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ASSIGNMENT ON: “Leadership: A part of management process” SUBMITTED TO: Ismat Jahan Lecturer Faculty of Business Administration Shaikh Burhanuddin Post Graduate College SUBMETTED BY: Name: Ezaz Ahmed Roll: 20351 Section: ‘A’ Batch: 12th Course Name: Principle of Management Course no: 1203 Faculty of Business Administration Shaikh Burhanuddin post Graduate College DATE OF SUMISSION: JANUARY, 30- 2010

CONTENTS
TITLE Letter of Transmittal Executive Summary Acknowledgement PART- INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Origin of the Report 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Scope 1.4 Methodology 1.5 Problems Faced 1.6 Responsibility 1.7 Limitation of the Report PART- MANAGEMENT AND ITS PROCESS 2 2.1 Definition of Management 2.2 Process of Management PART- LEADING AND LEADERSHIP 3 3.1 Definition of leadership 3.2 Nature of leadership 3.3 Elements of leadership 3.4 Importance of leadership 3.5 Principles of leadership 3.6 Leader vs. manager 3.7 “A manager is a leader but a leader may not always be a manager” 3.8 “Leadership is both a process & property’- explain. 3.9 “Leadership transforms potentiality into reality”explain. PART- LEADERSHIP STYLE 4 4.1 Styles of leadership 4.2 Leadership styles based on authority 4.2(a) Autocratic Leadership 4.2(b) Democratic / participative Leadership 4.2(c) Free rein Leadership 4.2(d) Paternalistic Leadership 4.3 Likerts styles of leadership 4.3(a) Exploitive-Authoritative Leadership 4.3(b) Benevolent-Autocratic Leadership 4.3(c) Consultative Leadership PAGE NO. I II III 1-3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1-4 1 1 5-14 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 13 14 15-22 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 19

4.3(d) 4.4 4.4(a) 4.4(b) 4.4(c) 4.4(d) 4.4(e) 4.5 4.6 4.7 PART5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3(a) 5.3(b) 5.3(c) 5.4 5.4(a) 5.4(b) 5.5 5.6 5.7 PART6

Democratic Leadership Leadership styles based on Managerial Grid Impoverished management Task Management Country Club Management Middle of the Road management Team management Continuum styles of Leadership Styles based on motivation Styles based on orientations THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Leadership Theory Trait Theory of Leadership Situational/ Contingency Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Hersey and Blancherd’s Theory Vroom theory of Leadership Behavioral Theory of Leadership Michigan University Studies theory Ohio State Leadership Studies theory Path-goal theory Charismatic Leadership theory Transformational Leadership theory CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

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List of table and figures Title
Table-1: Table-2: Table-3: Table-4: FigureNature of leadership Elements of Leadership Importance of Leadership Principles of leadership Process of management

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1: Figure-2: leadership style Figure-3: Leadership based on Authority Figure-4: Autocratic leadership Figure-5: Democratic Leadership Figure-6: Free rein Leadership Figure-7: likerts leadership style Figure-8: style of managerial grid Figure-9: Leadership continuum style Figure- leadership style based on Motivation 10: Figure- Orientation Leadership Styles 11: Figure- Theories of Leadership 12: Figure- Situational / contingency theories of 13: Leadership Figure- Behavioral Theory of Leadership 14: Figure- Consideration behavior theory

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Figure16:

Path Goal Theory of Leadership

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Letter of transmittal
January 30, 2010 Ismat Jahan Department of Business Administration Shaikh Burhanuddin Post Graduate College, Dhaka Subject: Submission of Assignment Report. Dear Madam, This is a great pleasure for me to submit this assignment report on “Leading: A part of management process”. This report has been

Sincerely yours. It is the process of directing and influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group objectives. and effective leadership can spell the difference between success and failure. It means the ability to influence others. There is so many styles. Leadership is a vital force in organizations today. I will feel glad if you please render your valuable comment and observations. theory. nature. It helps us to understanding leadership process of management. The duration of this assignment is from 18th January to 30th January. Leaders of knowledge workers must motivate and retain talented individuals who have many other options for employment. . the objectives of the assignment report are to understand & analyze leadership or leading of management.prepared by our group. However. I am really indebted to you for your suggestions and recommendations. The number of group of us is 5. I have aimed to represent whatever I found and observed in principle of management during my assignment report. In this report I tried to illustrate the Leadership process of management. Ezaz Ahmed (Leader of group-5) Roll: 20351 Section: ‘A’ Batch: 12th Department of business Administration Shaikh Burhanuddin Post graduate College Executive Summary Leadership or leading is a process of management. elements of leadership.

jobayer ibne azad. I gratefully acknowledge member of my group Md. They always gave me their suggestions in making this study as flawless as possible. third part covers with leading or leadership with definition and elements.Throughout the period of the assignment report I research for the information of leading from various resources. forth part contains leadership styles. . Golam sarowar. and last part includes ending summary consists of conclusion. This assignment is divided into six parts. Jommon and jobayer ibne azad for the endless endeavor and guidance. Asad mia. Md. Then my grateful appreciation goes to all those persons and information writer who help to complete this assignment perfectly. second part contains management and its process. Golam sarowar to help me in assignment editing and designing. I also like to express my deep gratitude to my other members Md. Md. This report is an attempt to analyze the overall leading process. Acknowledgement To prepare this report a significant amount of documents and informational inputs from several sources were involved. Abdul mojid. fifth part covers the overview of leadership theories. I would like to give my heartiest gratitude to my group members Md. This section is based on overall information complied from total report. recommendations & reference of the assignment. At the very outset I would like to pay my gratitude to almighty Allah for keeping me well and to successfully complete this report. For outlining and finalizing the whole report. Md. Jommon and Abdul mojid to issuing me so many information to completing assignment. First part covers introduction of the report. Asad mia. I would like to take change to convey my sincere gratitude to my group members and course teacher ismat jahan whose blessing and cooperation this report would not have been possible.

1 Origin of the Report: The BBA program is designed to focus on theoretical and professional development of the students to make up business as a profession as . they will not be displayed. If there are images in this attachment. Download the original attachment PART 1 (Introduction) 1.Last but not least I also acknowledge my family and friends for their support and encouragement while preparing this assignment.

This course increased student’s knowledge to provide in practical aspects. To analyze different sector of Leading. And the part of this program is Principal of Management. Leading is the process of Management. Its help us how to manage and lead an organization. To gather experience how to work group wise and when problem faced and how to solved. I. 2. 4. how to motivate employees and how to manage organization. It also helps to increase our creativity and experience how to lead in an organization. I have had an opportunity to gather experience and knowledge by working with the different information in leading on group wise. In this connection. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this assignment are to increase our knowledge and creativity.3 Scope: This study provides us to gather knowledge and understanding leading process clearly. We realize the different style.1 Data collection procedure: . We also confined different informational sector as well as problems and prospects. 1. a student of BBA of Shaikh Burhanuddin Post Graduate College was assigned to prepare an assignment repost under the guidance of supervising teacher and my group members to analysis on the leading. I have tried my level best to present myself and my group in this assignment.well as services as a career.4. Specific objectives: • • • • To increase the creativity of the students. To suggest possible measures of improving performance of the students. theory and elements of leading by preparing this assignment. Methodology: 1.

I could not get in depth knowledge. So we faced very difficulty to collect all the information. 1. facts and figures were not available which have narrowed the scope of real analysis. publications. the problems faced by me and my group were as follows: • • • • • I was assigned for only 11 days was a limitation for the completion of an exclusive study. 5. Interactions with course teacher.1(A) Primary sources: • • Conversation with group members. Most of the information of leading is not available in the book. Lack of proper understanding between the group members.2 Time Frame: This report has been prepared by taking 11 days. This assignment based on both primary & secondary information.This assignment is the output of 11 days long by analyzing various information collects from secondary sources which contain past and present figures. Majority of the information was collected from secondary sources. .1(B) Secondary sources: • • • • • General reports. Sufficient records.4. Problem faced: During the time of conducting the assignment. 1. Newspapers Internet & various web sites. and condition of management leading.4. Course teacher’s lecture. Preparing this assignment with group wise we face difficulty to maintain communication with each other. Different writer’s documents.4. 1.

Download the original attachment PART 2 . they will not be displayed. Abdul Mojid— Responsibility of his is searching information from different writer’s documents. Md.6. If there are images in this attachment. Md. • • • • • 7. Limitation of the Report: • • Most of the information has been taken from secondary sources.The responsibility of his is collecting the information of leading from the group members and corrects them in a right manner. Jommon—He is responsible for collecting information of leadership styles from various sources. Jobayer ibne azad—He is responsible for collecting information of leadership theories from various secondary sources. Responsibility: • Ezaz Ahmed – The responsibility of his is to designing the cover page .arranging the introductory sector. allocations of responsibility to other group members and solving and maintaining all the problems which faced by group members though preparing the assignment. Asad mia—He is responsible for edit extra information with the secondary data. searching various information of leading from internet websites. Very few statistical tools have been used. Md. Gulam sarower-.

L. So it’s clear that managers are charged with the responsibility of taking actions that will make it possible for individuals to make their best contributions to group objectives. seeking and searching objectives. determining production volume. (6) motivating. The job of the manager is to combine and co-ordinate of management. setting sale prices. organizing. Some would define management as an art. The seven key functions of management are applied throughout an organization regardless of whether it is a business.” According to bartol and Martin. government. We are all manager of our own lives and the practice of management is found in every facts of human activity: schools.” According to J. armed forces and families. (4) controlling. “Management is the process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning. (3) directing. to command. while others would define it as a science. to organize.Process) (Management and its 2. Massie. According to Henry Fayol.1 Definition of Management Management is an exciting subject because it deals with setting. Management is a business simulation board game released by Avalon Hill in 1960. “Management is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs action toward common goals. a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. to co ordinate and control. 2.” We must emphasize that management is an activity that converts disorganized human physical resources into useful and effective results. Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals. (5) staffing. unions. It is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning. (2) organizing.2 Process of Management . “to manage is to forecast and plan. Players operate their own manufacturing companies. and (7) leading. leading and controlling. and expanding factories. Whether management is an art or a science isn't what is most important. that is. However management has been defined by various authors / authorities in various ways. making decisions on purchasing supplies. business.

The organizational chart that depicts the structure of the organization shows positions in the organization. It is important to note that the choice of structure is important for the type of organization. Contingency planning allows for alternative courses of action when the primary plans that have been developed don't achieve the goals of the organization. usually beginning with the top-level manager (normally the president) at the top of the chart. Organizational structure is shown by an organizational chart. which are discussed extensively in the articles referred to previously. This is usually done by higher-level managers in an organization. or levels of quality. In the process of organizing. Short-range or tactical planning is done for the benefit of lower-level managers.A process is a systematic way of doing things. resources will be needed and must be acquired. Strategic planning is longrange planning that is normally completed by top-level managers in an organization.1: Process of management Planning: Planning may be defined as making decisions in advance as to what is to be done in the future. and resources together so the organizational goals can be achieved. Planning involves selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them. managers arrange a framework that links all workers. Planning includes setting organizational goals. Now we will briefly describe the function that comprises the process of management. since it is the process of developing very detailed strategies about what needs to be done. it requires decision making choosing future courses of action from among alternatives. There are many ways to structure an organization. who should do it. and how it should be done. engage in some inter related functions in order to achieve their desired goals. tactical planning. Planning can be strategic planning. The framework is called organizational structure. Other managers are shown below the president. In order to implement the strategies. that need to be met in completing the tasks. which is discussed extensively in another article. irrespective of their aptitude or skill. or contingency planning. Figure. tasks. As a part of the planning process. Organizing: Organizing refers to the way the organization allocates resources. The planners must also then determine the standards. and goes about accomplishing its goals. We refer to management as a process to emphasis that all managers. also discussed extensively in another article. the manager then develops strategies for achieving the goals of the organization. its . assigns tasks.

It is the process of management that used for recruiting. managers must have leadership skills in order to get workers to perform effectively. and recruiting. or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization. Green. In many organizations. drug testing. directing involves making assignments. Empowered workers have the support of managers who will assist them to make sure the goals of the organization are being met. To effectively carry out this function. which includes functions like resume reviewing. assessment testing. . staffing is monitored hourly because the cost of employee paychecks is a significant cost driver for the organization. Good staffing could be able to minimize cost in order to maximize profit. Staffing has been an important aspect in all types of organizations' development. and are better performers on the job. and background check" (Green. For many retail businesses. one specific staffing plan might work for one company. determining the number of people and the skills necessary to do the work. Some managers direct by empowering workers. Empowered workers usually work in teams and are given the authority to make decisions about what plans will be carried out and how. It is generally thought that workers who are involved with the decision-making process feel more of a sense of ownership in their work. selecting and promoting the qualified candidates. It is the selection process of screening and hiring new employees. Therefore. interpreting organizational policies.clientele. take more pride in their work. assisting workers to carry out assignments. Directing: Directing is the process that many people would most relate to managing. This means that the manager doesn't stand like a taskmaster over the workers barking out orders and correcting mistakes. It is supervising. geographic and industry etc. selecting. "staff is the process of identifying work requirements within an organization. 2003). and informing workers of how well they are performing. According to the definition by Dr. Different companies have different strategies in how to select their candidates. and the products or services it provides—all which influence the goals of the organization. but it might not work for another. Staffing: Staffing is a term that refers to the management of employee schedules. interview. training and developing organizational personal. Depending on the size. so that their strategies could be very different. because it could assist the company to stay more competitive within the industry. More and more companies have noticed a good staffing plan could increase productivity and reduce operation costs in terms of lower turnover rate and transition costs.

Managers must first set standards of performance for workers. This process also includes correcting situations in which the goals and objectives are not being met. For example. This is a standard that must then be communicated to managers who are supervising workers. in the modular home assembly process. and then to the workers so they know what is expected of them. . the standard might be to have a home completed in eight working days as it moves through the construction line. These standards are levels of performance that should be met.Controlling: The controlling function involves the evaluation activities that managers must perform. There are several activities that are a part of the controlling function. It is the process of determining if the company's goals and objectives are being met.

"Leadership is a winning combination of personal traits and the ability to think and act as a leader. “Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve organizational goals. These goals may or may not coincide: Participants actively engage in defining and redefining the goal for the group and for themselves. Anyone can be a leader. They all march through town surrounded by a crowd waving flags. even if the only person they’re leading is themselves. to thousands of people gathered in a plaza.1 Definition of leadership Leadership is a fascinating subject for many people. Or an enthusiastic orator delivers an energetic speech. Draft." However there is so many definitions of leadership which are given below: According to R. all the parties involved attempt to influence each other in the pursuit of goals. heroic. hands waving in the air. In these unique social dynamics. Leadership is defined in so many different ways that it is hard to come up with a single working definition. We need to look into the dynamic nature of the relationship between leader and followers. understanding leadership is not complete without understanding interactions between a leader and his or her followers. L.” (Leading and . Neither is leadership merely the ability or static capacity of a leader.” According to Bartol and Martin. As I say in 5 Keys to Leadership for Small Business. triumphant individual with a group of followers returning home after winning a national championship or a war against the evil enemy.’ According to stoner. Leadership is not just a person or group of people in a high position. a person who directs the activities of others for the good of all. “Leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task related activities of group members. “Leadership is the process of influence people toward the attainment of organizational goal. The term conjures up a familiar scene of a powerful.PART 3 Leadership) 3.

Goal Achievement Leadership in managing Leadership and motivation For equal distribution Influences the followers behavior 6. but there can be managers only of organized groups. The ability to lead effectively is one of the keys to beings an effective . Leadership in Managing: Leadership is essential for managing. 4. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction. 3. Nature of Leadership Table-1: Nature of leadership Goal Achievement: Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically toward achieving objectives. management. 2. It is the critical factor that an individual or a group identify their goals and then motivates and assists in achieving the stated goals. 5. In facts “leadership” and “Management” are different. There can be leaders of completely unorganized groups. 3. the leader is the inspiration and director of the action.2 Nature of Leadership Leadership derives from power and is similar to. However the nature of leadership is discussed below: 1. Leadership and followership 7. yet distinct from.So we can say.

need and wants. Group members are not powerless. Every group of people that performs satisfactorily has somebody among them who is more skilled than any of them in the art of leadership. Leadership and followership: the essence of leadership is followership. leadership is to be concerned about values. Moreover. In fact. people tend to follow those whom they se as providing a means of achieving their own desires. Influences the follower’s behavior: Leaders can influence the followers’ behavior in a number of ways. By understanding motivation. 3. they can shape group activities in a number of ways.3 Elements / Quality of Leadership Leadership is one of the most talked about. In other words. So we can say. For equal Distribution: Leadership involves an equal distribution of power between leaders and group members.manager because ha has to combine resources and lead a group to achieve objectives. Followers learn ethics and values from their leaders. Leadership and Motivation: leadership and motivation are closely are interconnected. one can appreciate better what people want and why they act as they creating a favorable or Unfavorable working environment in the organization. There are so many elements of leadership which are discussed below: . it is the willingness of people to follow a person that makes that person a leader. written about and researched topics in the field of management. leaders can influence workers either to do ill or well for the company. Still the leader will usually have more power than the group members.

Ability to inspire followers 4. Education 11. • . Communicati on skill 10. Time consciousness 17. Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others. Experience 12. Intelligence 6. Cooperational attitude 9.1. Mentality of taking responsibility 16. Power 2. Organization al knowledge 15. Confident 8. Technical knowledge 14. Trust and coherence 19. Attractive personality 5. Foresightnes s 7. Honesty and Uprightness 18. Teaching capacity 13. Competition and contribution Elements of Leadership Table-2: Elements of Leadership Power: This is the first ingredient of leadership. Ability to understanding people 3. The word potential suggest that one can have power without actually using it.

controlling and motivate the workers. • Technical knowledge: It is a knowledge which helps a leader to understand the technical problem and solve them. He can take a large part of responsibility of the organization. • Ability to inspire followers: inspiration to do something usually comes from leaders. • Attractive personality: The personality of a leader is important element to attract employees himself. It helps to get expected work from them. • Foresightness: It is a kind if elements of a leader which help to take decision for future what to do. • Communication skill: It helps a leader to maintain a good relation with the external resources of the organization. who may have qualities of charm and appeal that give rise to loyalty. legitimate power. Knowledge about environment and Mentality of taking responsibility. • Ability to understanding people: It is not enough to know the theoretical aspects of motivation. reward power. referent power. coercive power. • Education: Education is a grate matter of leadership. devotion and a strong desire of need satisfaction. • Experience: Experience helps a leader to maintain the organization perfectly.However.4 Importance of Leadership . An experienced leader can allocate of resources bitterly. 3. • Teaching capacity: Teaching capacity is a element which help teach employs as a qualified workers. it is include expert power. • Organizational knowledge: organizational knowledge helps a leader to maintain the organizational activities. • Confident: It is a essential elements of a leader. • Intelligence: It is help a leader to get decisions in many problems and situation. • Co-operational attitude: It helps to co-operate and maintain a good relation between leaders and subordinates. A educated leader can understand the environment and situation of the organization. haw to do and even how those problem can be solved. Honesty and Uprightness. The more important is the ability of the manager to apply them to real people and situation. • Other: There are some other elements which is also help to leaders maintain the organization effectively those are Time consciousness. A better confident can finished half of the work.

The importance of leadership is discussed below: 1. 8. To achieve the organizational goal people should make in unit. Importance of Leadership Table-3: Importance of Leadership Creating Unity: ‘Unity is strength’. Increasing effectiveness. Creating unity.Any unit or Organization could not go without leadership. 2. . Upholding cooperation. Developing relationship. 3. Developing morale. A good leadership can make the people in unit. 5. Enhancing team spirit. 4. Aid to attaining goal. Because without unity of the people it is very difficult to achieve organizational goals. Aid to applying authority. Enhancing team sprit: It is an important task of the leader to move the group of people to attempt the achievement of the goal. 7. leadership is very important. So. If the good leadership is not present any organization there will be seen disorder. 6.

Increasing effectiveness: The slandered leadership helps to increase the effectiveness on the activities of organizational employes or subordinates. Developing relationship: It is so important that make a good relation between leaders and employees. Surround yourself with trusted advisors and associates 8. Deal with others on the basis of facts. Under a good leadership employees are likely to work with high morality. If a good cooperation present in an organization that goal turn easy to achieve or gain. 6. easily and sharply. Upholding co-operation: Co-operation between leaders and employees is very important for any kind of organization.Aid to attaining goal: To get the final goal leaders should help the subordinates to work correctly because the knowledge of a leader is very essential to the subordinates. not conjecture 10. 2. 3. Get out and about 1. 12. Good relationship makes the organizational working environment favorable to work. not . 4. 5. Deal with others on the basis of facts. Always respect others 9.5 Principles of Leadership: Be a positive example and role model Model the behavior and thinking of the best Seek feedback and learn from it Competitively seek out new challenges Set the bar high for yourself and for others Take intelligent action on the basis of robust plans 7. Have a sense of humor 11. 3. So a good leadership is very important for achieving the organizational goal by increasing the effectiveness on working. Aid to applying authority: It is important that delegations of authority have to apply correctly to the subordinates. A good leader can delegate the authority to appropriate position which helps the subordinate to work properly. Developing morale: A good leader can easily developing the morale of the subordinate.

o Model the behavior and thinking of the best: This is the counterpart of being a role model and setting a positive example for others. Correcting poor leadership should be on the top of every executive’s agenda for improvement. The principles are discussed below: Principles of leadership Table-4: Principles of leadership Be a positive example and role model: Leadership is the art of influencing others to achieve a desired goal or outcome. Many leadership mistakes can be corrected if managers and executives understand and apply a few simple yet powerful principles. Being a positive example and role model is the most direct means of influencing others and gaining their respect. The best and fastest way to learn just about anything is to model the thinking and o . A principle-centered approach is premised on the idea that leadership can be systematically taught and learned. Following it is one of the quickest and surest ways to achieve leadership mastery.conjecture 13. The following list of principles represents a distillation of leadership expertise.

Even more important. In many ways. o Surround yourself with trusted advisors and associates: Leadership entails accountability for actions and behavior. this makes inherent sense. “Any wind is a fair wind when you don’t know your destination”. but also observe your own behavior and results and admit when you have erred. The ability to admit mistakes means that you will learn from them that much faster. this is the royal road to gaining the experience and exposure you need to attain leadership mastery. More importantly. With that said. It also opens you up to undue influence by others. many people meander aimlessly in their professional and personal lives. This doesn’t mean doing mea culpa and bowing your head in shame. Lack of goals – any goals – leads to wasted energy and a lack of purpose. you project a lack of vision and vigor. o Competitively seek out new challenges: Great leaders are not afraid of stretching themselves and taking risks. Unfortunately. assess the effects. you must be able to accept criticism. When you think about it. The best plans are generated from a variety of assumptions about outcomes and effects and address foreseeable contingencies. this principle expands on the preceding one. Assuming you’re reasonably intelligent and a quick study. prices. o Set the bar high for yourself and for others: As the old saying goes. The . then you will have an eye out for opportunities to learn and excel.behavior of someone who already knows what they are doing. If you know what you are trying to achieve. This is the only truly effective way to learn anything. no person is an island. This is why plans should be sufficiently robust that they will not become irrelevant in the face of change or as new information appears. without seeing through rose colored glasses. they take action. It is also critical to make realistic forecasts about costs. o Seek feedback and learn from it: This technique is the logical extension of modeling the behavior of others. In order to do so effectively. They accept their fear and use willpower to overcome it. and adjust their plans as they go along. and performance. o Take intelligent action on the basis of robust plans: Eiders must take a major role in planning and organizing for action. Another advantage of this principle is that you will stand out for your competitive spirit and ambition.

o Always respect others: A key function of leaders is to bring people of varying backgrounds and competencies together to form a cohesive team. o Get out and about: If you don’t ask. when used adroitly. whatever the circumstances. This doesn’t include making light of real problems or mocking others. Asking for advice is not a sign of weakness but rather one of confidence and poise. Talk to people. a client’s. Things take a bad turn. emotional distress. One study has shown that lack of respect towards employees can be a major cause of workplace stress. but self-deprecating humor.leadership demands in positions of high responsibility are such that no one person can be expected to have all the answers to every single issue that crops up. One thing we can be sure of. All effective leaders. If you can laugh at yourself and your situation. you won’t know. surround themselves with teams of advisors and associates. no matter what the field. he questions your motivation and even questions your integrity in not coming forward yourself to seek his counsel. and their responsibilities. However. their tasks. You’ll be surprised at what you’ll learn. It’ll be hard to take. when he starts telling you that he thinks you’re lazy and that you don’t have the smarts to do the job you were hired to do. Moreover. The advisors should know the leader and not be afraid to tell it like it is. you’re more likely to learn and be open to novel solutions. most people love to talk about their projects. o Deal with others on the basis of facts. not conjecture: Your boss calls you into his office and you have a queasy feeling that you might get criticized for your performance of late. Before you know it. and even burnout. It is essential to motivation and provides a healthy environment to build high morale and cooperation. though. Ask them questions. Simply asking someone where they’re from and what they do. but you’re open to constructive criticism. people will recognize you as down-to-earth and approachable. nothing saps this function more than a lack of respect. can endear you to others faster than any other method I can think of. o Have a sense of humor: here’s nothing worse than working for or with a sourpuss. or even a . whether in your own organization. I am constantly amazed when I see managers and executives who fail to capitalize on this simple approach to find out what’s happening.

because it’s more than likely wrong. The key element is to be consistent in their application. as well as openness to feedback. Try it and you’ll soon be “in the know”." The distinction is crucial. opinion. But the leader must know it better and in a different way. and collected: No one respects a leader who gets easily frazzled and angry at the slightest provocation. but this can be deceptive. at least initially. That takes resolve and persistence. course. to conduct. and they are well worth the time and effort to learn and master.6 Leadership vs. stay cool. partisan interest or prejudice. towards objective truth. S/he must grasp the essential facts and the underlying forces that determine the past and present trends in the business. always validate the information you get. The manager is a copy. guiding in direction. action. 3. the leader develops. This sounds easy. but in reality it takes enormous self-control and personal mastery to pull it off. Manager Both a manager and a leader may know the business well. calm. The manager maintains. The difference may be summarized as activities of vision and judgment — effectiveness —versus activities of mastering routines — efficiency. One telling sign of a good leader is an honest attitude towards the facts. When faced with a crisis." "Leading" is "influencing. the leader innovates. A subjective leader obscures the facts for the sake of narrow selfinterest. o In a crisis. There are techniques and tools to deal with these situations. avoid overreacting. and to seek constant feedback to maximize learning. These principles can be the basis of a focused leadership development program for managers and executives. The chart below indicates key words that further make the distinction between the two functions: • • • The manager administers. so that s/he can generate a vision and a strategy to bring about its future. and both are important "To manage" means "to bring about.competitor’s can yield a wealth of information and intelligence. doesn’t mean that it can be easily and consistently applied. the leader is an original. both negative and positive. . They are conceptually quite simple. Here is a profound difference between management and leadership. Also. Just because a technique or a principle is simple. Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. to accomplish. to have charge of or responsibility for.

the leader is his or her own person. • The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line. Leading is influencing. the leader has a long-range perspective. course. the leader innovates. The manager accepts reality. the leader asks what and why. opinion. the leader originates. the leader challenges it. the leader investigates it. • The manager relies on control. • The manager asks how and when. The manager focuses on systems and structure. The manager focuses on systems and structure. the leader develops. while poor managers are bureaucrats in the worst sense of the word. to accomplish. the leader is an original.7 “A manager is a leader but a leader may not always be a manager”—explain. and both are important. The manager is a copy. So the difference between manager and leader are given below: The manager administers. • The manager has a short-range view. There is a profound difference between management and leadership. the leader has his or her eye on the horizon. • The manager is the classic good soldier. • • The most dramatic differences between leaders and managers are found at the extremes: poor leaders are despots. • • • • • . the leader investigates it. The manager maintains. 3. To manage means to bring about. the leader inspires trust. • The manager accepts the status quo. the leader inspires trust. • The manager does things right. the leader focuses on people. action. guiding in a direction. When we are understand and discuss the different between the manager and leader we can realize that. both have their place and managers must also perform as leaders. • The manager imitates. All first-class managers turn out to have quite a lot of leadership ability. the leader does the right thing. to have charge of or responsibility for.The manager accepts reality. Whilst leadership is a human process and management is a process of resource allocation. However ‘A manager is a leader but a leader may not always be a manager’. and to conduct. the leader focuses on people. The distinction is crucial. • The manager relies on control.

property and process. the leader does the right thing. the leader has his or her eye on the horizon. the leader challenges it. So he may not be a manager.” • Leadership is a process: Many contemporary definitions often reject the idea that leadership revolves around the • .8 “Leadership is both a process & property”—explain. • The manager asks how and when. the leader originates. People who rely on this theme agree that it involves certain actions and objectives. However. building trust among colleagues and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential. the leader is his or her own person. ethics. leadership is a set of qualities attributed to those who are perceived to successfully employ them while achieving certain objectives. Probably the least popular among them might be the one centered on the position theme. He maintains all the activities of organization. leadership is both of process and property we can understand leadership as a process and as a property. the leader has a long-range perspective. charisma. After examining great many definitions we can say that there are three broad themes defining leadership — as an act. There have been more than 65 broad classifications of leadership. values. leadership is the result of a position or designation that a person adorns. character. • The manager does things right. • The manager imitates. • The manager accepts the status quo. • The manager is the classic good soldier. ‘A manager is a leader but a leader may not always be a manager’. knowledge and skills that help in accomplishing those objectives. that is. For example. These are discussed below: Leadership is a property: As per this theme. Warren Bennis’ leadership definition focuses on the capability of the leader: “Leadership is a function of knowing yourself. This comment is true because a leader is the developer and original characteristics of an organization. the leader asks what and why. having a vision that is well communicated. It is good that it is not well-accepted because it misses all key points about the purpose and hallmarks of effective leadership. • The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line. but for them more important are beliefs.The manager has a short-range view. • We can say. 3.

A good leader improves the loyalty and commitment of employees towards the conducive to high performance. members and sometimes outside constituencies. Leadership is the ability to peruse others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically.’ . ‘The will to do is triggered by leadership and lukewarm desires for achievement are transformed into a burning passion for successful accomplishments by the skillful use of leadership. the essence of leadership is not the leader. behavior. scholars like Joseph Rost discuss the basic nature of leadership in terms of the ‘interaction’ among the people involved in the process: both leaders and followers. He gives character to the group and sets the lone of the organization.leader’s ability. Every individual has potentiality. Thus. A dynamic leader life into the group and makes people eager to work towards the achievement of group goals. relational process involving interactions among leaders. building the cohesiveness of the group and making resources available to the group. but the relationship. 3. leadership is not the work of a single person. leadership may be performed by one or many members of the group. Today.9 “Leadership transforms potentiality into reality”— explain. it can be defined as a collaborative endeavor among group members. In principle. but this potentiality is not explored or exposed it has no implication. According to George R. Rather. Leadership thinkers Darwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander agree with this definition. It is a dynamic. style or charisma. “Leadership is about moving the group toward its goals by improving the quality of interactions among the members. Sound leadership carets an urge for accomplishment and transforms potential into performance. So leadership is both of process and property. Teny.” they say. Therefore.

you are short on time. and experience and value system. and motivating people. . and your employees are well motivated. free rein and paternalistic leadership. Authority leadership is including autocratic. It is the result of leader’s philosophy. likerts styles. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership.1 Styles of leadership Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction. The total pattern of explicit and implicit leader’s actions as seen by employees is called leadership style. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. managerial grid and continuum. It also depends upon the types of followers and organizational atmosphere prevailing in the enterprise.2 Leadership based on Authority The way in which a leader uses power establishes a type of style. Figure-2: leadership style 4.PART 4 (Leadership Styles) 4. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem. personality.2(a) Autocratic Leadership Autocratic style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished. without getting the advice of their followers. democratic. implementing plans. Leadership can be classified into a variety of styles on the basis of authority. Figure-3: Leadership based on Authority 4.

the leader maintains the final decision making authority. rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. the leader allows the employees to make the decisions.this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -.2(b) Democratic Leadership This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). 4. rather it is an abusive. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees. then you should use the participative style. unprofessional style called bossing people around. However. and your employees have other parts. and leading by threats and abusing their power. Using this style is not a sign of weakness. using demeaning language. Using this style is of mutual benefit -. It has no place in a leader's repertoire.it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.2(c) Free reins Leadership The leadership styles which allow maximum freedom to followers may be called free rein leadership. Figure-5: Democratic Leadership This is normally used when you have part of the information.Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling. In this style. Figure-4: Autocratic leadership The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. This is not the authoritarian style. 4. Figure-6: Free rein Leadership . It gives employees a high degree of independence in their operations.

and keep his followers happily working together as members of a family. He provides them with good working conditions and employee services.However. It is said that employees under such leadership will work leader out of gratitude.’ Organizations at present have widely varying types of management style and Likert has identified four main systems: Figure-7: likerts leadership style 4. and he asserts that to achieve maximum profitability. Rensis Likert has conducted much research on human behavior within organizations. He has examined different types of organizations and leadership styles. particularly in the industrial situation. is ‘highly effective work groups linked together in an overlapping pattern by other similarly effective groups. every organization must make optimum use of their human assets. This styles has been successful. good labor relations and high productivity. He works to help. 4. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong.3 Likerts four styles of managerial Leadership Dr.authoritative system: . and have a sincere desire to go ahead and perform with responsibility.2(d) Paternalistic Leadership A leadership in which the leader behaves with the followers of paternally or fatherly is called paternalistic leadership. This mood of leadership produces good and quick result if the followers are highly educated and brilliant. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.3(a) Exploitive . guide. he form of the organization which will make greatest use of the human capacity. particularly in Japan because of its cultural background. His attitude is that of treating the relationship between the leader and the group as that of family with the leaders as the head of family. 4. Likert contends. protect. the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below authority.

where managerial personnel feel responsibility but lower levels do not.3(d) Democratic system: which is the optimum solution. This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. resilience. The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y. where motivation is by rewards and some involvement. where high levels of management have great responsibilities but lower levels have virtually none.4 Leadership styles in managerial Grid The managerial grid model (1964) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. where there is some communication (both vertical and horizontal) and a moderate amount of teamwork. complete confidence in their subordinates.Where decisions are imposed on subordinates. where motivation is by economic rewards based on goals which have been set in participation. where there is much communication. where motivation is mainly by rewards. This style identified five basic leadership styles of practicing managers representing various combinations of the aforesaid two dimensions as shown in the following figure: . where a high proportion of personnel.3(b) Benevolent . 4.3(c) Consultative system: Where leadership is by superiors who have substantial but not complete trust in their subordinates. and a substantial amount of cooperative teamwork. 4. 4. The theory was updated with two additional leadership styles and with a new element.autocratic system: Where leadership is by a condescending form of master-servant trust. where there is little communication and relatively little teamwork. where motivation is characterized by threats. 4. especially those at the higher levels feel responsibility for achieving organization goals. where personnel at all levels feel real responsibility for the organizational goals. where there is very little communication and no joint teamwork. where leadership is by superiors who have.

Managers use this style to preserve job and job seniority. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y. 4.4(d) Middle of the road Management: Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and workers' needs. high concern is paid both to people and production. conflict is inevitable.Figure-8: style of managerial grid 4. apathetic and indifferent. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes.4(b) Task Management: Men are commodities just as machines. By giving some concern to both people and production. which results in less innovative decisions. This method relies heavily on making employees feel they to be constructive parts of the company. protecting themselves by avoiding getting into trouble. A manager’s responsibility is to plan.4 (c) Country club Management: This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. Effective production is unobtainable because people are lazy.4(a) Impoverished Management: In this style. 4. 4. managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. It deals with high concern for people but low concern for production. in hopes that this will increase -performance. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees.4(e) Team Management: In this style.5 Leadership Continuum . The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly. but not necessarily very productive. managers who use this style hope to achieve suitable performance but doing so gives away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are met. managers have low concern for both people and production. direct and control the work of subordinates. 4. 4. Sound relationship are difficult to achieve.

boss and subordinates centered leadership. leadership inclination. need of subordinates for independence. experience and value system. 4. feeling of security in an uncertain situation etc.5(b) Forces relating to the subordinates: These include readiness of subordinates to assume responsibility for making decisions. his confidence in subordinates. Figure-9: Leadership continuum style 4. Tannenbaum and W. interest in the problem at hand. H. Figure-10: leadership style based on Motivation . time constraints etc. nature of the problem itself. More often than not. On the basis of the above forces a manager can choose appropriate leadership style.5(c) Forces related to the situation: These include organizations preferred style. 4. The following diagram shows this continuum: 4. It specifies five styles between two extremes. size and nature of work group.R.6 Style based on Motivation Motivational style is the way in which leader motivates their employees to do work willingly. managers lean toward the leadership style favored by the organizations top boss.5(a) Forces relating to the manager / leader: These include manager’s personality. These are positive leadership and negative leadership. tolerance for ambiguity etc. Schmit have displayed the wide range of leadership on a continuum that moves from authoritarian to free rein. It can be classified into two classes. knowledge to deal with the problem. expectations about sharing in decisions making. group effectiveness.

An atmosphere of free and open thinking and sharing of creative ideas drives decisions and interaction. Leaders who fall in the category of negative leadership generally have very little trust in their teams and micro-manage to an extreme degree. greater demands for independence and other factors have made satisfactory employee motivation more dependent on positive leadership. 4. believe that they get results by keeping people constantly busy and urging them to produce.driven decisions and trust in team members are extremely important. Finally we can say that a manager can choose appropriate leadership styles from the above forces.7 Orientation Leadership Orientation styles refer to emphasis either on men or production. Disagreement is expected and even encouraged. Leaders on the positive side create partnerships with their team members. employees and associates. company policies. They make statements like? I’m absolutely convinced that this is the way to go! What’s your opinion? Statements like that generally encourage very few responses. Consensus. provide psychological support and help employees with their problem. On the basis of orientation leadership style is of two types: Figure-11: Orientation Leadership Styles Consideration Leadership: Considerate employee oriented. They inhibit creativity by minimizing shared decisions and participatory discussions. They try to build teamwork. leaders and concerned about the human need of their employees. . To get work done. they hold over their performed in the presence as loss of job. Better employee education. On the other hand. and organizational protocol. called task oriented leaders. These leaders get things done by forcing their employees or team members to follow strict guidelines. Conflict often brings out the truly important issues and paves the way for the most effective solutions and agreements. Structure Leadership: Structured.Positive Leadership: Leaders in this category rely on a more participatory style. Negative Leadership: Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. If the approach emphasizes rewards economic or otherwise the leader uses positive leadership.

There seems to be little support for a universal set of personality traits common to all successful leaders. The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained. 5. In industrial and organizational psychology. and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Leadership theory is broadly six in number. one would be able to identify good leaders. certain key personality traits. motivated and high performing. These are: Figure-12: Theories of Leadership 5. See also universal behaviors.1 Leadership Theories Leadership is a key ingredient in having effective management. Since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership. All forms of leadership are important to the organization. various theories that have been put forward to explain the successful or unsuccessful performance of leaders.PART 5 (Theories of Leadership) 5. from top management to first-line management. This theory is also known as the ‘great man’ theory of leadership. Whether you have a small organization or large organization. The recent and well known situational theories of leadership are: . or at least display. employees are committed. The theory that successful leaders have certain personality characteristics or leadership traits that make it possible for them to be successful leaders in any situation.3 Situational / contingency theories of Leadership Situational Leadership has been one of the most successful and enduring leadership models or system. having effective leadership is essential.2 Trait theory of Leadership Trait Leadership Theory is actually a range of theories which share the belief that all leaders are born with. When leaders are effective. if one could identify people with the correct traits.

3(a) Fiedlers contingency Theory of Leadership: This theory is mentioned that people become leader not only their qualities but also various situational factors. There are two elements of maturity level.3(b) Hersey and Blancherd’s situational theory of Leadership The Situational Leadership method from Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey holds that managers must use different leadership styles depending on the situation. Even lead the same person one way sometimes and another way at other times. These four maturity stage are: • • people are nighters component nor confident people are motivated but currently lack appropriate skills . These three dimensions are: 1. for good relationship. best or proper style of leadership has to select. This theory also showed the three dimensions. when the situation will be favorable or non favorable.Figure-13: Situational / contingency theories of Leadership 5. These two styles are • • Task oriented Relationship oriented He measures leadership style by means of a controversial questionnaire called the LPC or least preferred coworker measure. 3. Besides. Fiedlers identified two styles of leadership. 2. leadership style should vary from one person to another. The leader and member relationship The degree of task structure The leaders positional power Above three dimensions shows that. 5. Depending on employees' competences in their task areas and commitment to their tasks. it is important that leadership style have to select on the basis followers maturity level. these are: • • job maturity psychological maturity From this theory we get four stage of maturity of subordinates or employees. This theory mentioned that.

3(c) vroom theory of leadership Vroom theory focusing on the subordinate’s participation in decision making. • • 5. But leaders should be encouraged or motivated to the subordinates for making decision. • Consult (individually): the manager presents the program to the group members individually. Decisions have to make basis on the characteristics of the situation. • 5. People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them. manager presents the problem to the group at a meeting. If the success of leaders can be defined in terms of the describable actions of a person. then it should not be difficult for other people to act in the same way. and then makes the decisions. the manager makes the decision alone and then seals or announces it to the group. but rather they look for what leaders actually do. • Consult (group): in this style. not born. rather than relying on ephemeral notions of 'traits' and 'capabilities' which are only vaguely defined. which relies on psychometric assessment which divides people into those with leadership potential and those who will never become leaders. • Facilitate: this style shows that. gets their suggestions and then makes the decisions. Behavioral theories of leadership do not look for inborn traits or capabilities in an individual. gets their suggestions. define the problem and its boundaries or limitations.People are able but unwilling to do what the leaders want. the manager present the problem to group members at a meet5ing. • Delegate: The manager allows the group to define for itself the exact nature and parameters of the problem and then to develop a solution. This gives something concrete to teach and learn. A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop by simply assessing leadership success and the actions of leaders. Using a large study . then facilitates group members discussion as they make the decision. There are five styles for decision making thus are: Decide: Firstly. The fact that leadership can be learned rather than simply being inherent in a person opens a floodgate to leadership development compared to Trait Theory.4 Behavioral Theory of Leadership Behavioral theory assumes that leaders are made.

These are discussed below: Leadership Figure-14: Behavioral Theory of 5. Many behavioral scientists have attempted to identify appropriate behavioral patterns of leadership styles. these studies narrowed the description of leader behavior into two dimensions: Initiating structure behavior: The behavior of leaders who define the leader subordinate role so that everyone knows what is expected.4(a) Michigan University Studies The institute for social research at the University of Michigan conducted empirical studies to identify styles of leader behavior that result in higher performance and satisfaction of a group. and determine how task will be performed. The employee centered approach led to improved work-flow procedure and more cohesion in interactions resulting in increased satisfaction and decreased turnover and absenteeism. friendly and supportive climate. it is possible to correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. • . • 5. The studies identified two distinct styles of leadership: Job centered leadership: Managers using job centered leader behavior pay close attention to subordinates work. Ultimately. The Michigan studies found that it was slightly more in case of production of job centered style. explain work procedures and keenly interested in performance. • Employee centered Leadership: managers using employees centered leader behavior are interested in developing a cohesive work group and ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs.4(b) Ohio state leadership studies The leadership studies initiated by the bureau of research at Ohio state university attempted to identify various dimensions of leader behavior.sample. Some of the important contributions in this regard include Michigan University Studies and Ohio State Studies. establish formal lines of communication. • Consideration behavior: The behavior of leaders who are concerned for subordinates and attempt to establish a worm.

The revised version also argues that the leader engages in behaviors that complement subordinate's abilities and compensate for deficiencies. This variation in approach will depend on the situation. The path-goal model can be classified both as a contingency and as a transactional leadership theory. including the follower's capability and motivation. A low score on one does not require high score on the other. is a leadership theory in the field of organizational studies developed by Robert House. leadership behavior can be plotted on two separate axes rather than on a single continuum. an Ohio State University graduate.The research studies also showed that initiating stricture and consideration are two distinct dimensions and not mutually exclusive. as shown is following diagram: High Consideration And Low structure Low Consideration And Low structure High Consideration High structure And High consideration High structure And Low Consideration low (Low)……initiating structure……… (high) Figure-15: Consideration behavior theory 5. as well as the difficulty of the job and other .5 Path Goal Theory of Leadership The path-goal theory. motivation and performance of his subordinates. in 1971 and revised in 1996. The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership was developed to describe the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy. The theory states that a leader's behavior is contingent to the satisfaction. also known as the path-goal model. Hence.

This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower is inexperienced. boring or hazardous. This approach is best when the task is complex. High standards are demonstrated and expected. How the quality in question would be ultimately judged from an ethical.6 Charismatic leadership Theories Charismatic Leadership is defined by Max Weber as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity. superhuman. but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary. This includes giving them schedules of specific work to be done at specific times. House and Mitchell (1974) describe four styles of path goal leadership: Figure-16: Path Goal Theory of Leadership Supportive leadership: Considering the needs of the follower. showing concern for their welfare and creating a friendly working environment. Achievement-oriented leadership: Setting challenging goals. and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him". This includes increasing the follower's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader. Analyzing political and religious leaders.contextual factors. or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. both in work and in self-improvement. aesthetic. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and hence is appropriate to the situation. These are such as are not accessible to the ordinary person. He defines Charisma as "a certain quality of an individual personality. Robert House . This approach is best when the work is stressful. heroism or exemplary character of an individual person. 5. by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural. The leader shows faith in the capabilities of the follower to succeed. or other such point of view is naturally indifferent for the purpose of definition". This approach is best when the followers are expert and their advice is both needed and they expect to be able to give it. Participative leadership: Consulting with followers and taking their ideas into account when making decisions and taking particular actions. Directive leadership: Telling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriate guidance along the way. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity decreased.

developed this theory. respect and trust. o Inspiration: He communicates high expectations.7 Transformational Leadership Theory Picking the idea of transformational process in which charismatic leaders can play curtail role in meeting the challenge of dramatic change. o Individual consideration: He gives personal attention. o Intellectual stimulation: He promotes intelligence and rationality and also coaches and advises. To him. o From the field studied it is reported that transformational leader engenders higher levels of identification and internalization and have . treats each employee individually. instills pride and gains. this theory has evolved burns identifies transactional and transformational types of political leadership. and willingly seek to fulfill its purpose. Ethical charismatic leader creates transformation in organizations by motivating members in such a way the they voluntarily identify with the organization. charismatic leaders are said to possess superior debating and persuasive skills and technical expertise. Characteristics and approaches of transformational leader are listed below: Contingent reward: the transformational leader contracts exchange of reward for effort. o Laissez Faire: He abdicates responsibilities and avoids decision making. and expresses important purposes in simple ways. Transformational Leaders Characteristics and his approaches are discussed hereunder: Charisma: He provides vision and sense of mission. o Management by exception (Active): he watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards governing action and initiates slandered are not met. to foster attitudinal. it’s slandered of conduct. uses symbols to focus efforts. promises rewards for good performance and recognizes accomplishments. 5. o b. o Management by exception (passive): He intervenes only when standard are not met. coaches and advises. a. behavioral and emotional changes in their followers.

plans. investors. we tend to use the terms "leadership" and "management" interchangeably. Put even more simply. such as strategies. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction. meetings and presentations. the leader is the inspiration and director of the action. theory. Beside this there are some factor. or to individuals who are actually managers as the "leaders" of various management teams. style etc. We gathered knowledge about the leadership. productivity. and surrounding community. Effective leaders are those who increase their companies' bottom lines. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. In business. Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees. rules. referring to a company's management structure as its leadership. Its skill. vendors. . Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. PART 6 Conclusion and recommendations: Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. environment and models of leadership which help a leader to understand organizational activities.better performance from subordinates. Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum. leadership is welded to performance. market leadership. quality. customers. To further confuse the issue. and reliability. it helps us to maintaining the organization effectively.

Without understanding leadership maintain the management process is not reliable. Mainul Islam and DR. George. Dhaka 1100. So. elements. Franklin (Principles of Management) A. factor. values. relationships. Robert J. Abdul awal khan. (1967). (Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons. but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. 6. (A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. theories. styles. The ideal is not to lock yin to a type of behavior discussed in the model.(Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation) New York: Free Press.com) 9. Md. principles to be a effective leader. Leadership teach us different skill. Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. rewards. DR.T.) New York: McGraw-Hill. and concepts make up the organization's "personality" or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. (www. 5.S. Richard L. Fiedler. the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. 3. Web site: .) New York: Dryden Press.I.B. (1999). R. (1996). Leadership report 2008. Two models will be discussed. Griffin (Management) Houghton Mifflin company Boston New work. This personality defines the roles. Terry and Stephen G.paperarticles. 4. and rites that take place. Bass. 8. Legacy and a Reformulated Theory. leadership is a important process of management. Bernard M. 2. Ricky W. they will not be displayed. If there are images in this attachment. House. (Leadership: Theory and Practice. Download the original attachment BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.These goals. (Fundamentals of Management) Abir publications. Delhi. Fred E. publishers and distribution. Daft. Banglabazar. (1985).) 7.

a global management consultancy.wikipedia.businessworld. McKee.com.org.com www.relative to strategic business objectives.docstoc.com www. there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb.com www.bnet.answers.com www.org www.com.answers.ehow.com www. En.librarything. They found that: Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. 2004).highbeam.  2.changemind. According to a study by the Hay Group.  Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing . www. o Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: o Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. www.com www.coursehero.com Appendix The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership 1.  Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.           www. Factors of leadership .yahoo.

Also. and what he can do. and motivation. For example. straightforwardness. emotions. and do attributes. For instance. not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. integrity. not his superiors. • Situation: All are different. when he "set the example. a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. then they will be uninspired. that he worthy of being followed. • Leader: A leader must have an honest understanding of whom his are. candor. perform selfless service. but if the confrontation is too late or too early. note that it is the followers. • Communication: A leader led through two-way communication. What he do in one situation will not always work in another. too harsh or too weak. what he know. For example. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader. know. then the results may prove ineffective. BE a professional who possess good character traits: Examples: Honesty. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between him and his employees. and take personal responsibility. Attributes of Leadership: To be such a leader. courage.Factor of leadership Follower: Different people require different styles of leadership. A leader must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. Much of it is nonverbal. A leader must know his people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature. To be successful he have to convince his followers. commitment. competence. He must come to know his employees' be. such as needs." that communicates to his people that you would not ask them to perform anything that he would not be willing to do. • 3. . imagination. there is a Leadership Framework to guide him: BE a professional: Examples: Be loyal to the organization. he may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior.

and skills. planning. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. leader. train. communication. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with. KNOW human nature: Examples: Human needs. new task and behaviors are expected of the present role-holder because a strong relationship . DO provide direction: Examples: goal setting. KNOW yourself: Examples: strengths and weakness of your character. the greater the liking. emotions. there is prestige attached to a role. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior for several reasons. evaluating. That is. KNOW your job: Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. how often. and a sense of accomplishment or challenge. coordinating. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. counsel. problem solving. KNOW your organization: Examples: where to go for help. and we tend to seek out those we like. supervising. Also normally the greater the interaction. coach. its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with. who the unofficial leaders are. People tend to do what they are rewarded for. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. most are carried out in relationship with others. 4. decision making. While some tasks are performed alone. to include money being paid for the performance of the role. DO motivate: Examples: develop morale and esprit de corps in the organization. its climate and culture.KNOW the four factors of leadership: follower. In human behavior. knowledge. and how people respond to stress. and towards what end. and friendship is a powerful reward. DO implement: Examples: communicating. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. and situation. Roles ad Relationships of Leadership Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent.

Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief. Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural. the leader is an advocate. the leader is a pushover. support. While in an ineffective leadership situation. whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. whose leadership style is coalition and building. they are visible and accessible. 5.was developed in the past. avocation. Leadership Structural Framework: Framework Approach of In an effective leadership situation. they assess the distribution of . whose leadership style is manipulation? Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get. While in an ineffective leadership situation. Political. the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support. the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. share information. Structural Leaders focus on structure. While in an ineffective leadership situation. Four Framework Approach of Leadership In the Four Framework Approach. Political Framework: In an effective leadership situation. implementation. and move decision making down into the organization. Human Resource. and empowerment. or Symbolic. depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations. the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. the leader is a hustler. increase participation. experimentation. strategy. environment. Human Resource Framework: In an effective leadership situation. The style can either be effective or ineffective. and adaptation. either by that role-holder or a prior role-holder. they empower.

Symbolic Framework: In an effective leadership situation. While in an ineffective leadership situation.Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. they build linkages to other stakeholders. o . these leaders use symbols to capture attention. while keeping the pains within your own.Next. the leader is a prophet. o Enable others to act . find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most o Inspire a shared vision . o Encourages the heart . share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. 6. they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences.First.Share the glory with your followers' hearts. the leader is a fanatic or fool. get your hands dirty. whose leadership style is inspiration. The Process of Great Leadership The road to great leadership that is common to successful leaders: Challenge the process . o Model the way .power and interests. and then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. A boss tells others what to do. they discover and communicate a vision.When the process gets tough. a leader shows that it can be done. use persuasion first. whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors? Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions.