# BEng Mechanical Engineering 03/01/2006

SIMPLE BEAM EXPERIMENT

BEng Mechanical Engineering

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BEng Mechanical Engineering 03/01/2006 Simple Beam Experiment BEng Mechanical Engineering 1 2. 3. Introduction. ................................................................................................................ 2 Theory ......................................................................................................................... 2 Results and Calculations ............................................................................................. 3 3.1 Data and Calculations .............................................................................................. 3 4. Conclusions ................................................................................................................. 5 5. References ................................................................................................................... 6

1. Introduction Young's Modulus (E), also known as the modulus of elasticity or tensile modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. Young's modulus is named after Thomas Young the English physicist, physician, and Egyptologist [1]. It is defined as the ratio, for small strains, of the rate of change of stress with strain. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material [1]. The Young's modulus allows the behavior of a material under load to be calculated. For instance, it can be used to predict the amount a wire will extend under tension, or to predict the load at which a thin column will buckle under compression. [1]. 2. Theory Young's modulus, E, can be calculated by dividing the tensile stress by the tensile strain: The Young's modulus allows the behavior of a material under load to be calculated [1].

Where, E is the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) measured in pascals; F is the force applied to the object; 2

BEng Mechanical Engineering 03/01/2006 A0 is the original cross-sectional area through which the force is applied; ΔL is the amount by which the length of the object changes; L0 is the original length of the object. [1] Below is the diagram of the experiment.

L

P


Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up P L E I point load (N) length (m) Young’s Modulus (material property) (N/m2) Second Moment of Area (geometry property) (m4) [Equation 1]

b h3 For a rectangular cross section I  12
3. Results 3.1 Data and Calculations Table 1 Experimental data
P [N] 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5  [m] 1.2x10-5 1.8 x10-5 2.5 x10-5 3.2 x10-5 3.8 x10-5 4.5 x10-5 5.2 x10-5

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BEng Mechanical Engineering 03/01/2006

Table 2 Dimensions of the Beam Overhang (L) Width (b) Thickness (h) 0.876 m 0.015 m 3x10-3 m

Find Second Moment of Area (I) using equation 1:

bh 3 I 12 (0.015) (3x10 3 ) 3  12  3.375 x10 11 m
Using these experimental data we can plot an x-y graph and use the linest function to determine the gradient of the line and the offset (initial deflection).

The gradient can be calculated using the equation 2:
y2  y1 m x2  x1

[Equation 2]

So
0.000052  0.0000121  1.3371x105 3.5  0.5

Using the data of gradient above we can estimate the Young’s Modulus (E) of the beam material.

L3  P C  3E I x y 
m

[Equation 3]

The gradient of the straight line y = mx + c is m.

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BEng Mechanical Engineering 03/01/2006

L3 m ( gradient )  3E I E L3 3I m

(0.876)3 E 3(3.375 x1011)(1.3371x10 5 ) E  4.98 x1014 N / m 2
3.2 Graph Figure 2 displays the plotted experimental data.

x-y graph
0.00006

d cantilever beam

0.00005 0.00004 0.00003 0.00002 0.00001 0 0 1 2 P point load
Figure 2 Experimental data

Series1 Linear (Series1)

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4. Conclusions
The experimental results do not include the deflection of the beam under its own weight. Therefore, it is not possible to calculate the Young’s Modulus. Hence, the linest function was applied to calculate gradient m and the value of Young’s Modulus E.

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BEng Mechanical Engineering 03/01/2006 The calculated value for E is 4.98x10 expected.
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N / m2 which was close to what we have

5. References
1. Young’s Modulus[(2006] available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Young’s Modulus 2006

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