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DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex, Sipitang District, Sabah

Executive Summary

Executive Summary
1 Introduction
Sabah Forest Industries Sdn. Bhd. (SFI) began commercial operations in January 1988 as the first and only integrated pulp and paper mill in Malaysia with paper capacity of 144,000 TPA and pulp capacity of 106,000 TPA. Recently acquired by Ballarpur Industries Ltd (BILT) in last mid March 2007, SFI is now seeking to expand their current pulp mill to produce 210,000 TPA of bleached pulp. With this expansion, there will be sufficient pulp to increase SFI’s current annual paper production to 210,000 TPA from current 144,000 TPA. The 98% increase in pulp production will also yield additional market pulp sheet of 63,500 TPA solely for shipping to external paper making facilities. The total saleable paper and pulp after the expansion will be 273,500 TPA. The pulp and paper produced is expected to cater for the international as well as the domestic markets. To cater for the increased demand in power and steam after the expansion, a coal-fired boiler is proposed to generate up to 200 MT/h of steam to subsequently convert to 40 MW power by a new double-extraction condensing turbine generator set. In tandem with this, an on-site secure landfill is proposed to contain the boiler ashes generated as a result of the coal-fired plant and other hazardous wastes delivered from the operation of the mill. The proposed expansion will be integrated with the existing mill (referred to as the Project site) within the SFI Complex in Sipitang District, Sabah without reclamation of new land area. Accessible via the main Sipitang-Sindumin Highway, the mill is located approximately 5.5 km southwest of the township of Sipitang and 151 km from State capital Kota Kinabalu. The Project area size is only 400 ha within the 1,161.05 ha SFI Complex and is about 1.0 km to the east of Brunei Bay coastline. The GPS coordinates (longitude and latitude) taken at one point of the Project site are N 5° 01’27” and E 115° 31’57”.


Purpose of Detailed Assessment (DEIA)



This DEIA was prepared to fulfil the requirements of the environmental legislations in Malaysia. The developments of the proposed pulp and paper mill and its associated ancillary facilities including the coal fired plant and onsite secure landfill are categorized as prescribed activities under the Schedule Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order, 1987 made under Section 34A of the Environmental Quality Act, 1974, described as:-

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Item 8(g) Pulp and paper industry – Production capacity greater than 50 tonnes/day, Item 13(a) Power generation and transmission - Construction of steam generation power stations burning fossils and having a capacity of more than 10 megawatts and item and

Chemsain Konsultant Sdn.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07


DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex, Sipitang District, Sabah

Executive Summary


Item 18(a) iv) Toxic and Hazardous Waste - Construction of secure landfill facility.

A Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment (DEIA) is therefore required for submission to the Department of Environment (DOE) for approval before Project commencement in compliance with Section 34A of the Environmental Quality Act, 1974. The findings from this DEIA are also supplemented by a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) study in order to predict the risk to those who may be affected in the event of an accident. The DEIA study assessed three components: the upgrade of the mill, the proposed on-site coal fired plant and the secure landfill. Thus, this DEIA report shall form the basis on which the environmental concerns related to the Project implementation shall be adequately addressed so that all potential impacts brought about by the Project can be monitored and controlled effectively, to ensure a safe and healthy working and also living environment for the surrounding community.


Statement of Need
The Government has since the early 1990s, emphasized the need to achieve a state of self-sufficiency to reduce import and encourage foreign capital inflow. SFI’s proposal aims to visualize the country’s emphasis to progress towards self-sufficiency in the supply of both pulp and paper at a steady rate, apart from emerging as the local supplier of pulp for paper industries in Malaysia and beyond. Future outlook for potential pulp markets as forecasted by the positive growth in the paper industry, are bright both domestically and globally. The expanded capacity will cater 70% paper to domestic markets and 30% for export. Therefore, investments in the SFI expansion Project and foreign exchange earnings through increased exports will generate revenues to both the local and State Government. Inevitably, the expansion will also create ample job opportunities for both local and region residents. The Project is set to upgrade the existing mill to a higher efficiency and competency by utilising the latest Best Available Technologies (BATs) which will prevent or at least reduce the emissions and impacts to the environment. Up-gradation of the mill is necessary for SFI to gain the economy of scale so as to remain competitive in the market by maintaining the unit production costs. In fact, SFI believes that pollution reduction via waste minimization can render a profitable business by increasing production efficiency. This is apparent in the introduction of elemental chlorine free (ECF) pulp bleaching sequence to replace the elemental chlorine bleaching, which has long been known for its detrimental effects to the environment. The Project is also poised to upgrade the existing 20-year old plant into novelty, thereby reducing the higher risks of mishaps or accidental spills as evidenced in the past due to physical wear and tear of the facilities. The increased demand for power necessitates the need for a coal fired plant. SFI chose coal as they have the assurance to tackle issues associated with coal fired plants, i.e. emission of particulates, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, by adopting the Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs). Moreover, the use of coal in this proposed Project is in line with the Government’s effort to diversify fuel sources for the power generation source in order to reduce the dependency on oil and gas, as clearly seen in the implementation of generation mix policy to achieve the five – fuel diversification strategy covering coal, oil,

Chemsain Konsultant Sdn.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07


DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex, Sipitang District, Sabah

Executive Summary

gas, hydro and renewable energy. The selection of coal as fuel for the proposed mill is attributed to its availability, cheapness, and the low sulphur content which will result in low SOx emission. In line with CCTs, circulating fluidised bed coal (CFBC) technology based plant with supercritical steam cycles will be installed and incorporated with some form of flue gas pollutant control systems and low NOx measures. The boiler is able to use wider range of fuels but generates lower emissions than conventional grate boilers. The combustion efficiency is high due to the effective mixing of the materials and heat transfer between the solid material and the flue gas. NOx emission is relatively low due to the low combustion temperature (800° - 950° Sulphur emissions will be reduced considerably C C). by adding limestone to the bed during combustion. Incidentally, the operation of the coal fired plant will produce ashes that will need to be disposed or managed in a way that is sustainable and affordable. Although SFI prioritises recycling and recovery of waste ashes in their waste management system, nevertheless an on-site secure landfill is still required to help resolve the issue of ash management and functions as the basic system in events of facility/technology failure.


Project Description
The existing SFI pulp mill will be expanded by adopting Best Available Technologies (BATs) not only to produce up to 210,000 TPA of paper from 106,000 TPA bleached pulp, but also to minimise existing environmental non-compliance and future impacts. Bleaching will be done with an ECF sequence. Excess bleached pulp will be sold as market pulp sheet. The total saleable paper and pulp after the expansion will be 273,500 TPA. A coal-fired boiler of CFBC type is proposed to meet the expanded mill’s increased demand in steam and power. Additional 200 MT/hr of steam will be generated to be subsequently converted to 40 MW power by a new double-extraction condensing turbine generator set. The extracted steam (medium and low) will be used in the pulp and paper making process. An on-site secure landfill is necessary for the disposal of ashes from the boiler as well as other process wastes. In summary, the followings are the proposed activities for the expansion: • Installation of a new wood handling plant designed primarily for Acacia but capable of handling Mixed Tropical Hardwood (MTH) to meet the increase in pulp production; The existing digester will be upgraded to compact G2 cooking by adding an IMP Bin and the digester vessel used for extended cooking to increase the production to 750 ADT bleached pulp. Fiber Line will be upgraded with washing process, introduction of oxygen delignification and conversion to Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) bleaching sequence representing today’s Best Available Technologies (BATs); Spill collection system to be upgraded accordingly; Installation of a new Black Liquor evaporator and Recovery Boiler for additional black liquor solids load of 690 TPD;

• •

Chemsain Konsultant Sdn.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07


Installation of 200 ton per hour CFBC steam boiler designed to fire not only coal but mixture of hog chips. Upgrading of paper machines (PM1 and PM2) to produce 210. Additional sheeting /reel wrapping machine upgrade in paper finishing plant.5 TPD to 14 TPD by installing a purchased chlorate-based plant of 8 TPD capacity. and Construction of an on-site secure landfill for safe disposal of boiler ash and other process hazardous wastes. Sabah Executive Summary • Enhancement of the recausticizing plant and lime kiln to meet cooking chemicals requirement. paper mill. Fuelwood Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Sipitang District. Installation of an 880 tons refrigerant chiller to meet all chilling requirement in chemical preparation plant (including the new purchased chlorate-based plant) after expansion. The screened chips are stored in the chips storage piles or entered directly into the digester. power generation plant. pulp mill. • • • • • • • • • • • 4. and effluent treatment plant. New Installation of white liquor oxidation plant of capacity 16 TPD. raw water treatment plant.1 Existing Pulp and Paper Mill The main components of the existing pulp and paper mill are the wood handling plant.000 TPA of paper. New oxygen plant with capacity 20 TPD. After being slashed and debarked in the debarking drum. bleaching plant. The process begins when the wood handling system receives mixed tropical hardwood (MTH) logs from the two forest concessions in Lumaku and Ulu Padas as well as small quantities of short logs.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-4 . New market pulp line of 300 to 350 ADT/day capacity including installation of Noss Cleaners System. store and sell excess chlorine gas. New facility of 8 TPD capacity to bottle. Enhancement of chlorine dioxide production facility from 6. Chilling requirement for new offices and control rooms shall be met by the existing chiller system. Installation of a new air compressor to meet mill air requirement after expansion. Logs are processed in separate lines for making pulpwood and fuelwood chips for pulping and burning.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Installation of a 40 MW rated capacity double-extraction condensing turbine set to meet enhanced need of power and steam as total power demand after Project shall increase up to 56/57 MW from 38 MW today. the pulpwood logs are chipped in the multiknife drop feed chippers. chemical recovery plant. chemical preparation plant. fibrous effluent sludge and oil. Enhancement of water supply treatment and effluent treatment plant as water and effluent quantity is expected to go up by approximately 50% from today’s requirement.

54 m3/s. Sipitang District.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex.63 m3/s of water is required for the consumption of the whole SFI complex.000 GT/month in addition to the existing mixed tropical hardwood (MTH) line. air pollution control equipment and pollution monitoring. The screened de-knotted brown pulp is then washed and thickened before proceeding to the bleaching section. modern paper finishing equipments are used to cut the paper into cut-size and folio sheets. The new line is designed primarily for Acacia but can also handle MTH with restriction in diameter. Existing pollution abatement measures consist of sewer separation. The pulpwood chips are cooked in a Kamyr continuous digester equipped with high-heat washing. After the stock is cleaned in centricleaners. The two lines will be running in parallel with species ratios of 50% MTH: 50% Acacia to gradually 25% MTH: 75% Acacia within four years. The water is treated by in-line prechlorination. sedimentation. and oxygenated alkali as bleaching agents. The mill’s current requirement of process water is 0. it is sent to the finishing house. Black liquor containing chemicals and dissolved lignin from the high-heat washing is sent to the recovery plant. Sabah Executive Summary logs are chipped without prior debarking. coagulation.6 to 0. The treated water is used as process water and for fire protection. Ashes from the power boiler are disposed at an existing disposal site within the SFI complex while recovery boiler ashes are recycled to the process to recover cooking chemicals. the diluted bleached stock (fibre and water mixture) is mixed with broke.2 4. Altogether. Mengalong. and then packed for storage and delivery. Paper is produced on two identical paper machines except that Paper Machine #1is equipped with a size press. Water for the existing pulp and paper mill is supplied from Sg. In the preparation of stock. The brown pulp produced is then discharged into a two-stage pressure/vibratory system to separate knots and uncooked chips. additives. Bleached pulp is then stored in two high density towers.1 Proposed Pulp and Paper Mill after Expansion Wood Handling A new plantation wood handling and preparation system is proposed to cater for the increased wood consumption of 80.2.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-5 . After four years. It is then processed through refiners. The refined stock is then stored in two machine chests before being sent for paper making. The water is reused as white water for stock preparation. chemicals.000 GT/month from 60. it is discharged onto the wire section whereby water is further removed in the press and dryer sections. are stored in the fuelwood chip pile to be burnt in the existing power boiler as fuel. chlorine dioxide. purchased pulp. 0. the new Acacia line will eventually replace the Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Brown pulp is bleached in a 4-stage bleach plant using chlorine. whereas potable water is filtered by activated carbon and chlorinated prior to distribution to the housing areas and administration buildings. together with the oversized chips and pulpwood rejects. white water. filler and starches. 4. and filtration. spill collection and spill reuse system. effluent and treatment. For specific paper-size requirements. Once the paper is slit and rewound by winders. These chips. Power and steam for mill process and entire complex’s consumption is sourced by the recovery boiler 1 and power boiler 1.

The improved cooking and introduction of oxygen delignification process and new ECF bleaching processes will reduce COD load/ton of pulp to the effluent treatment plant.8 BDT/day. 4. rechipper. This is approximately 98% increase from the production capacity of the existing pulp mill. and oxygen production shall all be enhanced to match corresponding needs.000 TPD of steam. Sipitang District.0 BDT/day of hog will be generated. Sulphur dioxide plant capacity.0 TPD to cater for the increased consumption of chlorine dioxide in correspondence to the implementation of the ECF process. The conversion to ECF is in line with the BAT concept to replace elemental chlorine with chlorine dioxide in the first bleaching stage in order to eliminate formation of chlorinated organic substances and dioxins and furans. Consumption of chlorine dioxide per ton of pulp is reduced because of the introduction of oxygen delignification process in the first stage of bleaching which removes a large portion of lignin. 4. only 200.0 to 8. The new line will run at capacity of 295 cm3 solid over bark/hour to provide sufficient pulpwood for cooking in 24 hours of operation and 750 ADt/day of bleached pulp production. precipitated calcium carbonate plant (PCC plant) in situ production facility.3 Chemical Preparation Plant A non integrated purchased chlorate based chlorine dioxide generation plant will be set up with capacity of 8.2. which may have adverse environmental effects in the receiving water i.e.0 gpl.2.0 gpl compared to the current 6. After total conversion to the more efficient Acacia plantation wood pulping line.2 Pulp Mill In the pulp mill. the Brunei Bay. chipper. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. bark crusher and screen.0 gpl of ClO2 in the existing plant. It shall consist of a new debarker. screens.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-6 . which is then burned as biofuel to produce 1. Another chipper may be added in the future. chipper and the ITC is approximately 385. The new and existing ClO2 product streams will be mixed to achieve concentration of between 7. stored and sold. Sabah Executive Summary existing MTH plant as SFI heads towards total utilisation of Acacia mangium as its raw material. Total hog generated from both wood handling plants. Surplus chlorine gases that would no longer be used in the production of ClO2 will be bottled in a new facility. Raw materials will continually be sourced from the forest concessions in Lumaku and Ulu Padas.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. The new plant will produce ClO2 concentration of 10. The total active chlorine requirement is consequently reduced to 40 kg/ADt of pulp from the current 81 kg/ADt of pulp. the existing digester will be upgraded to an extended modified continuous cooking system incorporating a chip feeding system and a two-vessel steam/liquor phase continuous digester retrofitted to compact G2 cooking with a separate vessel for impregnation and the bleaching plant to DHT(EOP)D for a maximum throughput of 750 ADT/ 24 hrs.

Up-gradation of the lime kiln and recausticizing unit will improve economical and environmental features. Thus. The CFBC is equipped with ash handling and bed material recovery systems as well as electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for fly ash removal. The CFBC boiler has wide fuel adaptability. 4. effluent sludge and hog fuel are used as fuels for the CFBC boiler. Burnt lime production capacity in the lime kiln shall be increased accordingly from 150 TPD to 200 TPD with purchased lime make-up of 24 TPD. 4.5 Paper Machine Both existing paper machines (PM1 and PM2) will be upgraded to produce 210. An extra sheeter will be installed in the finishing house.2. reducing formation of SOx considerably.2.2. to cater for the increase. The new items are designed to ensure optimum combustion control and minimum emissions. Limestone is used to capture sulphur during combustion. The steam generated from CFBC boiler is combined with the new RB2 boiler into a single high pressure (HP) steam header before distributing to the double extraction steam turbine which in turn drives a turbo generator with an output voltage of 11kV.7 Raw Water Demand and Treatment The intake station (pump house) and raw water treatment plant will be upgraded to handle the increased water demand after the mill expansion. Sabah Executive Summary 4.3 Coal-Fired Plant The coal fired plant will house a circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) boiler next to the new RB2. Coal.2.500 MT per annum from the excess bleached pulp.4 Chemical Recovery Plant The increase in pulp production means additional black liquor solids load to be recovered is expected. high thermal efficiency and low emission of NOx and SOx pollutants. 4. a new identical capacity of evaporator and recovery boiler is proposed to be installed in addition to the existing unit. Existing compressors can thus be operated at a lower pressure.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-7 . 4. Sipitang District. 4.6 Pulp Sheeting Machine A pulp sheeting machine will be installed to manufacture market pulp sheet of 63. In summary.000 TPA of paper. the coal fired plant is designed with various Chemsain Konsultant Sdn.8 Compressed Air System New compressor and air dryers will be installed with a strategy devised to reduce power consumption for production of compressed air. Coal specifications from four different suppliers are obtained in the DEIA for the selection of the best quality coal with low sulphur content by the Project Proponent.2.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. White liquor active alkali production capacity in the recausticizing plant will be increased from existing design capacity of 180 TPD to 310 TPD.

thus making them unsuitable for burning.e. lime mud. the lifespan of the new secure landfill can be prolonged. coal feeding and deaeration house. boiler house and outdoor ESP. Sabah Executive Summary CCT systems for minimising NOx. SOx and particulate emissions of which the main systems are: • High temperature and high pressure CFBC boiler of 200 t/hr and a condensing turbine generator unit of 40MW including the thermal force system as the auxiliary system. The Project Proponent has proposed that the existing disposal site be retained for containment of solid wastes from the wood yard and log processing plant which are parts of bark that contain too much soil and gravel. 4. Atmospheric emissions. Ash and slag handling system.4 Waste Generation and Proposed Pollutant Abatement System after Expansion Expansion of the mill is expected to inadvertently increase the emissions of potential pollutants. by disposing the soil and gravel from the log yard at the existing disposal site. • • • • 4. Therefore. and waste from the PCC plant. ignition oil.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. steam turbine house. The secure landfill is allocated for the disposal of bottom ashes and wastes from CFBC boiler. limestone handling and desulphurization. adjacent to the existing disposal site. hog ash. 80m high chimney).Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-8 . and Feed water system.0 hectares (300m x 300m) area on the northwest of the pulp and paper mill. Combustion. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. The primary purpose of this is to segregate these wastes from the process wastes which could potentially be classified as hazardous wastes. and Solid wastes. dregs. Main plant building (i. coal yard and coal handling system. installation or up-gradation of various mitigating measures is proposed in the engineering design which encompasses the following main items: • • • • Spill collection system. Effluent and treatment. At the same time. Sipitang District. The soil and gravel at 70% dry solids will be backfilled at the low lying area within the disposal site.5 On-Site Secure Landfill The proposed secure landfill will cover a 9.

with few drainages flowing to the northeast. In some areas low Aeolian sand mounds covers the plain and these have been investigated for silica sand deposits.e. southwest. Typical of a coastal site. Two types of drainage systems are proposed for the secure landfill. The mill is situated on a high. flat plain.2 Meteorology The Project site is situated near Sipitang Town. Factors deriving the lifespan and sizes of the subsequent cells in the later time would depend on the reduced volume of wastes that would eventually go to the landfill as the Project Proponent continues to seek for recycling options. located on the southwest coast of Sabah overlooking the Brunei Bay.72 ha. Water from within the secure landfill cells is collected by the leachate collection system. the leachate collection system and surface water collection systems. Quaternary river and flood plain alluvium. land and sea breezes strongly influence Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. 5. i.7. flanked by a high elongated coastal ridge in the west. The town. and the Temburong Formation situated inland. and then stored in leachate storage tanks prior to being treated at the effluent treatment plant. The liner system will be constructed from TRISOPLAST due to its renowned ability to swell and self-heal without clay minerals being leached out in the event of damage (see Appendix 2.6 Project Implementation Schedule The erection and commissioning stage of the Project is expected to commence early 2009 and completed by early 2010. Meteorological data from nearest stations located at Mendolong (latitude 4°55’N. experiences an equatorial climate characterised by warm and humid weather with constant temperature and considerable amount of rain all year round. but has steeper slopes in the north. 5 5. ® 4. each to be erected over a period in phases. Subsequently.1 Existing Environment Physical Characteristics The rocks underlying the Project site are the Liang Formation. longitude 115°15’E) are used for the study. The plain dips very gently towards the south and southwest. These streams have steeper slopes and narrow gully like features. only one cell will be constructed. The area is generally very flat. more cells will be constructed over the 9. and small truncated hills in the east. and some towards the east.0 ha landfill floor. Sabah Executive Summary The landfill floor will be divided into cells.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. This first cell will have a life span of approximately 6 months. Sipitang District. the Meligan Formation found on the ridges near the coast. Surface water/storm water runoff are collected via the existing rain water canal system.1 for more details on TRISOPLAST®).Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-9 . and tidal swamp overlie these rock formations. At the initial phase. The northern part also contains more stream gullies. and covers about 0. longitude 115°41’E) and the Labuan Airport (latitude 5°18’N. and are sometimes eroded due to the presence of groundwater seepage.

hardtail scad (Megalaspis cordyla).000 ha and a mean depth of 20m. Sg. hardness. mercury. oil and grease.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-10 . chromium. a deeply indented bay with an area of about 250. A total of 31 families comprising 56 species were caught from all study stations. A chain of coral islands including the large island of Labuan forms the boundary between the bay and the South China Sea.3 Brunei Bay The Project site is about 1. phenol.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. nitrate-nitrogen. and Valamugil spp. 23 parameters were tested: temperature.). conductivity. turbidity. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Sebuboh. The Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (CCME 1999) for the Protection of Aquatic Life is used to assess the sediment quality as there is no standard for in situ marine sediment quality in Malaysia. Meanwhile.400 mm. Sabah Executive Summary the behaviour of diurnal wind. Yearly mean relative humidity fluctuates from 80 to 90% with most of the years remaining constant consecutively. Two seabed sediment samples were collected at SBS1 and SBS2 located close to the SFI jetty and were analysed for heavy metals and dioxin and furans (PCDD/PCDF). lead. total suspended solids (TSS). anthropogenic inputs or effluent from the existing SFI mill. cadmium.). Extensive mangrove forests with mudflats and sandflats at the mouths of the major estuaries can be found in most of the east and south shores of the bay. Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus spp. PCDD and PCDF levels are not detectable. Overall results are within Type III category of the Interim Marine Water Quality Standards (IMWQS) indicating that the water is not polluted by human activities. banana prawns (Penaues merguiensis). colour. The marine water quality of the bay was assessed by analysing samples collected from four locations (MW1-MW4). the potential for adverse biological impacts to occur is considered to be low. Data on the marine fisheries at Sipitang were obtained from the Department of Fisheries.). only MW1 was tested for PCDD (polychlorinated dioxin) and PCDF (polychlorinated furan) analyses as it is closest to the effluent discharge point. Results showed SBS2 generally has higher concentrations of heavy metals than SBS1. Main species that landed at Sipitang are anchovy (Stolephorus spp. Annual rainfall ranges between 2. Sipitang District. Sinolob and Sg. Marintongan. pH value. Indian mackerel (Rastrellinger spp.2 km from the coastline of Brunei Bay. 5. and barracuda (Sphyraena spp. 24-hr mean maximum temperature fluctuates in small range of 32°C and around 20°C for mean minimum temperature. Moreover.300 mm and 4. sillago whitings (Sillago spp.). and E. mulet (Liza spp. Sabah (2004).coli. Sampling of the fish fauna was carried out at three different types of habitat: sandy coastal (4 stations). total phosphorus. total nitrogen. sodium chloride.). Freshwater flows into the bay via a labyrinth of interconnecting channels and waterways. Overall. chemical oxygen demand (COD).). nickel. Other fishing areas include the nearby mangrove areas at Sg. Average wind velocity varies with 5 m/s during the Northeast Monsoon and 4 m/s during the Southwest Monsoon. copper. riverine mangrove (3 stations) and coral reef (5 stations). Coral reefs area is the most popular fishing ground and the methods of fishing used include hook and line as well as long lines. The existing jetty for the mill is built on the eastern shore of the bay. zinc.

crustaceans and mollusks. A total of 35 taxa from two major phytoplankton groups were observed in the samples collected from the seven stations. On the contrary. 5. a type of benthic fauna was carried out at 18 sampling points within 1. and within 2-3 km radius from the effluent outlet of the mill. There are about eleven small coral reefs located within 2 km from the Project area. commercial and semiterrestrial species. Other inland waters include a tributary flowing from SFI’s existing disposal ground into Sg.28% at downstream. On further upstream of Sg. Phytoplankton and zooplankton composition study was carried out at seven selected stations located on both east and west channel of the bay. A rainwater canal system surrounding the mill captures overflow of water and sludge from the raw water treatment plant. Sebuboh on the north.6 Groundwater Condition Groundwater samples were collected from four (4) monitoring wells that have been installed at the proposed secure landfill area.22%. irrigation and activities along the river. mitigation measures are proposed in Chapter 5 of the DEIA to prevent the discharge of overflow that causes the contamination of storm water in the rain water canal system. A study on macrobenthos.4 Inland Waters The major inland water of importance to the mill is Sg.5 km.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-11 . 5.5 Surface Water Quality Two (2) rounds of sampling were performed at the three (3) selected sampling stations: Upstream and downstream of Sg. This indicates that there is little contribution of pollutants from the existing disposal site on the south. Sebuboh is a clean river with WQI of 82. believed to be of Sg. to the north of the jetty at water depth ranging from 2 to 12 m. The survey recorded at least 85 taxa from 68 families and 24 orders of macrobenthos comprising sediment. Mengalong was found to be slightly polluted with Water Quality Index (WQI) of 78. Sg. Sabah Executive Summary A survey on the status of coral reefs was carried out at six selected sites (C1-C6) using SCUBA. Sebuboh. Mengalong and existing SFI’s water intake station is a new water treatment plant for water supply currently being constructed by the Sabah Ministry of Rural and Regional Development. Mengalong which is currently its source of raw water supply. Mengalong and the tributary of Sg.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex.58% on upstream and 77. Three groundwater samples when collected Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. 5. Sg. Sinolob’s. Polycheates had the highest number of taxa. Sipitang District. Samples were also collected from two locations at the mill’s existing rainwater canal system. Majority of the macrobenthos are polycheates. Results showed that the quality of samples is very poor.5 km radius of the SFI mill effluent area. Results obtained were compared to the Class IIA and IIB of the Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQSM). likely to be contributed by the kampongs. and another tributary on the south at 2. The density of zooplankton was generally lower when moving away from the coastal waters. followed by crustaceans and mollusks. and cooling water system which discharges into the valley at the northwest of the mill area.

VOCs were not detected at all stations. The results show that the TSP. Baseline air sampling was repeated twice. hydrogen chloride (HCl) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples from GW2 was collected a week later due to scarce and inadequate water for analysis purpose initially. and barium). Sipitang District.2. The levels recorded for HCl. EQA (Clean Air) Regulations 1978. These values are the baseline values to be compared once the secure landfill is in operation. total chlorine (Cl2). th 5. The groundwater wells were purged the day before the sampling was carried out. Odour is a permanent feature within 1-2km from the mill site and measures are proposed in the DEIA to minimise the impact (Section 5. Baseline monitoring was repeated for the third time due to the incomplete readings during the first two monitoring resulting from technical failure of the noise meter and rain. 5.9 Existing Noise and Vibration Four (4) monitoring stations N1 to N4 were set up whereby noise levels at each station were measured during day and night-time for a period of 24 hours. Based on the groundwater flow direction. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. of which most are particularly higher in GW1 (copper. oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. zinc.7). in November-December 2007 (wet season) and January 2008 (dry season) to obtain representative averages. Results showed that the existing Leq levels at all monitoring locations during the day time and night time were well within the WHO requirement of 75 dB(A) and DOE limits of 70 dB(A) and 60 dB(A) respectively. PM10. Noise monitoring measurements were carried out three times. This could be due to the sampling activities which might have agitated the earth/sand in the wells.2 g of HCl/Nm3 and 5 ppm of H2S of the Stack Gas Emission Standards. It is thus concluded that the existing ambient air quality at the Project site and near settlements was generally good despite the fact that the mill is in operation today.7 Air Quality Four (4) monitoring stations were set up to measure total suspended particulates (TSP). Heavy metals were detected in all four samples.8 Odour Odour was measured using dynamic olfactometry at three (3) locations considered as the nearest outside sensitive and public receptors. hydrogen sulphide (H2S). particulate matter (PM10). SO2 and NOx levels detected were within the Malaysian Recommended Guidelines for Gaseous Pollutants (MRGGP). GW3 and GW4 on the 9 May 2008 were observed to be highly turbid. the presence of heavy metals is most probably leached from the adjacent SFI mill. Cl2 and H2S at all four points were also well below 0. sulphur and lead are found to be significant in GW2 in comparison to the other three.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. 5.2. nickel. Total nitrogen. Higher levels of heavy metals and nutrients are detected in GW1 and GW2 due to their shorter distance from the build up area (the mill). Sabah Executive Summary from GW1.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-12 .4. There were three sources of noise observed at the proposed Project site and its surrounding areas: a) Passing vehicles at the adjacent roads.

Gate 2 was 60 dB(A) and Gate 3 was 69 dB(A). measurements for existing noise levels of the SFI pulp and paper mill were conducted at over 50 locations within the existing mill facilities. Sabah Ports Jetty. SFI housing quarters. the northern section of the highway carried more traffic than the southern section. insects. Sabah Executive Summary b) Natural noise sources e. a two-lane single carriageway that traverses in the north-southerly direction and connects from Sindumin on the south to Sipitang and Kota Kinabalu on the north. Seventh-Day Adventist Church Sipitang and Gereja SIB Pekan Sipitang).6 km southeast. and (14) the Mengalong Forest Reserve Class VI (Virgin Jungle) at 3.0km south. (4) a tar sealed road (Jalan Jetty) which connects the two quarries with the SFI Complex. (7) the Sipitang Local Council’s disposal site located along Jalan Merintaman. It is accessible by Sipitang-Sindumin Highway. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Sipitang District.7km southwest of the Project site. Noise climate at the mill boundaries were observed to be within the DOE limit of 70 dB(A). Tanah Perkuburan Orang-Orang Islam Pekan Sipitang and Tanah Perkuburan Islam Kg. and Noise generated by human activities i. (9) schools (SMK Padang Berampah. two quarry jetties and an abandoned quarry jetty). i. (2) quarries (KAC Quarry 600m to the west and Kuta Property Sdn Bhd to the northwest). (6) a 300 acres recreational park (Taman Pantai Merintaman) at approximately 3. SK Padang Berampah. Chinese cemetery. There was no evidence of major vibration or impactive process that could result in potentially high ground-borne vibrations. (11) Masjid Pantai Kawasan Sipitang at 3. SK Merintaman and SK Kawang). 5. and dogs. Based on a traffic survey carried out at two junctions of the Sipitang-Sindumin Highway. disposal grounds and a jetty. birds. The overall land use features within 5-km radius of the Project area are: (1) small agiculture. forestry and fishery activities. SFI Jetty and the two quarry jetties. or approximately 151 km from Kota Kinabalu.6km southeast. (12) SFI existing water intake/pump station at 3. Within the boundary of the SFI Complex are the Integrated Timber Complex (ITC).10 Land Use The proposed Project site is located within the area contemplated for the SFI Complex at 5. the number of truck-trips to and from the mill and SFI Jetty on average was about 60 per day (two-way). (5) an abandoned quarry adjacent to KAC Quarry. Based on 345 working days per year. c) In addition. The potential existing vibration source identified was from the lime kiln and the debarking machine. noise generated by blowing wind over vegetation. (10) churches (True Jesus Church. Accessibility to the Project site is via two junctions located at Sipitang-Sindumin Highway.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-13 .4km north.5 km southwest of Sipitang township. Luagan). ITC housing.11 Traffic The Project site is located at approximately 5. Truck volumes on the road is equivalent to 78 vehicles per hour (two-way) based on an average of eight (8) working hours per day. roosters. talking.e.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. (8) cemeteries (Christian cemetery. etc.5 km southwest of Sipitang town. Noise level at the mill’s entrance gates: Gate 1 was 61 dB(A). the T-junction on the east and the cross-junction on the southeast of the Project site which are connected to form a T-junction near the SFI housing area.g. 5. (3) jetties (SFI Jetty. Highest noise level was recorded at the steam and power plant and debarking and chipping area (above 100 dBA).e. (13) the DID irrigation station at 3. walking.

634 by 2010. Table ES-1: Population Structure Within 5km Radius from Proposed Pulp and Paper Mill No. The study area is sparsely populated and doted with agriculture land. Most of these kampongs are found along the main Sindumin/Sipitang Highway. followed by agro-based activities and fishing activity. In order to identify. padi fields. A new trunk road leading to Tenom was recently completed which links Sipitang to Tenom. 2001) the total population of Sipitang Districts is about 30. Sipitang District. assess and ultimately manage the socio-economics attributes on the human environment due to Project expansion. Sarawak.5 km N 2 Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. the major economic activities of the district are timber-related activities from SFI. Areas where electricity is still yet to be provided utilises generator set as their mean of power supply. which is typically used for washing and bathing. Bhd. Some houses connected to piped water are observed to collect rainwater as secondary water supply. of Houses 1.732 km .0 – 2. This group consist mainly of the Kedayan. This is followed by the Malays (16%). It is expected to grow to 56. of Statistics. Some of the kampongs are already connected with piped water supply while others still depend on rainfall (rain water is collected and stored in a water tank). Residents of all the villages surveyed enjoy 24-hour electricity supply provided by the Sabah Electricity Sdn.12 Social Economic/Human Environment Sipitang District covers an area of 2. About 41% of the population is in the age group of 15 and below. 56% in the between 15-64 age group and only 3% in the above 65 age group. Sabah Executive Summary 5. SFI as well as data collected from the field survey. The largest non-Bumiputera population is Non-Malaysian making up 11% of the population. Today. (SESB).000.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. most of the villages are covered if not partially by existing service providers. certain villages are equipped with a reel system telecommunication. east of the SFI Complex. The 2000 census figures indicate that other Bumiputera (38%) are the main ethnic group in Sipitang.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-14 . According to official statistics (Dept.008 20 No. secondary forest and bushes. In the age of digital telecommunication. Lundayeh and Brunei ethnic groups. Sipitang district is well connected by the Pan-Borneo highway from Kota Kinabalu to Lawas. Most of the District is mountainous. Murut (14%) and the Kadazan-Dusun (11%).000 6 Main Ethnic Groups Mixture Mixture Distance from the Project Site 300m SE (Within SFI Complex) 2. Table ES-1 below shows the population breakdowns by kampongs based on data furnished by the District Office. rubber farms. 1 2 Locality SFI Housing JKR Government Quarters Population 5. fruit orchards. a socio-economic survey was conducted on the settlements within 5-km radius of the site. However. The surrounding villages enjoy good telecommunication service.

0 km S 4.8 km S 4.0 SE Mixture Lundayeh Lundayeh Lundayeh Lundayeh 1.500 357 1. of Houses 260 Main Ethnic Groups Kedayan Distance from the Project Site 5.8 km E 1.5 – 5.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-15 . More than half of the respondents were positive that the Project would be beneficial to the communities whereas only 12% were of negative opinions. Bahagia Total 614 1. The information indicates recent emergency department visits to the Hospital and disease occurrence linked to environmental stimuli such as air quality. it is observed that there is an increasing trend in overall deaths between 2006 and 2007 whereby 25% of them are attributed to air quality related health issues. Naparan Taman Wawasan Apartment Merintaman (Teachers’ Quarters) Kg. Meritaman -Kg. Berambai .1 – 3.8 – 2. Ulu Sipitang -Kg.2 – 4.Kg. Pantai Kg.446 117 130 53 100 350 14 10 30 43 2.5 km SE 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Kg.750 71 56 100 315 13.1 – 3.525 No.5 km S (Within SFI Complex) 2.Kg.5 – 3.0 km NE 4. Pasir Puteh .0 km NE 4 5 6 7 Kg. recreational water. 3 Locality Kg.4km NNE 1. Bubus Population 1.6 km SE 3.6 – 4.7 km NE 1. Sri Menanti -Kg. a majority of them were not aware of the Project.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex.0 km SE 4. Padang Berampah 332 220 120 458 50 44 24 102 Lundayeh Mixture Mixture Lundayeh 4. From the assessment. Sipitang District.5 – 4. and 75% greater visits to the emergency department also related to respiratory related diseases which further suggests that considerable environmental influence on health in the region is in the area of air quality.13 Public Health Status Various public health facilities are provided to existing SFI pulp mill staff and the public in the region surrounding the proposed development. Kawang Lama Kg. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Ranau Ranau Kg. Bangsal -Kg.000 1. Batat Padang Berampah -Kg. Information on the public health status in the proposed Project site area is obtained from Hospital Sipitang since it is closest to the site. Sg. Menangah .9 km – 5. 5.8 km S 2. drinking water and arbovirus.0km SSE Based on an interview which was carried out with 346 respondents. Long Kinangan Kg.5 km NE 2. Tanjung Nipis Kg. Batu 7 Kg. Sabah Executive Summary No.5 – 2.Kg. 90% of them expressed their environmental concerns and worries of the potential impacts from the Project. Sg. Kabar SFI ITC Housing Kg.5 km SE 5.2 – 4.3 – 1. The rest were unsure and some rather not comment.333 Kedayan Lundayeh 3.3 – 1.

Quarterly ambient air monitoring within the SFI compounds (upwind and downwind). Quarterly water quality monitoring of the inshore water at seven designated locations in Brunei Bay. chemical exposure and general housekeeping. and Lack of engineering maintenance in key hazard areas. 5. Daily analysis of various conventional effluent parameters. 5. For this purpose. 3.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Sipitang District. Occupational health and safety hazards identified for the existing pulp mill are occupational noise. and Half yearly stack emissions monitoring and sampling of lime kiln. 4. and inadequate PPE provided for work area. Sabah Executive Summary Health survey questions regarding key areas of environmental health were also asked to the public as part of the socio economic survey. PPE provided to employees but are not properly used due to lack of training and follow-up/enforcement.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-16 . heat. 2. recovery boiler and biomass power boiler. This includes: 1. Information obtained from SFI in relation to the occupational health and safety status for the existing pulp mill indicates the following: • • • A generally decreasing trend of negative occupational health outcome at the facility. Lack of preventative measures causing various occupational health hazards. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn.14 Occupational Health SFI currently has a comprehensive occupational health and safety policy framework in place at the existing pulp mill facility which strives to ensure a safe working environment for all personnel at the facility. Monthly sampling and analysis of lime kiln stack emission for H2S parameter only. An ongoing occurrence of serious acute occupational health incidents. a specific environmental monitoring programme has been imposed upon SFI by the Department of Environment (DOE) since its operation in 1988. • • • 6 Mill’s Current Environmental Compliance Part and parcel of any EIA undertaking is the post-construction / operational monitoring activities. air quality. Inadequately maintained or poorly used occupational health and safety management structure.

No backwash water should be discharged into the drain. SFI has been in compliance with DOE’s standards and contravention limits for COD levels in treated effluents and H2S emissions from the lime kiln. The high solids in the water are attributed to the disposal of sludge and overflow from backwash basin at the raw water treatment plant on the upstream. • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Sabah Executive Summary Based on the results obtained from the monitoring programme. TSS and is dark in colour. The water is channelled and discharged directly into the tributary of Sg. Otherwise. the surface water quality does not meet the standards of Class IIB of the Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQSM) and Standard B of the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluent) Regulation 1979. Nevertheless. Water drip from the knot reject bin in pulp mill may have washed into the drain during cleaning and further contributing to color and COD loading. Existing washrooms along the drainage system will be demolished during the expansion works. backwash water level in the existing basin must be lowered to below 50% level or emptied into a standby tank or returned to the treatment process before backwashing. The Project Proponent has proposed to build sludge drying beds at the treatment plant to dry solids before mixing with the soil and gravel residues from the wood yard for disposal to the existing disposal site. Storm water runoff from the wood yard and handling areas contain significant amounts of COD. Sebuboh without treatment. the DEIA study has discovered that certain environmental standards are not complied today in the following areas: Water Contamination • Based on the analysis of random water samples collected from a storm drain. COD and BOD5 loading may be contributed by the discharge from the SFI canteen and washrooms along the drainage system.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-17 .DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Sludge from the water treatment plant must be collected separately and sent for proper disposal instead of merely discharging into the drain. • Odour • Presence of occasional odour due to the release of malodorous gases that often fouls air and causes complaints. Sipitang District. Therefore the following mitigation measures are proposed to be put in place during the expansion: • Addition of sufficient backwash water storage tanks and other tanks to prevent overflow.

minimizing the dispersion of pollutants onto the ground which would eventually leach to the adjacent runoff drain. Stabilise soil areas which are eroding by compaction or use gravel to reduce erosion. etc. shall then be carried out at the wood yard. Sabah Executive Summary • Channel effluent from the canteen to the sanitary line for treatment at the effluent treatment plant. There is no foreseen major potential impact during pre-construction stage as there is no common site preparation and groundwork activity associated with the proposed mill expansion and coal fired plant. If a conductivity sensor has already been made available in certain drains. construction activities may induce impacts such as slope failure. part of the mill will continue to function as today. groundwater impact was assessed due to the operation of the proposed landfill.e. Meanwhile. grease and solids before the effluent treatment plant are proposed. Maintain a high quality of housekeeping and ensure that materials/ spilled liquors are not washed or blown into the drain.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. During the installation and construction stage of the proposed Project. i.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-18 . it should be maintained/calibrated at all times to ensure proper functioning. and surface water pollution. Provide continuous conductivity measurements or oil detection instruments at the canal system so that in the event of contamination. Emission into the open air without treatment is prohibited. Establish vegetated buffers between the wood yard and the storm drain. • • • • • • • 7 Predicted Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures The predicted environmental impacts and its corresponding mitigating measures are outlined in Table ES-2: Summary of Predicted Environmental Impacts and Mitigating Measures. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. the water can be rerouted or retained. Pre-treatments such as oil. Scrape wood yard periodically and dispose of accumulated bark and debris. the upgraded mill. newly installed CFBC boiler and secure landfill have started operation. Backup torch is also made available for incinerating the gases in case the recovery boiler breaks down or is under maintenance. No activities such as cutting. Good housekeeping to be conducted. As for the secure landfill. Sipitang District. grease and fat trap or screen bars to remove oil. Therefore the existing environmental monitoring programme as mandated by DOE shall carry on until the completion of the Project’s development. New recovery boiler will be designed to burn non condensable gases.

H2S. PM10. SO2. SFI housing (downwind).e. dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide.4g/Nm3. Sipitang District.0g/Nm . recovery boilers and power boiler are particulate matter. a two chamber ESP with four electrical fields each will be installed to remove fly ash. Air Pollution Construction/ Expansion Stage: Air pollution impacts from the following activities are not expected to have any significant impacts as they are greatly minimised by the presence of existing trees in-between the mill site and settlements which act as buffer: • • Increase in fuel-burning mobile equipment during upgrade works. Kg. such as • • Continue current monitoring programme i. Emissions must comply with Standard C of the Stack Gas Emissions Standards.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-19 . SOx. TSP.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. H2S to comply with contravention limit of 20ppm. Monitor TSP. Sabah Executive Summary Table ES-2: Summary of Predicted Environmental Impacts and Mitigating Measures Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Proposed Mill Expansion and Coal Fired Plant 1. The fly ash trapped by the ESP will be recycled back to the system and mixed with weak black liquor and salt cake for combustion in RB2. methyl mercaptane. forklifts. H2S levels at the Project site (upwind). loaders and trucks. NOx. PM10. Operation Stage: Significant sources of air pollution during operation of the existing and proposed mill are: • Pulp and Paper Mill – air pollutants emitted from the kraft pulping process. Continue stack emissions sampling and monitoring programme for lime kiln. • • Record maintenance of air pollution control systems. CO. Batat Padang Berampah and Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. hog power boiler and recovery boiler will persist during this stage as mill will continue to operate. Emissions from existing pulp mill. EQ (Clean Air) Regulations 1978 for particulate emissions of 0. and NOx of 3 2. lime kiln. recovery boiler and hog power boiler. NO2 and H2S at Project site (upwind) and SFI housing (downwind). SO2. Sg. chlorine gas. NO2. • Control system for the existing RB1 remains the same whereas for the new RB2. Emissions from construction vehicles bulldozers. Frequency: quarterly or as per DOE’s requirement.

Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-20 . NO2. DOE’s guidance on performance monitoring procedures and requirements of air pollution control systems can be implemented by SFI to plan their monitoring programme for each pollution control system. Stack emission tests must be conducted every six months by competent personnel/consultant to be submitted to DOE. The existing lime kiln will be upgraded with a flash dryer with cyclone.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. NCG is burnt in RB2. Smelt tank gases are treated in vent gas scrubber in two stages: (1) washing in a spray tower. Desulphurization of CFBC boiler is carried out in the furnace by addition of limestone. H2S and Cl2 gas concentrations are below the exposure standard. and finished materials. SO2. The CFBC boiler or PB2 will be installed with a single chamber. condition. chlorine dioxide and hydrogen chloride plants) – chlorine gas. Results must comply with Malaysian Recommended Guidelines for Gaseous Pollutant (MRGGP). • Half yearly stack emissions sampling and monitoring programme for upgraded lime kiln. chlorine dioxide and hydrochloric acid fumes. • • Common stack for RB2 and CFBC boiler is 80m in height. analyse and SMK Padang Berampah. • • • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Electrical interlocking and alarm systems are in place to shut down the relevant boiler systems in the event when the control systems e. movement of vehicles in the complex. five fields ESP to remove fly ash. SO2. (2) cooled in packed bed tower. However. the NCG will be sent to the torch for combustion. • • Based on the predicted ambient air concentration of the major pollutants. Fugitive emissions – particulate matter emission from loading and unloading of raw materials including coal. ESP fails or when the critical parameters are exceeded.g. Set up Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) to sample. debarking of timber and emissions from exposed surfaces. recovery boilers and power boilers. the predicted levels of TSP and SO2 are above the guidelines within more than 2km radius area when control measures fail/not in operation. During shut down or upset conditions of RB2. particulates. SO2 and NO2 are well below the Malaysian Ambient Air Guidelines when there are control measures in place. Constant maintenance on installed control systems to prevent breakdown that could cause emissions of pollutants at concentrations exceeding guideline levels. and traces of H2S. a lime cooler. a new burner and an ESP to handle increased amount of flue gases emitted from the existing 50m stack. Emissions must comply with Standard C of the Stack Gas Emissions Standards. Kiln of lime plant (increased capacity) – particulate matter. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns • • • Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Coal fired plant – NOx. total suspended particulate (TSP). Chemical plants (chlor-alkali. Sipitang District. Frequency: half yearly or as per DOE‘s requirement. EQ (Clean Air) Regulations 1978.

1. Frequency: monthly or as per DOE’s Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. 2. Odour arises from: • Pulp mill – mainly reduced sulphur compounds. (3) new biofilm reactor after the aeration basin. the gases should be directed to a dedicated vent gas flume in the stack.400 m3/hr after expansion.3. assessment of emission control proposals and previous practical experience with the activity. 3. Odour Operation Stage: Odour impact is significant to the surrounding environment only when the processes and systems proposed to remove the odour are not in operation. then impact should not be an issue at all. maintenance or other downtimes. foul condensable tank and pressurised firing liquor tank – non condensable gases (NCGs). Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program provide a permanent computer record of pollutant concentration and send their CEMS data via electronic data transfer to the state DOE server to allow for monitoring and enforcement. The pollutant dispersion modelling for BOD5. Sipitang District. Table 2. evaporator hot well. Results should comply with Standard B of the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations. • The following additions are proposed for effluent treatment plant (subjected to further detailed engineering design): (1) new primary clarifier unit to cater for the increase in hydraulic loading to the existing primary clarifier. CO and temperature coupled with the control of fuel to the furnaces for controlled combustion to prevent generation of persistent organic pollutants and ensure emissions meet the guaranteed level as stated in Chapter 2. Effluent discharged into the sea is expected to increase from the present 1. (2) new cooling tower cell for chemicals sewer to reduce effluent temperature to 35°C. 1979 and COD limit to comply with DOE”s contravention limit of 280 mg/L. Perform on-going assessment including compilation of complaint history. Impact on Brunei Bay Operation Stage: Impact of mill effluent on marine water quality • Impact on marine water quality is expected to result from the discharge of wastewater and effluents during mill operation after expansion. • • Install interlocking and alarm systems to allow smooth transition of main odorous gas destruction system to the backup system in the event of upsets. • On-line measurements of oxygen. and (5) new biological check pond after the clarifier.6. consultation with neighbouring residents or community odour surveys. COD and TSS in worst case scenario indicated that there would not be a significant change in these constituents as long as the current effluent quality is maintained. With proper treatment or control of odorous gases released.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. (4) new secondary clarifier to cater for the increased hydraulic loading. • Monitor and test the final effluent for the 23 parameters in Standard B. Routine and diagnostic maintenance on all odour control systems including the dedicated burner and torch in the recovery boiler and dedicated vent gas flume. If both systems are not working. Stripping column.500 m3/hr to 2.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-21 .

DO are not expected to decrease significantly from the present values. chemicals.5 km and 2. fisheries. pumping or within the processing mill would result in spillage and leakage of fibres. COD to not exceed 250 mg/l and TSS to not exceed 50 mg/l.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-22 .5km. contaminated liquors. Results must comply with Type III of IMWQS or as per baseline. Such impact is disastrous on Brunei Bay and can affect the quality of aquatic life as well as impact on human health. etc. containment and requirement. • Maintain current ambient quality and dissolved oxygen level through the following recommendations: BOD5 discharge quality to not exceed 20 mg/l. Place on-line detectors such as on-line COD analyser in a final checking pond prior to effluent release whereby the signal from the device is connected to an alarm which would alert operators should the COD level becomes too high. chemical processes should be minimized wherever possible. Monitor fisheries activities at the neighbouring fishing villages. Continuous prevention. phytoplankton and zooplankton composition should not be negatively affected. The alarm may set into operation the rerouting of effluent for that batch for further treatment. storage. The Project Proponent should review its current COD discharge quality. oils. Treatment should be done using physicobiological process.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. macrobenthos. Continuous performance monitoring of effluent treatment system based on DOE’s guidelines DOE-IETS-1 on Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems be practised by the Project Proponent. Quarterly monitoring of seawater at 0. Continuous consultation with the local fishermen on any deleterious effect of losses is recommended to establish causes and enable remedial action to be taken at the earliest possible. • Impacts to aquatic fauna • There is no significant impact in ambient concentration for BOD5 and COD based on the pollutant dispersion modelling wherein water quality parameters e. Sipitang District. Thus. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Accidental spillage and leakage into the sea • Equipment failure and upsets during transportation. coral reefs. primary productivity. • • Record of monitoring. Continuous monitoring of seawater at the outfall and the coastal sea to monitor the situation and to identify measures required to mitigate any adverse impacts to water quality or marine life. performance • Record of upset conditions and corrective actions of the effluent treatment system. provided there is space allocated for additional temporary retention. fish fauna. • • • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. untreated effluents. 1.g.5 km radius from the effluent discharge point. The proposed biological check pond should be stocked with fish to monitor long and short-term effects of treated effluent on the health of aquatic life.

containment and recovery system.e. black liquor and other hazardous spills with the spill monitoring. Sipitang District. Build concrete structures (bunds) within each storage facility to contain the oils/chemicals under worst spillage condition. • Conduct external audit for existing mil before commencement of Project to address oil spillage problems and determine leak sources and causes. Existing spill collection and recovery system at all critical process areas should be upgraded appropriately to avoid concentrated or harmful streams entering the effluent treatment plant or contaminating the storm water drains that go directly into the sea. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program recovery of fibre. This is strongly recommended for the MFO jetty storage tank. i. whereby existing bund should be upgraded to contain at least 110% of the tank capacity. 110% of the tanks/containers’ capacity used to ensure all potential leakages and spills are contained. The alarm should be pressure-activated which will activate when pressure drop is exceeded during operation upset and then automatically trips the pump at a • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Continuous and periodic audits upon operation of expanded mill are recommended.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-23 . collection.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Install alarm monitoring system (visual and audible) at the existing MFO jetty storage pumping system to alert officers in charge for signs of initial leak. sufficient dump tanks must be made available and evaporator plant must have 10% excess capacity to be able to process the collected contaminated effluent. To ensure proper collection and spill recovery. The spillage should be recovered and collected in dump tanks.

Periodic checking (tentatively once a month) of the tanks/containers used for storing of oils/chemicals for any signs of leakages. devise a plan to relocate the jetty oil storage facility further away from the sea shore. Prior to initiating the liquid transfer. etc. vapour. odour.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-24 . Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program predetermined time lapse after the alarm activation. investigation and remediation actions to be taken). All spills should be collected and reused if possible. Minimised impact of hydrocarbon contamination through an emergency spill response plan/oil spill contingency plan and hazardous materials management which shall form part of the EMP and would include details of procedures to be followed in the event of a hydrocarbon spill (responsibilities. In the event of spillage due to accidental errors and the amount of spilled materials is too large. Sipitang District. liquid transfer of the liquid materials spilled should be carried out instead of allowing immediate transfer or sorption using an inert absorbent or saw dusts. the trained personnel must observe the characteristics of the spilled liquids with respect to the generation of fumes. Routine maintenance and servicing of auxiliary equipments such as pumps used to transfer oils or chemicals.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. so that appropriate personal safety gears can be used to protect the • • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. • • Or else. Any unusable products should be treated as scheduled waste and disposed according to DOE’s requirements. incident.

Basic personal protective equipment (PPE) must be worn by the response personnel. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program personnel handling the response. For odourous spilled materials. • Liquid transfer is done either via hand pumps or suitable transfer methods as corresponded to the compatibility of the pumping material against the pumped liquids. i. Other methods include air pumps. unloading of raw materials (coals/chemicals) should only be conducted by authorized personnel. Ship berthing at the jetty should not discharge ballast water into the sea. • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. chemical proof apron and a face shield. Use of equipment that could generate sparks is strictly prohibited when transferring flammable liquids.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. the source of spillage must be rectified and mitigated. safety and chemical proof boot. with • • • • Spill contingency plan must be made available at all times to ensure fast and proper handling of accidental spills into the sea. Sipitang District. safety glass. siphoning or if situation permits. an inbreathing unit may be used.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-25 . In addition.e. Maintain and monitor the optimum dosage of macronutrient used in the aeration tank (biological treatment) and avoid excess nutrient into the effluent discharge. an electric pump may be used. a respirator must be used and in certain circumstances when there is insufficient oxygen available for breathing. At the jetty area. Handle materials appropriately sophisticated hoisting equipment.

Mengalong.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-26 . Two basins nearest to Sipitang area are identified: Lakutan (231 km2) catchment area to the immediate west of Sipitang district and Padas (8. Piling is anticipated to be the major noise source but should not have any significant impact as the nearest residential community is more than 500 m away from the nearest Plant upgrading/addition Site. to the further west. • • 5. • Check all combustion engine plants such as generators.2. Mengalong as Mill’s Water Resource Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Operation Stage: Based on a hydrological study conducted on Sg. Pond sizes options after considering the future expansion of SFI mill and upon commissioning of the Sipitang Water Treatment Plant are given in Table 5. The pond can be constructed on a vacant land (L. 70 db(A) level for daytime and 60 dB(A) for night time. The mill is expected to experience water shortage for every one or two years. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns 4.33. Alternatively. Noise and vibration Construction/Expansion Stage: Noise generated by construction and up-gradation activities include earth moving vehicles. this option may not be viable. particularly for Padas. Sufficiency and Impact of Sg. the Project Proponent could consider abstracting from other nearby water basin by performing a detailed water resource study. However due to the durable distance. pre-mix concrete vehicles).e. Sipitang District. and other equipment noise and heavy vehicles (tipper trucks. compressors and welders to ensure minimal noise production with particular attention to residential grade exhaust silencers. where practicable.726km2).4. Vehicles should be kept properly serviced and fitted with appropriate mufflers to minimise traffic noise. This amount is insufficient as the river needs remaining flow of 2 m3/s to avoid salt water intrusion. • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. None. Use of exhaust brakes must be eliminated. Frequency: quarterly or as per DOE’s requirement Results must comply with DOE’s Schedule 1: Environmental Noise Limits and Control for Industrial area i. All vehicular movements to and from the site are to be made during normal working hours. • Construct a raw water storage pond to overcome water shortage. the maximum water withdrawal from Sg.A 86190228. CL 195316208) located on the west of the SFI mill.The suggested pond depth is 5m. 3 Mengalong will be 3. piling. lasting from not less than 20 days during normal droughts to more than 100 days during severe droughts.41 m /s (assuming all intakes are at a maximum capacity) upon completion of the new treatment plant and the expansion of SFI mill.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. where practicable. Operate machines at low speed or power and • 24 hours continuous noise monitoring at SFI housing colony.

Use hand tools or hydraulic torque units instead. valves and equipments. lime kiln area and paper machine department where noise levels are predicted to exceed 80 dBA.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. These comply with the DOE’s criteria in The Planning Guidelines for Environmental Noise Limits and Control (Annex C. Areas within the mill. Use impact wrenches sparingly. where practical. Noise measurements at mill’s entrance gates/boundaries: Gate 1. Gate 3. South and West boundaries as well as Gate 1 and Gate 2 were within the permissible limit of DOE of 70 dBA daytime and 60 dBA night-time at industrial area. noise insulation and use of special noise absorbing or eliminating machine foundations. • Select equipment based on the guaranteed noise emission of a machine where general target noise level should be less than 85 dB(A). All noise sensitive areas nearest to the mill would not be affected by the upgrading/expansion of the mill as noise emissions were well confined within the mill. less than 1 dBA. 70 db(A) level for daytime and 60 dB(A) for night time. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program switch off when not being used. where practical. • Remove or stand down machines that produced excessive noise from the site until repairs or modifications can be made. Noise impact from any marginal to moderate increase in transportation activities is not significant.e. 24 hours continuous noise monitoring at SFI housing colony. Proper design or improvements of attenuation/engineering noise controls for the power plant. Sipitang District. i. Additional equipments and processes in the mill after expansion and upgrade do not involve any major vibration or impactive sources. • • • • • • • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Frequency: Quarterly or as per DOE requirement Results must comply with DOE’s Schedule 1: Environmental Noise Limits and Control for Industrial area i.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-27 .e. Schedule 3). new wood processing area. Wood Processing Area. Examples are the use of noise absorbers in pipelines. Implement operational health and safety requirements to ensure workers are not exposed to noise levels above 85 dB(A) for 8 hours durations • • In plant noise mapping at onstart of operation. Check for provision of appropriate PPE (especially ear plugs) to personnel who are exposed to high noise levels. however was 5-7 dBA above the permissible limit but was deemed acceptable as the Gate was located within SFI vicinity. • Operation Stage: • Noise contours of the current facilities with proposed expansions showed that predicted noise levels at East. Gate 2 and Gate 3. Lime Kiln area and paper machine department have noise levels above 80 dBA. Minimal increment of vibration level is anticipated within the Wood Processing Area due to additional line introduced in the expansion. Power Plant.

Hog ashes to be disposed of at the on-site secure landfill though recycling options are still investigated by the Project Proponent. Dewatered sludge to be burnt off in the CFBC boiler. Sipitang District. concrete and cement residues. concrete or asphalt industry or in other civil engineering purposes. • Biomass from cleared vegetation. grease. Waste oils to be temporarily stored and sold to recyclers who are licensed with the DOE. concreting work. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns 6. • A characteristics analysis must be carried out to determine the chemical content of the fly ash or other wastes identified to be reused or burned off / disposed off. etc.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. wood debris. CFBC boiler bed material wastes. will be stored properly on-site before transported out to be disposed to an approved hazardous waste handler. Record of storage and inventory of hazardous wastes. Temporary storage procedures and areas must meet the DOE’s requirements. green liquor dregs. Dregs and grit will be landfilled in the proposed landfill site. Domestic waste generated by workers on site and SFI housing area has the potential to cause disease outbreaks when not disposed properly. dewatered sludge from the effluent treatment plant. Bottom ashes and dregs to be disposed of at the on-site secure landfill. to be disposed of at Majlis Daerah Sipitang’s municipal disposal ground along Jalan Pantai Merintaman via land transportation. lubricating fluids. Hazardous wastes such as paint residues. limestone residues and garbage wastes. Waste oils. Solid wastes from the wood yard and log processing area are disposed of at the existing disposal site. Wastes Generation and Management Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Construction/Expansion Stage: Wastes are generated from the demolition of buildings. etc.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-28 . • • • • • • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. welding debris. None. • Operation Stage: • Solid wastes generated include power boiler residues (boiler ash). grease from machinery parts and chemicals are expected to be generated only during periodic maintenance routine and in small amounts. and building work which involves painting and electrical installation. lime and slaker grits. • CFBC fly ashes to be reused by local cement.

and (3) materials that cannot be reused. Sipitang District. the wastes must be allocated separate temporary waste collection and storage areas at source within the proposed mill area. • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-29 . The Project Proponent is recommended to maximise reuse of wastes from the mill site as generated. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program • Other toxic and temporarily stored Alam/Trinekens. recovered or must be handled differently should be taken to the proposed secure landfill. hazardous wastes are for disposal to Kualiti • Proper management of garbage collection by the Sipitang local authority. to continue researching and reviewing reuse opportunities. Develop a waste management plan as a key component of the Environmental Management Plan with the following procedures: (1) wastes that are recyclable or can be reused outside the Project site must undergo a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test prior to usage. Garbage is expected to be collected on a regular basis and disposed of at the existing disposal site at Jalan Pantai Merintaman.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Organic wastes are recommended not to be landfilled. (2) prior to usage or disposal of the wastes generated or any tests done on it.

DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. No significant traffic would be generated from the additional workforce in the mill after expansion as they would stay in the SFI housing areas. The Project will have beneficial socio-economic impacts as it encourages the development of manufacturing facilities which captures the value-added earnings from processing. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns 7. truck capacity of 30-tonnes and 345 working days per year.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-30 . supplies and services offer opportunities for income generation. The venture is expected to reduce the reliance of Malaysia on imported pulp and increase Malaysia’s revenue as a pulp exporter. • Regular close monitoring of the traffic conditions at Sindumin-Sipitang Highway. It is reckoned that the raw materials would generate about 11 truck-trips per hour (one-way) or 66 pcph (two-way). the delay time encountered by logging trucks crossing Sindumin-Sipitang Highway is expected to be higher due to the increase in the main road’s traffic. • Reschedule the transportation of logs to the Project site as required to avoid unduly delays and conflicts at the cross junction. training and contract opportunities. Social Economic Impacts • • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. an estimated 90 truck-trips per day (one-way) or 33 pcph would be generated from the pulp mill. Temporary employment for local residents will be created during construction stage. • • • 8. Main road traffics expected to be generated by the expanded mill are transportation of logs from the concession areas.000 tonnes/year. None. Give specific on the job and classroom training where education standards are appropriate but skills are lacking. imported raw materials from the SFI jetty to the mill and exported paper products from the mill to the SFI jetty. Future Traffic Impact Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Operation Stage: • Based on a production rate of 210. A two-lane roadway capacity analysis showed that the trips generated from the expanded mill would not cause significant impacts on the adjacent road network by Year 2010. Shortfall in available skills must in the long term be overcome through training within the local community. Maximise goods and services contracts to local businesses. in employment. However. Sipitang District. Indirect benefits from the Project to the Local • Local communities must be given preference whenever practical. Related activities such as infrastructure development.

Sipitang District. Quantitative Risk Assessment Construction/Expansion Stage: • • No significant impacts. • Institute a repatriation program at the end of the migrant workers’ contract to ensure smooth and legal departure. Observe all occupational health and safety statutes and regulations in the construction setting. None. Carry out a community consultation activity to encourage involvement by the local communities and creating awareness as well as resolving issues for the sustainability of the Project. there will also be an increase in demand for basic services and amenities. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Authority/State/Country are reduction in dependency on imported pulp and subsequently foreign exchange through this import. speed up the development and economic diversification program and direct and indirect taxes from households and expanded business. However it is important to be aware of the risks involved in construction work. Clearly visible signage in common languages to notify site personnel of occupational hazards on site. • With the increase in population especially during construction period.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-31 . training and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in identified areas. The proposed expansion is unlikely to cause mass immigration. The provision.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. the measures are as specified. Presence of foreigners is sometimes associated with increase in crime rate. All temporary structures should be dismantled and removed to prevent potential squatting problem once construction is completed. • • • • 9. • • • Use skilled workers and trained personnel for specialized and identified tasks. Labour may not be completely sourced locally. sexually transmitted diseases and other social ills. Increase in population during construction is expected to be temporary as the workers will move away once projects are completed.

The Project Proponent shall maintain a MSDS for each substance in the hazardous chemical inventory. The expansion Project was found to have no significant impact on the surrounding areas. Impacts from possible risk of toxic release and fire and explosion hazards in the mill could be greatly minimised with adequate separation of distances and precautions.10. hence do not pose any impact to neighbouring area. Improvement/prevention actions are to be completed in a timely manner. importer or other responsible party. risks and general areas of improvement/prevention. address and emergency contact of the chemical manufacturer. Investigate all incidents and accidents and provide timely improvement/preventive actions. appropriate hazard warning sign and name. Maintain an inventory of hazardous materials in the work area.40 x 10 6 /yr/person for day and night respectively. fuel oil and diesel. Individual voluntary risk fatality for the workers in the mill -6 was assessed to be 0.1.51 x 10 /yr/person and 0. Sipitang District. • • • • • • • • • • • • Outside contractors shall have a Hazard Communication Program meeting the requirements of Project Proponent.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex.031 x 106 /yr/person for day.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-32 . Failure scenarios for various sections of the plant and the related transport system could lead to chemical spills. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program Operation Stage: • Four types of chemicals with potential hazards are identified which are chlorine.0 x 10 /yr/person. receive Hazard None.and night-time respectively. • Implement all aspects of occupational health and safety framework as discussed in Section 5.5. sulphur dioxide. Audit reporting should be made to senior management through the Occupational Safety and Health Committee. highlighting hazards. which is much lower than the commonly accepted voluntary risk of 10 x 10-6/yr/person. The recommended risk criteria set in by DOE have therefore been met. Individual risk contours – Both 1 x 10-5 and 1 x 10-6 per year contours are within the proposed site’s boundary.037 x 10-6/yr/person and 0. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Reports should be made to senior management through the Occupational Safety and Health Committee. Label all incoming containers of hazardous material with identity of the hazardous chemical. Risk of fatality on the neighbouring population was assessed to be 0. All new employees will Communication training. Institute regular preventative audits in all areas of mill operation. pool/dike fire and toxic vapour cloud dispersion.2. which was much lower than the commonly acceptable -6 involuntary fatality risk level of 1. tank fires.

• • Quarterly monitoring of tributary of Sg. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program • Establish an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) which covers both operational/process and external hazards should be developed as a tool for effective disaster or emergency management. Vegetating the stream bank. Slopes on stream banks. • Site clearing should be restricted to the areas that are necessary for development of the landfill only. gabion structures. Proposed Secure Landfill 1. The steeper banks near the rivers are subjected to erosion and slope instability • • • • Turfing for surface protection of gentle soil slope. Results must comply with Class IIB standard of the INWQSM or as per baseline. rip rap and armour rocks are sometimes used. Earth/excavated/ cut materials might spill and wash into the drain. None. Site clearing and construction activities should be carried out during dry season to minimise soil erosion. • • • • 2.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Retaining wall structures. Surface Water Pollution Impact Construction Stage: • • Siltation of stream is anticipated due to soil erosion attributed to site preparation and construction activities. Sipitang District. Slope Stability There are no significant slope instability problems except for the steeper stream banks since most of the areas are flat. Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. Sebuboh (adjacent to the proposed secure landfill). contributing to water pollution.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-33 . Dentition concrete. Spray concrete (guniting) to protect slope face. Soil anchors. Horizontal or inclined subsoil drains to drain out groundwater that causes excessive pore-water pressure.

use HDPE to cover active cells. phased disposal and progressive restoration. grubbing.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-34 . Immediately after completion of the landfill cells. Plastic sheets should be laid on bare slopes as temporary surface protection from raindrop impact. signboards. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program • Cut and fill works should be carried out during non-rainy days to prevent soil erosion and any possible landslides.). Sipitang District. • • River reserves shall be retained and excluded from development at the tributaries of Sg. destumping and derooting shall be backfilled with acceptable materials and compacted to approximate densities of adjacent areas. Implementation of a leachate management scheme which comprised the followings: • Minimisation of leachate generation – control surface and groundwater contribution. use low permeability Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. River reserves should be demarcated clearly on ground (painted pegs. Sebuboh. Provide silt traps at the discharge outlets of drains prior to discharging into existing tributaries. These slopes should be terraced and turfed as permanent soil erosion measures after the plastic sheets are removed. Pueraria javanica and Arachis pitoi. Earth fill areas and slope-cutting areas should be properly compacted to provide stable slopes and reduce sediment runoff. • • • • Operation Stage: Leachate production from the interaction of landfill processes and rainwater will cause surface and groundwater pollution if not treated properly.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. Calopogonium mucunoides. Holes and cavities resulted from clearing. the denuded areas not meant for further development should be rehabilitated with leguminous cover crops such as Centrosema pubescens. etc.

Quarterly monitoring of tributary of Sg. Control over leachate quality – leaching tests on incoming wastes especially for schedule and hazardous wastes and ban on specific wastes. Sipitang District. i. where the lower liner acts as a leak detection system and as a backup to the upper liner in case of failure. perimeter and bunding cell with low permeability bund walls. treatment and disposal of leachate as it is generated – leachate collection system. Frequency: quarterly or as per DOE’s requirement. baseline sampling must be conducted to compare existing condition to operational phase. • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. and shape final landform to encourage surface water run-off away from “active” cells. SFI’s proposed system is a single composite liner made up of two parts.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. an occupational safety and health (OSH) program must be developed by the Project management. Sinolob on the south of the existing disposal site. Impact on Groundwater • The groundwater flow will affect the landfill if it is built on a layer of alluvial sand or semiconsolidated sandstone of the Liang or on fractured sandstone of the Meligan.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-35 . Sinolob. • • 3. Environmental Health Impact • Various air pollutants generated from the mill have the potential to impact human health in different ways. • • Groundwater quality monitoring at the four groundwater wells. • For Operation Stage. effluent treatment plant. Results must comply with Class IIB of INWQSM or as per baseline. Results must not be higher than baseline. derive a monitoring plan for the affected tributary of Sg. Prior to this. Existing disposal site may pose groundwater contamination and affect the tributary of Sg Sinolob on the south.e. • Containment of leachate within the landfill – use liner system to contain the leachate produced and drain into the effluent treatment plant. TRISOPLAST®. • • • • Cumulative Impacts 1. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program cap. Collection. The landfill will have a strong impermeable liner system that can seal off any leakages. Monitoring wells can be set next to the tributary or in the water. First aid and emergency response program (ERP) will need to be planned and implemented. through the main exposure pathway of inhalation though this is largely dependent on the concentration of exposure and prior medical condition of the receptor. As for the existing disposal site.

it is also anticipated that the risk to public health from the hazard of contaminated groundwater will be minimal. further contaminated beach or ocean sediments or from hazard contaminated seafood will be minimal. adjacent to SFI jetty. i. if any.e. Environmental Economics Operation Stage: Cost Benefit Analysis: • • Net present value (NPV) = RM 776 million Benefit cost ratio (BCR) = 1. The upgrade of the mill will eliminate the use of toxic chemicals such as chlorine. This is related to the nature of investment flow.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-36 . risk to public health from the hazard recreational water quality. the anticipated risk to public health from this hazard is considered minimal. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 75% which is very high. due to minimal likelihood of surface contamination. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns • Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program As for surface water contamination. Likewise. • • • 2. Lifetime cancer risks calculated for individual air pollutants and total lifetime cancer risk is considerable less than the universally accepted risk level of 10-6. exceeding the social cost of capital n Malaysia. due to the groundwater flow modeling and expected contaminant plume paths. A feasible project is when the NPV ≥ 0 and the BCR ≥ 1. Sipitang District.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. hence it is expected that the extremely hazardous pollutants of dioxin and furan will not be discharged to Brunei bay though the wastewater stream proposed for discharged. if any. Hence.4 None. the investment is limited to the expansion of the pulp and paper production Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. suggesting that this project is viable at the societal point of view. None. and the proximity of settlements to key adjacent river systems.

fowl. the following types of developments for areas surrounding SFI are proposed: Downstream wood related industries.Bhd CK/EV403-4059/07 ES-37 . Warehouse/gowdown. • It is very important any planning scheme or structure plans evolved in the future should always consider the existence of SFI as a heavy industry so that landuse compatibility can be satisfactorily met. Likewise in the event when control measures to reduce SO2 emissions are not in operation for all the significant sources. chicken. extending up to three kilometers to the north from the Project site and more than two kilometers in the other directions. The air pollution modeling has predicted that incremental concentration of TSP release can reach to a maximum of 338. Sipitang District. Land use • As Sipitang town is undergoing rapid development. ‘High risk’ areas should be void of zoning for residential and institutions such as schools in the future.8µg/m3 under extreme meteorological conditions when control measures are not in place. etc. While Sipitang is a small district itself. 3. eventually it would come to a time when urbanization will spread to the areas adjacent to the mill complex. None. SFI as the industry may be put into a tug-of-war situation with developments that may come. cattle goats. This high concentration is near the Project site and extends up to two kilometers to the south from the Project site and about one kilometer in the other directions.DEIA for the Proposed SFI Pulp and Paper Mill Expansion at SFI Complex. it is foreseeable that when rapid urbanization takes place. • • • • Chemsain Konsultant Sdn. the predicted maximum 1-hour average SO2 incremental concentration is between 300 and 658 µg/m3. These areas are therefore termed as “high risk” areas. Sabah Executive Summary Project Activities & Environmental issues/ Concerns Predicted Environmental Impacts Recommended Mitigating Measures Monitoring Program plant capacity and most other investment costs are already made during the initial establishment stage. For this reason. and/or Agricultural uses including pastures and grazing.