondly. Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree' normally comes after the adjectives and adverbs it modifies Is your tea sweet enough? You don’t drive fast enough. before the main verb: The pain in his chest nearly brought him down again. completely.Adjectives and adverbs h) adverbs of degree (almost. additionally) The problems were numerous. just. an adjective or another adverb. too. apposition: namely One group of people seems to be forgotten. I didn’t know exactly when I was going to America. 191 . secondly. nearly. He drives too fast. overall In the general election the number of candidates in the fifteen constituencies was 14.
time If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence.2. however. therefore. This conclusion is.5. thus There is still much to discuss. Alternatively. 1995. return to this item at our next meeting. use them in this order: duration – frequency – time: I worked on a farm for five days every week last year. Strange though it may sound. contrast or concession: though. This type of window would not be suitable for a festoon or ruched blind. thus allowing many more people the chance of higher education. it would have to be fitted outside the window reveal. 6. duration frequency time Several adverbs expressing the precise time when the event took place are ordered from the shortest to the longest unit of time: He was born at 10 o’clock in the morning on 2 November. We. 192 . however Urbanization appears to be an important factor in the disintegration of this group. for an hour.Adjectives and adverbs result or inference: therefore. alternatively. The universities have expanded. I was pleased it was over. Order of the adverbs If several adverbs appear in a clause they are typically used in the order: manner/place/time sequence: She sang He waited beautifully in the town hall quietly in the room manner place last night. an over-simplification.
1) This may be the last time a competition is organized in France for some years.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.11 Rewrite the following in the most straightforward word order. 193 . The first has been done for you. When you have finished. Write your answers in the space provided below. 1) for some years / in France /this may be the last time a competition is organized 2) every day of the week / in the park / after lunch / We see John running 3) to first year students / enthusiastically / Jim lectures / about folk art 4) on the main campus / the coach works / at the gym / every day of the week / in his office 5) at the edge / all summer / rapidly / in the marshes / of the pond / bacteria grow 6) in Cleveland / in the backroom / My father was born / of a farmhouse / 7) next week / to see her doctor / Jane made an appointment / at two o'clock 8) during the months of December and January / after dark / she leaves the island 9) the children whispered / on Christmas Eve / excitedly / in front of the tree 10) on Monday/ before we leave/ try to get back.
most beautiful). adverbs can express a large number of meanings. relative (or linking) adverbs. degree. Nongradable adjectives do not share these characteristics. the most important being circumstantial (time. manner. homeless) and compounding (openminded. is represented by participial adjectives (charming. frightened). Many adjectives can denote degrees of a given quality and are therefore gradable. A major class of adjectives. mid or final position. viewpoint. identified by the – ing or -ed ending. following a copulative verb (Sue is charming). place). longest) or phrasally (more beautiful. Adverbs express a variety of meanings. They may be used either attributively. Adjectives can be formed with derivation affixes (painful. A significant number of adverbs are formed from adjectives with the suffix -ly. Like adjectives. Key terms additive adverbs adjective adverb attributive adjectives classifier comparison comparative compound adjectives degree adverb focus adverbs frequency adverbs gradable / ungradable intensifier linking adverbs manner adverb negative adverb participial adjectives place adverb predicative adjectives restrictive adverbs superlative time adverbs viewpoint adverbs 194 .Adjectives and adverbs Summary Adjectives specify the properties of the referent of the noun they modify. The comparative and the superlative can be marked either inflectionally (long. typically preceding the noun (beautiful building) or predicatively. Semantically. Gradable adjectives modify to express grammatical meanings associated with the category of comparison. critically-ill). which means that they can take the comparative and superlative forms. In a clause adverbs typically serve as verbal modifiers. In the clause adverbs occupy various positions: initial. adverbs can express the comparative and the superlative either inflectionally or phrasally. focusing. longer.
Send-away assignment (SAA) 6 A. old c) a sweet old 195 . Most adjectives are identifiable as such by their form. old-fashioned. London: Longman. Several adjectives modifying a noun appear in a fixed order. Editura Spanda. a) an old sweet b) a sweet. granddaddy. intelligent. my sensitive. Geoffrey Leech. Place the adjectives in the proper order: (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) cute. Mark and Diane Hall (2003). Uncle Carl is really ___________ man. old. little a dress. Sidney Greenbaum. 216-243. Choose the right word paying attention to spelling: (10 min: 10 points) 1. Advanced Learner’s Grammar. Hulban. Think about adjectives. 160 – 175. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Jan Svartvik (1976). Those are probably the ___________ curtains in the store. powerful C. gorgeous. Randolph. 229297. reading a several. Quirk. B. 129-203. a) fancyest b) fanciest c) most fanciest 2. Horia (2004). Greenbaum. London: Longman. a puppy. Syntheses in English Morpgology. Longman. Sydney and Randolph Quirk (1991). weightlifters. Labrador. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. The attributive position is before a noun. True or False? (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Adjectives may be gradable or non-gradable. Russian. wedding dear. Iasi.Adjectives and adverbs Further reading Foley. The predicative position for adjectives is after a linking verb.
4) Her hair was clean and brushed straight down to her shoulders. the valleys tend to be ___________ than the hilltops. Jill wanted to take a course with ___________ professor. Of all the mechanics in the shop. 5) I’ll put it away if you don’t behave right. They grew up in ___________ house in New York. economics 8. a) that interesting new Japanese economics b) that Japanese interesting. fine c) a fine. Decide whether the underlined words are adjectives or adverbs: (5 min: 8 points) 1) Take her easy. English 4. little b) as little. The Austin used to be ___________ sports car. new. The Titanic is the ___________ movie I've ever seen. 8) Present is a point. 6) This coffee tastes too sweet. new economics c) that interesting. a) worse b) worst c) worser D. a) the less competent b) the least competent c) the competentest 9. a) most excited b) most exciting c) most excitable 7. comfortable c) a comfortable little 6. Everyone was home for the holidays.Adjectives and adverbs 3. 3) There are two classes of pedestrians: the quick and the dead. 196 . Japanese. 7) Something has gone terribly wrong. What could make for ___________ Christmas than that? a) a merryer b) the merriest c) a merrier 5. just passed. Jerry is surely ___________. 2) Try to be early from now on. a) a fine English b) an English. My cold is definitely ___________ this morning. In the fall. a) comfortable. a) foggy b) more foggier c) foggier 10.
racially. 10) The Martins built a lovely house nearby. Jack quietly asked Helen to wait patiently for him. degree. socially. time. T/F Most adverbs of time can take front-position. True or False? (5 min: 9x2=18 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) There are three clause positions for adverbs: front. stylistically. I regularly forget my homework.Adjectives and adverbs E. Insert in the following adverbs in appropriate places: (5 min: 7x2=14 points) historically. T/F F. they are unyielding. constitutionally. T/F Sentence adverbs never take end-position. politically. Tell me why you were getting home late. certainty. 197 . This is not interrogative. T/F Adverbs of place are usually not found in mid-position.) 9) You obviously enjoyed your vacation. G. mid and end-position. relative and viewpoint or commenting. (15 min: 14x=28 points ) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Jenny does not quite know what she will do after graduation. The puppies devoured their food greedily. Underline the adverbs in each sentence and identify them by their type: manner. T/F Most adverbs are gradable. place. How do brown cows steadily eat green grass and always give white milk? Surely you can’t be serious? (Be careful. Think about adverbs. formally 1) 2) Though not ‘true enemies’. T/F Adverbs can premodify pronouns. T/F No word can operate as both adjective and adverb. He is well connected. you should always drive the speed limit. T/F Common adverbs end in -ly. Theoretically. T/F Adverbials appear in a manner/place/time sequence. interrogative.
11. 8. Correct the following sentences: (5 min: 7x2=14 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) She only grew to be four feet tall. The door is ajar. 4.Her baby is alone. Steadily / for the rest of the day / in the garden / they worked. Most of the new towns are still villages. Bad socialism isn’t. Send the answers to these questions to your tutor. Total points for SAA 6: 122 Answers to self-assessed questions (SAQs) 6. Make sentences from the following elements. Assume no special emphasis is needed but aim to write wellbalanced sentences: (5 min: 5x2=10 points) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I’m / there / to tell you the truth / when he’s on duty / very rarely. a European rock star. Matthew’s Church fervently for her grandmother’s recovery. …the principal reason… 9. A fine old woman / here / two weeks ago / in London / I met. The kittens are asleep. 6.Adjectives and adverbs 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The sentences are too long and complex. I. – 6. Their chief concern was to solve the problem. . They reported that John Brown.1.1. At nine thirty / the exam starts / on Thursday the fifth / promptly. The dog is afraid (of people). H. 198 . Maria prays at St. This is the main street. 1. …the sheer slopes…. Is that music loud enough? She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually. 2. The volunteers are ready. The British are mixed. 5. 3. for all that. The war was the culmination of the nineteenth century. better than capitalism. SAQ 6. 7. Joanna made an appointment next summer to see her doctor next July at two o’clock on the first Thursday. After lunch / to your place / actually / to return the money / if it’s convenient / I could come. Dry the car with a soft fluffy towel carefully. had issued a new album on the six o’clock news.
those three tiny birds. 8. 5. 2. demoralizing. 1. Ray is younger / shorter / lighter / poorer than Denise. advisable SAQ 6. disturbing. experimental. 1. 10. 4. 4. SAQ 6. 8. oval table.1 – 6. 2. 1. 1. 2.8. The time remaining grew shorter and shorter. 8. discouraged. The child’s hands were dirtier and dirtier. 1. 8. The mist became thicker and thicker. 3. 3. 8. The situation is growing worse and worse. please revise sections 6. shooting. SAQ 6. 7. heroically. tired. 4. 5. 2. damp. 6. magnetic.3. 2. methodically.5.6. fatally. 199 . Should your answers to SAQs 6. four-week-old puppy. helpless. 6. 3. 7. 8. ten narrow cement steps. 3. Should your answers to SAQs 6. please revise sections 6. 10. 2. 6. 10. SAQ 6.1 – 6. 7. 7. SAQ 6. It was darker and darker outside and I couldn't see much. occasionally. 9. 5. 4.9. The grass is becoming greener and greener.5. 4.6 – 6. 9.4.7. realistic. 5. six-monthold baby. 10.3. less.1.3. farther. 1.4 – 6.2. please revise sections 6. a thick. his ten mediumsized pumpkins. boyish.8. c. not be comparable to those given above.5.3. the cool. 9. damp basement.1. 5. 1. influential.5. intentionally. falling. 1 – 6. d. not be comparable to those given above. reluctantly. more.1. 3. 2. 1. 3. fascinating. 4. better.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6.4. b. a long white satin dress. amazed. her lively. heartily. 6. 4. round carpet. 9. confusing.1. excited. Ray is older / taller / heavier / richer than Carl. heavy. 5. The soil is becoming drier and drier. glorious. Carl is the youngest / shortest / lightest / poorest child in the group. athletically.1. finished. their low. 7. a. 5. Denise is the oldest / tallest / heaviest / richest child in the group. 10. 9. 2. gracefully. all six thick quilts. 3. Should your answers to SAQs 6. The trees are growing taller and taller. 3. a. our warm. She is weaker and weaker because of her illness. It is becoming clearer and clearer that this problem will not be easily solved. 6. worse SAQ 6. 4. not be comparable to those given above. SAQ 6. Fortunately. Her work is getting better and better. critical.
5. 3.9 – 6. quietly. SAQ 6. briefl. light. clearly. 1. Should your answers to SAQs 6. 9. The children whispered excitedly on Christmas Eve in front of the tree. 7. 10. Jane made an appointment to see her doctor at two o’clock next week. 5. Try to get back before we leave on Monday. 10. 6.Adjectives and adverbs SAQ 6. hot.2. The coach works at the gym in his office on the main campus every day of the week. 4. 6. heavy. Relatively. 4. 200 . 1. cheerfully. Bacteria grow rapidly at the edge of the pond in the marshes all summer. 8.11. 3.11 be comparable to those given above. 7. 2. please revise section 6. We see John running in the park after lunch every day of the week. 8. She leaves the island after dark in the months of December and January. 9. Jim enthusiastically lectures to his students about folk art.10. Favorably. My father was born in the backroom of a farmhouse in Iowa. Unusual. This may be the last time a competition is organized in France for some years. 2.
I will come back soon. We say that an adjective is attributive or is used attributively when it comes before a noun (and therefore is part of a noun phrase): a young student. may be intensified. A phrase with an adverb as its head. manner (She speaks softly). etc. Adjective phrases function as modifiers of nouns (fertile land) or as predicatives (The land is fertile). aspect does not locate an action/state in time. Jack has woken up. -s and -ed in play-s and play-ed). Typically. i. Aspect is often indicated by verbal affixes or auxiliary verbs.) An affix is a bound morpheme which adds lexical or grammatical information to a root or stem. Adjective An adjective is a word that modifies nouns. or sentences for such categories as time (He left early).Glossary of grammatical terms Glossary of grammatical terms Active voice There is no morphological marker of the active voice. other adverbs (really superbly). terribly difficult. An affix may be a prefix or a suffix. place or direction. their duration (She is writing a letter now) and their being accomplished or not (She has just written a letter). etc. Affixes can also be called inflectional and derivational morphemes. more popular). verbs (to work slowly). Adjectives typically give us information about size (a tall man). color (red tulips). In contrast to tense. age (an old woman). the subject of an active verb phrase is the 'doer of an action': Ann is drinking coffee. thing. An adjective can be intensified by an adverb (as in very strong. An adverb is a word that typically modifies any class of words (except nouns) such as adjectives (extremely hot). ripe apples Adjective phrase Adverb Adverb phrase Affix Aspect Attributive adjectives 201 .e. An adjective. if it is gradable. An adjective qualifies the person. and may take comparative (taller) and superlative (tallest) degrees. The head may be preceded by an intensifier (another adverb: even faster. too abruptly) and followed by a postmodifier (usually a clause: more slowly than he expected. A phrase with an adjective as its head. to which the noun refers. Aspect is a grammatical category characteristic of verbs that expresses a temporal contour of events. The English verb phrase can be marked for two different aspects: the progressive (be –ing) and the perfective (have –en).g. The term attributive refers to the position of an adjective in a noun phrase. (e.
and adjectives of time (new. government) that may be considered either as individuals or as one larger entity. and expresses a complete thought. the village seemed deserted. old. that is complete in itself. and voice. they found the village deserted. Syntactically. Central adjectives are adjectives which fulfill all the criteria for the adjective class: they are gradable. and they can be finite or non-finite. -en participle: When they arrived there. can be modified by an adverb of degree. sentences. do. or dependent. marked by ’s. The group includes adjectives of size and dimension (big. etc. aspect. that is when the verb is in the infinitive. coordinate clause main clause coordinate clause subordinate clause They irrigated the land when they got the pumps. a clause may be independent. and may be used attributively or predicatively. and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb. The auxiliary verbs are be. young) A clause is a grammatical unit that includes a predicate and a subject. Depending on the form of the verb. unmarked (boy) and a genitive case. Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic or semantic function of a noun or pronoun. non-finite (past) participial clause Collective noun A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of entities (family. necessarily related to an independent clause: John works on a farm. tall. when the verb form expresses tense. such as person. non-finite gerundial clause Seen from the distance. a clause is finite. -ing participle. 202 . independent dependent Clauses can combine into larger units of thought. English distinguishes a common case.Glossary of grammatical terms Auxiliary An auxiliary verb is a verb which accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase. they found the village deserted. gerund. small). army. they found the village deserted. independent Case Central adjectives Clause John works on a farm where pesticides are used. Clauses can be main clauses or subordinate clauses. person or number or non-finite when the verb form does not express these. in two ways by means of coordination or subordination: They irrigated the land and used fertilizers. Case refers to the form of a noun to show whether it is subject. On arriving there. object. have. tense. (boy’s). number. finite clause non-finite (present) participial clause finite clause When arriving there.
verbs of perception: look. A compound is a word that is made up of two (or more) roots: blackboard (compound noun). to occur with characteristic determiners (such as a/an. an animal (cat). which have physical existence: a doctor. a dog. rice. The room smelt damp. a quality (courage). which refers to separate entities. feel. You should drive more carefully. taste or verbs that express a process of change: turn. most quickly). Copulative verbs are mostly verbs of existence: be. Comparatives of adjectives and adverbs are formed with –er … (than) or more /less … (than) Adjectives: My coffee is hotter (than yours). A noun is uncountable when we do not normally use a/an in front of it and it has no plural (water). A concrete noun refers to people or things. rather quite. Comparative Comparison The declension of adjectives/adverbs to indicate degree: the positive.Glossary of grammatical terms Common noun A common noun is a noun that signifies a nonspecific member of a group: a person (teacher). become. A copulative/link verb is a verb which links a subject to a predicative realized by an adjective phrase (John is/looks very sick). a prepositional phrase (The trees are in flower) or a clause (The trouble is that the car is too expensive). a horse-drawn cart (compound adjective). taller. The term refers to adverbs like enough. a noun phrase (You are a good student). distinct from the singular one (book). and the superlative. and the superlative indicates the highest degree (best. and to occur with cardinal numerals. The positive is the base form (good. tall. the comparative. Adverbs: He works harder / quicker than me. quickly). a thing (book). fairly. exist. It has the ability to take a plural form (books). many). tallest. The comparative indicates a higher degree (better. very. That book looks interesting. which broadly answer the question To what extent? Degree adverb 203 . an action (laughter). more quickly). grow His voice sounded strange on the phone. An old tractor is less expensive than an old one. smell. sound. She turned pale. Compound Concrete noun Copulative verb Countable / Uncountable A countable noun is a noun.
little). Examples include the definite article (the) and indefinite articles (a/an). relative determiners (whose. Examples: will have arrived. will read. The term refers to some plurals of nouns of foreign origin that are not formed with s. aspect. indefinite determiners (some/any). usually which answer the question How often? Determiner Double genitive Dynamic verb Extended verb phrase Finite verb form Focus adverbs Foreign plurals Frequency adverbs 204 . often. person. definiteness. fly. etc. The genitive can be expressed by ’s-genitive (the farmer’s tools) or the of-genitive (the tools of the farmer). just. may be walking. preceded by up to four auxiliaries. these/those). Nouns of foreign origin are frequently used in scientific and technical contexts. modality. or an s-genitive. your. which refers to such meanings as number. both constructions appear in the same phrase: a horse of my uncle’s (“one of my uncle’s horses”). and is marked for: tense. their). they ‘determine’ the meaning of the noun. which). The term refers to adverbs like always. our. others also have anglicized forms (sg. proximity and ownership. your. his.e. Focus adverbs are adverbs like even. Examples: reads. The distinction between stative and dynamic verbs is relevant for the use of the progressive aspect and the passive voice. Determiners are words that express the reference of a noun. her). A finite verb is a verb form that occurs in an independent clause. whose). action or event: talk. voice. the).Glossary of grammatical terms Determination A category specific of nouns. Verbs which are not dynamic are referred to as 'stative’. had read. merely. The order in which the auxiliaries occur is fixed and depends upon the grammatical meaning they convey. run. numerals. is reading. that/those) and quantifiers (few. bases). demonstrative adjectives (this/these. basis pl. aspect. number. It is realized by several classes of determiners: articles (a/an. read. voice. and only which can precede the word they modify to focus attention on it: Only Mary succeeded. The features of grammatical meanings which can be expressed in an extended VP include the following: tense. cacti /cactuses). In a double genitive. both of which occur mostly with dynamic verbs. possessive adjectives (my. i. her. what. interrogative determiners (which. The extended verb phrase consists of a lexical verb at the head. cactus – pl. its. Some have only foreign plurals (sg. A dynamic verb refers to an activity. possessive determiners (my. demonstrative determiners (this/that. has read.
more interesting/most interesting. mood. neuter. and cannot make comparative and superlative forms. the latter. Adverbial Modifier Apple trees were planted on the hill Subject Adverbial Modifier by the villagers. Natural gender indicates that nouns may be classed in correlation with natural sex distinctions. This means that we can imagine degrees in the quality referred to. father. such as horse in a fine black horse. case. Genitive case (also called the possessive case) indicates possession. Verbs are characterized by tense. mother. and to some adverbs. In English nouns denoting humans have natural gender while inanimate nouns are neuter. the head is the noun that refers to the same entity to which the whole phrase refers. himself) is of masculine gender. good enough) or form a comparative or superlative: shorter/ shortest. A grammatical relation (Subject. feminine. A grammatical category is a set of syntactic and semantic features that characterize word classes. too. Here are some kinds of grammatical relations: subject. So we can use an adjective with very.Glossary of grammatical terms Gender Gender is a grammatical category that groups nouns and some pronouns in three classes: masculine. Object. and a female noun (girl. object The villagers planted Subject Genitive Gradable / ungradable Grammatical category Grammatical relation apple trees Object on the hill. for example medical. In nouns. Adverbial Modifier) is a role of a noun phrase that determines syntactic behavior such as word position in a clause. voice. 205 . agreement. participation in such operations as passivization. she. the term refers to such notions as gender. Complement. In a noun phrase. A noun or a pronoun denoting a male (boy. aspect. or with the of-phrase (the door of the house). These are the verbal grammatical categories. he. Prepositional Object Head (of a phrase) The head of a phrase is the element that determines the syntactic function of the whole phrase. These are the nominal grammatical categories. Most adjectives are gradable. enough (very good. unique. The genitive can be expressed in two ways in English: with apostrophe’s (John’s house). herself) is of feminine gender. Adjectives are ungradable when we cannot modify them with very. for things. number. Gradable is a term applied to adjectives. The former is mainly used for people.
verbs (I entirely agree). Compare: Your work is good. An intensifier normally strengthens the meaning. reads is inflected for person (3rd person) and number (singular) by the suffix -s. Typical intensifiers are very. tense. In the sentence She reads a story. Sometimes a subject may be included. aspect. The indicative is used for most communicative purposes. and –ly adverbs instead of very (extremely). Indicative (mood) The indicative mood represents an action as a fact or as in close relationship to reality. and in showing grammatical concord with the subject in the present tense. so. that expresses a grammatical meaning such as: agreement (in person and number). Don’t talk. Sentences in the indicative can be either declarative or interrogative. Frankly. The imperative verb form (identical to the base form of the verb) is finite. or person/number. particularly in negative imperatives: Don't you dare say that. such a/an. Your work is very good. 206 . There are three classes of adverbs ending in –ly: Adverbs of manner: badly. and mood. I don't trust you. typically by means of an affix.Glossary of grammatical terms Imperative (mood) The imperative is typically used to make commands: Go away. happily: Intensifiers: extremely: Viewpoint adverbs: frankly: We played badly. is also imperative. A sentence such as Let's go home! where the implied subject includes the speaker as well as the hearer(s). Intensifiers are adverbs which are used with gradable adjectives and adverbs (very slow/ very slowly) and in some cases. aspect. Inflection is variation in the form of a word. An imperative sentence characteristically contains no grammatical subject. The indicative verb form differs from the others in varying for tense and aspect. Inflection Intensifier Lexical verb -ly adverb A lexical verb is a verb that belongs to the primary verb vocabulary of a language. but the implied subject is 'you'. but it does not vary for tense. He is extremely tired. The verb working in must be working is a lexical verb.
shall/should. would. after the first auxiliary (He has often gone to the USA). will/would. there are four moods: the indicative. permission. might. ought to. could Mid position Modal verb Modality Modifier A modifier is an optional constituent in a phrase that conveys information relating to the head of the construction. inflectional (in which case they represent grammatical suffixes). can. the imperative. have to. Morphology is the study of how morphemes combine into words. could Possibility: may. In the phrase the hot soup. A verb that expresses modality (obligation. or an event is carried out. and the subjunctive. shall. The modal verbs are can/could. may/might. the constituent hot is a modifier of soup. Morphemes can be lexical (in which case they refer to something). impossibility. Depending on their position in the phrase. while the post modifier follows the head. etc. In traditional terms. to work (infinitive). These modals have no nonfinite forms. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit. Adverbs of manner answer the question How? Most of them end in –ly and are formed from adjectives: badly. A nonfinite verb is a verb that is not fully inflected for the categories of tense. others of two (books. might. possibility. happily. the conditional. could Ability: can. 207 Mood Morpheme Morphology Non-finite verb form . dare Obligation: must. should. and before the main verb (I never drink coffee). or derivational (in which case they represent an affix which changes the meaning and often the class of the word to which it is added). A premodifier precedes the head. This term is often used in connection with adverbs of frequency. need Permission: may. Mood is a verbal category that signals the relationship of the verb with reality and intent. person and number: working (present participle). bookish) or more (unreadable). ought to. must. can. Modality can be expressed by verbs (particularly modals). modifiers are of two types: premodifiers and postmodifiers. which normally come after be when it is the only verb in the clause (He’s always late). Modality is a type of meaning. There can only be one modal auxiliary proper in a verb phrase. involving the affirmation of possibility. and of how words are inflected. ability or probability). necessity.Glossary of grammatical terms Manner adverb Manner is a semantic role that notes how the action. and adverbials: Willingness/readiness: will. experience. the head of the construction. Some words are made up of one morpheme (book).
object of a preposition or attribute of a noun. in order to identify them. The perfect or perfective aspect is a verbal category showing that something is completed. places. Number is a grammatical category of nouns and pronouns that expresses distinctions such as "one" or "more than one". as in No new errors were being made. The agent (= the doer of the action) may be specified by means of a prepositional phrase (by Joe) or not. (direct or indirect) objects of the verb. The passive voice is marked by the grammatical auxiliary be + past participle: The letter is/was written by Joe. The past perfect: past tense + perfective aspect (He had come back) expresses that something took place at a point before another moment or action in the past. Nouns may act as subjects. The subject of a passive clause is typically an affected participant (the letter). In English the perfective aspect is realized by the grammatical auxiliary have followed by a past participle. The first auxiliary in an extended verb phrase. Noun phrase Number Operator Participial adjectives Passive (voice) The passive is a category of the verb phrase. the girls sing). or do in Do you study English? A participial adjective is the same form as a present participle of a verb (fascinating) or the past participle of a verb (fascinated ) and is used exactly like an adjective. He told us a fascinating story. etc.went . The past tense form of regular verbs ends in –ed: (play .Glossary of grammatical terms Noun Nouns are names given to people. The category also applies to a certain extent to verbs. A noun phrase is a phrase that has a noun as its head. things. which have special present tense forms for third person singular subjects (the girl sings vs. In irregular verb conjugation. write . The present perfect: present tense + perfective aspect (He has come back) expresses that something took place at an unspecified point in the past.played). the pronoun him has a different form in the plural them. and that this action may have some relevance to the present. A noun phrase generally includes one or more modifying words (the man next door). Past tense Past tense verbs most commonly refer to actions / events / states that belong to the past. The fascinated audience applauded enthusiastically. such as will in She will be coming. the past tense form is the second form cited (go . In the word boys. Perfective aspect 208 .wrote written). plural number is marked by the suffix -s.gone.played .
they. go out for. The category of person combines with that of number. You seem happy. our. turn away from. but if it is realized as a full noun phrase. Phrasal verb Phrase A phrase is a word or group of words which can fulfil a syntactic function in a clause. whose meaning is often not predictable from the meaning of the verb + the meaning of the particle (give + up). me. and determiners. adjective phrases. That cottage is old. theirs). so that we get first person singular. him. catch up with. I looked up this word. away. A phrase is named after the most important word in it (the head): noun phrases. We distinguish between first person (I. verb phrases. come down to. switch off. second person (you. she. Compare with prepositional verb. hers. Phrasal verbs can occur in the passive voice: The word was looked up. myself. and thus accompanied by a direct object. your. An adjective is predicative or is used predicatively when it comes directly after be. Prepositional phrasal verb Prepositional phrasal verbs (get out of. there. we. put up with. yours). himself. The verb and the particle form a close semantic unit. upstairs) or phrases (in hospital. look forward to. get away with. Adverbs of place are words or phrases that answer the question Where? Where to? Where from? They may be: single words (here. his. get back to. and third person (he. herself. adverb phrases. ours). on the left) The term predicative refers to the position of an adjective in a clause. her. etc. ourselves. it tends to be placed after the particle: I looked this word / it up. A phrasal verb may be transitive. it. yourself/yourselves. them. their. seem.Glossary of grammatical terms Person Person is a grammatical category of nouns. its. If the object is realized as a pronoun. etc. take after). etc. Phrasal verbs are combinations of a lexical verb with an adverbial particle (give up. become. end up with) consist of a lexical verb combined with an adverbial particle plus a preposition. themselves. it is placed between the verb and the particle. first person plural. do with. mine. The verb system has special present tense forms with third person singular subjects: I like him He likes me. itself. my. pronouns. us. Place adverb Predicative adjectives 209 .
Some prepositional verbs can also occur in the passive voice. etc. Compare: He looked after the dog. apart from. Prepositions may also combine with a preposition or an adverb to form complex prepositions (out of. Besides noun phrases. at. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition + a noun phrase (in China. of. below. He is in dispute with his parents about what to do in life / what he should do in life. Prepositional phrases can function as adverbials at clause level (He worked in the field). in front of). in which case the preposition stays with the verb rather than with the noun phrase. manner. The dog was looked after. A present tense form can combine with the progressive aspect (he is sleeping). by. when the verb ends in -s. or any combination of aspect and voice (he has been sleeping). Prepositional phrase Prepositional verb A prepositional verb consists of a verb + a preposition. Present tense Present tense verbs usually refer to actions/events/states that belong to the present time. means. (after. or that have general validity. on.Glossary of grammatical terms Preposition Prepositions generally express a relation. in that the verb + preposition form a single semantic unit. the preposition in a prepositional verb always precedes the object: She pleaded with her friend not to go. with the perfective aspect (he has slept). over. except for third person singular subjects. The present tense form is identical to the base form of the verb. in. or with the passive voice (he has been asked questions). under). Prepositions introduce prepositional phrases (after lunch). or they may combine with a verb to form a prepositional verb (to depend on). opposition. the preposition is closely connected to the verb. or as postmodifiers of noun phrases (The man with a black hat is my father) or complements of adjectives/adverbs at phrase level (He is fond of music). often in time or space. before. cause. In contrast to the particle in phrasal verbs. because of. for a week). support. They can also express relations of agency. the complement of the preposition can be an -ing clause or an indirect question: He boasts about having seen all the countries in America. What follows the preposition is called the complement of the preposition. However. 210 . followed by an object.
plenty of) or amount (many. In the word popularity. to which it refers.Glossary of grammatical terms Progressive / non-progressive The progressive aspect is a verbal category with two meaning components: (limited) duration and (possible) incompletion.e. A quantifier expresses a referent's definite (two. as these verbs denote permanent situations.the emphasis is on the activity of reading). (an old car. the root is popular. We use adjectives to say what a person or a thing is like. which is thought to be unique. Articles are not generally used with proper nouns. four) or indefinite number (few. etc. etc. The progressive aspect does not usually occur with stative verbs. When the progressive aspect combines with the perfective aspect. the noun storm refers to a natural phenomenon. place (Australia). some with both kinds (plenty of books/time). little. Combined with the present tense. i. The progressive aspect is realized by the auxiliary be followed by an-ing participle. while ity is a derivational affix (morpheme). A root is a lexical morpheme.. the noun pen refers to an object. a word or part of a word which has meaning. Proper noun Qualify Quantifier Reference Root 211 . a pretty woman). A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun. A proper noun is used for a particular person (Julia). It is normally spelt with a capital letter. the meaning is that an activity stretched from the past up to a specified point of time (They’ve been working all day). the months of the year (March). Here is an example of reference: the noun man refers to a person. much). etc. others with uncountable nouns (little time). Reference is the relationship that a linguistic expression has with the concrete entity or abstraction it represents. It can function as a stem. the progressive aspect denotes duration in the past and possible incompletion (She was reading last night -. Combined with the past tense. the progressive aspect denotes progress and incompletion (She is watching a film on TV). Some quantifiers combine with countable nouns (a few books). An adjective describes or qualifies the person or thing. and which cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units. and it may combine with derivational and inflectional affixes.
but. if.Glossary of grammatical terms Semantic roles A semantic role is the relationship that a participant in a situation has with the main verb in a clause. Compare: John hit Ben and Ben was hit by John. because. or as main verbs (You need money). The main semantic roles are: Agent: Patient Beneficiary: Force: Instrument: Experiencer: Peter wrote the essay. In both clauses. etc. have to. Ben has the semantic role of patient. or. Mary loves cats. used to) are verbs which carry the same kind of meaning as the modal verbs. A complex sentence consists of an independent (main) clause and one or more clauses dependent on the main clause. semi-modals (dare. Semi-modals can be used either as auxiliaries. At the syntactic level a sentence consists of a relation of predication between a NP functioning as the Subject of the sentence [NPThe man] and a VP functioning as the Predicate of the sentence [VP feeds a horse].) Simple sentence: They irrigated the land. without do-insertion in interrogative and negative sentences (You need not help her). although in the first John is the Subject of the clause. The thunder struck the tree. and subordinated to it by means of a subordinating conjunction (when. Semi-modal Also known as marginal modal auxiliaries. when used as main verbs. the prepositional object. At the phonological level. each sentence has a phonetic shape. In both sentences. while Ben is the patient (the one who suffers the effect). semantic and phonological properties: The man feeds a horse. semi-modals require doinsertion in negative and interrogative sentences (Do you need money?). need. after. before. a horse). John cut the bread with a knife. Mother opened the door. A simple sentence consists of an independent clause. while in the second. At the semantic level. It follows that John is the agent (the doer) of the action. A sentence is a grammatical unit with syntactic. an intonational contour and a graphic form. coordinate clause coordinate clause Sentence 212 . The semantic role of John is the same (agent) in both sentences. nor). someone named John deliberately hits someone else named Ben. Unlike auxiliaries. a sentence is representable as a logical relation between a predicate (feed) and its arguments (the man. It is the actual role a participant plays in a situation. i. I bought mother a present.e. Compound sentence: They irrigated the land and used fertilizers. A compound sentence involves two or more clauses coordinated by means of coordinating conjunctions (and. Sentences consist of one or more clauses.
or obligation (She insisted that they come in time). imperatives as commands and exclamatory sentences express strong emotional states: Declarative: They saw a beautiful landscape. but does not vary for person or number. In all other cases the subjunctive is expressed by the base form of the verb. The root is 'farm'. since neither combines easily with stative verbs. (If I had money. A subjunctive verb form is finite. main clause subordinate clause Sentence form / type Sentence form refers to the typical word order of a clause/sentence. and verbs of opinion and of thinking (think. with the verb in the imperative. declaratives function as statements. desire or plan in the mind of the speaker. they provide information about situations or states. and 's is an inflectional suffix. (= I don’t have money) or concessive clauses. understand) behave as stative verbs when denoting involuntary perception/cognition. yes/no interrogative (marked by the word order V+S). the singular form of a noun (field). It consists of a root. In British English. contain. regulation. Be is the only verb which has a subjunctive past tense form (were). the positive form of adjectives (nice) and adverbs (quickly). hear). have. and require no action on the part of the subject: be. I would go on a trip to Paris. and usually no subject. In formal (written) American English. interrogatives function as questions.Glossary of grammatical terms Complex sentence: They irrigated the land when they got the pumps. but as a wish. resemble. Note that verbs of perception (see. Sentences express different types of meaning. know. the so-called mandative subjunctive is used in that-clauses expressing a demand. long live the Queen. wh-interrogative (marked by the word order wh-word+V+S). In the word farmers. Interrogative: What did they see? Exclamatory: What a beautiful landscape! Imperative: Take a photo of this landscape. should + infinitive is generally used instead (She insisted that they should come in time). and 'er' is a derivational suffix. the subjunctive also survives in some set formulas such as be that as it may. Stem Subjunctive (mood) 213 . such as the base form of a verb (write). The subjunctive is used in counter-factual clauses (if – clauses. The subjunctive mood represents an action or a state not as an actual reality. The stem is the main part of a word to which inflectional morphemes may be added. sometimes in combination with derivational affixes. so be it. The word disgraceful is a stem consisting of the root 'grace' and the two affixes 'dis-' and '-ful'. and imperative (marked by the word order V. The sentence types in English are declarative (marked by the word order S+V).Typically. please! Stative Stative verbs refer to a state. believe. the stem is farmer. The distinction between stative and dynamic verbs is relevant for the use of the progressive aspect and the passive voice. In main clauses.
definite time (today. tenses which have special forms rather than combinations of forms): present tense and past tense. 214 .g. or to how clause elements are combined. for three years). drank up). Compare: She lives in London. Both the present and the past tense can combine with the progressive and the perfective aspect. Only finite verbs can show tense. what kinds of clause elements can occur together. e.e. Syntax An area of grammatical study. She lived in London.Glossary of grammatical terms Superlative The superlatives of adjectives and adverbs are formed with –est or the most/least. Adverbs: John drives the most carefully. Tense is a category of the verb phrase. We use the superlative when we compare one person or thing with others in the same group. Harvesting starts today. It places an action in time relative to the 'here and now' of the speaker. i. while verbs in the past tense generally refer to 'before now'.e. indefinite time (another time). The definite article the is used before a superlative: Adjectives: This is the hottest summer/the most comfortable sofa. must have been drinking. and in which order they can occur. on Friday). never): I'm going away for a few days. frequency (always. syntax refers to how the words in the phrase can be combined. Verb phrase A verb phrase is a phrase that is composed of a main verb (the head) and auxiliary verbs or particles related to the verb (drinks. the order of modifiers and head. Tense Time adverbs Adverbs of time are words or phrases that answer the questions When? How long? How often? They refer to duration (since Monday. English has only two morphological tenses (i. or the number/types of modifiers that go with a head). Verbs in the present tense generally refer to 'now'.
The following clause in the active voice: James ate the cake. Adverbial Modifier. The word is the smallest linguistic unit that can have a syntactic function. and are marked off by commas. Viewpoint adverbs modify the whole clause (that is why they are also called sentence adverbs). Their meaning is similar (someone by the name of James ate the cake) but. They do not affect the word order of the rest of the clause. whether it is the agent. a speaker may use the adverbs clearly or evidently to tell us that he/she is drawing conclusions. or of letters) and a content side (an independent meaning). A syntactic function is the grammatical relationship of one constituent to another within a clause. A zero morpheme marks the plural of sheep. A zero is a constituent proposed in an analysis to represent an element held to be present at an abstract level but not realized in the data. A word has an expression side (combination of sounds. I don’t think he’s right. in the former the agent (or doer). frankly or honestly to impress us with his/her sincerity. while in the latter. Complement. Object. The most important are: Subject. the patient or the recipient of the action/state of the verb. is the subject of the clause. Word Syntactic function Zero 215 . generally or normally to make generalizations: Frankly. Voice Voice is a category of the verb that expresses the semantic functions attributed to the Subject of a clause. Predicate. James. For example. the agent is the prepositional object (by John).Glossary of grammatical terms Viewpoint adverbs Viewpoint adverbs express the speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying. while the next is in the passive voice: The cake was eaten by James. They come at the beginning of the clause.
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