Min imi zat ion of wast ewat er in Texti le Pr oc es ses

Attempt has been made in the following sections to describe measures, techniques practices to minimize the toxicity and volume of textile effluent. Both toxicity and volume of textile effluent is directly related to the cost of operation of the effluent treatment plant. So minimization of effluent flow results best. Reducing Toxicity : Compounds that contribute to the aquatic toxicity of textile effluent include salt, metals, surfactants, toxic organic chemicals, biocides and toxic anions. Some methods of reducing the use of these compounds are to: • Reduce metal content through careful pre-screening of chemicals and dyes for metal content and using alternatives where possible. • Eliminate galvanized plumbing* as reactions with brass fittings can take place in the presence of acids, alkalis or salt and lead to the release of zinc. • Reduce the amount of salt in the effluent by optimizing recipes, using lowsalt dyes, reusing dye baths and optimizing dyeing temperatures. • Use biodegradable surfactants such as linear alcohol ethoxylates. • Replace chlorinated solvents with unchlorinated alternatives. • Replace the use of biocides* with ultraviolet light as a disinfectant for cooling towers. Sizing : As far as environmental pollution is concerned synthetic sizes are better than starch-based sizes. The advantages of this are a reduced pollution load as synthetic sizes have lower BOD levels, and they can be recycled for reuse. Ensure that only the minimum required size is added onto the yarn. This reduces chemical consumption as well as the pollution load to drain during desizing. Pre tr ae tment : Preparation includes desizing, scouring, bleaching and mercerizing. Desizing accounts for > 50% of the pollution load of preparation while scouring contributes between 10 and 25%. Good preparation is essential for subsequent processing, as any impurities remaining on the fabric will interfere with the dyeing and finishing processes. Some waste minimization options for the preparation department are listed below. • De siz ing : The effluent from desizing will contain the sizes. Using and recycling synthetic sizes in place of starch sizes will reduce the pollution load from desizing. Scouring : Incoming raw material should be screened for toxic chemicals, as these will be removed during the scouring process. Detergents must be easily biodegradable. And must avoid the following detergents:

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linear lkylbenzenesulphonate; nonylphenoletoxylate; dialkyldimthyl ammonium chloride; distearyl dimthyl amonium chloride; di dimithyl ammonium chloride; sulphosuccinates; alkylphenolethoxylates; complexing agents with poor biodegradability (e.g. EDTA; phosphonic acid; NTA; phosphonates). Reuse scour washwater for desizing. Recycle continuous scour washwater to batch scouring. • Bleac hing : Replace the use of chlorites and hypochlorites with hydrogen peroxide. Ensure that bleaching is carried out efficiently. Recycle bleach washwater for scouring. It must be noted that recycling the liquor of scoringbleaching may possible. Mer cerizin g: Recycling of sodium hydroxide through evaporation for reuse in mercerizing or scouring will decrease the pollution load and chemical consumption. However evaporation is expensive it can store to re use with sufficient amount caustic and water again. General : Use modern equipment. Replace batch processes with continuous processes. Install counter-current washing. Combine processes such as desizing, bleaching and scouring. Replace harmful chemicals with those of lower environmental impact. Reuse wash-water for cleaning equipment and screens.

Bat ch Pr oce ssing : There are a number of waste minimization options for batch processing. These include: Cascading multiple rinsing operations. Reusing softening baths with reconstitution. Reusing preparation baths (scouring and bleaching) with reconstitution after filtration to remove impurities. Segregating coloured effluent streams from clean streams (preparation and rinsing) to ensure that only concentrated effluent is treated. This clean effluent may be used elsewhere in the factory or can discharge. Some suggests two separate outlets drains e.g (i) more contaminated water drain and (ii) less contaminated water drain. The less contaminated waters are allowed to bypass many stages before mixing together again at certain point effluent treatment process. Dy eing Bat ch dy eing : Careful selection of dyes is important. Dyes should have high fixation/exhaustion, low toxicity, absence of metals, and be appropriate for the end use. Correct and efficient application procedures must be used and right-first-time production should be achieved. The main areas for waste minimization in batch dyeing include: • Using low liquor ratios. • Using automated dye and chemical dosing systems. Reusing dye baths, rinse water and softening baths. • Optimizing pH and salt for each recipe. • Avoiding the use of auxiliaries that reduce or retard exhaustion.

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Using bireactive dyes.* Using the newer low-salt reactive dyes . Avoiding the addition of more chemicals to offset the effects of other chemicals. Replacing the use of acetic acid in neutralizing after dyeing with formic acid or dilute hydrochloric acid (acetic acid adds to the COD of effluent).

Continuous dy eing : The main waste minimization strategies in continuous dyeing are to : • Maximize dye fixation. • Minimize wash - off. • Minimize the number of times a dye bath has to be dropped and cleaned due to a color change by careful scheduling. • Use automated color kitchens to minimize the working losses and discards. • Improve washing efficiency through the installation of flow restrictors to control water volumes. Use counter current washing procedures. • Optimize dosing of chemicals through monitoring of relevant parameters such as pH, absorbance, turbidity etc. Wast e mini mizati on op ti ons f or dy eing : Operate at lowest possible bath ratio. This leads to a reduction in operating costs, water consumption, chemical use, energy use and less effluent discharge. Table 3 shows the liquor ratios of various dyeing processes. Minimize stripping and / or re-dyeing procedures. Avoid the use of detergents to wash fabric after reactive dyeing; high temperatures are just as effective. Table -3: Liquor ratios for various dyeing processes process litres/kg Dyeing process Dyeing in winches Jet dyeing Package Dyeing Pad Batch • Liquor Ratio 1: 20-30 1: 7- 10 1: 5 – 8 1: 5

Mac hine: Now a days so many low liquor dyeing machines are available. These can dye fabric even at 1:1*(document niye jaity hoby) . THENCE JET FLOW DYEING machine is an example (from HK). Recently THIES is widely use for exhaust dyeing it consumes M:L is around 1:5 Min imi ze auxil ia r y use . Some auxiliaries interfere with dye fixation and should be replaced with alternatives or removed, as this will reduce the color load of the effluent. Multi-functional biodegradable auxiliaries must choice during recipe. Some auxiliaries are added to compensate for inefficiencies in 3

the process, equipment, or substrate design. Therefore, optimizing these factors will reduce auxiliary use. Recently an organic salt so called CLR is useful to consume half amount of Glubers’ salt or sodium chloride. • Right-fir st-time dy eing . Corrective measures are chemically intensive and have much less chance of achieving the required quality. The greatest costs in reprocessing are associated with the cost of dyes and chemicals typically, the costs can increase by as much as 30%. Right-first-time dyeing leads to an increase in productivity and more efficient use of resources (e.g. labor, capital). In dyeing polyester, avoid the use of carriers by upgrading dye machinery or replace with less harmful alternatives.

Good fabric preparation increases the chance of right-first-time dyeing as fixation is improved. Improved dye fixation. Dye fixation onto cotton can be improved by mercerizing the yarn or fabric prior to dyeing. Pad-batch dyeing is a cold dyeing method used mostly on cellulosics that results in a reduction in pollution, energy use, and costs. The advantages include: no salt or chemical specialties are required, more efficient use of dye, improved quality of dyeing, can be used on woven or knits, and low capital investment results in savings in dyes, chemicals, labor and water. Reuse dye baths, especially those using dyes with high exhaustion such as acid or basic dyes. There are 4 main steps to follow:

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Save the exhausted dye bath - this can be done by pumping it to a holding tank (or identical machine doing the same processes) and returning it to the machine for use in the next dyeing procedure. Analyze the dye bath for residual chemicals - most auxiliaries do not exhaust in the dyeing process. There is approximately a 10% loss due to adsorption onto the fabric. Others however, are used or lost during the process and must be replaced. Unexhausted dyestuffs need to be analyzed to determine the concentration remaining in the dye bath to ensure correct shading in further dyeing. Dye bath analysis can be performed using a spectrophotometer and specific guidelines for such a procedure. Reconstitute the dye bath - water is added to replace that which is lost to evaporation or to the product. Auxiliaries are added in proportion to the water volume (these can be estimated) and finally the dyestuff is added for the required shade. Reuse the dye bath - check the temperatures to ensure that the reused dye bath is the right temperature to minimize spotting and unleveled dyeing. If properly controlled, dye baths can be used for up to 15 or more cycles. Use dyes that undergo minimal changes during dyeing (acid, basic, direct and disperse) and reuse dye baths to repeat the same shades. Dye bath reuse is limited by impurity build-up from, for example, the fabric, salt build-up, steam contamination and surfactants. In

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addition, specialty chemicals may be lost during the dyeing process and these should be screened for their reuse potential. Close scheduling is also required which may limit the flexibility required for bath dyeing. Wat er reu se. This can be achieved by dyeing multiple lots in the same dye bath by means of acid dye basically nylon dyeing may proceed in this method. Recently in DEPZ YOUNGONE SPORTS WEAR LTD. Following this method. This is generally possible for those products where high quality dyeing is not essential (e.g. work gloves, hosiery). Install improved machinery that have better controls. Printing : Pollutants associated with printing include suspended solids, solvents, foam, color and metals, and in general, large volumes of water are consumed during the washing-off stages. The main areas of waste minimization in printing include raw material conservation, product substitution, process and equipment modifications, material handling, and scheduling and waste recovery. Other options include: • Waste minimization in the design stages can eliminate the need for dyes containing metals. • Careful selection of surfactants. • Reducing air emissions by replacing solvents with water-based alternatives. • Routine and careful maintenance of printing equipment. • Training employees in the practices of good housekeeping. • Reusing water from washing the print blanket. • Reusing left over print paste if possible. • Removing excess paste from drums, screens and pipes by dry techniques (wiping with a squeegee etc.) before washing with water. This reduces the color load discharged to drain. • Careful scheduling to prevent expiration of print pastes before use. • Investigating alternatives to urea as this increases the nitrogen in the effluent Etylene glycol may use here. Finishing : There are a number of finishing processes that are carried out on the fabric after dyeing and/or printing. These can be achieved by chemical or mechanical methods. Some waste minimization options are listed as follows: Design fabrics such that the need for chemical finishes is minimized. Use mechanical alternatives to chemical finishes. Use low add-on methods. Minimize volatile chemical use. Install automated chemical dispensing systems. Train employees in good housekeeping practices. Use formaldehyde-free cross-linking agents. Investigate the use of spray application of finishes as these have a low addon and require no residual dumping at the end of a run.

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