0 INTRODUCTION Modern media practices have evolved significantly from their traditional forms with the key concepts being participation and interactivity. Society therefore exists in a digital age where everything in the people’s lives is spread out through the media and these media are shaped by the people. Much of this media exists or relates to the internet and the “Online World”. As such, communication using the internet as a channel is becoming increasing popular. A social networking site is described as “a website where individuals can set up an online profile, describing his or her interest”. Boyd and Ellision (2007) reveals that they key technological features of social networking sites are fairly constant but the cultures that emerge around them vary. While most sites support the maintenance of pre-existing social networks, others help strangers connect based on shared interest, political views, or activities. From this, it is evident that the main use of social networking sites is interaction and communicating with others. They are used to keep up to date and in touch with existing friends and relations, or to create new relationships. The significance placed on interaction and participation within these social networking sites is evident in the numerous ways in which communication is encouraged. For example, some social networking sites, such as Facebook and Myspace offer users the ability to create sub-groups (or message boards) of people based on similar interests. Unlike “fan pages” or “followers”, which are largely one-dimensional, these groups are similar to the various clubs in the offline world. These can vary from support groups, to fan


groups, to community groups, organization or school groups. The basis behind them is to share information and communicate with others. Apart from using these groups to interact, people have the ability (depending on privacy setting) to comment and respond to ‘status updates’ and statement or comments that others have posted. On sites such as YouTube, people may even give a video response. By allowing such feedback, there is the prospect of conversation, of debate, of sharing information or perceiving new ideas. It is this capability of interaction that makes social networking sites multi-dimensional in communicating, unlike the one-dimensionality of earlier websites and blogs. Other activities offered by social networking sites include such services as multi-player online games, polls, chat rooms and messaging services. With all these activities offered by the various social networking sites; also with it ever increasing power to connect people, industries and small organization, it can be said that great influence is being wield on it users. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Wikipedia states that a social network is “…. a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of relations……” (Social network,2007). Social networking websites help people keep in touch with old friends; make new friends; distribute new data or product and many more aspects of our everyday lives. The first official social networking web site was which was founded in 1995. What followed was a slow but steady growth in numbers of social networking websites to the overwhelming number of sites we have today. The sites starts off with a few people who then tell their friends about the


site, then those friends tell their friends about the site and soon the site is a huge database of users connected by friends, acquaintances, or just random people. The websites are made to “…..allow users to create ‘profile’ describing themselves and to exchange public or private message and list other users or groups they are connected to in same way”. (Social Network,2007). Most social networking websites are often designed to fit a certain types of community such as the college community being mirrored by or a music/party community mirrored by HOW DOES “SNS” WORK While SNSs have implemented a wide variety of technical features, their backbone consists of visible profiles that display an articulated list of friends who are also users of the system. Profiles are unique pages where one can type oneself into being. After joining an SNS, an individual is asked to fill a form containing a series of questions. The profile is generated using the answers to these questions, which typically include descriptors such as age, location, interests, and an “about me” section. Most sites also encourage users to upload a profile photo. While some sites allow users to enhance their profiles by adding multimedia content or modifying their profile’s look and feel; others such as facebook, allow users to add modules (applications) that enhance their profile. The visibility of a profile varies by site and according to user discretion. By default, profiles on orkut or are crawled by search engines, making them visible to everyone, regardless of whether or not the viewer has an account. Alternatively, sites like myspace allow users to choose whether they want their profile to be public or “friends only”. Facebook takes a different


approach – by default, users who are part of the same network can view each profiles, unless a profile owner has decided to deny permission to those in their network. After joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system with which they have a relationship. The label of these relationships differs depending on the site popular terms – Friends, Contacts and Fans. Most SNSs require bi-directed confirmation for friendship, but some do not. Most SNSs also provide a mechanism for users to leave messages on their friend’s profile. This feature typically involves leaving “comment”. In addition, SNSs, often have a private messaging feature similar to web mail. Beyond profiles, friends, comments and private messaging, SNSs vary greatly in their feature and user base. Some have photo-sharing or video-sharing capabilities. Others have built-in blogging and instant messaging technology. There are mobile-specific SNSs (e.g Dogball, Pinging), but some web-based SNSs also support limited mobile interactions (e.g Facebook, Myspace and Cyworld’). Many SNSs target people from specific geographical regions or linguistic groups, although this does not always determine the sites constituency. Orkut, for example, was launched in the United States with an English-only interface, but Portuguese speaking Brazilians quickly dominated in it user group. Some sites are designed with specific ethnic, religious, sexual orientation, political or other identity – driven categories in mind. There are even SNSs for dogs (Dogster) and cats (Catster), even though their profiles are being managed by their owners.


facebook. followed by 19. It claims to be designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing is also the number one site for uploading pictures. In fact. It is said that 80% of facebook. Orkut goes a step further by permitting the creating of easy-to-set-up simple forums called communities of user. the site has now been opened to any one with a valid email address and offers it members option of joining the millions of networking of people with similar interests. FACEBOOK Facebook is another example of social networking site developed by sophomore Mark Zuckerberg of Harvard University in 2004. Since it inception. Google employer Orkut ( was originally Thefacebook. the site was originally developed for college and university as a way to connect with each other.EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ORKUT. Facebook. Hosting the most members for a college based social networking site. The initial target market for the site was the United in August. as of Novermber 2007. Since October 2006. Orkut is the most visited website in Brazil. 2007). 2005 for $200.000.COM Orkut is an internet social network service run by Google and named after it users check 5 . Purchasing the domain name of facebook.2% from India. 62. Orkut has permitted users to create accounts without an invitation. boasting several million uploads daily.9% of the traffic comes from Brazil. but the majority of its users are in Brazil.

When a person receives a friend request. In hi5. music and videos internationally. blog. he or she may accept or decline it. or even block the user. was one of the 25 most visited sites on the web. personal profile. As of December 2007. It is headquartered in Beverly Hills. and the third most popular website in the United States.COM Hi5 is a social networking website. MYSPACE. The site generates its revenue from advertisement since it boasts a huge number of registered users. throughout 2007. where it shares an office building with its immediate owner. photos. hi5 had over 98 million members. users create an online profile in order to show information such as interest. USA. user submitted network of friends. HI5.COM Myspace is a social networking website offering an interactive. groups. California.their account daily and 93% check their account at least monthly. The site is currently the world’s sixth most popular English-language website and the sixth most popular website in any language. Fox Interactive Media. The company was founded in 2002. which. Hi5 also allows the users to create personal photo albums and set up a music player in the profile. age and hometown and upload user pictures where users can post comments. 6 . by Ramu Yalamanchi who is also the current CEO.

Hence. All these however seem to affect the level of creativity and originality in the literary world. Social networking sites have also created a platform for individual to breach certain laws such as the copyright law. social networking sites harbor a lot of dangerous elements that pose as problems to individuals. prostitution. This research work is designed in order to find how true these problems are and to suggest possible solutions. private information about individuals is being used against them and usually to their detriment.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Social networking sites have played a crucial role in bridging boundaries and crossing the seas as well as bringing people to a platform where they can meet like minded people or find old friends and communicate with them. Also. family and the society. 7 . Through the use of social networking sites.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Although many people do not think of it. many young teenagers are exposed to moral trafficking. ii. kidnapping etc. Find out if Nigerian youth have access to social networking sites To ascertain whether social networking sites have influence on the lifestyle of Nigeria youth. 1.1. and promote anti-social behavior amongst youth. the objective of this study is to: i. due to the lack of safety measures to control the underage from having access to these sites.

4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The result of this study will serve as the fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a Higher National Diploma to the researcher. To sites users. 1.iii.5 (i) (ii) RESARCH QUESTIONS Does Nigerian youth have access to social networking sites? Does social networking sites have influence on the lifestyle of youth in Nigeria? (iii) Is there any relationship between social networking sites and anti-social behavior among Nigerian youth? 8 . upcoming researchers on related topic will use the study as a source of secondary data. Also. Also. the study will help them to be careful so as to not to be taken in by online hoaxes while site designers will be able to identify and solve problems prevalent to their web. to expose users to certain issues of concern that is common with these sites. The study will serve as reading material to students and lecturers in the department of Mass Communication as well as practitioners on the field. To find out if there is any significant relationship between social networking sites and the anti-social behavior cropping up among Nigerian youth iv. 1.

9 . 3. Ho:Nigerian youth do not have access to social networking sites 2. Ho:There is no significant relationship between social networking sites and the anti-social behavior among Nigerian youth. such that the major chunk of it population are students. This is why the study has chosen just one institution from which generalizations would be made. Ho:Social networking sites do not influence the lifestyle of youth in Nigeria.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The following are the factors that serve as limitation in the course of the study: (i) COST: In carrying out research on the study of this nature. Therefore. a high rate of fund would be needed. 1. 1. (ii) TIME: The time available for the completion of the research work is so limited that the researcher has to make do with the available materials. the Null Hypothesis will be employed. this study covers mostly students in higher citadel of learning.6 HYPOTHESIS For the purpose of this study. In doing this. questionnaires should be distributed to at least two (2) higher citadel of learning in each states in Nigeria. 1.1.7 DELIMITATION OF STUDY Research has shown that those that form the major users of these sites are youth in colleges and various higher institutions.

and View and traverse their lists of connections and those made by others within the system.Lampe.Nicole B.9 OPERATI ONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS These are the special definitions of terms or words as used in the study (i) TRAFFIC: This is the amount of people who sue the website (ii) SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES (SNS): It can be described as a webbased service that allows individuals to:  Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system   Articulate a list of users with whom they share a connection. Journal of computer-mediated communication Ellison.Danah. (iii) (iv) IMPACT: It is the powerful effect that social networking sites have on youth.Nicole(2007).1. (v) REFERENCES Boyd. “The benefits of facebook “friends”:Exploring the relationship between college students’ use of online social networks and social capital”. Ellison. 10 .Charles. “Social Network Sites: Definition History and Scholarship”.Cliff(2007). YOUTH: The time before an individual becomes an adult.Steinfield. COMMUNICATION: It is the process by which an individual or group share and impact information to another. A number of these sites dominate the cyber world./the-effect -of-social-networking-site. or some kind of common interest. 11 .com www..scribd.. facilitating hordes of people with similar interests and passion to stay connected. this study’s intention is to unveil the impact these social networking sites wield on the people especially Nigerian youth. This chapter therefore focuses on the review of literature studies such as the use and application of the actor network theory and the social network theory to justify the originality of the research work in the society. there are also a number of website that can bring people of diverse interest together. the social websites also play an important role in shaping the lifestyle of people. Similar to joining a party or a library. CHAPTER TWO 2. kinship. joining social networking websites can be a great fun. While there is a number of website that allows people of specific interest to get hooked onto their sites.1 LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION Social networking sites can be defined as an online network.0 2. Apart from being a sheer fun element. professional relationship. wherein a number of people remain connected by bonds of friendship. Hence.WEBSITE www.

For example. often abbreviated as ANT is a distinctive approach to social theory and research which was developed in the early 1980s by Science and Technology Studies (STS) scholars.2 THEORETICAL STUDIES The related theories for this study are reviewed as they lay emphasis and important to the study. ACTOR – NETWORK THEORY Actor – network theory. computers and stationary. a network containing many dissimilar elements. these form a single network – Latour (1992). Together. It assumes that many relations are both material and semiotic.2. the teacher needs to come to work each day and the computers need to keep on running. Actor – network theory is distinguished from other network theories in that it contains not merely people but objects and organizations. These are collectively referred to as actors or sometimes actants. such actor-network is potentially transient. their ideas and technologies such as tables. i. chairs. teachers. 12 . This means that relations need to be repeatedly performed or the network will dissolve. Michel Callon and Bruno Latour with the sociologist John Law.e. the interaction in a school involves children. According to Callon (1991). existing in a constant making and re-making. The primary tenet of the actor-network theory is the concept of the heterogeneous network. That is. They also assume that networks of relations are not intrinsically coherent and may indeed contain conflicts.

banks or the president may all result in significant break-downs in social order. whether person. It also includes other less obvious objects such as the clothes the purchaser wears. desktop. This order begins to break down when certain actors are removed. the actor-network involved would include the purchaser and the cashier. the ANT states that other than the individuals involves in the communication process through the sites. 13 . other actors such as the laptop. As it has been said that social network sites is an interaction platform. Even though the theory is been confronted with a number of criticism among which is the difficulty likely to be encountered in identifying all the heterogeneous elements in an actor-network which is ultimately up to the discretion of the researcher. as well as the cash register. without which they would most likely not be served. For example. the theory according to Latour (1992) claims that any actor. the social and technical are treated as inseparable by the ANT. object including computer software. This means individuals involved must be in touch with each other or one another often. hardware and technical standards or organization is equally important to a social network. there need to be consistent communication. When buying produce from a supermarket.These coextensive networks comprise of both social and technical parts. computer software or organization play equal role in ensuring networking. The theory also explains that for the relationship established through the social networking sites to be maintained. Moreover. the removal of telephones. mobile phone. it has been applauded for ensuring societal order. for example. the money and the produce involved. Applying the actor-network theory to the study.

Severin and Tankand (1992:197) define it as the study of the social process of how innovations (new ideas. practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. each member of the 14 . (i) Innovation (2) Which is communicated through certain channels (3) overtime (4) among the members of the social system.t. Not only did Gabriel Tarde research put the diffusion of innovation on the academic map but it also made researchers realize that it is a communication process. In the diffusion of innovation theory. Diffusion of innovation theory is concerned with the manner in which a new technological idea. An innovation is an idea. The history behind this theory of innovation can be traced back to the beginning of the century in German – Austrian and British school of Anthropology as well as French Sociologist Gabriel Tarde who carried out the original diffusion research as early as 1903. or a new use of an old idea. Creg Orr (2003) in his review of the book Diffusion of Innovation by Everest Rogers agree with Roger that “Given that decisions are not authoritative or collective. According to Roger Clarke (1999). he defines diffusion of innovation as when technological innovation is communicated through particular channels overtime.DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY Diffusion is defined as the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members’ of a social system. there are four (4) key element present. practices. In a more direct sense. among members of social system. migrates from creation to use.c) become known and are spread throughout a social system. artifact or techniques. objects e.

c serve as change agents as new innovations travel faster through them than other media. It views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties (also called edges. links or connection). SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS Network analysis (related to network theory) has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology. trial and adaptation stages of the process. Implementation: Person puts an innovation into use Confirmation: Person evaluates the results of innovation decision already made.t. The relevance of this theory to the study of the impact of social networking sites is the fact that the Diffusion of Innovation theory explores social networks and their role in influencing the spread of new ideas and practices. The other stage that is not stated above is the discontinuance stage where an already adopted innovation is discontinued due to rejection. 2. 15 . Twitter e. The various social networking sites such as facebook. 5. 3. evaluation. 4. Knowledge : Person becomes aware of an innovation and has some idea of how it functions. In other words. the above stages are described under the awareness. system forces his/her own innovation decision that follows a 5-step process which are: 1. Persuasion : Person forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation Decision: Person engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation. Myspace.

organizations. and researchers. In 1954. J.Nodes are the individual actors within the networks and ties are the relationships between the actors. Social network analysis has now moved from being a suggestive metaphor to an analytic approach. ethnicity). from interpersonal to international. it focuses on how the structure of ties affects individuals and their relationships In contrast to analysis that assumes that socialization into norms determines behavior. A.g gender.g tribes. According to Rogers(1986). from non local communities to links among websites. People have used the idea of “social network” loosely for over a century to connote complex sites of relationships between members of social systems at all scales. with its own theoretical statement. states) as discrete units of analysis. network analysis looks to see the extent to which the structure and composition of ties affect norms. several analytic tendencies distinguish social network analysis:  There is no assumption that groups are building blocks of society: the approach is open to studying less – bounded social systems. to a paradigm (theory). families) and social categories (e. bounded groups (e.  Rather than treating individuals (persons. Barres started using the term systematically to denote patterns of ties. social network analysis software. encompassing concepts traditionally used by the public and those used by social scientist.  16 . methods.

the concepts of relationships between people in relation to the effects of communication through these sites. Smaller.3 EMPIRICAL STUDIES The empirical study for this research work is about the types of services. Social network analysis may also be an effective tool for mass surveillance. In others words. for example. 17 . Similarly. More open networks with many weak ties and social connections are more likely to introduce new ideas and opportunities to their members than closed networks with many redundant ties. tighter networks can be less useful to their members than networks with lots of loose connections (weak ties) to individuals outside the main network.S citizens were political threat” – Burkhard. “A group of individuals with connections to other social worlds is likely to have access to a wider range of information. individuals can influence or act as brokers within their social networks by bridging two networks that are not directly linked”. (1994:37) 2. “The evolution of social networks can sometimes be modeled by the use of agent based models. a group of friends who only do things with each other already share the same knowledge and opportunities. the Total Information Awareness program was doing in-depth research on strategies to analyze social networks to determine whether or not U.The shape of a social network helps determine a network’s usefulness to its individuals. rumor spreading and social structure. – Barnes (1954: 39-58) Social network analyses have been used to help understand how patterns of human contact aid or inhibit the spread of diseases such as HIV in a population. providing insight into the interplay between communication rules.

social network service usually means an individual – centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. events.g. A social network service essentially consists of a representation of each user (often a profile). As Lecky Thompson (2009) informs. social networking sites can bring people together with varying backgrounds who might otherwise never have met and then encourage them to extend that 18 . such as email and instant messaging. or site that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people. platform. Facebook and Twitter. and a variety of additional services. activities. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas. Social networking sites enhance freedom and mobility. or they can form new relationship with other nationalities. Changes in society are simultaneously useful and negative and this is the case with the impact of online social networking.A social networking service is an online service. though in a broader sense. and interest within their individual networks. Most social network services are web based and provide means for user to interact over the internet. Also.. e. Online community services are sometimes considered as social network service. who share interest and/or activities. regardless of ‘real time’ or separate location. a difference in which people do and how they do it. People especially youth can maintain a constant connection with existing friends and family who might live in different countries. It offers the ability to access information and communication with others at any time and in any place and regardless of the physical location of other people. “this has recently come to light in the number of people in the armed forces using Youtube. his/her social links. With proliferation of social networking online come impact on society. to stay in touch. The effect that interaction through social networking sites has on today’s society especially the youth will be discussed.

By encouraging online communication between local people. By communicating online.experience into real world social function”. as people become more informed and involved in local events. who might ordinarily be ostracized or overlooked in offline communities or social situations. This is especially the case for minority groups. Particularly in areas with smaller populations. discovering similarities that may have been previously disregarded. these relationships are therefore likely to be stronger offline. the chance of discovering others with similar interest is infrequent but by removing these location barriers through online communication. Chen-see (2009) tell us that online communication provides a unique. The use of social networking sites amongst deaf teens is an example of the benefit and impact of online communication in relations to physical disabilities. such as Neigho encourage social interaction on a local level. the chance of meeting people with the same interest is greatly increased. Social networking sites also offer the chance of communication in cases where mobility is often a hindrance to social interaction. social networking sites can create a sense of unity and belonging in people who might have previously felt alternated in society because of an inability to relate to local people. convenient communication tool that does not require speaking verbally and as such may empower some teens/youth with 19 . By forming groups of people with similar interests (particularly if the interest or hobby is not mainstream). as well as get in touch with people who have similar issues. Social networking sites give the impression that it is a much smaller world. Social networking sites. Elderly people and those with physical disabilities who have an inability to leave their house are able to stay in touch with existing relations and friends. it allows people to see past physical differences and focus on a deeper connection.

Such sites also provide those isolated by disability or environment with a rich fulfilling social life. For some people. connecting with others online can be a good addition to therapy and for many even encourage they seek professional help. online communication can help those with dysfunctional syndromes achieve a level of social interaction previously difficult or impossible. Research has shown that students enjoy educational opportunities where lesson topics. being open to new or diverse views and communication skills. research. From using social networking sites. interaction with crowds is made easier if they do not actually feel the physical immersion. as many news channels also prove their information on the internet. updates of news of support. (Market Wire.hearing loss. as it helps to level the playing field. People can share information via links. and interactive discussions are at their fingertips. which users of social networking sites may peruse via widget links and applications. Moreover. students learn technology skills. reviews and applications. creative ideas. creativity. Another benefit of communicating through social networking sites is the promotion of education and news. 20 . 2008). They may source this information from other places and share them with others or provide their own information for education. According to Lecky – Thompson (2009). These applications generally provide live feeds of current. updated news to a users profile page which is further evidence of the constant connection and communication provided by social networking sites and another way in which they are beneficial in society. News information may also be observed online. Many educational institutions encourage learning via the internet and social networking sites because it allows an easy communication channel for students to learn and share skills. This is also the case with people who have psychological disorders who may also have limited mobility.

companies are better able to advertise to specific markets or discover. The verification of genuine identity of people is another challenge with these sites. Some people use abusive word to vent out their feelings on these networking sites and the same has been seen in their personal life of late. Conversely. they can notify of products. The most staggering influence of these sites for some people is the use of abbreviated words like‘d’ for ‘the’ and likewise. In addition to advertising through these sites. build industry contacts. For students. Through online social networking. 2008. Many users have suffered from the same. research industry trends and updates. or tag and track discussions on specific topics or event (hunter. They can socialize and network with industry pears. social networking sites. The albums are accessible to everyone and as such the pictures can be easily copied and have even been distorted in some cases and put on fake profiles. Some even use them to dishonor their teachers and bosses or use bad. This has led to breach of trust of a section of respondents. 2010). it comes often during examinations.mouthing words for even celebrities and sports stars. they can also discover disgruntled customers and realize their concerns. monitor and engage with loyal brand advocates. They tend to use the similar words in their day to day life and even in official communication and often have suffered due to this. 21 .Businesses are also honing in on the ability to market and advertise through. People pose as someone else and tend to seek personal or confidentially knowledge. announcements or competitions or research target markets and industry trends. Reitsma.

(Phishing 2007) This in turn causes great privacy issues since the person can now access personal information and then 22 . In a case with myspace. countless people have debated the implications of taking social interactions virtual. it has been said that social networking would be both the downfall of mankind and the thing that would bring the planet together but the truth is that social networking still remain great in many respects and incredibly advantageous to society especially the youth. they are issues bothering on privacy. At different points in time. With social networking websites like This often led to the loss of personal information such as username. mobile number. Social networking sites depend on the interaction between users because they are simply an extension of social networking in the real world and ever since the term was coined.For all the benefits of social network sites in today’s society as well as the negativities. it is almost too easy to retrieve personal information about someone and use it to harm them. according to and myspace. the availability of being able to customize one’s own site as allowed people to use phishing html code to create phishing profiles that allows that person to access anyone’s profile who have visited the phishing profile. ISSUES OF CONCERN IN NETWORKING There are certain issues that social networking sites harbor that are gradually becoming a problem that everyone especially site users should be concerned about. it is evident that they impact our lives due to not merely the sites themselves but the communications layer embedded within them. child safely and copyright materials. conversations. passwords and credit card

Karine. Although a lot of the sites are trying to implement new ways to keep children safe. Another great concern with social networking websites is that of child safety. (Joly. Myspace. 2007). With the massive amount of files shared through social networking sites. 2007). it is hard to tell sometimes who the original owner of the selected file is.sell it off to marketing companies for a profile (Myspace. Members can upload anything they want on the site to be viewed by anyone who comes across it. This lead to many people committing copyright infringement by uploading files and video clips that do not belong to them. A third issue of concern is that of copyright infringement. the average age requirement is around fifteen years old. commercial products are being reproduced by individuals and uploaded to these social networking included. predators are finding ways around these new implementations and most people are still naïve to the fact that not everyone online is who they say they are. Myspace. Research has shown that almost three out of four teenagers who use social networking websites are at risk due to their lack of using online safety.2007). UTILIZATION IN BUSINESS 23 . A lot of the website does have an age requirement but it is easily bypassed by the lying about of one’s is a great example of how copyright infringement can be brought about using these sites. Also. This selling of information to companies has led to the rise of span emails that we all has been specifically targeted for these child safety issues after a sixteen year old girl flew to Aviv in Israel to meet and engage in sexual relationship with a twenty year old male whom she had met through the site (Myspace. Youtube. Even if they do not lie about their age.

One aspect of business that social networking website is used is in the hiring of employees. This a lot more faster. Magazine e. gain knowledge of products through others who have used them and get reviews on nearly anything that is mass product today. Monster. 24 . A third aspect is that of fair pricing. it is also more cost effective and reaches for more people than other forms of advertising. millions of people will view a particular advert should it be placed on a social networking site. Social networking websites help people get advice from experts. it is easy for one to get lost in the broad spectrum of products. Such sites as then takes the resume and compares it to the needs and wants that the companies have posted on the website and then connects both parties. Not only is online advertising more effective than commercial advertising such as Television. Whether it is through banners or links. Another aspect is marketing.c advertisement. It is as simple as creating resume and putting it out on the actually help many people searching for jobs and may companies looking for employees to find each other. With so many businesses out there creating virtually the same product.There are many ways business can and have been making use of social networking sites to their advantage. With the millions of people that use the sites it has become a better way and place to market products.t.

&Tankard. 869-898. Burkhardt. 39-58. Class and Committee in a Norwegian Island Parish Human Relations. Diffusion of Innovation.M (1986).(1992). 37.Free Press. New York.W. Social Interaction Effect Following a Technological Change: Academy of Management Journal. Roger.E (1994). 7. Latour. New York.Communication :Longman Theories Origins/NewYork 25 .M (1995). B.M.REFERENCES Callon. Barnes. An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press) Rogers. J.Some Elements of Sociology of Translation London Routtedge and Kegan Paul. E. Communication Technology: The New Media in Society. (1954). J. Free Press Severin.(1986). (2005). E. M.

even on the movie.1 RESEARCH DESIGN METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION Social networking currently has the greatest impact in the today’s web world. the world’s famous video sharing channel allows its users to upload or view videos. An individual can capture a video. Facebook.CHAPTER THREE 3. The research design adopted in this study is survey 26 . and could upload in Youtube using a home PC or mobile phone so that it can be viewed by anyone in the world.0 3. Youtube. the world’s number one social networking sites has incorporated search engines within its portal so that one can get any kind of search without leaving the same website. Modern day younger’s and higher institution students are mostly engaging their time in social networking websites to stay alive with their friends. It is therefore of no doubt that these social networking sites has the greater impact on individual’s self identity. The aim of this research work is to reveal the impact of social networking sites on Nigerian youth.

3. This is to have a better understanding of the research work as the population which is the most avid user of these sites are the ones who provide good response. the lower the samples size. Data therefore would be obtained from a sample of the population. This is due to the fact that survey studies involve the assessment of public opinion using questionnaire and sampling methods.method. This is because the study population – 3. It states that the higher the population.777 population. University of Lagos. the Taro Yamane formula (1964) 2nd edition would be applied.3 SAMPLE SIZE In the determination of the sample size for this study.2 STUDY POPULATION A study population refers to targeted members of the entire population of a given environment to which a research work is conducted. The faculty according to it executives have 3. The study populations for this study are students from faculty of science. TARO YAMANE FORMULA n = N 1 + N(e)2 n N e = = = the desired sample size the population accepted error limit 27 .777 is too large to be covered by the researcher. 3.

past project and internet materials which I consulted especially for empirical studies.777 3.777 (0.0025) 3.9 Approximately Therefore.4 SAMPLING PROCEDURE In this research work. Primary source were textbooks. Also.1 = n n n constant value = = = 3.787 (0. Questionnaire is a list of questions designed for obtaining 28 .05) 3. the simple random sampling technique was used.6 INSTRUMENTATION The research instrument used in obtaining data for this study is a 15-item questionnaire.5 DATA SOURCES Data for this study were gathered from primary and secondary source. 3. This is because of its advantage of affording every member of the population equal of selection and also it ability to minimize biases.777 1 + 3. 3.777 9. using the Taro Yamane formula.4675 = 399 = 393. 399 samples were selected. 3. the 399 questionnaire administered provided information for the research work and this formed secondary data source.

The first part which is SECTION A sought to gather personal information from respondents based on their sex. The second part . in some 29 . In all. 399 questionnaires were administered.SECTION B sought to know the effect of social networking sites on the personal lives of students. age and educational qualification. the chi-square test of independent was formulated. Majority of the people understand them and answered all. It is used basically because it allows a direct involvement of the researcher and determines the knowledge and truthfulness of the respondents easily.7 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Reliability of text according to Wenty (1989) is measured by the consistency with which it produces the same result while validity is the extent to which the measures provides an accurate representation of what is being measured. Each has two (2) parts. 3.8 METHOD OF ANALYSIS In analyzing the data of this study. 3. These questionnaires were distributed to a segment of the sample before its final administration. the questionnaires used were carefully worded to ensure right responses from the respondents.information from people in survey studies. Analysis of data generally requires that the investigation must systematically examine data in order to understand patterns and. This is because it is an appropriate tool of testing the null hypothesis raised in chapter 1. To ensure validity and reliability of this study.

to identify cause and effect relationship between department and independent variables.cases. but the chi-square test will be used to compare the observed frequency distribution with the expected distribution. The formula for the chi-square test is represented below X2 Where: O E = = Observed frequency Expected frequency = ∑(O .E)2 E 30 . Though there are different test under this quantitative descriptive analysis.

the research questions and the hypothesis are tested using the available responses from the questionnaires. All of these would help know the impact social networking site in the individual lives of youths. 4. These responses are interpreted and presented in a tabular form for easy understanding and the findings discussed.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS The method used for analyzing the data is the percentage working of the respondents answers. university of Lagos constitute the research population among which a total number of 399 questionnaires were distributed.CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4. Student from science faculty.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is basically to analysis the responses gathered from the questionnaires administered. Here. RETURN TABLE Number of questionnaire Number of returned 399 360 31 .

2011 PERCENTAGE (%) 24.4 69 4. This table shows that majority of those that use social networking sites are teenagers and young youth.Number of not returned Source: Field Survey. TABLE 1: GENDER GENDER FREQUENCY Male 104 Female 256 TOTAL 360 Source: Field Survey. 2011 39 The above table which is the return table shows the detail of the questionnaire. followed by age-group 15-19 with 24.9% male. Those that are above these ages seldom use networking sites. 32 .1 100% The above table shows that 71. It shows that out of the 399 questionnaire distributed among the students. The remaining 39 were either not returned or terminated.2 100% Table 2 states the fact that majority of sites users fall between the age groups of 20-24 with 69%. TABLE 2: AGE GROUP AGE GROUP (YRS) FREQUENCY 15 – 19 88 20 – 24 248 25 – 29 16 30 and above 8 TOTAL 360 Source: Field Survey.4 2.4%.1% of the respondents are female against 28. 360 were fully completed and could be accounted for.9 71. 2011 PERCENTAGE (%) 28.

84. SECTION B: RESEARCH QUESTIONS TABLE 4: DO YOU USE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL Source: Field Survey. 2011 FREQUENCY 360 0 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 100 0 100% From the above table. 2011 FREQUENCY 304 24 24 8 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 84.7% were graduating students.2 100% The educational qualification table shows that of all the respondents. TABLE 5: HOW MANY SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES DO YOU ACTIVITELY USE? SITES USED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) 33 . it can be seen that social networking sites have gained a lot of ground as all the respondent have access to and use them.7 6.2% respectively.TABLE 3: EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION QUALIFICATION Undergraduate Graduating students Post graduate Others TOTAL Source: Field Survey. Also.4 6.4% were undergraduates while 6.7 2. those that were post graduate student and with other qualification were also few with 6.7% and 2.

9%.7% use four and above networking sites. TABLE 6: SELECT THE SITE(S) THAT YOU USE VARIABLES Twitter Facebook Myspace Others TOTAL Source: Field Survey. 2011 FREQUENCY 40 112 32 176 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 11. 2go.7% wrote Twitter.4% who use more than 1 site. In other words. While others have 48. 8.1% use only Facebook which makes it the most popular networking site.7 100% Table 5 shows that 35. WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE TO UTILIZE THAT TIME? 34 . 2011 128 136 32 64 360 35. TABLE 7: IF YOU WERE NOT USING THESE SITES.6 37.8 8.9 48. This implies that facebook and Twitter are used along side other sites.9% use only Myspace and 31.4% of them use more than 1 site.6% of the response wrote facebook while 6.9 100% Considering the overall data in Table 6. eskimi.6% use only 1 site regularly and the rest percentage which is 64.1 2 3 4 And Above TOTAL Source: Field Survey. mig13.1% students use only Twitter. 15. ebuddy. 37.9 17.8% amongst them use 2 sites and 8.1 8. Out of these 64.1 31.9% use 3 sites while an exception of 17. 11. students use both facebook and twitter or either of the two and any other sites. and email. These sites include Queep.

6. 31.7% would be reading novels while 22.7 22. most of the students would use their spare time to study if they were not using these sites.3 33.2% said they would be doing other things like watching television. pursuing other hobbies.ACTIVITIES Studying Hanging out with friend Reading novels Others TOTAL Source: Field Survey. Table 7 shows that.3 24.1 6. This table reveals that social networking sites do not leave student with much time to study and to read their books or even to pursue their hobbies. TABLE 8: WHAT DO YOU USE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES FOR? USAGE To make new friends To find old friends To communicate with existing friends To find someone i can share a relationship with TOTAL Source: Field Survey. 2011 FREQUENCY 120 120 88 32 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 33. 2011 FREQUENCY 144 112 24 80 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 40 31.4 9 100% 35 .1% were of the opinion that they would be hanging out with friends.2 100% Question 7 reveals what students would do if not surfing on these sites. playing football.

The above table shows that the desire to make new friends and to find old friends is making more students use these networking sites.8 37. Only an exception of 8.8 8. users of these sites find a way of enjoy themselves or their leisure time when they are alone. This happens as a result of their ability to find out old friends and also remaining in close with the old ones as well as the existing friends.3 100% . 24.9 35. TABLE 10: DO YOU THINK OR FEEL THESE NETWORKING SITES HAVE CREATED NEGATIVE IMPACT ON YOUR PERSONAL LIFE? VARIABLE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 96 264 360 36 PERCENTAGE (%) 26.5 100% This table shows that better connectivity is what a higher percentage user’s benefit from using social networking sites. TABLE 9: HOW HAS SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES BENEFITED YOU AS A USER? BENEFITS I have more friends I am to connect with my existing friends I have found a life partner Enjoy my leisure whenever i am alone TOTAL Source: Field Survey. 17. 2011 FREQUENCY 64 136 32 128 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 17.9% found their partners through these sites.8% student seems to have more friends through their use.7 73.4% use the site to communicate with existing friend and only in rare cases do they use the site to find someone they can share relationship with. Also.

3% of the students feel it creates other negatives impact than the ones stated. TABLE 12: DO YOU THINK THERE IS INVASION OF PRIVACY THROUGH THESE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? VARIABLES Yes No TOTAL Source: Field Survey. 2011 From the above. 73.3 46.7 of the population feels there is a negative on their personal lives. 50% feels that loss of time is the major cause of the negative impact. TABLE 11: IF YES. 26.7 100% 37 . Only 8.3% of the students find that there is no negative impact in their personal lives while only 26.7 NILL 8. THEN WHAT CAN THIS IMPACT BE? IMPACT Loss of privacy Loss of time More reliance on electronic medium Emotional disturbance Any other TOTAL Source: Field Survey. 2011 FREQUENCY 24 48 16 NILL 8 96 PERCENTAGE (%) 25 50 16.Source: Field Survey. while 25% feels it is loss of privacy and 16.3 100% From the table. 2011 FREQUENCY 192 168 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 53.7% see the impact in their dependent on electronic medium.7% that feels networking sites have negative impact on their personal lives.

TABLE 13: DO YOU THINK THAT PARENT’S DISCRETION AND MONITORING IS REQUIRED IN THE CASE OF CHILDRREN USING THESE SITES? VARIABLES YES NO TOTAL Source: Field Survey.This table shows that only 53.6% of the respondents thought that it is required while 44. This is because 55. 2011 FREQUENCY 200 160 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 55. TABLE 14: DO THESE NETWORKING SITES INFLUENCE YOUR LIFESTYLE IN ANY WAY? VARIABLE Yes No TOTAL Source: Field Survey.4% do not see the need for such. 2011 FREQUENCY 288 72 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 80 20 100% 38 .6 44.4 100% There is a thin line in the survey regarding the stand whether parent’s discretion and monitoring is required in children who use these social networking sites.3% feels that social networking sites invade in their privacy while 46.7% do not agree.

the hypothesis formulated earlier in chapter 1 will now be tested.2% of the student describe it impact as positive. HOW WILL YOU DESCRIBE THE INFLUENCE? VARIABLE Positive Negative TOTAL Source: Field Survey.3 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS Having given the analysis of response gathered. 4. TABLE 15: IF YES.Table 14 shows that a high percentage of students do believe that networking site influence their lifestyle while 20% do not believe it does influence their lifestyle. 39 . The hypotheses are as follows: 1. HO: HO: Nigerian youth do not have access to social networking sites Social networking sits do not influence the lifestyle of youth in Nigeria. 2011 FREQUENCY 280 8 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 97. 2.2 2.8 100% This table clearly shows that social networking sites do not have any crucial negative impact on people’s life as 97.

It could be used to weigh the relative importance in the view of different categories of people and sensitive use of matter of public importance. V C = = Degree of freedom Number of columns X2 40 .3. HO: There is no significant relationship between social networking sites and the anti-social behavior among Nigerian youth. ∑(O-E)2 E DEFINITION OF VARIABLES Chi-square = = O E X2 HO = = = = Observed frequency from the respondents Expected frequency from the respondents Denote chi-square This is the null hypothesis that state that there is no difference between two variables.05) level of significance. The test of these hypotheses are strictly approached by the use of chisquare of 5% (0. DEFINITION OF CHI-SQUARE It is used to determine whether the relative difference in an item or object of similar kind is due to chance or as a result of difference in their quality.

With regard to the hypothesis.400 -32. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS TEST I HO: Nigerian youth do not have access to social networking sites.400 - (O-E)2/E 180 -180 O Source: Field Survey.R = Number of roles In testing the hypothesis. 2011 O 360 0 E 180 180 FREQUENCY 360 0 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 100 0 100% O-E 180 -180 - (O-E)2 32. but to test the hypothesis Table 4 will be used. those questions that relate to the hypothesis will be extracted and the strongest of it will be used for the test. 2011 X2 = 180 + (-180) 41 . at least two (2) tables are related to it. RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL Source: Field Survey.

05) DECISION: The critical value for X2 for degree of freedom of 1 at 95% level of confidence is O. This therefore means that Nigerian youth have access to social networking sites. table 10 can be used as well as table 14 but table 14 is the stronger of the two and will therefore be used.8 -64.664 -11. TEST II HO: Social networking sites do not influence the lifestyle of youth in Nigerian In testing this hypothesis.8 - 42 . VARIABLE Yes No TOTAL Source: Field Survey. We can then conclude that the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected as it does not have any value.X2 = O = 2-1 = 1 Degree of freedom = V = n – 1 Df = 1 The level of significant to be use in testing the hypothesis from the chi-square table is 5% (0. 2011 O 288 72 E 180 180 - FREQUENCY 288 72 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 80 20 100% O-E 108 -180 - (O-E)2 11.664 - (O-E)2/E 64.

the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level.5 39.5 O Source: Field Survey. RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL Source: Field Survey.7 73.056 - (O-E)2/E -39. and 15 provides basis for testing this hypothesis but the strongest of all is table 10. TEST III HO: There is no significant relationship between social networking sites and the anti-social behavior among Nigerian youth.O Source: Field Survey. Table 10. 11. 2011 O 96 264 E 180 180 FREQUENCY 96 264 360 PERCENTAGE (%) 26. 2011 X2 = O = 2-1 = 1 Degree of freedom = V = n – 1 DECISION: It is established here that the critical value for X2 is O.3 100% O-E -84 84 - (O-E)2 -7.056 7. 2011 43 . It can be concluded also that social networking site influence the lifestyle of youth in Nigeria.

5 + 39. new and existing friends. This invariably means that social networking sites do not have anything to do with the antisocial behavior exhibited among Nigerian youth. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS From the analysis of the different data collected and the test of the formulated hypothesis.5 O V=n–1 2-1 =1 = Degree of freedom = DECISION: Since the calculated value is O. hanging out with friends and other hobbies as they spend these time surfing their sites. This therefore shows that social networking sites do influence the lifestyle of its users. it can be deduced that the popularity of social networking sites is immense especially amongst the youth who use at least two sites with the second majority being of those who use one networking site. the research work revealed that apart from the benefit of better connectivity with old. is a hand down winner as it has the highest frequency of networking sites used. Facebook. The findings further shows that these sites denies students the time to engage in other activities such as studying. it can be concluded that the null hypothesis is rejected. CHAPTER FIVE 44 . this research work reveal that.X2 X2 = = -39. Furthermore. social networking sites do not have any crucial negative impact on the lives of the people.

the impact of these sites on both personal and professional lives of youths have been revealed. hypothesis and operational definitions of certain terms.5. it utilization in business was incorporated.1 SUMMARY. significance. instrument employed. sample size using the Taro Yamane Formula. and data source. objective. delimitation and limitation of the study. 45 . Also. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION SUMMARY This study has explored the role and impact of social networking sites on Nigerian youth. The issue of concern that have come up along the way since these sites gained popularity were discussed. The related theories of the study were reviewed with important and emphasis on the work. This chapter states the problem. It also covers the empirical studies where the benefits of communicating through social networking sites were stated.0 5. Chapter two covers the literature review of different authorities. Through this research. While chapter three centers on the research design and methodology. validity and reliability and the method of analysis. It states the research methodology used along with the research design. It also incorporated the sampling procedure. It went further for give the research questions. Chapter four gave the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered in the previous chapter at length. The first chapter of this study which is the introductory aspect gave an insight to what social networking sites is all about and how it works using different examples.

While little percentages see the impact of these sites as 46 . In answering the research questions. Specifically. The research also was able to state that social networking site influence the lifestyle of youth. 5. a total of 399 questionnaires was distributed among students from science faculty. the research sought to answer the following questions: i.2 CONCLUSION This research work focused on the “impact of social networking sites on Nigerian youth”.The last part which is the fifth chapter deals with the summary. Findings from the research showed that a great deal of Nigerian youth use at least one social networking sites to connect with both new and exiting friends. university of Lagos.05) level of significance. while the hypothesis formulated was tested using the chi-square test of 5% (0. Do social networking sites have influence on the lifestyle of youth in Nigeria? Is there any relationship between social networking sites and anti-social behavior among Nigerian youth? iii. conclusion and recommendations that were derived after carefully analyzing and incorporating the opinion of all concerned. It also revealed that an overwhelming majority derive the benefit of better connectivity with friends and the disadvantage of loss of time. Does Nigerian youth have access to social networking sites? ii.

it is important to make some recommendations based on major issues such as the protection of private information. Additionally. it would provide the best security out there for people who are trying to have safe fun.negative especially with regard to their loss of privacy. 47 . 5. there is no clear view that came out as some thought it necessary and almost same percentage do not think it is necessary. An example is the World intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO Copyright) agreement. 4. materials on the internet. 3. Although this would most likely end up in a great hassle. These laws should state appropriately punishment to any breach.c. A licensing agreement with certain parties to prevent copyright The effectiveness of copyright law would also prevent the duplication of infringement from happening over the internet. The establishment of personal contact officers to register on these sites to determine the legitimacy of the person who is trying to register.3 RECOMMENDATIONS Having confirmed that social networking sites have no crucial negative impact on people’s life. Sites users should inculcate discipline in themselves while using these sites so as not to be a victim of it negative impact such as loss of time. 2. The following will therefore be the recommendations: 1. the protection of children and the protection of copyrighted materials. a large percentage sees the impact as a positive one.t. loss of privacy e. on the survey regarding whether parent’s discretion and monitoring is required.

Nicole B.. Boyd. Latour. 7. History and Scholarship. (1995). E. B. Social Networking Sites: -of-social-networking-site. M.M (1986): Communication Technology: The New Media in Society.wikipedia. Rogers.869-898.. Steinfiled. Nicole (2007). Danah. Lampe. Longman. Ellision. W. M (1986): Some Elements of A Sociology of Translation: London: Reutledge and Kegan Paul. 39-58. Journal of computer – Medicted communication.E. J. Charles.& Tankard. E. Cliff (2007): “The benefits of Facebook “Friends”: Exploring the relationship between college students” use of online social networks and social capital. 48 . (1994): Social Interaction Effects Following a Technological change: Academy of Management Journal. 37. (1992): Communication Theories Origins New York. www. Burkhard. New York: Free Press Severin. (2005): An introduction to Actor-Network theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press). WEBSITES www. J (1954): Class and Committee in a Norwegian Island Parish Human Relations. Ellison.scribd. Free Press Rogers. Diffusion of Innovation. New York.BIBLOGRAPHY Barnes.

If you were not using these sites. My name is AKINFOLARIN OLUWATOSIN. I hereby seek for your assistance in supplying the most appropriate answers in the spaces provided. Abeokuta. Yours faithfully. 7. What is your educational qualification? (a) Undergraduate ( ) (b) Graduating Student ( ) (c) Post Graduate Student ( ) (d) Others ( ) SECTION B: RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4. what would you have done to utilize that time? (a) Studying ( ) (b) Hanging out with friends ( ) (c) Reading novels ( ) (d) Any others ( Pls specify )……………… 8. I designed this questionnaire with a view to eliciting response from you on my research topic” THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORKKING SITES ON NIGERIAN YOUTH This research work is carried out in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Mass communication. then what can these impact be? (a) Loss of privacy ( ) (b) Loss of time ( ) (c) More reliance on electronic medium ( ) (b) Emotional disturbance ( ) (e) Any other (Pls specify)……………. Do you use any social networking sites? (a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( ). otherwise terminate 5. Thanks. If yes continue. 12. Do you think or feel these networking sites have created any negative impact on your personal life? (a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( ) 11. What is your age-group? (a) 15-19yrs ( ) (b) 20-24yrs ( ) 3. Do you think there is invasion of privacy through these networking sites? (a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( ) 13 Do you think parents discretion and monitoring is required in the case of children using these sites? (a) Yes ( ) (b) ( ) 14 Do these social networking sites influence your lifestyle in any way? (a)Yes ( ) (b)( ) 15 If yes. Moshood Abiola Polytechnic. How many social networking sites do you actively use? (a) 1 ( ) (b) 2 ( ) (c) 3 ( ) (d) 4 and above ( ) 6. Gender? (a) Male ( ) (b) Female ( ) 2. a final year student of Mass Communication Department. Note that this exercise is mainly for academic purpose only. how will you describe the influence? (a)Positive ( ) (b)Negative ( ) 49 . Select the sites that you use: (a) Twitter ( ) (b) Facebook ( ) (c) Myspace ( ) (d) any others (Pls specify)……………. Akinfolarin Oluwatosin SECTION A: BIO-DATA 1.. Ogun State.QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondent. If yes. How has social networking sites benefited you as a user? (a) I have more friends ( ) (b) I am able to connect with my existing friends ( ) (c) I have found a life partner through these sites ( ) (d) I find it a great way to enjoy leisure or whenever I am alone ( ) 10. What do you use social networking sites for? (a) To make new friends ( ) (b) To find old friends ( ) (c) To communicate with existing friends ( ) (d) To find someone I can share a relationship with ( ) 9.

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