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# Unit 1 Alternating Current (a.

c)

Activity 1.1
Watch the video about a Power Plant and write some words that you can see in the video connected with Electricity.

Extra Activity 1.2 (Homework)

Write sentences to describe what is happening. Imagine you are a tour guide and you have to explain what is happening in the Power Plant.

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Didactic Guide

Pre-knowledge

Students must Know the basic rules and laws of Direct current (d.c). Example:

Students must Know how to resolve basic circuits. Example: Determine the total resistance and the current flowing through each resistor for the circuit shown:

Objectives

Determine the characteristic parameters of electrical systems, performing calculations or measurements in alternating current circuits .

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Activities

Activity 1.3 (Hotpotatoes)

Match the elements of this basic circuit with its symbols: Resistance

Resistor

Connected in parallel

Connected in series

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Battery Circuit

R1 3Ω

Activity 1.4 (Hotpotatoes)

Try to match the symbol with its component and/or unit: Volt Resistor Ohms Total voltage R VT v Ω

Activity 1.5

In the Pre-knowledge example, draw another circuit to make it more clear the series and parallel connections.

Activity 1.6

Do the example in the pre-knowledge.

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Ch1 Single-phase AC

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Introduction
The supply which we obtain from a car battery is a unidirectional or d.c. supply, whereas the mains electricity supply is alternating or a.c.(see Fig. 1.1).

Most electrical equipment makes use of alternating current supplies, and for this reason a knowledge of alternating waveforms and their effect on resistive, capacitive and inductive loads is necessary for all practising electricians. Rotating a simple loop of wire or coils of wire between the poles of a magnet such as that shown simplified in Fig. 1.2 will cut the north south lines of magnetic flux and induce an a.c voltage in the loop or coils of wire as shown by the display on a cathode ray oscilloscope. This is an a.c supply, an alternating current supply. The basic principle of the a.c. supply generated in a Power Station is exactly the same as Fig. 1.2 except that powerful electromagnets are used and the power for rotation comes from a steam turbine.

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Activity 1.7 (Hotpotatoes)

Match the headings for the following drawings and paragraphs:

What do we need to produce electricity?

How is electricity produced?

Basic principle of the a.c. supply.

Battery current

supply

direct

Mains supply current

alternating

Drawing single-phase ac

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Extra Activity 1.8(Homework)

Write the number of the symbols inside the drawing. 1) Alternating waveform 2) Loop of wire or coils 3) Poles of a magnet 4) Display

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Magnitudes
Cycle: a set of values that takes a wave to return to the initial value (value and direction). Frequency: number of cycles per unit time. It is denoted by the letter f. In SI units, the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz).1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second. Period: is the length of time taken by one cycle. It is denoted by T and it is the reciprocal of the frequency. The SI unit for period is the second.

Angular frequency: it is the angular velocity of the loop of wire. It is denoted by . The SI unit fo angular velocity is radians per seconds (rad/s), although it may be measured in other units such as revolutions per second, revolutions per minute (rpm).

Phase: it is the angle of the loop of wire at one point. It is denoted by measured in degrees or radians.

and it can be

Fig. 1.3 A phasor can be seen as a rotating vector. In Spain and most of the European Countries we generate electricity at a frequency of 50 Hz and the time taken to complete each cycle is given by:

Activity 1.9

Fill in the grid with the information from the text (Magnitudes):

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THE UNIT Frequency Period Angular frequency Phase φ f s radians per seconds

Activity 1.10

How would you read this formula? (Use the pdf list to look for the expressions):

Extra Activity 1.11(Homework)

How would you read these formulae?

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Important values
When a coil is rotated inside a magnetic field a voltage is induced in the coil. The induced voltage follows a mathematical law as the sinusoidal law and, therefore, we can say that a sine wave has been generated. Such a waveform has the characteristics displayed in Fig. 1.4.

An alternating waveform is constantly changing from zero to a maximum, first in one direction, then in the opposite direction, and so the instantaneous values of the generated voltage are always changing. A useful description of the electrical effects of an a.c. waveform can be given by the maximum, average and rms values of the waveform. The maximum or peak value is the greatest instantaneous value reached by the generated waveform. Cable and equipment insulation levels must be equal to or greater than this value. The average is the average over one half-cycle of the instantaneous values as they change from zero to a maximum and can be found from the following formula applied to the sinusoidal waveform shown in Fig.1.5

For any sinusoidal waveform the average value is equal to 0.637 of the maximum value. the rms value is the square root of the mean of the individual squared values and is the value of an a.c. voltage which produces the same heating effect as a d.c. voltage. The value can be found from the following formula applied to the sinusoidal waveform shown in Fig. 1.5.

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For any sinusoidal waveform the rms value is equal to 0.7071 of the maximum value.

Activity 1.12

It is very common in technical English the use of the passive voice / form. a) Can you underline all the verb forms? b) Classify the verbs into present/past forms and passive forms. Passive voice is formed by: verb “to be” + the past participle

Present/Past

Passive Voice

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c) Now use a dictionary to find the meaning of the verbs.
Present/Past English follow Spanish seguir English is rotated (rotate) Passive Voice Spanish es girado / se gira

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Answer the following questions: 1.- What is the instantaneous value? 2.- What is the maximum or peak value? 3.- What is the average? 4.- What is a sinusoidal waveform? 5.- What is the average value for any sinusoidal waveform? 6.- What is the rms (effective) value? 7.- Does the rms value of an a.c. voltage produce the same heating effect as a d.c. voltage? 8.- What is the rms value for any sinusoidal waveform?

Activity 1.14

How would you read these formulae?

Activity 1.15

Read the example and do it.

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In this section we will first of all consider the theoretical circuits of pure resistance, inductance and capacitance acting alone in a.c. circuit before going on to consider the practical circuits of resistance, inductance and capacitance acting together. Let us first define some of our terms of reference.

Resistance In any circuit, resistance is defined as opposition to current flow. From Ohm's law:

However, in an a.c. circuit, resistance is only part of the opposition to current flow. The inductance and capacitance of an a.c. circuit also cause an opposition to current flow, which we call reactance.

Inductive reactance (XL) is the opposition to an a.c. current in an inductive circuit. It causes the current in the circuit to lag behind the applied voltage, as shown in Fig. 1.6. It is given by the formula:

where a constant f= the frequency of the supply L= the inductance of the circuit Another way to express XL is given by

Capacitive reactance (XC) is the opposition to an a.c current in a capacitive circuit. It causes the

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current in the circuit to lead ahead of the voltage, as shown in Fig. 1.6. It is given by the formula:

where

and f are defined as before and C is the capacitance of the circuit.

It can also be expressed as:

Activity 1.16

Complete the following table with the new mathematical expression:

SYMBOL Period T

FORMULA

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Activity 1.17

Read the text and answer the questions: 1.- What is RESISTANCE in an a.c. circuit? 2.- What is REACTANCE in an a.c. circuit? 3.- What is an inductive circuit? 4.- What is an INDUCTIVE REACTANCE? 5.- What is a capacitive circuit? 6.- What is the difference between an inductive circuit and capacitive one? 7.- What is IMPEDANCE?

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Activity 1.18

Observe Fig. 1.16 circuit diagram. Complete the following text using the words: lags, leads, oscilloscope, current, voltage, inductor, capacitor and phase. When a resistor only is connected to an a.c. circuit the _______and _______ waveforms remain together, starting and finishing at the same time. We say that the waveforms are in _____. When a pure ______ is connected to an a.c. circuit the current ____ behind the voltage by 90º. When a pure _________is connected to an a.c. circuit the current _______the voltage by an angle of 90º. These various effects can be observed on an _________, but the circuit diagram, waveform diagram and phasor diagram for each circuit are shown in Fig. 1.6.

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Impedance and phasors
Impedance The total opposition to current flow in an a.c. circuit is called impedance and given the symbol Z. Thus impedance is the combined opposition to current flow of the resistance, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance of the circuit and can be calculated from the formula:

Resistance, inductance and capacitance in an a.c. circuit When a resistor only is connected to an a.c. circuit the current and voltage waveforms remain together, starting and finishing at the same time. We say that the waveforms are in phase. When a pure inductor is connected to an a.c. cirucit the current lags behind the voltage by 90º. When a pure capacitor is connected to an a.c. circuit the current leads the voltage by an angle of 90º. These various effects can be observed on an oscilloscope, but the circuit diagram, waveform diagram and phasor diagram for each circuit are shown in Fig. 1.6.

Phasor Diagrams Phasor diagrams and a.c. circuits are an inseparable combination. Phasor diagrams alow us to produce a model or picture of the circuit under consideration which help us to understand the circuit. A phasor is a straight line, haviing definitive length and direction, which represents to scale the magnitude and direction of quantity such as a current, voltage or impedance. To find the combined effect of two quantities we combine their phasors by adding the beginning of the second phasor to the end of the first. The combined effect of the two quantities is shown by the resultant phasor, which is measured from the original zero position to the end of the last phasor.(See Fig. 1.7).

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Phase angle In an a.c. circuit containing resistance only, such as a heating circuit, the voltage and current are in phase, which means that they reach their peak and zero values together, as shown in Fig. 1.8(a). In an a.c. circuit containing inductance, such as a motor or discharge lighting circuit, the current often reaches its maximum value after the voltage, which means that the current and voltage are out of phase with each other, as shown in Fig. 1.8(b). The phase difference, measured in degrees between the current and voltage, is called the phase angle of the circuit, and is denoted by the symbol , the lower-case Greek letter phi. When circuits contain two or more separate elements, such as RL, RC or RLC, the phase angle between the total voltage and total current will be neither 0º nor 90º but will be determined by the relative values of resistance and reactance in the circuit.

Activity 1.19

1.-What does "the voltage and current are in phase" mean? 2.- What does "the current and voltage are out of phase" mean? 3.- What is the phase angle of the ciruit Φ? 4.- What happens when circuits contain two or more separate elements such as RL, RC or RLC?

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Series circuits
Alternating current series circuits In a circuit containing a resistor and inductor connected in series as shown in Fig. 1.9, the current I will flow through the resistor and the inductor causing the voltage VR to be dropped across the resistor and VL to be dropped across the inductor. The sum of these voltages will be equal to the total voltage VT but because this is an a.c. circuit the voltages must be added by phasor addition. The result is shown in Fig.1.9, where VR is drawn to scale and in phase with the current and VL is drawn to scale and leading the current by 90º. The phasor addition of these two voltages gives us the magnitude and direction of VT , which leads the current by some angle .

In a circuit containing a resistor and capacitor connected in series as shown in Fig. 1.10, the current I will flow through the resistor and capcitor causing voltage drops VR and V C. The voltage V R will be in phase with the current and V C will lag the current by 90º. The phasor addition of these voltages is equal to the total voltage VT which, as can be seen in Fig. 1.10 is lagging the current by some angle .

The impedance triangle We have now established the general shape of the phasor diagram for a series a.c. circuit. Figures 1.9 and 1.10 show the voltage phasors, but we know that VR=IR, VL=IX L, VC=IXC and VT =IZ, and therefore the phasor diagrams (a) and (b) of Fig. 1.11 must be equal. From Fig 1.11(b), by the therorem of Pythagoras, we have:

If we now divide thoughout by I2 we have:

The phasor diagram can be simplified to the impedance triangle given in Fig. 1.11(c).

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Activity 1.20

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- Using the theorem of Pithagoras try to calculate VT in Fig. 1.9 and Fig. 1.10.

Activity 1.21

- Now read the text of the impedance triangle and discuss in groups of 5 the differences between an inductive impedance triangle and a capacitive one. - Draw the impedance triangle of the examples 1 and 2.

Activity 1.22

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-

In pairs look at the triangles of the fig. 1.11 and write down the formula for the sinΦ, cosΦ and tanΦ.

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Powers and Power factor

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Power factor
Power factor (p.f.) is defined as the cosine of the phase angle between the current and voltage: p.f. = cos Φ If the current lags the voltage as shown in Fig. 1.9, we say that the p.f. is lagging, and if the current leads the voltage as shown in Fig. 1.10, the p.f. is said to be leading. From the trigonometry of the impedance triangle shown in Fig. 1.11, p.f. is also equal to:

The electrical power in a circuit is the product of the instantaneous values of the voltage and current. Fig. 1.12 shows the voltage and current waveform for a pure inductor and pure capacitor. The power waveform is obtained from the product of V and I at every instant in the cycle. It can be seen that the power waveform reverses every quarter cycle, indicating that energy is alternately being fed into a taken out of the inductor and capacitor. When considered over one complete cycle, the positive and negative portions are equal, showing that the average power consumed by a pure inductor or capacitor is zero. This shows that inductors and capacitors store energy during one part of the voltage cycle and feed it back into the supply later in the cycle. Inductors store energy as a magnetic field and capacitors as an electric field. In an electric circuit more power is taken from the supply than is fed back into in, since power is disipated by the resistance of the circuit, and therefore: P=I2R (W) In any d.c. circuit the power consumed is given by the product of the voltage and current, because in a d.c. circuit voltage and current are in phase. In an a.c. circuit the power consumed is given by the product of the current and that part of the voltage which is in phase with the current. The in-phase component of the voltage given by V cosΦ, and so power can also be given by the equation: P= VI cos Φ (W)

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The power factor of most industrial loads is lagging because the machines and discharge lighting used in industry are mostly inductive. This causes an additional magnetizing current to be drawn from the supply, which does not produce power, but does need to be supplied, making supply cables larger.

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Activity 1.23 (Hotpotatoes)

Read the text, then complete the following sentences without looking back at the text. If the current lags the voltage, the p.f. (1)__________. If the current leads the voltage, the p.f. (2)__________. Inductors store energy as a (3)__________ field. Capacitors store energy as an (4)__________ field. In an electric circuit more power is (5)__________ the supply than is (6)__________ into in, since power is disipated by the resistance of the circuit.

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Activity 1.25

Complete these sentences: In any d.c. circuit the power consumed is given by the product of the voltage and the current, because...

In an a.c. circuit the power consumed is given by...

Activity 1.26

Fill in your formulae chart with these 3 formula:

P=I2 R (W)

P= VI cos Φ (W)

How do you say them in English? (Groups of 3)

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Power factor correction

Capacitors may be connected across the main busbars of industrial loads in order to provide power factor improvement, but smaller capacitors may also be connected across an individual piece of equipment, as is the case for fluorescent light fittings.

Activity 1.27
What can we do (add) to a load with a low power factor? Discuss in pairs.

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Have a look at these 3 conditional sentences: If a capacitor is connected in parallel with the load, the capacitor current IC leads the applied voltage by 90º.

If this capacitor current is added to the load current, the resultant load current has a much improved power factor.

If we use a slightly bigger capacitor, the load current can be pushed up until it is "in phase" with the voltage. ALL THE VERBS ARE IN THE PRESENT (PASSIVE) BECAUSE THE CONDITION IS POSSIBLE Can you write 2 conditional sentences from the 3rd paragraph? If..., ...

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Real, reactive and apparent powers
We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power, yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. This “phantom power” is called reactive power, and it is measured in a unit called Volt-Amps-Reactive (VAR), rather than watts. The mathematical symbol for reactive power is the capital letter Q. The actual amount of power being used, or dissipated, in a circuit is called real power, true power or active power, and it is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P, as always). The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power, and it is the product of a circuit's voltage and current, without reference to phase angle. Apparent power is measured in the unit of Volt-Amps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S. P= V.I cos Φ = I2 R (W) Q= V.I sin Φ = I2X (VAR) S= V.I = I2 Z (VA)

As a rule, true power is a function of a circuit's dissipative elements, usually resistances (R). Reactive power is a function of a circuit's reactance (X). Apparent power is a function of a circuit's total impedance (Z).

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Activity 1.29

Why is reactive power called "phantom power"? How is it measured?

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What is its mathematical symbol? Real power =____________power = ____________power What is the difference between real power and reactive power? How is real power measured? What is its mathematical symbol? What is apparent power? How is it measured? What is its mathematical symbol? If we have reactive, real and apparent power, what is true, real or active power, then?

Activity 1.30

Complete this chart with the formula: POWER REAL, TRUE OR ACTIVE REACTIVE APPARENT

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Ch2 Polyphase or Three-phase electrical systems

Warming

Watch the video about a switching arc. What kind of voltage do you think is applied to this pylon? Is it used in single-phase systems? Why do you think we use polyphase or three-phase electrical systems?

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Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity
Generation Figure 1.2 of Chapter 1 shows a simple a.c. generator or alternator producting an a.c. waveform. We generate electricity in large modern power stations using the same basic principle of operation. However, in place of a single loop of wire, the power station alternator has a three-phase winding and powerful electromagnets. The generated voltage is three identical sinusoidal waveforms each separated by 120° as shown in Fig. 2.1. The prime mover is not, of course, a simple crank handle, but a steam turbine. Hot water is heated until it becomes superheated steam, which drives the vanes of a steam turbine which is connected to the alternator. The heat required to produce the steam may come from burning coal or oil or from a nuclear reactor. Whatever the primary source of energy is, it is only being used to drive a turbine which is connected to an alternator, to generate electricity.

Transmission Electricity is generated in the power station alternator at 25 kV. This electrical energy is fed into a transformer to be stepped up to a very high voltage for transmission on the National Grid Network at 400 kV, 275 kV or 132 kV.These very high voltages are necessary because, for a given power, the current is greatly reduced, which means smaller grid conductors and the transmission losses are reduced. The National Grid Network consists of over 5,000 miles of overhead aluminium conductors suspended from steel pylons which link together all the power stations. Environmentalists say that these steel towers are ugly, but this method is about 16 times cheaper than the equivalent underground cable at these high voltages. Figure 2.2 shows a transmission line steel pylon.

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Electricity is taken from the National Grid by appropriately located substations which eventually transform the voltage down to 11 kV at a local sub-station. At the local sub-station the neutral conductor is formed for single-phase domestic supplies and three-phase supplies to shops, ofces and garages. These supplies are usually underground radial supplies from the local sub-station, but in rural areas we still see transformers and overhead lines suspended on wooden poles. Figures 2.3 and 2.4 give an oveview of the system from power station to consumer.

Distribution to the consumer

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The electricity leaves the local sub-station and arrives at the consumer’s main’s intake position. The final connections are usually by simple underground radial feeders at 400 V/230 V. Underground cable distribution is referred within a city, town or village because people nd the overhead distribution, which we see in rural and remote areas, unsightly. Also, at these lower distribution voltages, the cost of underground cables is not prohibitive. The 400 V/230 V is derived from the 11 kV/400 V sub-station transformer by connecting the secondary winding in star as shown in Fig. 2.5. The star point is earthed to an earth electrode sunk into the ground below the sub-station and from this point is taken the fourth conductor, and the neutral. Loads connected between phases are fed at 400 V and those fed between one phase and neutral at 230 V. A three-phase 400 V supply is used for supplying small industrial and commercial loads such as garages, schools and blocks of ats. A single-phase 230 V supply is usually provided for individual domestic consumers.

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Activities

Activity 2.1

Read the text "Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity" and answer the following questions. Where is electricity generated? In Figure 2.2 mark with arrows the steel pylons and the aluminium conductors. What is the use of these steel pylons? What is more expensive steel towers or underground cables? Why? The National Grid Network works at 400KV , 275 KV or 132 KV. Are these high voltages necessary? What is a three-phase 400v supply used for? What is a single-phase 230v supply used for?

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As we could see in the Figure 2.5, the connections of the 11 kV to 400 V supply and the method of connecting a 400 V three-phase load such as a motor and a 400 V single-phase load such as a welder.

Reducing stroboscopic effect The stroboscopic effect may be reduced by equally dividing the lighting load across the three phases of the supply. For example, if the lighting load were made up of 18 luminaires, then 6 luminaires should be connected to the brown phase and neutral, 6 to the black phase and neutral and 6 to the grey phase and neutral.

Balancing three-phase loads A three-phase load such as a motor has equally balanced phases since the resistance of each phase winding will be the same. Therefore the current taken by each phase will be equal. When connecting single-phase loads to a three-phase supply, care should be taken to distribute the single-phase loads equally across the three phases so that each phase carries approximately the same current. Equally distributing the single-phase loads across the three-phase supply is known as ‘ balancing ’ the load. A lighting load of 18 luminaires would be ‘ balanced ’ if six luminaires were connected to each of the three phases.

Advantages of a three-phase four-wire supply A three-phase four-wire supply gives a consumer the choice of a 400 V three-phase supply and a 230V single-phase supply. Many industrial loads such as motors require a three-phase 400 V supply, while the lighting load in a factory, as in a house, will be 230 V. Industrial loads usually demand more power than a domestic load, and more power can be supplied by a 400 V three-phase supply than is possible with a 230 V single-phase supply for a given size of cable since power = VI cosΦ (watts).

Star and delta connections The three-phase windings may be star connected or delta connected as shown in Fig. 2.6. The important relationship between phase and line currents and voltages is also shown. The square root of 3 (√3) is simply a constant for three-phase circuits, and has a value of 1.732. The delta connection is used for electrical power transmission because only three conductors are required. Delta connection is also used to connect the windings of most three-phase motors because the phase windings are perfectly balanced and, therefore, do not require a neutral connection. Making a star connection has the advantage that two voltages become available – a line voltage between any two phases, and a phase voltage between line and neutral which is connected to the star point. In any star-connected system currents ow along the lines (IL), through the load and return by the neutral conductor connected to the star point. In a balanced three-phase system all currents have the same value and when they are added up by phasor addition, we nd the resultant current is zero. Therefore, no current ows in the neutral and the star point is at zero volts. The star point of the distribution transformer is earthed because earth is also at zero potential. A star-connected system is also called a three-phase four-wire system and allows us to connect single-phase loads to a three-phase system.

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Activities

Activity 2.2

-

Modal verbs are always used together with other verbs because they give them extra information, such as possibility, necessity, advice, probability, obligation, etc. There are some modal verbs in this text. Let’s try to remember some modal verbs that we learn in the past. Complete the following chart with 4 examples from the text (In pairs): MODAL CAN COULD SHOULD MAY MIGHT MEANING Ability, permission. Ability in the past, suggestion. Advice, suggestion. Possibility, permission. More remote possibility. EXAMPLE

Activity 2.3

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How is the passive voice formed? Modal verbs and passive voice are frequently used in technical English. Can you copy 2 verbs in the passive (paragraph 1)? Can you copy these verbs and the modals? What is the meaning of "may" in this case, what does "may" express? What is the meaning of "should" in this case, what does "should" express? Pay attention: These verbs are in the infinitive (be) because after modal verbs we always use an infinitive form.

Activity 2.4

We learnt the the 1st conditional in Ch1/Alternating Current/Power Factor/Activity 1.28.
“ALL THE VERBS ARE IN THE PRESENT (PASSIVE) BECAUSE THE CONDITION IS POSSIBLE” e.g.: If we use (present) a slightly bigger capacitor, the load current can be pushed up (present passive) until is “in phase” with the voltage. 1st conditional > POSSIBLE Let’s have a look at some simple exercises dealing with the 1st conditional. Click here to do the exercises. Now let’s learn the 2nd conditional. In the following link you can find how it is used.

Let´s have a look at some simple exercises dealing with the 2nd conditional. Click here to do the exercises.

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Activity 2.5

In the previous activity we have learnt the 2nd conditional and we Know that:

2nd conditional > IMPROBABLE

e.g.: If I had (simple past) a multimeter, I would measure (simple conditional) the voltage.

Sometimes we use the passive and modals in the 2nd conditional:

e.g.: If the lighting load were made up (past passive) of 18 luminaires, then 6 luminaires should be connected (modal verb) to the brown phase and neutral.

The 2nd conditional is used to express something which is hypothetical. If we use COULD/MIGHT instead of WOULD, the action is more improbable.

e.g.: If we used (simple past) a slightly bigger capacitor, the load current could be pushed up (modal in past tense) until is “in phase” with the voltage.

Read paragraph 1 (Reducing stroboscopic effect).

Copy the conditional sentences in both paragraphs.

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Remember

So that means "con el fin de que/ para que" Since means "puesto que" Such as means " como por ejemplo" More...than means " más ...que"

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More Activities

Activity 2.6

Again, we find here in paragraph 4 (Star and Delta Connections) some sentences in the passive voice. Underline the verbs in the passive (individually) and complete this chart (in pairs). Try to find a translation into Spanish which fits, which “sounds” real Spanish:

PASSIVE VERBS

INFINITIVE

TRANSLATION

Activity 2.7

Now, read the text again. There are two possible formulae for the Star connection. The first one is: IL = IP Complete the following: The current of the ________ the___________.

equals

the

current

of

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VL = √3 x VP Complete the following: The voltage of the _________ equals the square root of three _____________ ____ the voltage of the __________. Now, it’s your turn to write these Delta connection formulae: IL = √3 x IP and VL = VP

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Three-phase powers
We know from our single-phase theory in Chapter 1 that powers can be found from the following formula: P= V.I cosΦ= I2 R (W) Q= V.I sinΦ = I2 X (VAR) S= V.I = I2 Z (VA) In any balanced three-phase system, the total power is equal to three times the power in any one phase. P= 3 Vp Ip cos Φ (W) (5.1) Now for a star connection, V P = VL/√3 and IL = IP (5.2) Substituting Equation (5.2) into Equation (5.1), we have P = √3 VL IL cos Φ (W) Now consider a delta connection: V P = VL and Ip = IL/√3 (5.3) Substituting Equation (5.3) into Equation (5.1) we have, for any balanced three-phase load, P = √3 VL IL cos Φ (W) For reactive and apparent powers we have the following results: Q = √3 VL IL sin Φ (VAR) S = √3 VL IL (VA)

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Activities

Activity 2.8

P > True power Q> Reactive power S> Apparent power These three-phase powers can be found from the following formulae: P = √3 VL IL cos Φ (W) Q = √3 VL IL sin Φ (VAR) S = √3 VL IL (VA) Read the formulas aloud (in pairs) and copy them on your formulae chart. Learn them “by heart”.

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Three-phase power factor
For the three -phase power factor , we have to consider the same as we know from our single-phase theory in Chapter 1. There is just one thing to take into account, the delta or star connection of the capacitor bank. The total power required by an inductive device as a motor or similar consists of Active (true or real) power (measured in kilowatts, kW) Reactive power - the nonworking power caused by the magnetizing current, required to operate the device (measured in kilovars, kVAR) The power factor for a three-phase electric motor can be expressed as: PF = cos Φ = P / √3 UL IL where PF = cos Φ = power factor P = power applied (W, watts) U L = line voltage (V) IL = line current (A, amps)

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Harmonics

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Harmonics are electric voltages and currents that appear on the electric power system as a result of certain kinds of electric loads. Harmonic frequencies in the power grid are a frequent cause of power quality problems.

Causes In a normal alternating current power system, the voltage varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz. When a linear electrical load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current at the same frequency as the voltage (though usually not in phase with the voltage). When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier, is connected to the system, it draws a current that is not necessarily sinusoidal. The current waveform can become quite complex, depending on the type of load and its interaction with other components of the system. Regardless of how complex the current waveform becomes, as described through Fourier series analysis, it is possible to decompose it into a series of simple sinusoids, which start at the power system fundamental frequency and occur at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.

Further examples of non-linear loads include common office equipment such as computers and printers, and also variable speed drives.

Effects One of the major effects of power system harmonics is to increase the current in the system. This is particularly the case for the third harmonic, which causes a sharp increase in the zero sequence current, and therefore increases the current in the neutral conductor. This effect can require special consideration in the design of an electric system to serve non-linear loads. In addition to the increased line current, different pieces of electrical equipment can suffer effects from harmonics on the power system.

Motors Electric motors experience hysteresis loss caused by eddy currents set up in the iron core of the motor. These are proportional to the frequency of the current. Since the harmonics are at higher frequencies, they produce more core loss in a motor than the power frequency would. This results in increased heating of the motor core, which (if excessive) can shorten the life of the motor. The 5th harmonic causes a CEMF (counter electromotive force) in large motors which acts in the opposite direction of rotation. The CEMF is not large enough to counteract the rotation, however it does play a small role in the resulting rotating speed of the motor.

Telephones In the United States, common telephone lines are designed to transmit frequencies between 180 and 3200 Hz. Since electric power in the United States is distributed at 60 Hz, it normally does not interfere with telephone communications because its frequency is too low. However, since the third harmonic of the power has a frequency of 180 Hz, its higher-order harmonics are high enough to interfere with telephone service if they became induced in the line.

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Activities

Activity 2.9

Write True of False. Correct the false ones. 1.- A harmonic is a special note that can be played with a musical instrument. It sounds different from the usual notes. 2.- When a non-linear electric load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current. 3.- Computers and printers are examples of a linear load. 4.- One of the major effects of power system harmonics is to increase the current in the system. 5.- Harmonics may have another effect on the power system. 6.- CEMF stands for Common Reference for Languages. European Framework of

7.- In Spain, common telephone lines are designed to transmit frequencies between 180 and 3200 Hz.

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Measuring a.c. circuits
Measuring volts and amps The type of instrument to be purchased for general use in the electrotechnical industries is a difcult choice because there are so many different types on the market and every manufacturer’s representative is convinced that his company’s product is the best. However, most instruments can be broadly grouped under two general headings: those having analogue and those with digital displays. Analogue meters or instruments Analogue meters have a pointer moving across a calibrated scale. They are the only choice when a general trend or variation in value is to be observed. Hi- equipment often uses analogue displays to indicate how power levels vary with time, which is more informative than a specic value. Red or danger zones can be indicated on industrial instruments. The fuel gauge on a motor car often indicates full, half full or danger on an analogue display which is much more informative than an indication of the exact number of litres of petrol remaining in the tank. These meters are only accurate when used in the calibrated position – usually horizontally. Most meters using an analogue scale incorporate a mirror to eliminate parallax error. The user must look straight at the pointer on the scale when taking readings and the correct position is indicated when the pointer image in the mirror is hidden behind the actual pointer. That is the point at which a reading should be taken from the appropriate scale of the instrument. Digital meters or instruments Digital meters provide the same functions as analogue meters but they display the indicated value using a seven-segment LED to give a numerical value of the measurement. Modern digital meters use semiconductor technology to give the instrument a very high-input impedance, typically about 10 MΩ and, therefore, they are ideal for testing most electrical or electronic circuits. The choice between an analogue and a digital display is a difcult one and must be dictated by specific circumstances. However, if you are an electrician or service engineer intending to purchase a new instrument, I think on balance that a good-quality digital multimeter such as that shown in the following figure would be best. Having no moving parts, digital meters tend to be more rugged and, having a very high-input impedance, they are ideally suited to testing all circuits that an electrician might work on in his daily work.

The multimeter Multimeters are designed to measure voltage, current or resistance. Before taking measurements the appropriate volt, ampere or ohm scale should be selected. To avoid damaging the instrument it is good practice rst to switch to the highest value on a particular scale range. For example, if the 10 A scale is rst selected and a reading of 2.5 A is displayed, we then know that a more appropriate scale would be the 3 A or 5 A range. This will give more accurate reading which might be, say, 2.49 A. When the multimeter is used as an ammeter to measure current it must be connected in series with the test circuit, as shown in the figure (a).

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When used as a voltmeter the multimeter must be connected in parallel with the component, as shown in Figure (b) . When using a commercial multirange meter as an ohmmeter for testing electronic components, care must be exercised in identifying the positive terminal. The red terminal of the meter, identifying the positive input for testing voltage and current, usually becomes the negative terminal when the meter is used as an ohmmeter because of the way the internal battery is connected to the meter movement. Check the meter manufacturers handbook before using a multimeter to test electronic components.

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Activities

Activity 2.10

Write True of False. Correct the false ones. 1.- Most measuring instruments can be grouped into two: those having analogue and those with digital displays. 2.- Analogue meters are accurate when used in vertically position. 3.- Analogue meters are ideal for testing most electrical or electronic circuits. 4.- Digital meters display the indicated value using a 7-segment LED to give a numerical value of the measurement. 5.- You should choose an analogue according to specific circumstances. or digital display

6.- Multimeters are used to measure true, reactive and apparent power. 7.- Multimeters can be used as ohmmeter, ammeter and voltmeter. 8.- When we used the multimeter as an ohmmeter, we should check the meter manufacturers handbook.

Look for the expression MUST BE EXERCISED. What does it mean? Add MUST to the modal verb list.

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