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Copyright 2009 Mavromatis Books & Stationery Ltd

ISBN 978-9963-9609-0-3

: 121, 2064
.. 25042, 1306 ,
: 00357 77777650, : +357 22873037
E-mail: mavromatisbookshops@cytanet.com.cy

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Matlab
LaTEX.

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,


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. ,
,
Email: Thpapagiannis@Hotmail.com
: 99458362
4

1


1.1
1. - 1 109:
: -
:

. m ~v
:

P~ = m ~v

. , . ,
.
:

P~ = m1 ~v + m2 ~v + ... + m ~v
P~ = (m1 + m2 + ... + m ) ~v
2. - 2 109:

;
5

1.
:

:

F =

P
t

, ,

.
.
3. - 3 109:

;
:
.

F =

P
t

, .

, ,

.
4. - 4 109:

;
:
, -
.


.

1.1.

5. - 5 109:
,
;
:
!!!
6. - 6 109:
,
;
:
, .

!
7. - 7 109:
; .
:
,
.
.
.
: ,
.
( )
.
8. - 8 109:

.
:
:

1
m v2
2
P = mv

E =

(1.1)
(1.2)
.

1.
1.2 :

P 2 = m2 v 2

(1.3)

1.1 m:

E m =

1
m2 v 2
2

(1.4)

1.3 1.4 :

1
P2
2
P2
=
2m

E m =
E

9. - 10 109:
m1 , m2 .
m2 < m1 ;
:
8
:

P2
2m

E1 = E2

P12
P22
=

2m1
2m2

P12
m1
P12
=

> 1 |P1 | > |P2 |


P22
m2
P22
.
10. - 11 109:
E1
E2

m1 , m2 .
.

:
8
:

E =
P1

P2
2m

E1 2m1 = E2 2m2

= P2
8

1.1.

E1
m2
=
E2
m1
11. - 12 109:
;
:

.
12. - 13 109:
P = f (v) E = f (P )
:
,
P2
: P = mv E = 2m
.
.
1.1
10 5 .
P=f(v)
50
45
40

P (kg m/s)

35
30
25
20
15
m =10 kg

10

m2=5 kg

5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
v (m/s)

3.5

4.5

E=f(v)
140

120

100

E (J)

80

60

40
m1=10kg

20

m2=5kg
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
v (m/s)

3.5

4.5

1.1: P = f (v), E = f (p)

1.
13. - 14 109:
F t;
:

t . .

,
.

= F t = P.
14. - 17 109:
:
()
;
()
;
()
;
:


.
()
,
, . ,


.
()
.
()
.
10

1.2.

11

1.2
1. - 11 7:

1, 2 m/s.
( ).
50 g
.
:

F = P
.
t
. ( )
.
v% = 1.2 m/s
v = 0 m/s
.
:

P
m (v v% )
=

t
t
0.05 (0 1.2)
F =
= 0.06 N
1
F =


.
2. - 12 7:
, 5 Kg .
F .
v
1.2.
() F = f (t),
.

F = f (x) x

() P
E ; 0 20s 20 30s.
() P = f (t) E = f (t)
11

1.

45
40
35

v (m/s)

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

t (s)

1.2: v = f (t)
:
.
:
2 ,
0 20s 20 30s


.

.
:

a=

40 0
v
=
= 2 m/s
t
20 0

F = m a = 5 2 = 10 N
12

1.2.

13

a=

v
0 40
=
= 4 m/s
t
30 20

F = m a = 5 (4) = 20 N

. :

x=

1
1
a t2 = 2 202 = 400 m
2
2

40m/s.
:

1
a t2
2
= 400 + 40 10 200
= 600 m

x30s = x20s + v20s t


x30s

1.3.

P E .

P = mv
1
E =
m v2
2
v = f (t)
0 30s. t 20s

P = 5 40 = 200 m/s
1
5 402 = 4000 J
E =
2
P = f (t) E = f (t) 1.4.

13

1.

15
10
5

F (N)

0
5
10
15
20
25

10

15

20

25

30

35

t (s)

15
10
5

F (N)

0
5
10
15
20
25

100

200

300
x (m)

400

500

600

1.3: F = f (t) F = f (x)


3. - 14 8:
0, 2 kg 3.2 m
.
103 s

.
:


.
.

14

1.2.

15

220
200
180

P (kg.m.s1)

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

20

25

30

35

t (s)

4500
4000
3500

Ek (J)

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

10

15
t (s)

1.4: P = f (t) E = f (t)


.

1
g t2
2
s
2h
= 0, 8 s
t =
g
v = g t = 8 m/s

h =

P
m (v v% )
=

t
t
0.2 (8 (8))
=
= 3200 N
103

F =
F

15

1.


:

F =

P
+ m g = 3202 N
t

4. - 15 8:
v = 20 m/s, .
75 kg ,
0, 2 s.

.
:
,
v = 20 m/s, v =
0 m/s. :

P
m (v v% )
=

t
t
75 (0 20)
F =
= 7500 N
0.2
F =

E = E E =
E = 15000 J

1
1
2
m v
m v2
2
2

5. - 18 9:
20 g 30 g
30m/s 10m/s ( 1.5).
. )
16

1.2.

17

1.5:
)
.
:
.
.

.

P = P
m1 v1 + m2 v2 = mo vk
m 1 v1 + m 2 v2

mo
0.02 30 + 0.03 (10)
=

0.05
= 6 m/s

vk =
vk
vk

E = E E =
=

1
1
1
mo vk 2 m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2 =
2
2
2
17

1.

1
1
1
0.05 62 0.02 302 + 0.03 102 =
2
2
2

E = 9.6 J
6. - 19 9:
M1 M2 2 kg 3 kg

6m/s 2m/s ( 1.6) . 0.02 s.
()
()
P1 P2
Po
( ).
() F1 = f (t) F2 = f (t) F1
F2 ( )
M1 M2 .

1.6:
:
.

P = P
18

1.2.

19

m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 v10 + m2 v20
m1 v1 m1 v10 = m2 v20 m2 v2
m1 (v1 v10 ) = m2 (v20 v2 )

(1.5)

( ) :

E = E
1
1
1
1
2
2
m 1 v1 2 + m 2 v2 2 =
m1 v10 + m2 v20
2
2
2
2
2

m1 (v1 2 v10 ) = m2 (v2 2 v20 )


m1 (v1 v10 ) (v1 + v10 ) = m2 (v2 v20 ) (v2 + v20 )

(1.6)

1.5 1.6 1.7


:

v1 + v10 = v2 + v20

(1.7)


1.5 1.7.
, .

. !

m1 (v1 v10 ) = m2 (v20 v2 )


12 2 v10 = 3 v20 + 6
v20 =
19

6 2 v10
3

(1.8)
.

1.

v1 + v10 = v2 + v20
6 + v10 = 2 + v20
v20 = 8 + v10

(1.9)

1.8 1.9:

6 2 v10
= 8 + v10
3
24 + 3 v10 = 6 2 v10
v10 = 3.6 m/s

1.9:

v20 = 8 + v10
v20 = 4.4 m/s

P1 P2
Po .

P1
P1
P2
P2

=
=
=
=

m1 v1 = 12m/s
m1 v1 0 = 7.2m/s
m2 v2 = 6m/s
m2 v2 0 = 13.2m/s

F1 =

P
7.2 12
=
= 960N
t
0.02

F2 =

P
13.2 + 6
=
= 960N
t
0.02

1.8 :
20

1.2.

21

15

P (kg.m.s1)

10

0
P1
P2
Ptotal

10

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02
t (s)

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

1.7:

1000
800
600
400

F (N)

200
0
200
400
600
800
1000

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02
t (s)

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

1.8:

7. - 20 10:
P1 1 kg , m
1.9.
21

1.
m.

35

30

P (kg.m.s1)

25

20

15

10

10

20

30

40

50
t (s)

60

70

80

90

100

1.9:
:

. 1
P = 30 kg m s1 . P = 10 kg m s1 .
1 :

P = 10 kg m s1
m1 v1 = 10 kg m s1
v1 = 10 m/s
,

. m2 .

P = P
22

1.3.

23

30 = (m1 + m2 ) vo
30
= 1 + m2
10
m2 = 2 kg

1.3
1. - 26 12:
M1 4kg
10 m/s M2
16 kg
4 m/s. 0.02 s.
.
() ,
.
.
()
P1 P2
Po
.
() F1 = f (t) F2 = f (t), F1
F2 ( )
M1 M2 .
:


.

:

P = P
m1 v1 + m2 v2 = (m1 + m2 ) vo
vo =

23

m 1 v1 + m 2 v2

m1 + m2
.

1.

vo =

4 10 + 16 4

4 + 16

vo = 5.2 m/s
1 2
P1 = f (t), P2 = f (t) Po = f (t).

P1 = m1 v1 = 4 10
P1 = 40 kg m s1
P1 = m1 vo = 4 5.2
P1 = 20.8 kg m s1
P2 = m2 v2 = 16 4
P2 = 64 kg m s1
P2 = m2 vo = 16 5.2
P2 = 83.2 kg m s1
Po = P1 + P2
Po = 104 kg m s1
Po = P1 + P2
Po = 104 kg m s1
. .

F1 =

P
20.8 40
=

t
0.02

F1 = 960 N

24

1.3.

F2 =

25

P
83.2 64
=

t
0.02

F2 = 960 N

1.10
110
100
90

P (kg.m.s1)

80
70
60
P1

50

P2

40

total

30
20
10
0
t (s)

1000
F1
800

F2

600
400

F (N)

200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
t (s)

1.10: P = f (t) E = f (t)

25

1.

.

P = P
m1 v1 + m2 v2 = (m1 + m2 ) vo
vo =

m1 v1 m2 v2

m1 + m2

vo =

4 10 16 4

4 + 16

vo = 1.2 m/s
1 2
P1 = f (t), P2 = f (t) Po = f (t).

P1 = m1 v1 = 4 10
P1 = 40 kg m s1
P1 = m1 vo = 4 (1.2)
P1 = 4.8 kg m s1
P2 = m2 v2 = 16 (4)
P2 = 64 kg m s1
P2 = m2 vo = 16 (1.2)
P2 = 19.2 kg m s1
Po = P1 + P2
Po = 24 kg m s1
Po = P1 + P2
Po = 24 kg m s1
. 26

1.3.

27

F1 =

P
4.8 40
=

t
0.02

F1 = 2240 N
F2 =

P
19.2 (64)
=

t
0.02

F2 = 2240 N

1.11

40

Ptotal
P1
P2

P (kg.m.s1)

20

20

40

60

80
t (s)

2500
2000
F1

1500

F2
1000

F (N)

500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
t (s)

1.11: P = f (t) E = f (t)

27

1.
2. - 28 13:
m = 3 kg .
h1 = 40 m
.
mA = m
mB = 2m
.
3
3
h2 = 20 m
( 1.12). :
() .
() .
() .
()

;
102 s.

1.12:

28

1.3.

29

:
, 20 m.
:

vA = g t
1
h = vA t g t2
2

(1.10)
(1.11)
(1.12)

1.10 t 1.11
:

vA
g
vA 2 1 vA 2

h =
g
2 g
1 vA 2
h =

2 g
t =

vA =

2 g h = 20 m/s

h1 = 40 m :

E =

1
m v2 = 0
2

v2 = 0 v = 0
:

P = P
0 = m A vA + m B vB
0 =

2m
m
20 +
vB
3
3

vB = 10m/s
29

1.
:

E =

1
1
mA vA 2 + mB vB 2
2
2

E =

1
1
1 202 + 2 102
2
2

E = 300 J

.
.


.

.

.

EB0m = EB40m
1
1
2
mB vB 0 = mB g h1 + mB vB 2
2
2
2

vB 0 = 2 g h 1 + vB 2
vB 0 = 30 m/s

. :
!

F =

P
+mg
t

F =

mB (vB 0 vB )
+ mB g
t
30

1.3.

F =

31

2 (30 (30))
+ 2 10
102

F = 12020 N

31

1.

32

2

2.1
1. - 10 28:

2,4 .
, 6/10
. ;
:
:

L = L
I = I
6
I =
I
10
10
2 2, 4
2f =
6
f = 4 /s

2.2
1. - 11 28:
1 Hz
33

2.
. 8 g
0.5 m
. 0.8 Hz .
()
()
.
.

2.1:
:
:

I =

n
X

mi ri 2

(2.1)

i=1

L = L
1
E =
I 2
2
= 2

(2.2)
(2.3)
(2.4)


2.2

( 2.1),
:
34

2.2.

35

L
I
I
I I

=
=
=
=

L
I
(I + m r2 )
m r 2

m r2


0.008 0.52 5.024
=
= 8 103 kg m2
6.28 5.024

I =
I


.
:

I = I + m r2 = 0.01 kg m2

2.3:

1
8 103 6.282 = 0.1578 J
2
1
=
0.01 5.0242 = 0.1262 J
2

E =
E

: .

.
,
, !
2. - 12 28:

35

2.
.
2 kg m2 .
1.5 rad/s.

1.2 kg m2
()
() . ;

1.8 kg m2 .
,
.
:
( ),

:

L = L
= I
=

I
= 2.5 rad/s
I


2.3:

1
1.2 1.52 = 2.25 J
2
1
1.2 2.52 = 3.75 J
E =
2
E = E E = 1.5 J

E =


1.8 kg m2 . , :
36

2.2.

37

I 0 0
=

I 0
1.2 2.5
= 1.67 rad/s
=
1.8

E0 =

1
1.8 1.672 = 2.5 J
2

3. - 13 28:
120 kg 1 m, .
60kg 10 m/s. ,
;
( : .
: I = 12 m r 2 )
:
:

v
10
=
= 10 rad/s
r
1

2.1
:

I = I + m r2
1
I =
m r2 + m r2
2
1
120 1 + 60 12 = 120 kg m2
I =
2
37

2.

:

I 0 = I + m r0
1
2
I 0 =
m r2 + m r0
2
1
I 0 =
120 1 + 60 02 = 60 kg m2
2
.
:

L = L
I = I 0
=

I 0

120 10
= 20 rad/s
60

= = 10 rad/s

1
120 102 = 6000 J
2
1
60 202 = 12000 J
E =
2
E = E E = 6000 J

E =

4. 14 29:
, 60 kg , 2 m.

360 kg m2 .

1.5 m/s .
38

2.2.

39

() ;
()
. ;
:
.
, .

:

L = L
0 = I I
I = I
=

m r 2
I
=

I
I

60 22 0.75
= 0.5 rad/s
360

v
1.5
=
= 0.75 rad/s
r
2

. .
.

L = L
0 = I I
=

I
00
=
= 0 rad/s
I
360
39

2.

2.3

1. 15 29:
I1
0 . , I2 ,

.
()
I1 , I2 0 .
()
.
()

0
;
:
,

.
, ,

.

:

L = L
I1 0 = (I1 + I2 )
=

I1 0
I1 + I2


. :

E =
40

1
I 2
2
.

2.3.

41

E
=
E

1
2

0 2
(I1 + I2 ) ( II11+I
)
2

1
I1 0 2
2

I1
E
=
E
I1 + I2
2. - 1 135:
l = 0.4 m
.

2
IK = ml
. :
12
()
.
()
.

2.2: .
:

.


.
:
41

2.
Steiner
.
2.5. IK

, IA
, m x
.

IA = IK + m x2

(2.5)

,
2.2
:

I0 = IK + m x2 =

m l2
+ m x2
12

m 0.42
+ m 0.22
12
= 0.0533 m

I0 =
I0

.
,
120. :

I0 =

m l2
= 0.0533 m
3


.


.


!!!

Eo = E
42

2.3.

43

mgl = mg

l
1
+ IO 2
2 2

m 10 0.4 = m 10

0.4 1
+ 0.0533 m 2
2
2

4 = 2s+ 0.0266 2
42
=
= 8.67 rad/s
0.0266

:

v = r
r .
:

vK = r = 8.67 0.2 = 1.734 m/s


v = r = 8.67 0.4 = 3.468 m/s

3. - 2 135:
0.2 kg R = 0.1 m
IK = 25 m R2 1.75 m ,
30o 2.3. :
()
()
()
.
:
, . .
43

2.

2.3: .
,

.
. ,
,
2.3
, !

. :
, .

I0 = IK + m x2 =

2
m R 2 + m x2
5

2 0.2 0.12
+ 0.2 0.12
5
= 2.8 103 kg m2

I0 =
I0

EA = E
44

2.3.

45

1
I0 2
2
s
2mgh
=
= 50 rad/s
I0

mgh =

,
, :

vK = R = 5 m/s

:

1
m vK 2 = 2.5 J
2
1
I0 2 = 3.5 J
=
2

E =
E

4. - 4 135:
.
2.5 kg m2 .
= 2 rad/s.
,
0.5 kg m2 . :
()
()
.
:
,
,
:
45

2.

L = L
I = I 0
2.5 2
I
=

0
I
0.5
= 10 rad/s

1
I 2 = 5 J
2
1
I 0 2 = 25 J
=
2

E =
E

2.4

1. - 2007-2008:
m1 m2
I . 2.4.
,
h :
v
u
u 2 (m2 m1 ) g h
v=t
I

m1 + m2 +

R2

:

.
1

2. 2 h
46

2.4.

47

2.4: .

1, 2
.

E = E
m2 g h = m1 g h +

1
1
1
m1 v 2 + m2 v 2 + I 2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
m2 g h = m1 g h + v 2 ( m1 + m2 + I 2 )
2
2
2
R
v2 =

2 (m2 g h m1 g h)

m1 + m2 + IR
2

v
u
u 2 (m2 g h m1 g h)
= t
I

m1 + m2 +

R2

2. - 1986:


1 .
47

2.
2 ,
.
:

.

, , .
:

I =
I =

2
X

mi r i 2 = m1 r 2 + m2 r 2

i=1
2
X

r
r
mi ri 2 = m1 ( )2 + m2 ( )2
2
2
i=1

I = 4 I
:

L = L
I 1 = I 2
1
I 1 =
I 2
4
2 = 4 1
3. - 1993:
m1 2r
r . m = 2 m1
1 .
.
2 = 10 Hz . .
1 .
I = 12 m r 2

48

2.4.

49

2.5: - .
:
,
2.5 .

r
1
I = m1 ( )2 + I = m1 r2 + m r2
2
2
5
m1 r 2
I =
4
1
I = m1 r2 + I = m1 r2 + m r2
2
I = 2 m1 r2

:

L = L
I 1 = I 2
5
m1 r2 21 = 2m1 r2 22
4
8
2 = 16 Hz
1 =
5
49

2.
4. - 1996:
R = 20 cm M = 0.5 kg 1 = 120 cycles

min
. m = 100 g
r = 10 cm . ,
.
:

:

I = moo r2 + I = moo r2 +
I = 103 + 0.01 = 0.011
I = I = 0.01

1
m R2
2

L = L
I 1 = I 2
0.011 21 = 0.01 22
2 =

0.011
1
0.01

2 = 132

cycles
= 132
min

cycles

60 s

2 = 2.2 Hz
5. - 1997:
m
M r. 1

K .
v2 .
2 . :
50

2.4.

51

()
() :

M = 2kg, r = 1m, 1 = 10rad/s, 2 = 15rad/s,


0.1kg, t o = 0.1s, I = 21 m r2

m =

i. v2
ii.
iii.

t = 0s t = 0.5s,
t = 0.2s

2.6: - , ) ) .
:

.
:

I = m r2 + I = m r2 +

1
M r2
2

L = I 1
1
L = (m r2 + M r2 ) 1
2


. :
51

2.

.

. ( v = r ).

L = I 2 I

v2

1
v2
M r2 2 m r2

2
r
1
v2
=
M r2 2 m r2

2
r
1
=
M r2 2 m v2 r
2

L =
L
L

.
.
v2
:

L = L
1
1
(m r2 + M r2 ) 1 =
M r2 2 m v2 r
2
2
v2 =
v2 =

1
2

M r2 2 (m r2 + 21 M r2 ) 1

mr

0.5 2 12 15 (0.1 12 + 0.5 2 12 ) 10

0.1 1

v2 = 40 m/s

.
.

:

E =

1
1
1
I 1 2 = (m r2 + M r2 ) 1 2
2
2
2
52

2.4.

53

E = 0.5 (0.1 12 + 0.5 2 12 ) 102


E = 55 J
E =

1
1
I 2 2 + m v2 2
2
2

E =

1 1
1
( M r 2 ) 2 2 + m v2 2
2 2
2

E = 0.5 (0.5 2 12 ) 152 + 0.5 0.1 402


E = 192.5 J
E = E E = 192.5 55
E = 137.5 J
.
:

L = I 1 = 10 kg m2 rad/s
L = I 1 = 1 kg m2 rad/s

L = I 2 = 15 kg m2 rad/s
v2
= 4 kg m2 rad/s
L = I
r

53

2.

16
14
12

L (kg.m2.rad/s)

10
8
6

Ldisc
Lparticle

4
2
0
2
4
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25
t (s)

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

2.7: () ()
:

.
2.7
.

.

=
t
I ( )
=
t
L L
=

M = I a=I

M =

L
t

54

2.4.

55


, .

55

2.

56

3.1
1. - 3 41:
.
a = f (t) 3.1.
t = 0.5 s 2 = 10.
10
8
6
4

a (cm/s2)

2
0
2
4
6
8
10

4
t (s)

3.1: ..

57

3.
:

t =
5s.
:
( ) T = 4s
a = 10cm/s2

y0 .

2
2 10
=
=
= 1.58
T
4
a0 = 2 y0
y0 =

a0
10
= 2 2
2

(4)

y0 = 4 cm
:

y = y0 sin(t + )

:

y = y0 sin(t + )

(3.1)

dy
= v = v0 cos(t + )
dt

(3.2)

dv
= a = y0 2 sin(t + )
dt

(3.3)


.
58

3.1.

59


t = 1s a = 10 cm
. 3.3
s2
:

a = y0 2 sin(t + )
2
2
10 = 4 ( )2 sin(
1 + )
4
4

1 = sin( + )
2
=
3.1
:

y = y0 sin(t + )

2
2
0.5 + ) = 4 (
)
y = 4 sin(
2
4
y = 2 2
2. - 4 41:
3.2 y
t ...
:
() t = 4s
() t = 2s
() t = 8s
() t = 8s
() t = 4s
:
.
() t = 4s .
.

.
59

3.

10
8
6
4

y (m)

2
0
2
4
6
8
10

5
t (s)

10

3.2: ..
() t = 2s y = 0.
.
() t = 8s
.
() t = 8s
.
3.1 3.3

y = y0 sin(t + )
a = y0 2 sin(t + )
a = 2 y
() t = 4s .

.
y ymax
:

E =
60

1
k y2
2
.

3.1.

61

3. - 5 42:
l0
m
3.3.
()
; .
()
.

14

12

10

0
15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

3.3:
:
3.3
( MatLab)
l0 = 20cm x0 = 5cm.
. (x = 15 x = 25).
61

3.
.
.

.
,
, . 3.4
.

14

12

10

0
15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

3.4: ,
4. - 6 42:
() .
, ;
()
30o .
;
() .

62

3.1.

63

:

3.5.

3.5:
.
3.5,
. :
W
S
,
.

Sx = S sin
Sy = S cos

,
6o sin = tan = rad .
63

3.
l.
y
y :

Sy = W
Sy = m g
S cos = m g
S =

mg
cos

x
:

Sx

= S sin

mg
cos

Sx = m g tan

,

, ly l.
:

tan =

x
x
=
ly
l

Sx = m g

x
l

(3.4)

, 3.4.

. , 3.4
.
(

Sx = m g xl
F =
kx
64

k =

mg
l

3.1.

65

k = m 2
k =

mg
l

mg
rl
g
=
rl
2
g
=
T
l

m 2 =

T = 2

l
g

:


l, .
g , .
() .

.
.
:
,
. !!!
()
:
6o sin = tan = rad.
.
()
.
. l ly = cos l.

65

3.
5. - 9 43:
- x0 .
:
()
() ,
()
:

.
:

E =

1
1
k x0 2 = m v 0 2
2
2

E =

1
m v0 2
2

E =

1
2m v0 2 = m v0 2
2

.
.
.
k :

k = m 2
k = 2m 2

.
66

3.2.

67

6. - 10 43:

,
;
:

:

- .
(
)
l =

g
,
2


.
,
,

.

3.2
1. - 12 43:
... ( ) 5 2 cm.s2 . 4cm ,
3cm/s. ,
.
:
, :
() ...:

x = x0 sin(t + )
v = v0 cos(t + )
a = a0 sin(t + )
67

3.
() a0 = 5 2 cm.s2
() x = 4cm v = 3cm/s

:

4 = x0 sin(t + )
3 = x0 cos(t + )
sin cos. ,
, :

4 = x0 sin(t + )
3 = x0 cos(t + )

16 2 = 2 x0 2 sin2 (t + )
9 2 = 2 x0 2 cos2 (t + )

16 2 + 9 2 = 2 x0 2 [sin2 (t + ) + cos2 (t + )]
16 2 + 9 2 = 2 x0 2
:

2 x0 = 5 2
, :

(x0 2 16) 2 = 9 2
2 x0 = 5 2
(x0 2 16)

5 2
= 9 2
x0

x0 2 16 =
68

9
x0
5
.

3.2.

69

x0 2

x01,2 =

9
x0 16 = 0
5
9
5

( 95 )2 + 4 1 16
21

:
x01 = 5cm x02 = 3.2cm.
.
:

2 x0 = 5 2
2 = 2
=
2
2
T =
=
= 2s

v0 = x0 = 5cm/s

2. - 13 44:
3.6
, ...

..
:
... :
69

3.

15
X: 6
Y: 12

10
X: 3
Y: 6

a (m/s2)

X: 3
Y: 6

10

X: 6
Y: 12

15
6

0
x (m)

3.6: ...

x = x0 sin(t + )
a = x0 2 sin(t + )
a = 2 x

(3.5)

y = x + = 2 = 0.

2 .
...

, .

12 0
= 2
6 0

= 2 = 2

=
2

2
2
=
2T =
T
2
70

3.2.

71

T = 4.44s
3. - 14 44:
2kg ... 0.5m.
D = 200N/m. t1 v1 = 2.5m/s. :


t1

:

m = 2kg
D = 200N/m
t1 v1 = 2.5m/s

s

D = m 2 =
s

200
= 10rad/s
2


t1 .
(x0 , D ) (v1 , m ).
1 x1 :

Eo =

1
D x0 2 = 25J
2
71

3.

E =
E1 =

1
m v1 2 = 6.25J
2
1
D x1 2 = 25 6.25
2
s

x1 =

2 18.75
= 0.433m
200

a1 = 2 x1 = 100 0.433
a1 = 43.3m/s2
4. - 15 44:
0.05kg
x = 5sin(40t + 2 ) x cm, t s.
2 = 10. :
()
()
() t = 0.5s
() t = 0s
t = 0.5s
() ,
:

... :

x = x0 sin(t + )

x = 5 sin(40t + )
2
:
72

3.2.

73

x0 = 5cm
= 40
T = 0.05s
:

v0 = x0 = 0.05 40 = 2 10

1
1
Emax =
m v02 = 0.05 (2 10)2 = 1J
2
2
t = 0.5s

...:
(

F = ma
a = 2 x0 sin(40t + 2 )

)
2
F = 0.05 (40)2 0.05 1 = 40N
F = m 2 x0 sin(40t +

t = 0s t =
0.5s (
). T = 0.05s.
,
, t = 0 x0 = 0.05m.
:

C=

t
0.5
=
= 10
T
0.05

4
,

d1o = 4 0.05m = 0.2m



:

Soo = C d1o = 2m
73

3.
5. - 17 45:
m h
.
y . k .
kg ;

3.7: h
:
h
.
y .
1 ,
.

1
k y2
2
k y2
m =
2g (h + y)

m g (h + y) =

+
y

74

3.2.

75

6. - 18 45:
3.8 .. T = 2s
,
, x0 20cm.
.

3.8:
:
.
.
3.9.
.
F .
,
.
:

3.9:
75

3.

T = N =mg
Fmax = m a0 = m 2 x0
T = Fmax
m g = m 2 x0
=

2 x0
4 2 x0
= 2

g
T g

= 0.2

7. - 19 45:
3.10
.
K1 = 120N/m K2 = 80N/m.
2kg .
,
... .

3.10:
:
...
,
.
x , 1
K1 2 K2
, 3.11.
76

3.2.

77

1
2 2 .

3.11:
(Hooke)
:

F1 = k1 x
F2 = k2 x

F = F1 F2
F = k1 x k2 x
F = (k1 k2 ) x

(3.6)

3.6 ...

k1 k2 :
2

1
. 2

77

3.

k1 k2 = m 2
4 2
k1 k2
=

2
T
m
s

m 4 2
=
T =
k1 k2

T = 0.2

2 4 2

120 80

8. - 20 46:

(Body Measuring Device - BMMD),

.
.
. K = 600N/m.

0.9s 2.1s
. 2 = 10.
:
, k .

k :

k = m 2
0.9s

2.1s.

k = m

78

3.2.

m =

79

k
2

600

= 12.15kg

4 2
0.92

2
2
k = mo o
= (m + m ) o
2
2

= (m + m ) o
m

m =

m =

2
m
m
2
o

12.15
4 2
2
To

4 2
2
T

12.15 =

2
12.15 To
12.15
2
T

m = 54kg
9. - 25 48:
1 m1 = 1kg
k = 400N/m
x0 = 0.1m .
1 2 m2 = 3kg .
.
:
()
()
:
1
2 .
1

. :
x0 = 0.1m
k = 400N/m
m1 = 100kg
79

3.

3.12: -
m2 = 3kg
:

k = m1 2 = 400
k
400
=

m1
1

=
400 = 20rad/s

2 =

v0 = x0 = 20 0.1
v0 = 2m/s

.

:

E = E
80

3.2.

81

1
1
1
2
m1 v12 =
m1 v1 0 + m2 v22
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1 22 =
1 v1 0 + 3 v22
2
2
2
3 v22 + v1 0

P
m 1 v1
12
v1 0

= 4

(3.7)

=
=
=
=

P
m 1 v1 0 + m 2 v2
1 v1 0 + 3 v2
2 3 v2

(3.8)

3.7 3.8
:

3 v22 + v1 0 = 4
2 3 v2 = v1 0
3 v22 + (2 3 v2 )2
3 v22 + 4 12 v2 + 9 v22
12 v22
v2

=
=
=
=

4
4
12 v2
1m/s

v1 0 = 1m/s
1 v1 0 = 1m/s.
:

x0 =

v1 0
= 0.05m

,
.
:
81

3.

P = P
m1 v1 = (m1 + m2 ) V
12
m1 v1
=

m1 + m2
1+3

= 0.5m/s


.
s

k = (m1 + m2 ) 2 =

400

= 10rad/s
:

x0 =

3.3

V
0.5
=
= 0.05m/s

10

1. - 27 48:
, ,
6 , 12 6
. 0o C , 10o C 0o C .
... :
()

. 6:00 .
t = 0s.
() 9 .
82

3.3.

83

()
5o C ,
;
:

...


. ..

:

T
4

= 6h t = 0s = 0o C
6h

0 = 10o C .
.. :

= 0 sin(t + )
:

= 10 sin(

2
t + )
46

t = 0s = 0o C

0 + )
12
sin = 0 = 0
0 = 10 sin(

= 10 sin(

t)
12


3.13
83

3.

10

6
t (hours)

10

12

3.13:
, 9..

. t = 0s
6 ..
9 6 = 3.

= 10 sin(

t),
12

= 10 sin(

3) = 10 sin
12
4

= 7o C

t=3



5o C .
:

= 10 sin(

t),
12
84

5o C
.

3.3.

85

5 = 10 sin(

t =
12
6

t) 0.5 = sin( t)
12
12

5
t=

12
6

t = 2h t = 10h
8:00.
16:00, 8
!!!
2. - 29 49:
M = 2kg ..., x0 = 10cm
T ,
K = 800N/m, 3.14.
m = 500g M
v = 4m/s M

.
. :
() T
() T 0
()

()

3.14:
85

3.
:
T :
s
2

k = M =
s

T = 2

k
T = 2
M

2
= 0.314s
800

.

, mo = 2.5kg
r

= 2

mo
= 2
k

2.5

800

T 0 = 0.351s

:
M
(
)

v 2 = x0 =

2
2
x0 =
0.1
T
0.314

v2 = 2m/s

P = P
m v1 + M v2 = (m + M ) V
V

m v1 + M v2

m+M

0.5 4 + 2 2
= 2.4m/s
2.5

86

3.3.

87


.
( ):

= x0 0 x0 0 =

V
V
= 2

T0

x0 0 = 0.134m
3. - 30 49:
M = 1kg k = 200N/m
.
m = 0.2kg v = 2m/s. :
()
()
()
:

.
- ,
.

0 (
),
:

P
0
0
v

=
=
=
=

P
m v + M v
0.2 2 + 1 v
0.4

0.4m/s.

87

3.
.
,
,

Hooke:

F = kx
x =

F
m g
0.2 10
=
=

k
k
200

x = 0.01m

:

Eo = E + E
Eo =

1
1
1
1
M v2 + k x2 = 1 0.42 + 200 0.012
2
2
2
2

Eo = 0.09J

1
m x20
2
s
s
2 Eo
2 0.09
=
=

k
200

Eo =
x0

x0 = 0.03m
4. - 32 50:

k = 100N/m
l0 = lm .
m = 1kg
.
88

3.3.

89

() ...
t =
0s
.
()
()

()

,
.
()
. ; ;

3.15: ) ) )

89

3.
:
...

.

0.

F = 0
F. B = 0 F. = B F. = m g


3.15.
x :

F = B F 0
F 0 = k (x + x) = F. + k x
F. = B = m g

(3.9)
(3.10)

3.9, 3.10:

F 0 = k x

...

.
:

y = y0 sin(t + )

k = m 2
90

3.3.

91

k
= 10rad/s
m
r

T = 2

m
= 0.628s
k

F = k y0 y0 =

mg
= 0.1m
k


t = 0s x0 :

0.1 = 0.1 sin(10t + )


1 = sin()
3
=
2
:

E =

1
k (2 y0 )2 = 2J
2


,
:

1
k y02 = 0.5J
2
= m g h = m g y0 = 1J
1
1
=
m v02 = m ( y0 )2 = 0.5J
2
2

E =
E
E



.

.
91

3.

3.4

1. 2003:
l0 = 10cm k = 100N/cm.

.

() 10cm 15cm
() 15cm 20cm
:
S.I.. k =
10 N/m, l0 = 0.1m. :
4

E0.15 =

1
1
k x2 = 104 0.052 = 12.5J
2
2

0.15m 0.2m, 0.2m


0.15m:

E0.2 =

1
1
k x2 = 104 0.12 = 50J
2
2

E = E0.2 E0.15 = 50 12.5


E = 37.5J
2. 2000:

x
.

92

3.4.

93

:


..:

x = x0 sin(t + )
a =

d2 x
= 2 x0 sin(t + )
dt2

a = 2 x


2
.

3.16: a = f (x)

93

3.
3. 1999:
..
3.17.
,
.

x (cm)

0.5

1.5

2
t (s)

2.5

3.5

3.17: x = f (t)
:

:
x0 = 5cm
T = 2s
f =
=

1
= 0.5Hz
T
2
=
T

, (t =
0, x = x0 = 5cm) :
94

3.4.

95

x = x0 sin(t + )
5 = 5 sin( 0 + ) sin = 1

=
2
:

x = 5 sin(t +

)
2

4. 1999:


x = x40 , x0 .
:

.
,
Emax = 12 k x20 .
x40
:

E = Eo E
E =

1
1
x0
k x20 k ( )2
2
2
4

E =

1
x2
15x20
k (x20 0 ) = k (
)
2
16
32

E
E

15x20
32
x20
32

= 15

95

3.
5. 2001:
3.18

v x ...

.

X: 0
Y: 3.142

1
X: 0.2
Y: 0

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

3.18: v = f (x)
:
. ,

.

x = x0 sin(t + )
v = x0 cos(t + )

(3.11)
(3.12)

3.40 ,
:
96

3.4.

97

2 x2 + v 2 = 2 x20 sin2 (t + ) + 2 x20 cos2 (t + )


2 x2 + v 2 = 2 x20 (sin2 (t + ) + cos2 (t + ))
2 x2 + v 2 = 2 x20
x2
v2
+
= 1
x20 2 x20

(3.13)

3.42 x0 = 0.2m
v0 = x0 = .
:

x0 =
2
0.2 =
T

= 2.5s
T =
0.2 2
6. 2000:
... x0 T . ( 3.19).

3.19: - ..
:

97

3.
.
.

:

x = x0 sin( tOB )
0.5 x0 = x0 sin( tOB )

tOB =

T
T
tOB =
=
=
6
12
12


.
, , :

x = x0 sin( tOA )
0.707 x0 = x0 sin( tOA )

tOA =

T
T
tOA =
=
=
4
8
8

tAB = tOB + tOA =


tAB =

5
T
24

T
T
+

8
12

7. 2003:
,
y0 2y0 .
:
()
()
()
98

3.4.

99

:
:
r

m
k
r
m
= 2
k

T1 = 2
T2

T1
= 1
T2

k .
:

1
k x20
2
1
=
k (2x0 )2
2

E1 =
E2

E1
=
E2

1
k x20
2
1
k 4x20
2

1
4

a1 = 2 x0
a2 = 2 2x0
2 x0
1
a1
=
=
a2
2 2x0
2
8. 2002:
.. 3.20.
.

99

3.

X: 5
Y: 0.4935

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

a (m/s2)

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
X: 5
Y: 0.4935

0.5
5

0
x (cm)

3.20: a = f (x)
:

:

a0 = 0.493m/s2
x0 = 5cm.
:
s
2

a 0 = x0 =
s

a0

x0

0.493
=
0.05
100

3.4. 101

T =

2
= 2s

3.21

x (cm)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
t (s)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

3.21: x = f (t)
9. 2000:

(x)
(x0 ) .
:

:
x =

x0
2

() ,

101

3.

E = Eo E
1
1
x0 2
E =
k x20 k 2
2
2
2
2
1
x
E =
k (x20 + 0 )
2
4
E =
E
E

1
3
k x02
2
4
1
2

k 43 x20
=3
2
1
k x202
2

10. 2001:
.

3.23. :
() (t > 0)
:
i.
ii.
()
.

a0A
,
a0B

a0A , a0B

:
:
: TA = 2s y0A = 10cm
: TB = 4s y0B = 5cm
..
.
T4 = 0.5s
T4 = 1s.
102

3.4. 103

3.22: x = f (t)
.
T2 = 1s T2 = 2s.
:

0.1 ( 2
)2
a0A
y0A A2
2
=
=
=8
2
a0B
y0B B2
0.05 ( 2
)
4
11. 2001:
m = 0.5kg
. F x.
() k
() m
.
i. ;
ii.
;
iii.
;
() 1.3J .
103

3.

4.5

3.5

F (N)

2.5

1.5

0.5

10
x (mm)

12

14

16

18

3.23: F = f (x)
:
.
Hooke F = k x
F = f (x) .
:

k =

F F

x x

k =

50
= 250 N/m
0.02 0


.
, .


104

20

3.4. 105

.
E = 1.3J .


. :

E =

1
k x20 = 1.3 J
2
s

x0 =

2 1.3
= 0.1 m
250

12. 2002:
. m ,
t, .
:
g
s

0
4

10
5,6

20
6,9

30
8

40
8,9

50
9,8

()
.
()
.
;
() ;
:

. k :
105

3.

k = m 2

:

k = m 2
s

k
2

=
m
T
r

T = 2
T2 =

k
m

m
$
k

4 2
m
k

2
T 2 = f (m) 4k . ,
k
:
20 . 20 .

T 2 = f (m)


k .

4 2
k

3.24 :

y y
4 2
=

k
x x
4 2
0.2401 0.04
=
=4
k
0.050 0
k =

4 2
= 9.87 N/m
4
106

3.4. 107
g
0
10
20
30
40
50

s
4
5,6
6,9
8
8,9
9,8

T2

0,2
0,28
0,345
0,4
0,445
0,49

0,04
0,0784
0,119025
0,16
0,198025
0,2401

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

10

15

20

25
m (g)

30

35

40

45

50

3.24: T 2 = f (m)
k
:

k = m 2
m

k
k T2
4 0.04
=
=
=

2
2

4
4 2

m = 4 103 kg = 4 g
107

3.




.
. ,
. 20 .
.

.
13. 2003:
:
()

() , k , .
m, l0 0.
.
i.
.
ii.
.
:
()
. :


F = k
:
.
108

3.4. 109
:
, .

3.25: ) ) )
() ...
.

0.

F = 0
F. B = 0 F. = B F. = m g

3.25.
x :
109

3.

F = B F 0
F 0 = k (l0 + x) = F. + k x
F. = B = m g

(3.14)
(3.15)
(3.16)

3.14, 3.15 3.16:

F = k x

...

.

:

2
T
k = m 2

(3.17)
(3.18)

3.17, 3.22 :

k = m 2 = m (
2
=
T

2 2
)
T

m
r
m
T = 2
k


.
14. 2002:
:
()
. .
110

3.4. 111
()
. 60kg f =
3.2Hz . f 0 = 2.2Hz . .
() .
f 00 =
2.2Hz .
()
,
.
:
()
.

.
() .

k = m 2

(3.19)



.
:

= 2f

(3.20)

3.22, 3.20 :

k = m (2f )2

(3.21)


k ()
111

3.
!
.
mchair ,
mtot = mchair + mastr .
:

(mchair + mastr ) (2f 0 )2 = mchair (2f )2


2
(mchair + mastr ) f 0 = mchair f 2
2

mastr f 0 = mchair f 2 mchair f 0


(f 2 f 0 2 )

f 02
3.22 2.22
= 60

2.22

mastr = mchair
mastr

mastr = 66.94kg
()
.
f 0
f 00
.

mastr = mchair

(f 2 f 00 2 )

f 00 2

mastr = 64.67kg

2.27kg !!!
()
.

. ,
112

3.4. 113
,
.
15. 1998:
, m, l,
g .
,

.
()
.
()
.
() .

3.26:
:

.
:

.
113

3.
.. .
6
. 3.33
.

3.27:
, ,
l
.
3.33
.
0.

Fy = 0
Sy B = 0 Sy = B
Sy = mg

(3.22)

S :

Sy = S cos
Sx = S sin
114

(3.23)
(3.24)
.

3.4. 115
3.32 3.33

S cos = mg
S=

(3.25)

mg
cos

(3.26)

3.36 3.34 :

Sx =

mg
sin
cos

(3.27)

3.33

l :

sin
x
= tan =
cos
l

(3.28)

3.38 3.37 :

Sx =

mg
x
l

(3.29)

Sx ,
.
.
. D ( ). D = m 2
. :
D=

mg
l

D = m 2
=

2
T

115

3.

m 2 =

mg
g
2 =
l
l

2
g
( )2 =
T
l
s

T = 2

2
=
T

l
g

l
g .

.

g .
:



20 ( n) 3

. 20 20
.

T 2 = f (l) (T 2 =

4 2
g

l)

20 n
.
20 .

116

3.4. 117

, ,
2
2
= 4g g = 4
16. 1999:

; :
() ;
() ;
() ;
:

. .
s

T = 2

l
g

(3.30)



3.30.
.

:
s

T = 2
0

T = 2
T0 =

l
g

v
ul
u
t4

= 2

1
l
= (2
4g
2

l
)
g

1
T
2

.
(g = g6 ),
:
117

3.

T = 2

l
g

v
s
s
u

u
l
6

l
l
T 0 = 2 t g = 2
= 6 (2
)

T0 =

6T

17. 1999:

T m k . .
/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

X0
0,10
0,10
0,10
0,15
0,10
0,10
0,20

kg
0,2
0,3
0,2
0,2
0,4
0,2
0,2

k N/m
20
20
30
20
20
40
20

T s
0,63
0,77
0,51
0,63
0,89
0,44
0,63

3.1:
m, x0 , k
:
()
.
()
T :
i. X0
ii. m
iii. k
()
T = f (X0 ), T = f (m), T = f (k).
;
118

3.4. 119
() T
.
:


. :

n ( ) n
.
(
)
.


.
y = f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
n . y

x1
, x2 ... ...
x1


x1 .
, y ,
,
.
:
i X0 ;
, m k
X0 .
:
119

3.
/
1
4
7

X0
0,10
0,15
0,20

kg
0,2
0,2
0,2

k N/m
20
20
20

T s
0,63
0,63
0,63

3.2: X0 . m, k

.
.
ii m ;
,
X0 k
m.
:
/
1
2
5

X0
0,10
0,10
0,10

kg
0,2
0,3
0,4

k N/m
20
20
20

T s
0,63
0,77
0,89

3.3: m. X0 , k

.
iii k ;
k
, X0 m k .
:
/
1
3
6

X0
0,10
0,10
0,10

kg
0,2
0,2
0,2

k N/m
20
30
40

T s
0,63
0,51
0,44

3.4: k . m, X0

k ,
.
120

3.4. 121


.
2

1.5

T (s)

0.5

0.5
0.1

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15
0 (m)

0.16

0.17

0.18

0.19

0.2

3.28:

.
3.28 .
0.95
0.9

T (s)

0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
0.65

0.2

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.3
m (kg)

0.32

0.34

0.36

0.38

0.4

3.29:

3.29
.
3.30
.
121

3.

0.65

0.6

T (s)

0.55

0.5

0.45

0.4
20

22

24

26

28

30
k (N/m)

32

34

36

38

40

3.30:
18. 2004:

:
/
1
2
3
4
5

l(m) 10T (s) T


0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4

15
18
20
22
24

3.5: g
()
.
() ;
:

3.5 :
, T T 2 .
10 , 10
. 3.6
122

3.4. 123
T 2 = f (l) (T 2 =

4 2
g

l)

, ,
2
2
= 4g g = 4
/
1
2
3
4
5

l(m) 10T (s)


0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4

15
18
20
22
24

T2

1,5
1,8
2
2,2
2,4

2,25
3,24
4
4,84
5,76

3.6:
g
3.31:
6
5.5
5

T2 (s2)

4.5
4
y = 4.3*x 0.29

3.5
3

data 1
linear

2.5
2
0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
l (m)

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

3.31:
g

3.6
,
.


.
123

3.
3.31
( ,
x), = 4.3
g.

4 2
4 2
4 2
g=
g=

4.3

g = 9.18

m
s2


,
.
,
l.


.
19. 2002:
3.7.
()
;
()
();
;
()
.
()

T .

124

3.4. 125
/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

100T (s) l(m)


199
199
199
162
140
126
115
140

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0,5

m(kg)
0,05
0,05
0,02
0,05
0,05
0,05
0,05
0,05

X0 (cm)
5
10
5
5
5
5
5
5

g sm2

10.0
10.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
10.0

3.7: g
:

. 17


.
( )
, .
i ;
3.7
.
3.8.
/
1
3

100T (s) l(m)


199
199

1
1

m(kg)
0,05
0,02

X0 (cm)
5
5

g sm2

10.0
10.0

3.8:

(
) .
.
ii ;

.
3.9.
125

3.
/
1
2

100T (s) l(m) m(kg) X0 (cm)


199
199

1
1

0,05
0,05

5
10

g sm2

10.0
10.0

3.9:
3.9
.

.

. 3.10.
/
1
8

100T (s) l(m) m(kg) X0 (cm)


199
140

1
0,5

0,05
0,05

5
5

g sm2

10.0
10.0

3.10:

.


. ( T =
q
l
2 g )


.
. 3.32
. a
. a

.

F = m a
SB =ma
S =ma+mg
126

3.4. 127

S = m (a + g)

(3.31)

3.32:
3.31
() g

a
.


15 .
20. 2004:
l
m.
.
() .
()
.
()
.
127

3.
()
, ,

(E = f (x2 ), E = f (x2 ) E =
f (x2 )).
:

.
:

.
.. .
6
. 3.33
.

3.33:
, ,
l
.
3.33
.
0.
128

3.4. 129

Fy = 0
Sy B = 0 Sy = B
Sy = mg

(3.32)

S :

Sy = S cos
Sx = S sin

(3.33)
(3.34)

3.32 3.33

S cos = mg
S=

(3.35)

mg
cos

(3.36)

3.36 3.34 :

Sx =

mg
sin
cos

(3.37)

3.33

l :

sin
x
= tan =
cos
l

(3.38)

3.38 3.37 :

Sx =

mg
x
l

(3.39)

Sx ,
.
.
129

3.

.

1s.

.
s

T = 2
l=g
l = 10

l
g

T2
l
=
2
4
g

T2

4 2

12
= 0.253 m
4 2


0.253 m.
.


,
.

x = x0 sin(t + )
v = x0 cos(t + )

(3.40)
(3.41)

3.40 ,
:

2 x2 + v 2 = 2 x20 sin2 (t + ) + 2 x20 cos2 (t + )


2 x2 + v 2 = 2 x20 (sin2 (t + ) + cos2 (t + ))
2 x2 + v 2 = 2 x20
x2
v2
+
= 1
x20 2 x20

(3.42)
130

3.4. 131

Edyn
Emech
Ekin

3.34: - - x2
E =

f (x2 ), E = f (x2 ) E = f (x2 ).


21. 2001:

m = 0, 25kg k = 50 N
.
m
m = 0, 25kg
3.35. 20cm

t = 0.
()
()
.
()
,
.
() ,

. :
i.
ii.
:
131

3.

3.35:

, .
:


F = k

0.

F = 0
F. (B + B ) = 0 F. = B + B F. = (m + m ) g


3.25.
x :
132

3.4. 133

3.36: ) ) )

F = B + B F 0
F 0 = k (l0 + x) = F. + k x
F. = B + B = (m + m ) g

(3.43)
(3.44)
(3.45)

3.43, 3.44 3.45:

F = k x
...
133

3.

. :


0
:
s
2

k = m =
s

50
rad
= 10
0.5
s

20cm

.


t = 0 s
20cm:

x = x0 sin(t + 0 )
0.2 = 0.2 sin(10 0 + 0 )
sin(0 ) = 1
0 =

x = 0.2 sin(10t

)
2


.
134

3.4. 135

.

. :

dx
= v = 0.2 10 cos(10t )
dt
2

v = 2 cos(10t )
2
dv

= a = 2 10 sin(10t )
dt
2

a = 20 sin(10t )
2
3.37 3.38 .
v=f(t)
2
1.5
1

v (m/s)

0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

t (s)

3.37:

.
3.39
m = 0.25kg ,
:

,
N = 0.
135

3.
a=f(t)
20
15
10

a (m/s2)

5
0
5
10
15
20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

t (s)

3.38:

3.39:
.

... ,
:

F = N B
N B = k x
N =0
:
136

3.4. 137

B = k x
m g = kx
x=

0.25 10
m g
=

k
50

x = 0.05m

20cm
5cm.
5cm :

)
2

0.05 = 0.2sin(10t )
2

sin(10t ) = 0.25
2

10t = sin1 (0.25)


2
sin1 (0.25) + 2
= 0.182s
t=
10
x = x0 sin(10t

t = 0.182s
22. 1999:
1 2 m1 = 150g m2 = 50g ,
k
3.40.
() 20cm
:
i. k
ii. g = 10 sm2 .
137

3.
()
1 2 2
1 . :
i. x0
ii. .
() 1
t0 , .
() 1
f , 1 ; 1
;

3.40: .
:

.

0.2m. Hooke . Hooke
:

F = kx
F
k =
x
138

(3.46)
.

3.4. 139
:
F .
1 2 .
k
x
3.46 :

k =

F
B1 + B2
=

x
x

k =

m1 g + m2 g

k =

N
0.15 10 + 0.05 10
= 10
0.2
m

,
:

k = m 2 k = m (
k
2
2

= ( )2
=
m
T
T
r

T = 2

2 2
)
T

m
k

(3.47)

3.47 :
s

T = 2
s

T = 2
139

m1 + m2

k
0.2
= 0.89s
10
.

3.
,

m2 = 0.05kg 1 .
,
X0
.
( ) 2
1 .
Hooke
.

F = kx
x =

B1
F
=

k
k

x =

m2 g

x =

0.05 10
= 0.05m
10

1
3.47
1 .
r

T = 2
s

T = 2

m1

k
0.05
= 0.44s
10

1

3.48:

x = x0 sin(t + 0 )
140

(3.48)

3.4. 141
x0 = 0.05m
=

k
m1

10
0.15

= 8.16 rad
s

0 :
3.48 t = 0s

0.05 = 0.05 sin(8.16 0 + 0 )


sin(0 ) = 1

0 =
2
: x = 0.05 sin(8.16t + 2 )
f 1 , .
f
,
f0 . :

= 2f0 f0 =

f0 = 1.298Hz
23. 1998:
m = 0.5kg .
v = 20 sin(5t + 2
), v cm
,t
3
s
s cm.
() y = f (t)

.
() 3.41,

.
()
.
141

3.

3.41: -
:
y = f (t)

. :

v = 20 sin(5t +

2
)
3

v = y0 cos(t + 0 )


:

2
)
3
2
+ )
= 20 sin(5t +
3
2
2
4 3
= 20 sin(5t +

+ )
6
6
2

= 20 sin(5t + + )
6
2

= 20 cos(5t + )
6

v = 20 sin(5t +
v
v
v
v

142

3.4. 143

:

sin( +

) = cos()
2


:
:
, = 5 rad
s
0 :
0 = 6
y0 :

y0 = 20
y0 =

20
20
=

y0 = 4cm
(y cm) :

y = 4 sin(5t +

)
6


.
t = 0s.
0
:

y = 4 sin(5 0 + )
6

y = 4 sin( ) y = 4 0.5
6
y = 2cm
143

3.

3.42:

,

.
y = 2cm y = 4cm.
t = 0s ,

y = 4cm:

)
6

4 = 4 sin(5tA + )
6

sin(5tA + ) = 1
6


5tA + = 5tA =
6
2
2
6
y = 4 sin(5tA +

tA =

tA = 0.209s

24. 2000:
m = 150g ,
3.43 ,
Hz . f = 10

F = 12N . :
()
144

3.4. 145
()

()
()
, :
i. x0
ii.

3.43: .
:
:

k = m 2 k = 0.15 (2 f )2
10
k = 0.15 (2 )2

N
k = 60
m
.
Hooke

k :
145

3.

F =kx
x=

F
12
=

k
60

x = 0.2m

:

EA =
EA =

1
k x2
2
1
60 0.22
2

EA = 1.2J

. ,
. (x0 ),
.

Eo = Emax
EA + EA =

1
k x20
2

EA + 3 EA =

1
k x20
2

1.2 + 3 1.2 =

1
k x20
2

1.2 + 3 1.2 =

1
60 x20
2

146

3.4. 147

x20 =

2 (1.2 + 3 1.2)

60
s

x0 =

2 (1.2 + 3 1.2)

60

x0 = 0.4m

, EA =
3.6J :

EA =

1
m v2
2

1
m v 2 = 3.6
2
s

v=

2 3.6
=
m

v = 6.928

2 3.6

0.15

m
s

25. 2004:
M
T = 2s.
3.44 E
x . :
()
() k
()
() M
()

147

3.
Ekin=f(x)

2.5

x 10

X: 0
Y: 0.002406

E (J)

1.5

0.5

0
0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0
x (m)

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

3.44: M .
()
E
x
:
3.44
:
2.4 103 J .
M x0 = 0.05m.

T = 2s .
k .
.

:

Emax = Emax
1

k x20 = 2.4 103


2
2 (2.4 103 )
2 (2.4 103 )
k=

=
x20
0.052
148

3.4. 149

k = 1.92

N
m

f=

1
1
=
T
2

f = 0.5Hz
:

k = M 2
k
k
M = 2 = 2 2

(T )
1.92
M = 2 2 = 0.195 kg
(2)
:

1
M v02 = Emax
2

1
0.195 v02 = 2.4 103
2

v02 =

2 (2.4 103 )

0.195
s

v0 =

2 (2.4 103 )
= 0.157
0.195

m
s


.
3.45
:
149

3.

1
k x2
2
1
= k (x0 sin(t))2
2

E =
E

E=f(x)

2.5

x 10

E (J)

1.5

0.5

0
0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0
x (m)

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

3.45: M .
26. 1999:

3.46. , m =
50g , .
f0 = 10Hz .
f (Hz )
f (Hz )
a (cm)

2
2,1
0,7

4
3,9
0,9

6
6
1,3

8
8,1
2,2

9
8,9
3,2

10
10
4

11
11,1
3,1

12
11,9
2,3

14
14,1
1,2

16
16
0,8

18
17,9
0,6

3.11:
()
() :
i.
f = f (f )
ii.

a = f (f )
150

3.4. 151

3.46: .
m =
50g , m0 = 200g (ii);

151

3.
:
3.46,
.

.

.

3.11.
f = f (f ) 3.47 a = f (f )
3.48.
f = f(f)
18

16

14

f (Hz)

12

10

data 1
linear
2

10
f (Hz)

12

14

16

18

3.47: a.

:

. 3.47.

.
,
152

3.4. 153
a=f( f )
4.5
data 1
spline

4
3.5

a (cm)

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5

10
f (Hz)

12

14

16

18

3.48: a.
. .

(f0 = 10Hz ),

. 3.48.
m = 50g ,
m0 = 200g , .
k
:

k = m 2 = m (2f )2
N
k = 197.39
m

k = m0 2 = m0 (2f 0 )2
s

2f 0 =

m0

1
k
f =

2
m0
f 0 = 5 Hz
0

153

3.

0 5Hz . f =
5Hz .

.
27. 2004:
3.49,
k=4 N
m =
m
0.15kg .
.
= 4 rad

s
x0 .
0.20kg, 0.25kg, 0.30kg, 0.35kg 0.40kg .
()

()
x0 , m
x0 = f (m )

3.49: .

154

3.4. 155
:
.
3.49 = 4 rad
s
,
.
( ),
.
. q f =
k = m(2f )2 .

1
2

k
m


.
. :

1
f=

k
m

f = 2

0,15
0,2
0,25
0,3
0,35
0,4

k
m

0,822
0,712
0,637
0,581
0,538
0,503

3.12:

. :

= 2f

f =
= 0.637Hz
2
155

3.

.
.
x0 = f (m ), 3.50.

x0

x0=(m)

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

3.50:
.
28. 2005:
(
) 12cm
Hooke . 4cm
F = 0.2N .
14cm 16cm.
:

14cm 16cm
:

14cm
16cm

16cm

156

3.4. 157

14cm. k
:

F = k x k =
k=

0.2
N
=5
0.04
m

1
k x2
2
1
= 5 0.042
2
= 4 103 J

E1216cm =
E1216cm
E1216cm

1
k x2
2
1
= 5 0.022
2
= 1 103 J

E1214cm =
E1214cm
E1214cm

E1416cm = E1216cm E1214cm


E1416cm = 4 103 1 103
E1416cm = 3 103 J
29. 2005:
k = 20 N
0, 1J
m
x.
3x.
:

.


.
157

3.

E =

1
k x2 = 0.1J
2

1
k (3x)2
2
1
E0 = k 9 (x)2
2
1
E0 = 9 k (x)2
2
0
E = 9 E = 0.9J
E0 =

30. 2005:
l
.
. = 4l ,
l
g . 3.51.

3.51: .
:

l,
, ,
, 3l
4
, l.

158

3.4. 159
l 3l
.
4

T =

T =

T1 T2
+

2
2
2

r
l
g

2
s

2
s2

3l
4

l
3l
+

g
4g
s
s

l
3
l
T =
+

g
2
g
s

3
l
T = (1 +
)

2
g
T =

T = 5.86

159

l
g

3.

160

4.1
1. - 1 244:
. ;
:

.
. , (
) .
2. - 2 244:
;
;
:

. :
f

y0



161

4.
v

3. - 3 244:
.
:

:
() :

.
.
() :

. .
4. - 4 244:

() ;
() ;
:

()



.

, :

x =

= 1, 2, ...

()
162

4.1.

163

yA = yB
,

vA = vB

.
, :

x =

= 1, 2, ...

5. - 8 244:
;
:

(), .
6. - 9 244:
;
:

.
4.1

= 2 (

t
x
)
T

(4.1)


, :

A = 2 (

t
xA

)
T

163

B = 2 (

t
xB

)
T

4.

= A B
t
xA
t
xB
= 2 (
) 2 (
)
T

= 2

t
xA
t
xB
2
2 + 2

= 2

xB
xA
2

= 2

xB xA

= 2




.
7. - 10 244:

7
;
4

:
. :

= 2
= 2
= 7

7
4

= 2

8. - 11 244:
;

164

4.1.

165

:

.
.
9. - 12 15 244:

;

;
:
.

, .

.



.
:
.

.
x
t = xv .

t = xv .
:

y1 = y0 sin 2(

t
x
)
T

y2 = y0 sin 2(

t
x
+ )
T

= y1 + y2 =
165

4.

t
x
t
x
= y0 sin 2( ) + y0 sin 2( + ) =
T

x
t
x
t
= y0 sin 2( ) + sin 2( + )
T

4.7
.

sinA + sinB = 2 cos(

AB
A+B
) sin(
)
2
2

t
x
t
x
= y0 sin 2( ) + sin 2( + )
T

"

= 2y0 cos(2
"

= 2y0 cos(2
= 2y0 cos(2

t
T

2x

t
T

) sin(2

(4.2)

) sin(2
2t
T

=
t
T

+
2

t
T

) =

x
t
) sin(2 )

cos(x) = cos(x)
:

x
t
= 2y0 cos(2 ) sin(2 )

(4.3)

4.3 .
:
2y0 cos(2 x ) .
.
sin(2 Tt ),
.
166

4.1.

167


, ,

, .
:
cos(2 x ) ,
:

x
cos(2 ) = 1

x
=

x=

= 0, 1, 2, ...

(4.4)

4.4 .

, .
cos(2 x ) 0.

x
cos(2 ) = 0

= (2 + 1)

x = (2 + 1)

= 0, 1, 2, ...

(4.5)

4.5 .
15
. 12

.

.
167

4.

x1o = (2 + 1) ,
4
x =

x1o =

=0

x =
2
4
4

10. - 13 244:

i
h
y = y0 sin 2 ( Tt x ) .
x =

5
;
4

:
, .

0.
, = 2 ( Tt x ).

x = 5
.
4

=0
0 = 2 (

5
t
4 )
T

t
5
=
T
4
5
t= T
4

11. - 14 244:

6 3 .
() ;
() ;
:

.
168

4.1.

169

: 2y0 cos(2 x )
.
.
:


2y0 cos(2 x )
.
:

cos(2

xA
2
) = cos(2 6 ) = cos( ) = 0.5

xB
2
cos(2
) = cos(2 3 ) = cos( ) = 0.5


.
:
:

A = 2y0 0.5
A = y0
:

B = 2y0 (0.5)
B = y0
.
169

4.

4.2

1. - 1 247:
.
-
.
y0 = 0.2m.
0.5m. 5
5sec. t = 0
x = 0
x, , .
:

, :
y0



:

x
y = y0 sin 2(t f )

0.2m
y0 = 0.2m
0.5m.
.

5
t = 5sec.

f=

5
cycles
= = 1Hz
t
5

,
().
170

4.2.

171

x
y = y0 sin 2(t f ) =

x
= 0.2 sin 2(t 1
)
0.5
y = 0.2 sin [2(t 2x)]
2. - 2 248:

y = 2sin (8t
( cm s).
() , , .
() ,
60cm .
() , 13cm
.
:

. :

t
x
y = y0 sin 2( )
T

(4.6)

2:

x
2
(8t )
y = 2sin
2
16

8
x
= 2sin 2( t
)
2
2 16

x
= 2sin 2(4 t )
32
171

x
)
16

4.
4.6
:
y0 = 2cm
4t =

t
T
x
32

v =

t
T = 0.25s
4t
= 32x
= 32cm
x
32
v = 128 cm
0.25
s

T =

1
T


.

:

t=

x
60
=
t = 0.47s
v
128

t = 0s t = 0.47s
. t = 0.47s

yM

x
= 2sin 2(4 t )
32
y=y0 sin[(8tx/16)]

2
1.5
1

yM (cm)

0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t (s)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

4.1: .

t = 13s.
.
172

4.2.

173

x = v t = 128 13 = 1664cm

t = 13s x 0 1664cm.
1600cm 1664cm.
2
1.5
1

y (cm)

0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
1600

1610

1620

1630

1640

1650

1660

1670

x (cm)

4.2: t = 13s.
3. - 3 248:
O1
O2 v = 3 ms .
M d1 = 5m d2 = 7m
. f = 2Hz
y0 = 2cm. M
t1 = 25s t2 = 3.125s.

173

4.

4.3: M .
:
.
M M
.

.

:

y1 = y0 sin 2(

t
x1
)
T

y2 = y0 sin 2(

t
x2
)
T


. x1 x2 . :

= y1 + y2 =

t
x1
t
x2
= y0 sin 2( ) + y0 sin 2( )
T

174

4.2.

175

t
x1
t
x2
= y0 sin 2( ) + sin 2( )
T

4.7
.

sinA + sinB = 2 cos(

= y0 sin 2(
"

"

= 2y0 cos
"

" 2t

= 2y0 cos

= 2y0 cos(

t
x1
t
x2
) + sin 2( )
T

2( Tt

AB
A+B
) sin(
)
2
2

x1
)

2x1

2( Tt
2

2t
T

x2
)

2x2

"

sin

2( Tt

" 2t

sin

(4.7)

2x1

x1
)

+
2

+ 2( Tt
2

2t
T

2x2

x2
)

##

##

4t
(x2 x1 )
2(x2+x1 )
T
) sin(
)
2
2

x2 x1
t
x1 + x2
= 2y0 cos 2 (
) sin 2 (
)
2
T
2

4.8
, x1
x2 .
, 4.8
M
. x1 x2
. (

).

, .
:

v =f =
175

v
= 1.5m
f
.

(4.8)

4.
:

T =

1
1
T = T = 0.5s
f
2

M
M

x2 x1
t
x1 + x2
= 2y0 cos 2 (
) sin 2 (
)
2
T
2

t
5+7
75
= 2 0.02 cos 2 (
) sin 2 (

)
2 1.5
0.5 2 1.5

M = 0.04 cos(4.189) sin [2 (2t 4)]

(4.9)

:
t1 = 25s

M = 0.04 cos(4.189) sin [2 (2 25 4)] = 0m


t1 = 3.125s

M = 0.04 cos(4.189) sin [2 (2 3.125 4)] = 0.02m



M .
4. - 5 248:

y = 16 cos(

x
) sin(80t)
30

x, y cm t s. :
()
()

67.5cm
() 8cm.
176

4.2.

177

:

9 153, :

x
t
= 2y0 cos(2 ) sin(2 )

T

:
2 y0 = 16 y0 = 8cm

x
30

= 2 x =

2 Tt = 80t T

2x30
= 60cm
x
2t
= 80t
T = 0.025s


.
, 9
153.

x = (2 + 1)

= 0, 1, 2, ...

= 0 = 1:
:

4
60
x = (2 0 + 1)
= 15cm
4
x = (2 + 1)

4
60
= 45cm
x = (2 1 + 1)
4
x = (2 + 1)

177

4.

x = 67.5cm.
2y0 cos(2 x ),
:

x
0(67.5) = 2y0 cos(2 )

67.5
0(67.5) = 16 cos(2
)
60
0(67.5) = 11.31cm

y = 8cm.
2y0 cos(2 x ).
:

x
x
2y0 cos(2 ) = 8 16 cos(2 ) = 8

60
16 cos(2
cos(2
x=

x
x
1
) = 8 cos(2 ) =
60
60
2

x
1
x

) = 2
=
60
2
60
3

60
= 10cm
3 2

5. - 6 248:

y =
4 sin(15.7t), (y cm, t s). M1
x1 = 2m ,
t = 3s.
M2 x2 = 5m t1 = 10.25s
t2 = 12.5s.
:
M2
:
178

4.2.

179





M2



,
,

. :

y = y0 sin(

2
t)
T

y = 4 sin(15.7 t)
:
y0 = 4cm

2
T

= 15.7 T =

2
15.7

= 0.4s

t = 3s
M1 x1 = 2m
:

x1
m
= 0.67
t
s
1
v = =vT
T
v=

= 0.267m
179

4.


:

t
x
y = y0 sin 2( )
T

t
x
y = 4 sin 2(

)
0.4 0.267
y = 4 sin [2(2.5 t 3.745 x)]
M2 x x2 ,
t1 t2 .
t1 = 10.25s

yM2 = 4 sin [2(2.5 t 3.745 x2 )]


yM2 = 4 sin [2(2.5 10.25 3.745 5)]
yM2 = 2.35cm
t1 = 12.5s

yM2 = 4 sin [2(2.5 t 3.745 x2 )]


yM2 = 4 sin [2(2.5 12.5 3.745 5)]
yM2 = 0.625cm
6. - 7 249:
,
1cm,

21.6cm t = 1.2s. :
()
()

8cm 12 .
180

4.2.

181

:
,

12 .
,
= 1cm. :

v=

x
21.6
cm
=
v = 18
t
1.2
s

v =f f =

v
f = 18Hz

12 t.
. :

B = 2(t f

xB
)

B
xB
=tf

t=

B
2

+
f

xB

12
2

+
18

8
1

t = 0.778s

t0 = 1.2s
.
.
:

,
181

4.

:

A = 2(t f

xA
)

7. - 8 249:
y = y0 sin [2(2 t 0.01 x)].
x, y cm t s. :
() , ,

()
:

:

t
x
y = y0 sin 2( )
T

y0 = 10cm = 0.1m
t
T

= 2t T = 0.5s
x = 0.01 x = 100cm
1
v = T1 = 100 0.5
v = 200 cm
= 2 ms
s


.
, ,

. .

d
t
x
dy
=
y0 sin 2( )
=
dt
dt
T

2
t
x
y0 cos 2( )
T
T

0 =

(4.10)

2
y0
T
182

4.2.

183

d
d 2
t
x
a=
=
y0 cos 2( )
dt
dt T
T

2
t
x
a = ( )2 y0 sin 2( )
T
T

a0 = (

(4.11)

2 2
) y0
T
2
y 0 = 0.4 ms
T 0
a0 = ( 2
)2 y0 a0 = 1.6
T

0 =

2 sm2

:
4.10 4.11 ,

.
8. - 9 249:

y0 = 10m, f = 10Hz v = 1 ms .
:
:

x
y = y0 sin 2(f t )


.
y0 = 10m
f = 10Hz
v = f =

v
f

1
10

= 0.1m

183

x
y = 10 sin 2(10 t
)
0.1

4.

4.3

1. - 1 272:
l = 1m, m = 5g
.
f = 130.5Hz . ;
:
, .
.
,
.
, .
2 .

:
s

(4.12)

v =f

(4.13)

v=

4.12, F = ml
.

.
:
: l = 2 . 4.12,
4.13 .
F :
s

F
F
( f )2 =

F = ( f )2
f =

l =

=2l
184

4.3.

F = (2 l f )2 =
F =

185

m
(2 l f )2
l

0.005
(2 1 130.5)2
1

F = 340.6N

2. - 2 272:
l1 = 33cm
f1 = 440Hz .


f2 ff12 = 32 ; f2 ;
:

f1 = 440Hz .
l, 2 . :

2
1 = 2 l = 66cm
l=



f2
ff12 = 32 :

f2
3
=
f1
2
v = 1 f1 = 2 f2
:
185

4.

f2
1
=
f1
2
f2
3
=
f1
2
2 =

2
1 = 44cm
3

f2 .
, f2
l0 :

2
44
l0 =
= 22cm
2
l0 =

l0 = 22cm.
11cm
.
f2 :

f2
3
=
f1
2
3
3
f2 = f1 = 440Hz
2
2
f2 = 660Hz
3. - 3 272:
68cm.
v = 340 m
.
s
() ;
()
f2
f2
= 32 ;
f1
186

4.3.

187

:
,
,
.

. , 4 = l, l .
( 4.4).

4.4: .

v = f
:

=l
4
= 4 l = 4 0.68
= 2.72m
:
187

4.

v =f f =
f=

340
= 125Hz
2.72


:
f2

f1
f2

3
2



v = 0 f2 0 = fv

,
0
l0 = 4
f2 :

f1
3
=
f2
2
2
2
f2 = f1 = 125
3
3
f2 = 83.33Hz
:

v = 0 f2 0 =
0 =

340

83.33

0 = 4.08m
:

4.08
0
l0 =

4
4
l0 = 1.02m
l0 =

188

4.3.

189

4. - 7 273:
l = 0.75m .
.
v = 1500 m
s
:
()
() 4
.
:
4 .
4.5.

4.5: , 4 .

l = 3 2 .
2 .

l =3
=

2l

2
3

2 0.75

= 0.5m
.
:
189

4.

v =f f =

1500
= 3000Hz
0.5

f=

5. - 8 273:

y = 10 cos(

x
) sin(50t)
6

x, y cm t s. :
() 1,2

()
:

. ,
(
).
.

y = 2y0 cos(

2 x
) sin(2f t)

y0 : 2y0 = 10 y0 = 5cm
f : 2f = 50 f =
:

2x

x
6

50
2

= 25Hz

= 12cm


2 . x.
:

x. =

12
=

2
2

x. = 6cm
190

4.4. YOUNG

191

4.4 Young
4.4.1
1.
;
;
:


.
Huygens :

.

4.6: ) ) .

191

4.
2. - 1 283:

;
:


.
,
4.6.
3. - 2 283:

;
:
,
. .
4. - 3 283:
;
:

.
5. - 4 283:
Young .

.
:
Young
4.7.
1
2. 1 2 2 .
192

4.4. YOUNG

193

4.7: Young

, .
.
.

,
, .

x = k

(4.14)

x = (2k + 1)
193

(4.15)

4.
x ,
k
.

2, x = O2.
4.7 2.
2 - - 1 :

O2

a
O2 = sin a
sin =

D
:

sin tan

:

tan =

yk
D

x =

yk
a
D

(4.16)


:

4.14 4.16

yk
a
D
x = k

x =

yk
a = k
D
194

(4.17)

4.4. YOUNG

195


4.15 4.16

yk
a
D

x = (2k + 1)
2
x =

yk

a = (2k + 1)
D
2

(4.18)


.
6. - 5 285:

()
;
() ;
:

5,
. 4.14 yk :

yk
a=k
D
Dk
yk =
a

(4.19)

:
4.19
.

k
.
195

4.
:


.
, a a 4.19 yk
. (k )
.
:


.

4.4.2
1. - 1 285:
Young .
a = 0.5 103 m
D = 2m

x = 10 103 m
()
()
;
:
. , :

yk =

Dk
a


.
196

4.4. YOUNG

197

x 5
. k = 5.

yk =
=

Dk
yk a
=

a
Dk
10 103 0.5 103

25

= 5 107 m


.
a0 = 2a yk = Dk
.
a
2. - 2 285:
Young
= 5.89 107 m 2m .

1.178cm.
() ;
() ( =
4.5 107 m),
;
() ()
.
:

a.
D = 2m
y10 = 1.178cm
k = 10
= 5.89 107 m
197

4.
yk =
:

Dk
a

Dk

a
Dk
2 10 5.89 107
a=
=

yk
0.01178
yk =

a = 1 103 m = 1mm
, =
4.5 107 m. yk yk+1 .
o = yk+1 yk :

o = yk+1 yk =
D (k + 1) D k

=
a
a
Dk D1 Dk
=
+

a
a
a
=

o =

D
a

o =

D
2 4.5 107
=

a
1 103

o = 9 104 m = 0.9mm

:

y5 =

D 5
2 5 4.5 107
=

a
1 103

y5 = 4.5 103 m = 4.5mm


198

4.5.

199

4.5
1. 2005:
4.8
4.9
.
1
0.8
0.6
0.4

y(m)

0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04
x (m)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

1.4

1.6

4.8: .

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

y(m)

0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
t (s)

1.2

4.9: .

:
()
199

4.
()
()
:
4.8
. 2
.

= 0.04m
4.9,
,

.
.

.

:

T = 0.8s

v = T :

v=

0.04
=

T
0.8

v = 0.05

m
s

2. 1993:
4.10
y = f (x)
t = t0 . 50Hz 0
. :
() t0
200

4.5.

201

()
()
()
, dAB = 0.3m, t = t + 0.01s.
xA = 0.9m xB = 1.2m
()
, = f (x),
t = t0 .

0.4
0.3
0.2

y (m)

0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

0,3

0,6
x (m)

0,9

1,2

4.10: .
:
4.10.
.

:

= 0.6m
f = 50Hz , :

v = f = 0.6 50
v = 30

m
s

201

4.
4.10

0.9m t0 . v =
t0 :

v=

x
t

x
x
0.9
t0 = =

t
v
30

t0 = 0.03s
:

x
y = y0 sin 2(t f )

y0
y0 = 0.4m.
:

x
y = y0 sin 2(t f )

x
)
y = 0.4 sin 2(50t
0.6


t = t + 0.01s.
:
yB

x
t = t + 0.01s = 0.04s

xB
)
0.6

1.2
yB = 0.4 sin 2(50 0.04
)
0.6
yB = 0m
yB = 0.4 sin 2(50t

202

4.5.

203

() t = t +
0.01s = 0.04s

:

B =

d
xB
0.4 sin 2(50t
)
dt
0.6

xB
)
0.6

1.2
B = 2 50 0.4 cos 2(50 0.04
)
0.6
m
B = 40
s
B = 2 50 0.4 cos 2(50t

=
(x) t = t0 .
t0 :

x
= 2(t0 f )

= 2(50 0.03

x
)
0.6


t0 = 0.03s x = 0.9m:
10
9
8
7
(rad)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x (m)

4.11: t = t0 .

203

4.
3. 1992:
x y = 0.02sin(20t 0.5x).
.
. :
()
() t = 0.2s
.
() x,
t = 0.3s,
.
()
y = 0.015m .
()
,
.
:
.

.

t
x
y = y0 sin 2( )
T

y = y0 sin(

2
2
t
x)
T
vT


.

:

y = 0.02sin(20t 0.5x)
y = y0 sin(

2
2
t
x)
T
vT

204

4.5.

205

y0 = 0.02m

2
T

= 20 T = 0.1s

2
2
= 0.5 v =

vT
0.5 T
v = 40

m
s

t = 0.2s .
v = 40 m

s
: x = v t = 40 0.2 = 8m
0.02
0.015
0.01

y (m)

0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02

4
x (m)

4.12: t = 0.2s.

t = 0.3s.

= 20t 0.5x t = 0.3
.

x = v t = 40 0.3 = 12m
y = 0.015m
.
205

4.

20
18
16
14
(rad)

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

6
x (m)

10

12

4.13: t = 0.3s.

y = 0.02sin(20t 0.5x)
v=

dy
= 20 0.02cos(20t 0.5x)
dt

a=

dv
d2 y
=
= (20)2 0.02sin(20t 0.5x)
dt2
dt




sin(20t0.5x)
. .
:

y = 0.02sin(20t 0.5x)
0.015 = 0.02sin(20t 0.5x)
3
sin(20t 0.5x) =
4
sin2 + cos2 = 1
:

sin2 (20t 0.5x) + cos2 (20t 0.5x) = 1


206

4.5.

207

cos2 (20t 0.5x) = 1 sin2 (20t 0.5x)


3
cos2 (20t 0.5x) = 1 ( )2
4
s
3
cos(20t 0.5x) = 1 ( )2
4
cos(20t 0.5x) = 0.6614

cos(20t 0.5x) = 0.6614 sin(20t 0.5x) = 0.75. :

v = 20 0.02cos(20t 0.5x)
v = 20 0.02 0.6614 = 0.83

m
s

a = (20)2 0.02sin(20t 0.5x)


a = (20)2 0.02 0.75 = 59.2

m
s2



, .
y0 = 0.01m,f = 20Hz
+
.
:
.
v = f = fv = 40
= 2m
20

x
y = 0.01sin 2(f t + )

x
y = 0.01sin 2(20 t + )
2

207

4.
4. 2003:
4.14
t0 , f =
0.25Hz . :
()
xA = 0.5cm xB = 2cm
() t = t0 + 1s
3

y (cm)

0.5

1.5

2.5
x (cm)

3.5

4.5

4.14: t = t0 .
:

.
= 2 ( Tt x ) + 0 .

.

t0 .
= 2cm, 4.14
v = f = 2 0.25 = 0.5 cm
s
t0
.
4cm v = 0.5 cm
s

v=

x
4
x
t0 = =

t0
v
0.5

t0 = 8s
208

4.5.

209

= A B =
t
xA
t
xB
= 2 (
) + 0 2 (
) 0 =
T

8 2
8 0.5
) 2 ( ) =
= 2 (
4
2
4 2
= 2 1.75 2 1
= 1.5
t = t0 + 1s.
1s T4 T = 4s.
t = t0 = 8s.
1s
0.
t = 9s , xA =
0.5cm.

0.5
)
2

x
y = 2sin 2(f t + )

y = 2sin 2(0.25 9 +

y=0
5. 1991:
Young
= 6 107 m.
S1 = 1mm.

D = 2m,
S2 = 3mm. .
209

4.
:

:

o = yk+1 yk =
D (k + 1) D k

=
a
a
Dk D1 Dk
=
+

a
a
a
=

o =

D
a


.

D
D 0 = D + D .

o =

D
a

0o =

D0

0o =

(D + D)

(4.20)

(4.21)

a 4.20 D 4.21.

D=

a o

0o

ao

+ D)

(4.22)

4.22 a
. :
210

4.5.

211

= 6 107 m
S1 = o = 1mm
S2 = 0o = 3mm
D = 2m

0o

ao

+ D)

a 0o = a o + D
a (0o o ) = D
a=

2 6 107
D
=

0o o
0.003 0.001

a = 6 104 m
6. 2005:
f = 2Hz , y0 = 0.01m v = 0.1 m
.
s

. t0 = 0s
.
x1 = 0.4m 1 x2 = 0.6m 1 = 2.
:
()
1 1
t0 = 0s
.
()
.
()
, ,
0 t 8s.
211

4.

4.15: .
:
1
,
:
y0 = 0.01m
f = 2Hz
v = 0.1 m
s
=

v
f

0.1
2

= 0.05m

x
y = y0 sin 2(f t )

:
212

4.5.

213

x
y = y0 sin 2(f t )

y = 0.01sin 2(2t

x
)
0.05

,
.
.
3 161
:

= 2y0 cos 2 (

x2 x1
t
x1 + x2
) sin 2 (
)
2
T
2

() -1 1
0 .
:

x2 x1
cos 2 (
)
2

0.6 0.4
= cos 2 (
)
2 0.05

0.2
= cos 2 ( )
0.1
= cos(4) = 1

,
.
,
0 t 8s.
.
:

, , .
.
213

4.
.
.
1
:

v=

x1
x1
0.4
t1 =
=

t1
v
0.1

t1 = 4s
, 2
:

v=

x2
x2
0.6
t2 =
=

t2
v
0.1

t = 6s

:
0 t 4s

4 t 6s 1

y = 0.01sin 2(2t

x
)
0.05

6 t 8s

x2 x1
t
x 1 + x2
= 2y0 cos 2 (
) sin 2 (
)
2
T
2

4.16.

214

4.5.

215

0.02

0.015

0.01

(m)

0.005

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

4
t (s)

4.16:
t.

215

4.

216

5

5.1
1. II - 1 24:
,
, 5.1.

.
I=f(t)

Io

t1

t2

t3

5.1: t.
:


217

5.
.
5.1

E = L

dI
dt

(5.1)

5.1
.
.

5.1
() : 0 I0 0
t1 .
:

E = L

dI
I
= L

dt
t

E = L

(I0 0)

(t1 0)

E = L

I0
t1

() : I = I0
t1 t2 .
:

E = L
E = L

dI
I
= L

dt
t
(I0 I0 )

(t2 t1 )

E = 0
() : I0 0
t2 t3 . :
218

5.1.

219

E = L

dI
I
= L

dt
t

E = L

(0 I0 )

(t3 t2 )

E = L

I0
t3 t2

5.2.

L*I_0\(t3t2)

L*I_0\t1

t1

t2

t3

5.2: t.
2. II - 6 26:
5.3
.
.
:
Faraday :


:
219

5.
=f(t)
20
15
10

(Wb)

5
0
5
10
15
20

0.5

1.5

2
t (s)

2.5

3.5

5.3: t.

E =

(5.2)


= 1.
(), 5.3

( )
.
5.2.
() : = 0 =
20W b t = 0 t = 2s.
:

E=

20 0
=

t
20

E=

20
= 10 V
2

() : = 20 =
20W b t = 2 t = 4s.
:
220

5.1.

221

E=

20 (20)
=

t
42

E=

40
= 20 V
2

t
5.4.
V=f(t)
15
10
5

V (v)

0
5
10
15
20
25

0.5

1.5

2
t (s)

2.5

3.5

5.4: t.
3. II - 1 27:
5.5
. SA , SB = 2 SA
S = 3 SA . :
() ;
() ;
.
:

. W eber W b.

:
221

5.

5.5: .

= B S = BScos

(5.3)

B
S
1 S
B .
5.6
.
5.3
5.6 :
() :

A = B SA = BSA cos
A = BSA cos900 = 0 W b
() :

B = B SB = BSB cos
B = BSB cos00 = 2BSA W b
1


,
.

222

5.1.

223

5.6: .
() :

= B S = BS cos
= 3BSA cos600 = 1.5BSA W b
.
4. II - 2 27:
1 T ,
15 , , 20cm.
.
,
, 0.1s.
:
d = 20cm.

:

0.2
d
S = r2 = ( )2 = ( )2
2
2
2
S = 0.0314m

.
223

5.

= 00 .
B
, B =
2
Faraday
:

E =
E =

t
B Scos B Scos
0.5 0.0314 1 1 0.0314 1
= 15

t
0.1

E = 2.353 V

5. II - 3 27:
, ,
v = 360km/h.
l = 30m.
B = 0.3 104 T .
:
,
.
.

Faraday.

S.I
:

v = 360

km
1000m
m
= 360
= 100
h
3600s
s

.
.
Faraday
:
224

5.1.

225

E=

= (BS)
t
t

E = B

x
(l x) = B l

t
t

E = B l v = 0.3 104 30 100


E = 0.09 V
6. II - 4 27:
0.2m 2
. 0.1 ms ,
18mV .
;
:


. ,
.

S
=
t
2

0.1 ms . ,

.
:

E=

= (BS)
t
t

E = B
B = E

t
1
S
t

= 18 103

225

0.1

5.

B = 18 102 T
7. II - 5 28:
, a = 0.4m,
. Bz
5.7. E = f (t) ,
.
Bz=f(t)
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3

Bz (T)

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05

8
t(ms)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

5.7: Bz
t.
:
Faraday. .


B , Bz .
:

E=

= (BS)
t
t

E = S
226

Bz
t

(5.4)
.

5.1.

227

5.4
5.7 7
.
:
z
5.7 B
.
t
S = a a = 0.16m2

1:

E = S

Bz
0.4 0
= 0.16

t
(3 0) 103

E = 21.33 V
2:

E = S

Bz
0.4 0.4
= 0.16

t
(5 3) 103

E=0 V
3:

E = S

Bz
0 0.4
= 0.16

t
(7 5) 103

E = 32 V
4:

E = S

00
Bz
= 0.4

t
(9 7) 103

E=0 V
5:

E = S

Bz
0.4 0
= 0.4

t
(12 9) 103

E = 21.33 V
227

5.
6:

E = S

Bz
0.4 0.4
= 0.16

t
(14 12) 103

E=0 V
7:

E = S

Bz
0 0.4

= 0.16
t
(16 14) 103

E = 32 V
5.8
E=f( t )
40

30

E(v)

20

10

10

20

30

8
9
t ( ms )

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

5.8: E t.
8. II - 6 28:
5.9 ,
l = 1m = 20 rad
s
, B = 0.5T .

228

5.1.

229

5.9:
.
.
.
:

. ,
.
, :
, ,
.
Faraday .
:

=
T =

2
2
2
T =
=

20

s
10

r = l = 1m :

S = r2 = 12
229

5.

S = m2
:

S
ST

=
=
t
T
10
S

= 10
t

m2
s


Faraday .
:
.
1800 B
5.10.
:
:

E=

S
(B S) = B
t
t

.
5.10: S B

E=

= (B S)
t
t
230

5.1.

E = B

231

S
cos = 0.5 10 cos1800 = 0.5 10 (1)
t

E=5 V
9. II - 7 28:

B = 0.2T 5.11.

v = 15 m
t = 0 .
s
xA = 0.5m. :
() ,

() ;

5.11: .
:
5.11 v = 15 m

s
.

. 5.12
. :
231

5.

5.12: .

S
=B

t
t

(l x)

=B

t
t

l = .

=Bl
=Blv
t
t

= 0.2 0.5 15 = 1.5 W b


t

. Faraday
= 1
:

E =

= 1.5 V
t

10. II - 8 28:
1m, 103
30cm2 .
. ,
232

5.1.

233


= 1950;
:
5.5:

E = L

I
t

(5.5)



. 5.5
Faraday. Faraday
.
:

,
.

B=

E =

0 N I
l

(5.6)

d
d
= (B S)
dt
dt

E =

dS
dB
S
B
dt
dt

E =

I
d( 0 N
)
l
S
dt

E =

0 N
dI
S
l
dt

dS
=0
dt

5.5,
:

L=

0 N S

233

5.
0 = 4 107
N = 103
l = 1m
S = 30 104 m2

L=

4 107 103 30 104 103

L = 3.77 mH

. 5.5
= 1950 :

L=

0 N S

L = 1950 3.77
L = 7.35 H
11. - - 23:
A1 y1 A2 y2
1m .
A1 A2 , , .. E = 20V r = 2.
, l = 1m, m = 0.3kg 8,
, A1 y1 A2 y2
.

B = 1T , A1 y1 A2 y2 .

.
t = 0s . :
()
.
234

5.1.

235

()
() vo ,
v = vo .
() I
v , I = f (v)
.
() v = vo , :
i.
ii.

iii. .

5.13: .
235

5.
:

. , Faraday
.. .
()
.
r = 2
RK = 8.
, ,

:

Ro = r + RK = 2 + 8
Ro = 10
Ohm :

I=

V
20
=

Ro
10

I=2 A
()
.
F = m a
.
:
B = mg = 0.3 10 = 3 N
Laplace FL = B I L = 1 2 1 = 2

F = m a
a=

B FL
F
=

m
m

a=

32
m
= 3.33 2
0.3
s

236

5.1.

237

5.14: .
()
.
,
Faraday ... ...
E
I = R Laplace
o
FL = B I L. FL

a = 0 sm2
.
F = 0 ..

Faraday.

F = 0 FL B = 0
FL = B B Io L = mg
Io =

mg
=3 A
BL


.
Faraday
.
237

5.

I =

E
20
=
=2 A
R
10

..
..
:

I = Io I = 3 2 = 1 A
E = I Ro = 1 10 = 10V

Faraday :

S
= B

t
t
(l y)
l
= B

l = .
=0
t
t

E =
E

E = B l
vo =

y
= B l vo
t

E
10
=

Bl
11

vo = 10

m
s

vo =

10 ms

()
.

:

I = I + I
I=

E
+ t
Ro
Ro

Bvl

Ro
v
I =2+
10
I =2+

238

5.1.

239


5.15.
I=f(v)
4
3.5
3

I (A)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

10
v (m/s)

12

14

16

18

20

5.15: , I , v .
() :
i. :

P = I V = 3 20
P = 60 W
ii. :

P = I Vo = 3 30
P = 90 W
iii. :

P = I Vo = P P = 90 60
P = 30 W
12. 2004:
OX1 OX2 , O ,
239

5.

X1 OX2 , .
yy 0 v
X1 OX2 .
.
B ,
5.16. t0 = 0s yy 0
O t(t > 0s)
OX1 OX2 . :

5.16: .
() Faraday
()
t.
() t, ...
E = (2Bv 2 tan)t
() OX1 OX2
yy 0 r .
()
.
() ,
240

5.1.

241

.
.
:
() Faraday :


()
.
5.16 2 .
x v t
v = xt
.

KM
x
x=vt
tan =

(5.7)
(5.8)

5.7, 5.8 K = 2KM


:

KM
=vt
tan
KM = tan v t

K = 2KM = 2 tan v t

, E = o
,
2
5.16 :

S=

K x

241

5.

S=

(2 tan v t) (v t)
2

S = tan v 2 t2
()
Faraday :

E =

d
d
= (B S)
dt
dt

E = B

dS

dt

E = B

d(tan v 2 t2 )

dt

E = 2Btan v 2 t
()

:

RK = r K
RK = 2r tan v t
()
. ..
,
Ohm,
:

I =
I =

Ro
2Btan v 2 t

2r tan v t

I =
242

Bv
r
.

5.1.

243

()
Laplace FL .
0

(
), vo .
:

F = FL
F = B I L
Bv
F = B (
) (2 tan v t)
r
B 2 v2
F =
2tan t
r
13. :
.

5.17: Biot-Savart.
:

Biot-Savart
5.9:
243

5.

= 0
dB

I ds sin
4R2

(5.9)

I
ds


Biot-Savart = 0 = 2 .
:

= 2 .
ds

ds = Rd
:

= 0
dB
B=
B=

I ds sin

4R2

Z 2
0

Z 2
0

I ds sin

4R2

I R d sin( 2 )
0

4R2

B=

0 I Z 2
0 I
d =
[]2
4R 0
4R 0

B=

0 I
2R

244


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . .
1.3 . . . .


. . . .
. . . .
. . . .

5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

3
4

. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . .
4.4 Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
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.
.
.
.

.
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.

.
.
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.

.
.
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.

.
.
.
.

33
33
33
40
46

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

57
57
67
82
92

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

161
161
170
184
191
191
196
199

5
217
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

245

246


1.1 P = f (v), E = f (p) . . . . .
1.2 v = f (t) . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 F = f (t) F = f (x) . . . .
1.4 P = f (t) E = f (t) . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 .
1.8 .
1.9 .
1.10 P = f (t) E = f (t) . .
1.11 P = f (t) E = f (t) . .
1.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

9
12
14
15
17
18
21
21
22
25
27
28

. . . .
. . . .
. . . . . .
. . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . .
- , ) ) . . .
() ()

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

34
41
44
47
49
51
54

3.1 .. . . .
3.2 .. . .
3.3
3.4 , . .
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 ... . . .
3.7 h . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 . .
3.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

57
60
61
62
63
70
74
75
75
76

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

247

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.


3.11 . . .
3.12 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15 ) ) ) . . .
3.16 a = f (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17 x = f (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.18 v = f (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19 - .. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.20 a = f (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.21 x = f (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.22 x = f (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.23 F = f (x) . . . . . . .
3.24 T 2 = f (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.25 ) ) ) . . .
3.26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.31
g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.32 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.34 - - x2 .
3.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.36 ) ) ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.39
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.41 - . . . . . . . . .
3.42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.43 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.44 M . .
3.45 M .
3.46 . . . . . . .
3.47 a. . . . . . . . .
3.48 a. . . . . . . . . .
248

77
80
84
85
89
93
94
96
97
100
101
103
104
107
109
113
114
121
121
122
123
127
128
131
132
133
135
136
136
138
142
144
145
148
150
151
152
153

249

3.49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
3.50
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
3.51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
t = 13s. . . . . . . . . . . . 173
M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
. . . . . . . . 187
, 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
) ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
4.7 Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
4.9 . . . . . . . . 199
4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
4.11 t = t0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
4.12 t = 0.2s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
4.13 t = 0.3s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
4.14 t = t0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
4.15 . . 212
4.16
t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
t. . . . . . .
t. . . . . .
t. .
t. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Bz
t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 E t. . . . . .
5.9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
5.10 S B
5.11 . . . . . . . . . . .
5.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.15 , I , v . . . . . .
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

249

217
219
220
221
222
223
226
228
229
230
231
232
235
237
239


5.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
5.17 Biot-Savart. . . . . 243

250


3.1
m, x0 , k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 X0 . m, k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 m. X0 , k . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 k . m, X0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 g . . . .
3.6
g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 g . . . .
3.8 . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 . . . . . . . . .
3.10 . . . .
3.11 . . . . . . . . . .
3.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

251

118
120
120
120
122
123
125
125
126
126
150
155

252


[1] . , . (1997), ,
7 ,
[2] . , . (1998): , 7 ,
[3] . , . (1987):
2, 3 ,
[4] . , . , . (2001):
, ,
[5] . , . , . , . (2001):
, ,

[6] . , . , . , . , .
, . , . , . , .
. , . , . , . , . ,
. (2007): ,
,
[7] Tom Duncan (1973): Advanced Physics, 5th Edition, London Hodder
Murray, a member of the Hodder Murray Headline Group
[8] Mark Ellse, Chris Honeywill (2003): Waves and our Universe, Revised
Edition, Nelson and Thornes Cheltenham, United Kingdom
[9] Harvey J. Greenberg (2004): A Simplified Introduction to LaTEX , University of Colorado, Denver
253


[10] Tobias Oetiker, Hubert Partl, Irene Hyna and Elisabeth Schlegl (2000):
The Not So Short Introduction to LaTEX 2

254