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DOE/ID/12009-T1-1

THERMAL RESERVOIR SITE EVALUATION

rogress Report, January 16-November 1,1979

W. Richard Hahman, Sr.

November 1979 Date Published

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J

Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology Geological Survey Branch universitv of A rizona Tucson, Arizona

I

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Geothermal Energy

DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF THE NORTHERN HASSAYAMPA PLAIN, MARICOPA COUNTY, ARIZONA

C l a u d i a Stone

flows s o u t h t h r o u g h t h e center of t h e r e g i o n and d e f i n e s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e e a s t e r n boundary of t h e p r e s e n t area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1979. and (4) c o n d u c t i n g reconnaissance geologic mapping a l o n g t h e n o r t h - east s i d e of t h e B e l m o n t Mountains. The Hassayampa R i v e r . O t h e r b o u n d a r i e s of t h e s t u d y area are t h e Belmont and V u l t u r e Mountains. (3) t a k i n g water samples f o r major c a t i o n and a n i o n a n a l y s e s . and used here w i t h t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n . C a l i f o r n i a . a n i n t e r m i t t e n t stream. 1 . 1). ( 2 ) c o l l e c t i n g s o i l samples f o r mercury a n a l y s i s . I n c . Long Beach. t h e V u l t u r e Mountains o n t h e n o r t h . F i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were carried o u t between J a n u a r y and J u l y . . A s i n g l e shallow w e l l w i t h a measured t e m p e r a t u r e of 5 l o C i n i t i a l l y called a t t e n t i o n t o t h e area.INTRODUCTION Ld A p r e l i m i n a r y a s s e s s m e n t of t h e geothermal p o t e n t i a l of t h e western h a l f of t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n h a s been made. and t h e Belmont and White Tank Mountains on t h e s o u t h w e s t and s o u t h e a s t s i d e s ( F i g . P a r t s of t h i s report are t a k e n from p u b l i s h e d maps and r e p o r t s and from u n p u b l i s h e d f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conducted i n 1972-73 b y Fugro.e Hiero- g l y p h i c Mountains o n t h e n o r t h e a s t . The f i e l d program c o n s i s t e d of (1) tempera- t u r e l o g g i n g of a v a i l a b l e water w e l l s and m i n e r a l t e s t holes. GENERAL SETTING The n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n is bounded by th.

N 1 1/20 4 I8MLS 258M1LS SCALE 1:62.500 I 1/2 - 0 2 0 3 Miles FIGURE I: LOCATION DIAGRAM I 5 I 2 .

s l i g h t l y n o r t h e a s t of t h e V u l t u r e Mountains. 1 9 7 3 ) . a n a t t e m p t is made t o e x p l a i n t h e h y d r o l o g i c s e t t i n g of t h e region.76 i n c h e s (NOAA. which t r e n d s o u t h and s o u t h e a s t w a r d . 2 ) were drawn o n t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e water w e l l h d a t a . 2 Sur- f a c e r u n o f f i n t h e s t u d y area is c h a n n e l l e d i n t o t w o major i n t e r m i t t e n t streams.1 i n c h .24 i n c h e s p e r month. HYDROLOGIC SETTING S u r f a c e Water Throughout t h e e n t i r e Hassayampa d r a i n a g e area (1074 km ) t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l r u n o f f is less t h a n 0. and a n u n p u b l i s h e d g r a v i t y s u r v e y o f l i m i t e d extent ( 1 0 7 km 2 ) i n t h e I n d i a n B u t t e s area (Fugro.2OC (46. The p a u c i t y o f d a t a r e n d e r s any i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n conjectural and s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n as a d d i t i o n a l d a t a are a c q u i r e d .7'F) of a b o u t 18. v a r y between 8.1°F). S t a r Wash enters J a c k r a b b i t Wash east o f t h e B e l m o n t Mountains. Ground Water Contours of water-level a l t i t u d e s above mean sea l e v e l ( F i g . 1979).4OC (65. t h e annual normal p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Wickenburg is 10.D a i l y a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e s a t Wickenburg.4OC (86. b e d r o c k o u t c r o p s . S e v e r a l m i l e s f u r t h e r s o u t h J a c k r a b b i t Wash enters t h e Hassayampa R i v e r . With t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 3 .7OF) and 30. S t a r Wash and J a c k r a b b i t Wash.15 t o 2. r e s p e c t i v e l y . w i t h a mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e P r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges from 0.

T h i s u n d u l a t i o n is l i k e l y c a u s e d by either s h a l l o w i n g of bedrock between t h e Belmont Mountains t o t h e w e s t and t h e White Tank Mountains t o t h e east.The a l t i t u d e of ground water above mean sea l e v e l de- creases t o t h e s o u t h e a s t . i n d i c a t e a h i g h l y permeable a q u i f e r b e n e a t h t h e central p o r t i o n of t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n . depth t o water is a b o u t 145 m and i t decreases t o t h e s o u t h e a s t . o r mounding of ground water between t h e two ranges. w i t h t h e rate of recharge b e i n g . The i n t e r m i t t e n t n a t u r e of t h e Hassayampa R i v e r makes i t u n l i k e l y t h a t much recharge t o t h e ground 4 .l e v e l gradients i n t h e center of t h e s t u d y area. Near t h e center of t h e p l a i n . s m a l 1 owing t o l o w precipitation. 2) and t h e n g e n t l y rises again. Shallow water l e v e l s a l o n g t h e n o r t h e a s t s i d e of t h e Belmont Mountains i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e water there is b e i n g h e l d up by a pediment. The shallow w a t e r . opposed t o steeper g r a d i e n t s closer t o t h e r a n g e f r o n t s . c r e a t i n g a saddle-like configuration. reaches a l o w n o r t h e a s t of t h e Belmont Mountains ( F i g . Depth t o water below t h e l a n d s u r f a c e r a n g e s from a b o u t 13 m i n t h e Belmont Mountains t o a reported d e p t h of greater t h a n 200 m s o u t h of t h e V u l t u r e Mountains. In either case. Recharge t o t h e a q u i f e r is from t h e c o n t i g u o u s mountain ranges. i t appears t h a t t h e c o n s t r i c t i o n between t h e Belmont and White Tank Mountains creates a n a t u r a l ground-water d i v i d e between t h e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n Hassayampa areas.

General d i r e c t i o n of ground water f l o w . Dotted where d a t a are i n s u f f i c i e n t . Contour i n t e r v a l is 100 feet. ---/300--- Contour of a p p r o x i m a t e water l e v e l above mean sea l e v e l ( f e e t ) . lower number is a p p r o x i m a t e a l t i t u d e of water l e v e l above mean sea l e v e l ( f e e t ) .b. / Inferred faults. Bedrock o u t c r o p . PROPOSED BEDROCK A M ) HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS EXPLANATION e----435 1645 Upper number is depth t o water below l a n d s u r f a c e ( f e e t ) . F i g u r e 2. /- Area of s h a l l o w bedrock. 5 .

Northern Hassayampa Plain. Proposed Bedrock and Hydrologic conditions.Figure 2. 6 . Arizona.

:cJ water system is derived from t h i s source. Published ground water data from t h e study area are p r e s e n t l y inadequate to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e water balance elements such a s recharge and withdrawal rates and recent water l e v e l changes. 7 .

Wilson. These rocks are i n - t r u d e d by sills.c e n t r a l A r i z o n a . On t h e Geologic Map of A r i z o n a . H e i d r i c k (1976) i d e n t i f i e d d i s t i n c t i v e t e c t o n i c a l l y . Moore and Cooper (1969) show t h e V u l t u r e Mountains as b e i n g cornposed of Precambrian g r a n i t e . a n d Damon o n t h e g e o c h r o n o l o g y a n d geology of t h e V u l t u r e Mountains is i n press.GEOLOGY The Hassayampa P l a i n l i e s wi:hin t h e B a s i n a n d Range physiographic p r o v i n c e of w e s t . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e report by R e h r i g . R e s u l t s of u n p u b l i s h e d r e c o n n a i s s a n c e geo- l o g i c mapping a l o n g t h e s o u t h s i d e of t h e Belmont Mountains and w i t h i n t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n were made a v a i l a b l e 8 . P u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e s to t h e Belmont Mountains a n d t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n a r e n o t found i n the literature. a n d s c h i s t . Tertiary-Quaternary basalt R e h r i g and flows cap much of t h e w e s t end of t h e complex. a n d C r e - t a c e o u s a n d e s i t i c and r h y o l i t i c rocks. g n e i s s . V u l t u r e Mountains.o r i e n t e d s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e V u l t u r e Mountains w h i c h t h e y i d e n t i f i e d as Laramide a n d l a t e .t r e n d i n g d i k e s of lateC r e t a c e o u s t o T e r t i a r y age.T e r t i a r y i n age. S h a f i q u l l a h . P u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s on t h e V u l t u r e Mountains a r e g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o e a r l y a c c o u n t s of m i n i n g a c t i v i t y a t t h e V u l t u r e gold mine o n t h e s o u t h s i d e of t h e mountain. The n o r t h - e r n Hassayampa P l a i n is separated from t h e s o u t h e r n p l a i n by a n e i g h t .m i l e wide c o n s t r i c t i o n c a u s e d by t h e p r o x i m i t y of t h e B e l m o n t t o t h e White Tank Mountains. p l u g s . Belmont Mountains. and n o r t h .

one h i l l is composed .and zindesite h i l l s . 1969). Inc. e s Contain. a l k a l i feldspar. of . . The . The age of t h i s g r a n i t e is shown a s Precambrian on. . Of t h e i s o l a t e d o u t c r o p s exami'ned. con'firming t h e existence of a p'ediment there. n o r t h e a s t OF t h e g r a n i t e ridge. . i t e is l a c k i b g b i o t i t e wh'ich t h e other U e h e d f a l m a g n e t i t e i n t h i s rock is P h e n o c r y s t s of s u b h e d r a l t o e u h e d r a l q u a r t z . gr Specifically. California. s c h i s t . schi$t-intruding g r a n i t .. x d r t h w e s t of t h e granise r i d g e are low h i l l s of P r e c a m b r i a n s o h i s $ and r e m n a n t s of Cretaceous a n d e s i t e (Wilson and o t h e r s . T h i s g r a n i t e is q u i t e d i s .. w i t h a maximum e l e v a t i o n of 956. A d d i t i o n a l geo c i n f o r m a t i o n is based on f i e l d i n v e s t i - g a t i o n s and a i r p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . t h e .lase are abundant 9 .3 m. ubiquitous. from o t h e r g r a n i t i c r o c b examined. n o r t h e a s t of t h e . A geo- logid crqss section (Fig.granite r i d g e The main s e c t i o n of t h e range comprises a b a r r e n about 7. Long Bench. and plqgioc. T h e s o u t h e a s t end of t h e range terminates t i t h a p i l e of C r e t a c e q u s ( ? ) a n d e s i t e w i t h maximum e l e v a t i o n of 675.2 km l o n g .est-trending r a n g e t h a t separates t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n from t h e southern plain. f a r n o r t h as J a c k r a b b i t Wash. I n t h e s t u d y area there are no g r a n i t i c o u t c r o p s However. t i n c f .granite h t r u d e d i n t o s c h i s t .4 m.969). numerous g r a n i t i c h i l l s p r o t r u d e t h r o u g h t h e d e k r i t a l s e d i m e n t as.LJ for this study Fugro. 1. To t h e t h e s t a t e geologic map ( W i l s o n and o t h e r s .. 3) shows d e t a i l s across t h e area. The Belmont Mountains is a small norkhw.

0 2000 18001600. 14001200- 1000 9 Xgure 3 . ! 2 3 +miles Horizontal Scale Io=I mile SW-NE cross section (A-A') showing water-bearing and non-water bearing basin fill and inferred Jackrabbit Wash fault. c .Elevation in feet above mean sea level 2400 CL Nun water bearing busin fill Water beuring busin fill EI Granitic bedrock i 1 S 2200.

Q u a r t z p h e n o c r y s t s com- p r i s e a b o u t 17 modal p e r c e n t of t h e s c h i s t . With respect t o t h e episodes of i n t r u s i o n .t y p e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is a t least 11 . b u t t h e r o c k . Feldspar is b e i n g altered Two i n f e r e n c e s c a n b e made from these o b s e r v a t i o n s . 25 t o 35 p e r c e n t of t h e rock. I n contrast.8 per c e n t Epidote is triomorphic g r a n u l a r . t h e rocks are ! i d e n t i f i e d as C r e t a c e o u s a n d e s i t e by Wilson and others (1969). p r e s e n t i n trace amounts o n l y . Northwest of t h e B e l m o n t Mountains. shallow cap rock. Zones of h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d r o c k p r o b a b l y s u r r o u n d these p l u t o n s and c o u l d p r o v i d e open f r a c t u r e networks f o r t h e storage or c i r c u l a t i o n of hydrothermal f l u i d s a t d e p t h . t o sericite. 1) The g r a n i t i c r o c k s represent a t l e a s t t w o separate episodes of i n t r u s i o n and ( 2 ) each had a d i s t i n c t thermal history.i n t r u d i n g granite. However. s e a l i n g off a geothermal r e s e r v o i r a t depth. and q u a r t z . t h e same hydro- t h e r m a l a l t e r a t i o n c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l h a v e created a n im- permeable. The d i s t i n c - t i v e thermal h i s t o r i e s s u g g e s t t h a t a t least some of t h e f r a c t u r e c h a n n e l s are sealed by s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l i z a t i o n due t o hydrothermal a l t e r a t i o n . it is l i k e l y t h a t there were more t h a n t w o e v e n t s . and a 44 late-stage p r o p y l i t i c a l t e r a t i o n is i n d i c a t e d by small t o large c l o t s of chlorite/epidote.groundmass h a s been destroyed by potassic% l t e r a t i o n . t h e o t h e r g r a n i t e samples are alloB i o t i t e comprises a b o u t 2.

the more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n . and is v e r y dense and c o h e r e n t .t r e n d i n g r i d g e s of b l a d k and g r a y cj o b s i d i a n and banded r h y o l i t e f l o w s . o r a composite ash f l o w e v e n t i n w h i c h t h e o b s i d i a n l a y e r s represent the densely-welded in- f teriors of i n d i v i d u a l ash f l o w c o o l i n g u n i t s . t h e o b s i d i a n is p r e s e n t l y b e i n g age d a t e d .o u t .e a s i g n f f i c a n t heat s o u r c e f o r a geo.y. other regions i n t h e A r i z o n a A younger s e t of s t r i k e di 12 . ) Structure.. d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a u t h o r s for e i g h t .n i n e B a s i n and Range p r o v i n c e . ( A saxiqjle o f . t h i s area t o d e t e r m i n e (1) t 4 e s o u r c e area oi t h e r h y o l i t i c rocks. to t h e southwest. is p h e n o c r y s t free. 0. Two discrete tectonic o r i e n t a t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e V u l t u r e Mouneains by R e h r i g and H e i d r i c k (1976). I n o t h e r areas t h e q b s i d i a n is interbedaed be- neath r h y o l i t e . a l s o of Laramic@ age. (2) s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . as a young age.I partly i n error. measured along a n Laramide p l u t o n and associated d i k e s i n the V u l t u r e Mountains. The e n t i r e s e q u e n c e d i p s m o d e r a t e l y Additional f i e l d work is n e c e s s a r y i n . some of w h i c h exceed 75 m i n h e i g h t . I n places i t rests atop t h e r h y o l i t e flows and f o r m t h e r i d g e top. is o r i e n t e d n o r t h e a s t t o east and carresponds w i t h s t r i k e maxima. and (3) w h e t h e r t h e sequence represents a series of r h y o l i t i c l a v a f l o w s .thermal r e s o u r c e . The o b s i d i a n f r e q u e n t l y e x c e e d s 15 m i n t h i c k n e s s . would pr0vid. less t h a n a b o u t o n e rn.f F i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s reveal t h e o c c u r r e n c e e x t e n s i v e . elongate An older s e t of s t r i k e maxima. n o r t h w e s t .. flows.o f .

e a s t . l a t e r a l ENE-directed c o m p r e s s i o n combined w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l u p l i f t a l o n g m u l t i p l e NNW t o NW-elongate arches. on the F l u o r i d e (Fig. w h i l e l a t e T e r t i a r y B a s i n and Range s t r u c t u r e s formed u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of a non-compressive o r t e n s i o n a l stress f i e l d which r e s u l t e d i n r e g i o n a l WSW-ENE d i s t e n s i o n .P. t h e Laramide e x t e n s i o n a l p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d u n d e r weak. I "The s u b s e q u e n t release of t h i s l a t e r a l compress i o n and a t t e n d a n t i n c e p t i o n of B a s i n and Range t e n s i o n a l stresses o c c u r r e d upon d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e suba n d motion s p r e a d d u c t i o n zone a b o u t 30 m.maxima are o r i e n t e d n o r t h . The t h i r d s t r u c t u r a l t r e n d ( N W ) . T h i s n o r t h w e s t t r e n d is e s p e c i a l l y a p p a r e n t n o r t h of the 13 . perpendicular to t h e The a u t h o r s e a r l i e r t r e n d . n o r t h w e s t w a r d as t r a n s f o r m f a u l t i n g o c c u r r e d a l o n g 11 t h e w e s t edge of t h e American p l a t e ..y.T e r t i a r y V u l t u r e Mountain stress f i e l d s of R e h r i g and H e i d r i c k (1976).n o r t h e a s t directed c o m p r e s s i o n w a s produced b y s u b d u c t i o n a l o n g t h e F a r a l l o n . a n d on t h e Aeromagnetic map ( F i g . Weak.n o r t h w e s t .). . T o of t h e t r e n d s ("W and NE) c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e Laramide w a n d l a t e . T h r e e d i s t i n c t s t r u c t u r a l t r e n d s have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s t u d y area. P r e e x i s t e n t basement a n i s o t r o p h y is c o n s i d e r e d a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on b o t h Laramide and l a t e T e r t i a r y s t r u c t u r e . is also e v i d e n t from t h e L a n d s a t l i n e a m e n t map ( L e p l e y .. 8 ) . i n t e r p r e t t h e t w o t e c t o n i c o r i e n t a t i o n s . and are l a t e T e r t i a r y i n age. of unknown age. 6 ) and Mer- c u r y (Fig.a s e v i d e n c e of former stress f i e l d s s i g n i f y i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g : " . . 7)maps. . 1978) ( F i g .P.. T h e o p p o s i n g r e g i o n a l stress p a t t e r n s f o r t h e t w o t i m e p e r i o d s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e large-scale effects of p l a t e t e c t o n i c s . 9 ) a n d from a i r photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o r .B. T h e s e t r e n d s c a n be s e e n on t h e i s o t h e r - m a l maps (Figs. 4 and 5 ) .B.y..A m e r i c a n p l a t e boundary d u r i n g t h e Laramide o r o g e n y (50-75 m.

Projected Tempratures (OC) a t 500 m Depth.Figure 4 . 14 .

I 15 . I Projected depths i n km t o 100°C isotherm.T a Figure 5.

-.. : . Contour interval is one mgll. . .. .. . Figure 6. I . -._ ... .. . Fluoride Concentrations (Nilligrams Per Liter). _ . . . . ' ? I.. / . . 16 .

.

Residual Aeromagnetic Map (From Sauck and Sumner. 1970). Contour interval is 25 Gammas.Figure 8 . I 18 .

Landsat Lineaments (From Lepley. 1978).Figure 9. 19 .

A s e c o n d . t h a t t h e channelways s t i l l may b e open a n d may p r o v i d e con- d u i t s for f l u i d s moving t h r o u g h o r up f r o m t h e deep subsurface. o n e c e n t e r e d o n J a c k r a b b i t Wasn. a n d d i e s o u t west o f t h e Hassayampa R i v e r .t r e n d i n g f a u l t ( F i g .d i r e c t e d Lands a t lineament.t r e n d i n g A single. The c n g n e t i c t r o u g n n e a r l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d n o r t h e a s t . 2 ) . crosses t h e more R o r t h e r l y n a g n e t i c low a n d t h e Iiassayanpa P l a i n . T h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of these t e c t o n i c f e a t u r e s may b e the source of local u p w e l l i n g s of w a r m water. which crosses n o r t h o f t h e Belmont Jioiifitains. GEOPHYSICS: Aeromagnetics. o n l y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e t w o I c i o s e d rcagnetic lows.6 Sumner. Ar:zona The R e s i d u a l Aeromagnetic Map of (Satlck ar.T e r t i a r y t r e n d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t these f e a t u r e s h a v e b e e n e x t a n t f o r many m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . 1921).d a y s t r u c t u r a l t r e n d s w i t h Laramide a n d l a t e . I n a d d i t i o n numerous n o r t h w e s t . l i n e a m e n t s o c c u r i n t h e e a s t e r n V u l t u r e Mountains.b Belmont Mountains where J a c k r a b b i t Wash t r e n d s s o u t h e a s t ward a l o n g t h e trace of a prominent n o r t h w e s t . 1970) ( F i g . l e s s prominent f e a t u r e is a n o r t h e a s t . and o n e closed m a g n e t i c low occiirs a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s f a u l t and t h e L 20 .t r e n d i n g t r o u g h of l o w magnetism. s h o r t e r l i n e a m e n t s t r i k e s n o r t h w e s t through t h e V u l t u r e Mine area and probably is t b e t r a c e of t h e Talmage F a u l t (Hutch- inson. t h e o t h e r s e v e r a l miles t o t h e s o u t h e a s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n of p r e s e n t . 8 ) shows t w o closed m a g n e t i c lows i n t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n .

Thermal Gradients: Thermal g r a d i e n t s were measured i n e i g h t w e l l s . A bedrock h i g h . 1 0 ) . Most l i k e l y t h e Hassayampa P l a i n c o m p r i s e s a r e l a t i v e l y t h i n c o v e r of mountain-derived s e d i m e n t s o v e r l y i n g a bedrock basement t h e depth t o which v a r i e s l o c a l l y . f o r t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l test h o l e s i n t h e s t u d y The d a t a a r e l i s t e d i n Table 1. Most of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t s are normal f o r t h e B a s i n and Range p r o v i n c e . T h e nmpl 1 t u d c of t h e m a g n e t i c f e a t u r e s is l o w and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e is uncertain. G r a v i t y d a t a i n t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n a r e scarce s o t h a t any a t t e m p t a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is difficult. b u t it is n o t known w h e t h e r t h i s f e a t u r e is d u e t o local basement relief o r t o f a u l t i n g . l i t t l e i n t h e way of s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s is a p p a r e n t ( F i g . The t h r e e h i g h e s t g r a d i e n t s . e x t e n d s s o u t h from t h e V u l t u r e Mountains n e a r l y t o I n d i a n B u t t e s ( F i g . Possible explanations f o r t h e high gradients 21 . w i t h a t t e n d a n t h y d r o t h e r m a l a l t e r a t i o n of m a g n e t i t e t o p y r i t e which would create a m a g n e t i c l o w . 11). are s p a c i a l l y closest t o t h e f a u l t intersection. One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o b s e r v e d f e a t u r e s is t h e u p w e l l i n g of h o t water a l o n g t h e f a u l t or a t t h e f a u l t i n t e r s e c t i o n . 11). Gravity. and D i r d w e l l t e m p e r a t u r e l o g s were p r o v i d e d by Fugro. i n d i c a t i v e of recharge t o t h e r e g i o n a l a q u i f e r . e v i - d e n t from i s o l a t e d s c h i s t o u t c r o p s . w h i c h are e x c e p t i o n s . From t h e data a v a i l a b l e . area ( F i g . 2). I n c . and C ( F i g . w e l l s A .iiorttiwcst-trrnding Jackrabbit Wits11 €nult . B.

Figure 10.. 1979.. Terrain Corrected Residual Bouguer Gravity Map (From Lysonski and Sumner. 22 . . Contour interval is 5 Milligals. Unpublished Data).

. - . C. !.. .- . . .

Table 1 .3 41.0 B C D E F G €I.2 15.8 87.1 94.S a l t Meridian) 5N-6W-25 SE N W 4N-6W-4 NE NE 5N-6W-21 NW 5N-6W-10 SE S W 6N-5W-31 S Nw W 5N-5W-16 S E NW Geothermal Gradient C/km 140. Arizona Well No.0 51.6 18. Northern Hassayampa P l a i n . 5N-5W-22 S NE W 5N-5W-21 5N-5W-29 SE SE S E NW I J 4N-5W-5 NW NE 4N-5W-18 S SE W K 24.5 23. A Township and Range Location ( G i l a . Measured Geothermal Gradients.8 9.4 19.8 24' .

1977. b u t s o is g r a d i e n t K w h i c h . b u t s t i l l is n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . (3) The most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o b s e r v e d g r a d i e n t s seems t o b e t h e rise of h o t water a l o n g t h e rangebounding f a u l t (Blackwell and Chapman. G r a d i e n t s B and C ( F i g . A d d i t i o n a l z o n e s of w a r m . Chapman a n d o t h e r . upwarping of isotherms and a small heat flow anomaly may r e s u l t from r e f r a c t i o n of h e a t .w a t e r discharge s h o u l d b e randomly located t h r o u g h o u t the area. a n d these a r e n o t o b s e r v e d .1978. 1977). ( 2 ) r e f r a c t i o n of heat across a range-bounding f a u l t . 1977). LJ 25 . according t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . i n press) and a t t h e f a u l t i n t e r s e c t i o n . 11) a r e located a l o n g t h e range-bounding f a u l t . However. . c a u s e d by t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y c o n t r a s t across a range-bounding f a u l t (Blackwell and Chapman.LJ i n c l u d e : (1) s h a l l o w c o n v e c t i v e c i r c u l a t i o n of w a r m water. s h a l l o w c o n v e c t i v e c i r c u l a t i o n seems a n u n l i k e l y e x p l a n a - t i o n i n t h e s t u d y area b e c a u s e of t h e widespread o c c u r r e n c e of normal g r a d i e n t s . (2) I n a non-geothermal area. (1) High t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s measured a t r e l a t i v e l y s h a l l o w d e p t h s may r e s u l t from s h a l l o w c o n v e c t i v e c i r c u l a - t i o n of w a r m water (Batzle and Simmons. This is a m o r e p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e observed g r a d i e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e ground-water g r a d i e n t p o i n t s t o t h e s t e a d y f l o w of ground water t o t h e southeast. and (3) rise of w a r m water along a range-bounding f a u l t . m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y b e e x p e c t e d t o b e much h i g h e r . Hahman. rather than to convective circulation.

The water may o r may n o t be s t o r e d i n a r e s e r v o i r f o r some p e r i o d of t i m e . s u c h a l t e r n a t i o n of m a g n e t i t e t o p y r i t e c o u l d e a s i l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e t w o closed m a g n e t i c lows o b s e r v e d i n t h e s t u d y area. leakage of t h e r m a l waters i n t o t h e a l l u v i u m can be s i g n i f i - cant. Hot s p r i n g s may o r may n o t o c c u r a l o n g t h e r a n g e f r o n t t o s i g n a l t h i s phenomenon. l e a k i n g greater volumes of h y d r o t h e r m a l water i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r o c k and a l l u v i u m . a n d t h e r e d u c e d d e n s i t y of w a r m water e v e n t u a l l y force t h e t h e r m a l waters toward t h e s u r f a c e t h r o u g h a f a u l t zone. o n e of w h i c h o c c u r s o v e r the fault intersection. f r a c t u r e s . 26 . Difference i n piezometric head between recharge and d i s c h a r g e z o n e s . and p e r m e a b l e beds where i t is heated b y t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a t normally i n c r e a s e w i t h depth. F a u l t i n t e r s e c t i o n s .S u r f a c e water percolates down t h r o u g h f a u l t s . As s t a t e d above. Where h o t s p r i n g s are a b s e n t . c o u l d b e expected t o c a u s e e x t e n s i v e h y d r o t h e r m a l a l t e r ation.

Sample locations are shown i n The data are u s e d t o p r o v i d e a chemical charac- t e r i z a t i o n of t h e waters and t o estimate a q u i f e r temperat u r e s a t depth. 2 . b i c a r b o n a t e water. 1 2 . 13). 13. 3. Samples 5. and rep- resent waters from separate s o u r c e s o r waters of mixed origin. Anomalous c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c e r t a i n e l e m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n t s and anomalous e l e m e n t a l r a t i o s i n water and soil samples c a n b e i n f e r r e d t o i n d i c a t e q u a l i t a t i v e l y a high- t e m p e r a t u r e s y s t e m t h a t h a s no s u r f a c e e x p r e s s i o n of 27 . 11. f o r which complete a n a l y s e s are a v a i l a b l e . Two d i s t i n c t c h e m i c a l t r e n d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Hassayampa and Wickenburg samples. and three anomalous a n a l y s e s . and e i g h t a n a l y s e s of samples from Wickenburg. 6 and 10 are each d i s t i n c t i n chemical c o m p o s i t i o n . F o r comparison of t h e Group I and Group I1 samples. t h e major i o n s of 13 samples. chemical geothermometers and measured t e m p e r a t u r e s are p r e s e n t e d i n Table 3. Most Group I samples ( n o s . whereas a l l Group I1 samples ( n o s . N i n e chemical a n a l y s e s of water samples i'rom t h e s t u d y area. can be i d e n t i f i e d o n t h e diagram. F i g u r e 12. 8 and 9 ) are characterized by sodium. are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. Group 11. Group I . bicarbonate water. are p l o t t e d o n a P i p e r diagram ( P i p e r . Cation r a t i o s .W GEOCHEhl ISTRY Water. 1 4 and 17) and sample 7 from Group I are characterized by sodium. 1944) (Fig. c a l c i u m .

3* 18 12 27 280 28 138 220 250 300 280 200 320 300 273 241 250 272 8 9 10 3 .0 0.4 6.0 4.TDS 431 24 6 260 413 I101 390 1 2 7.8 0.2 7.1 2.12 0.8 3.2 6 7 * 8.1 13 1 1 16 0.1 37 69 35 220 9 25 55 77 220 2.2 0.0 1.9 309 1330 382 2 60 7CDC-3 7DCC 1 1 12 53 35 47 46 1.9 38 180 0.8 2.0 0.8 0.67 0.1 6.3 2.7 34 29 43 23 37 31 43 29 30 38 105 7.07 0.0 16. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER F O SELECTED WELLS IN THE WICKENBURG RM AND NORTHERN HASSAYAMPA AREA.7 23 32 28 13 14 15 16 17 0.0 9.5 1.8 0.O 121 . ARIZONA (Chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s i n m i l l i g r a m s per l i t e r ) Sample NO Location B-4-5 B-4-5 B-4-5 5ABB l8DCC P H C a I _ Mg 19.5 1.14 0.0 15.14 0.2 10.74 0.o 23.8 6.6 2. 43 14 15 2Q - 2UBC 6.8 1.4 1.4 2.1 442 406 304 282 247 c - lCDB 51 40 - 18 30. 56 14 24 25 130 59 32 76 70 49 13.5 0.5 7 22DBD B-6-5 B-7-4 B-7-4 B-7-4 B-7-4 B-7-4 B-7-5 B-7-5 B-7-5 31BCC 3.0 16.8 146 190 143 185 60 249 3 4 18DCB * 8.0 B .13 0.3 74 59 c 5 h) or) 6.9 2.18 0.0 1 7 M 18ACA-1 POCAA lCCB 7 07 7.0 21.2 1.9 12.6 2.6 1.8 2.3 9.2 10 19 400 53 9.65 B-5-5 B-5-6 B-5-6 B-5-7 22BCC 25BCC 31ADD 1ODDB - 16 28 12.TABLE 2.0 14 .14 8.54 0.1 5.1 3.2 7 .6 4.09 *Laboratory measurement .2 6.9 7 07 7.7 2.0 110.8 Si02 20 c1 -118 18 21 94 440 24 22 s04 64 22 35 HC03 7 F 1.

T4 = Na-K-Ca temperatures. . Tz = Silica temperatures assuming equilibrium with e-cristobalite T3 = Silica temperatures assuming equilibrium with chalcedony.c TABLE 3: TI = Silica temperatures assuming quartz equilibrium and conductive cooling. L .

Tg = Silica temperatures assuming equilibrium with chalcedony. 30 .TABLE 3: TI = Silica temperatures assuming quartz equilibrium and conductive cooling. T4 = Na-K-Ca temperatures. T2 = Silica temperatures assuming equilibrium with a -cristobalite.

3 II 17 *.6 48. A M c o r r e c t i o n a p y l h .See 0.7 23.2 110.9 78.09 0. g Other samples d i d n o t r e q u j r e a M c o r r e c t i o l g .5 - 0.0 35.1 *3 29.75 0-89 1.30 0.11 0..4 25.6 9.02 0 002 0.9 100.23 T1 79.0 12.0 94.7 5 6 .33 14 15 16 26.0 - - - 28.15 0.6 17.5 I 12 13 328.35 0.5 36.11 0-93 0.1 22.5 25.oo 53.6 200.9 68.52 0.10 0.5 9.3** 36.TABLE 3.32 0.9 45.4 26.51 0.0 22.5 64.06 0.0 518.13 0.9 57 04 49. 8.4 67.7 28.55 0.3 76.YD ESTIMATED AQUIFER TEMPER$TURES (Chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s i n milligrams p e r l i t e r .46 58.61 0.3 44.4 29.6 78.81 0.51 7.37 0.0 30.8 6.10 0.0 44.3 0.39 0.40 0.o 31. 28.6 53.* 4 I I - -_ 65.23 0.3 80.6 32.6 64.2 48.0 150.2 30. O 34 .39 0.72 0.3 -29.29 58.10 0.2 84.1 1 7 8 9 10 11 41.10 0.4 147.8 94.o 18.0 48.0 79.6 46.85 0.9 34.30 0.06 0.0 --27.0 40.5 26.4 t o snmptc 8 y i e l d s this value.5 I I I 222.2 0.1 * Table 2 for locations.9 _ I 1 28.2 37.4 0.30 0.7 .5 9.12 0.1 I 54.6 47.1 14. RATIOS OF SELECTED CHEMICAL CONSTITUEXTS A.61 0.1 36.0 _ I _ 32.4 34. G 228.5 28-5 22.4 22 .5 46.5 21 5.5 51 .o 27.07 2 3 4 - 35.57 0.33 0.4 38.7 39.0 128.2 -73.8 T2 48.27 0.4 -5.1 55.01 0. Chemical geothermometers i n C.44 88.13 0.7 19. - - 66.7 47.5 23.26 0.5 21 .0 Cl/B c1/so4 r Mg/C1 0.18 0.6 ' 1 0.) Sample No.1 . O 25.

Locations of Water Samples.i Figure 12. 32 .

.w GI c/ Figure 13. Piper Diagram showing chemical distinction between Group I (Hassayampa) water samples (solid lines) and Group I1 (Wickenburg) water samples (dashed lines).

H y d r o t h e r m a l a l t e r a t i o n commonly r e s u l t s i n uptake of magnesium by t h e w a l l rock i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e of l l g .5 and t h e C l / B r a t i o s v a r y by a f a c t o r of 6 . These q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t a t h e r m a l o r i g i n f o r s a m p l e 5. 2 ) a n adequate s u p p l y of these chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s is p r e s e n t 34 . based o n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e dependence t o c e r t a i n e l e m e n t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n thermal water. However.t h e r n a l water. s u p p o r t i n g t h e i n f e r e n c e t h a t those waters a r e from t h e same a q u i f e r a n d a r e d i s t i n c t from Group I samples.mo n t mo r i 11on i t e . c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s must b e made i n a p p l y i n g t h e geothermometers ( W h i t e . Sample 5 has h i g h v a l u e s f o r b o t h r a t i o s . s a m p l e 10 h a s a h i g h C l / F r a t i o (Table 3 ) . Xahon (1070) showed t h a t h i g h C l / F and C1/So4 r a t i o s i n a g e o t h e r m a l a r e a g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e h i g h temperature i n t h e system. as t h e Group I Cl/F r a t i o s v a r y among samples b y a f a c t o r g r e a t e r t h a n 7. C o n s e q u e n t l y low Mg/Ca and J I g / C 1 S a m p l e 5 shows r a t i o s a l s o may r e f l e c t t h e r m a l water. r a t i o s of Mg/Ca and Mg/C1 lower t h a n a l l o t h e r samples b y t w o o r d e r s of magnitude. i ith v res u 1t a n t d c p 1e t i c>n o f ma g n es ium i n the t h e r m a l water. T h e C l / B and C l / F r a t i o s f o r Group I 1 s a m p l e s ( e s c e p t s a m p l e 10) are very s i m i l a r . 1970): 1) t h e chemical r e a c t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e amount of a chemical c o n s t i t u e n t t a k e n i n t o s o l u t i o n by h o t water are t e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d e n t . are u s e d t o estimate r e s e r v o i r t e m p e r a t u r e s a t d e p t h . The same i n f e r e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o u r c e c a n n o t be made from t h e Group I Cl/F and C l / B r a t i o s . Chemical g e o t h e r m o m e t e r s .c h l o r i t e n n d bI g.

t h e best agreement o c c u r r i n g between Na-K-Ca and d . s o t h a t chemical geothermometers must be u s e d w i t h caution. T h e r e is a n e q u a l l y good c o r r e l a t i o n of chem- ical geothermometers among t h e i n d i v i d u a l water samples f r o m Group 11. and 9. Na-K-Ca agrees w e l l w i t h chalcedony Na-K-Ca and p r e d i c t s s u b s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s u p t o 73OC. rather t h a n w i t h chalcedony as is commonly found w i t h most A r i z o n a i B a s i n and Range water samples. (Mean T(SiOZ) is 35. 8.7OC. 4 ) h o t water from t h e a q u i f e r flows r a p i d l y t o t h e s u r f a c e . of samples 2 and 3 correlates w i t h c o n d u c t i v e q u a r t z and 35 . t h e a q u i f e r . 3) chemical e q u i l i b r i u m h a s been established between t h e h o t water and t h e w a l l rocks which s u p p l y t h e chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s . For samples 7.ir.OoC. chemical geother- mometers can p r o v i d e a u s e f u l r e c o n n a i s s a n c e t o o l f o r making a p r e l i m i n a r y estimate of r e s e r v o i r t e m p e r a t u r e s a t depth. The Group I1 samples p r e d i c t a n a q u i f e r tempera- t u r e of a b o u t 35OC i n t h e Wickenburg area. and 5) t h e chemical c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e h o t water does n o t change (mix w i t h c o l d water. O f t e n these assumptions c a n n o t be d e m o n s t r a t e d i n a f i e l d s i t u a t i o n .) Among Group I s a m p l e s c o r r e l a t i o n is less d i s t i n c t . T h i s would b e a r e s u l t of h o s t rock m i n e r a l o g i c composition. e v o l v e gas. T h e r e is e x c e l l e n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s i l i c a and Na-K-Ca p r e d i c t e d a q u i f e r t e m p e r a t u r e s f o r t h e Group I1 samples ( T a b l e 3).c r i s t o b a l i t e . W i t h t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . o r p r e c i p i t a t e m i n e r a l s ) as i t rises t o t h e s u r f a c e . mean T(Na-K-Ca) is 35.

.

g u i s h e d i n F i g u r e 7 by larger numerals. The h i g h e r Hg v a l u e s imply leakage of mercury a l o n g t h e f a u l t s . are a p p a r e n t . Values greater t h a n 25 ppb are d i s t i n Three t r e n d s . N W . However. sedimentf i l l e d b a s i n w i t h a complexly f a u l t e d basement. The three d i i n c t s t r u c t u r a l t r e n d s (NE. closely f o l l o w i n g t h e S t r u c t u r a l t r e n d s o u t l i n e d b y t h e o t h e r s u r v e y s . Depth t o b e d r o c k depends upon t h e degree of r o t a t i o n and displacem e n t of basement blocks and probably r a n g e s from s h a l l o w to many hundreds of meters. The t h r e e w e l l s t h a t c o n s t r a i n t h e area are a d j a c e n t t o o n e a n o t h e r a n d are t h e w e l l s located n e a r e s t t h e f a u l t s and t h e f a u l t intersection. . L a n d s a t l i n e a m e n t s and geochemical t r e n d s are here i n t e r p r e t e d as f a u l t traces. t h e y too must be viewed w i t h c a u t i o n . 11) which y i e l d s 37 . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n is a broad. The measured geothermal g r a d i e n t s d e f i n e a s i n g l e d i s - c r e t e area of h y d r o l o g i c discharge t h a t is a b o u t 30 km2 and can best be e x p l a i n e d as b e i n g f a u l t c o n t r o l l e d . 53OC. is from w e l l A ( F i g . The ma x i mum r e p o r t e d water t e m p e r a t u r e i n h i t h e s t u d y area. and NW) i d e n t i f i e d from a i r photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . mercury anomalies o f t e n mark f o s s i l (now cold) t h e r m a l s y s t e m s and c o n s e q u e n t l y . Two of these i n f e r r e d f a u (NE and "W) agree w i t h t h e t r i k e maxima i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e V u l t u r e Mountains by R e h r i g and H e i d r i c k (1976).Mean v a l u e of Hg f o r t h e sampled area is 25 p a r t s per h i b i l l i o n (ppb).

Recommendations a r e made f o r a d d i t i o n a l f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . and deeg d r i l l i n g . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e cd water i n t h i s w e l l is r i s i n g from a deep t h e r m a l s o u r c e a l o n g f a u l t p l a n e s and f r a c t u r e s . The o r i g i n of other waters is u n c e r t a i n . and geothermal g r a d i e n t s . The maximum t e m - p e r a t u r e of 73OC p r e d i c t e d by geochemical methods probably r e p r e s e n t s a minimum s u b s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e and is too l o w a s a r e s u l t of n o t s a t i s f y i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y a s s u m p t i o n s . b u t may represent waters from t h e same s o u r c e . c e r t a i n t r e n d s have been i d e n t i f i e d t h a t s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h e p r e s e n c e of a geothermal r e s o u r c e t h a t is p r i m a r i l y controlled by i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p a l zones of f a u l t i n g . a n d h a s t h e h i g h e s t geothermal g r a d i e n t . 38 . which should s u b s t a n t i a l l y assist i n e v a l u a t i n g t h i s geothermal anomaly. i n order of p r i o r i t y . sample 5. Mixing of h o t water r i s i n g from t h e d e e p s u b s u r f a c e . chernidal geotherrnometers. cold a q u i f e r . mixed t o a greater degree w i t h cold water. Although a r e l i a b l e estimate of t h e geothermal p o t e n t i a l of t h e n o r t h e r n Hassayampa P l a i n c a n n o t be made b e c a u s e of i n s u f f i c i e n t data. c a n d i s t o r t measured t e m p e r a t u r e s . 140°C/km.an anomalous chemical a n a l y s i s . Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e a n d r e s e r v o i r v o l u n e c a n n o t be predicted w i t h o u t detailed geologic and g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s . w i t h water i n a s h a l l o w .

t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e geo- l o g i c s e t t i n g of t h e g e o t h e r m a l r e s e r v o i r . 4. 2.AT IOSS 1. 3. t o determine p o s s i b l e zones o f high h e a t flow. w i l l more a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e 39 . S h a l l o w d r i l l holes (50 m) across t h e f a u l t s and t h e f a u l t intersection. Electrical r e s i s t i v i t y s u r v e y . t o d e t e r m i n e s u b s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s and d e p t h s t o b e d r o c k . E x h a u s t i v e water s a m p l i n g w i t h complete chemical and i s o t o p i c a n a l y s e s . w i t h r o c k chemical a n a l y s e s and age d a t e s a s n e c e s s a r y . 5. Detailed g r a v i t y survey over t h e inferred f a u l t s and f a u l t i n t e r s e c t i o n . t o i d e n t i f y and characterize t h e d e e p and s h a l l o w a q u i f e r s . Mixing model c a l c u l a t i o n subsurface temperature.LiJ REC0JiliESD. t o i d e n t i f y zones o f a n d d e p t h s t o t h e r m a l waters i n t h e d e e p s u b s u r f a c e . D e t a i l e d g e o l o g i c mapping of the Belmont Mountains and t h e area t o t h e n o r t h w e s t t h e r e o f . and t o p r o v i d e enough s a m p l e s t o d e t e r m i n e i f m i x i n g of h o t and cold waters is o c c u r r i n g .

13-15. 63-91. n r e c i p i t a t i o n and h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g d e g r e e d a y s 1941-1970. I s s u e 2 . Mahon. T r a n s a c t i o n s . 111. u n p u b l i s h e d data. 1973. 1977. T . . i n Prcceedings U n i t e d Nations Symp. K i l t y . 1. W. 298-302. 2 . Sr. National C l i m a t i c C e n t e r . and Simmons. W. A. N .. W. D. Geothermal Resources C o u m i l . Assessing g e o t h e r m a l areas d u r i n g d r i l l i n g . 1944.. 1977. . o n t h e Deveiopment?nd Utilizat i o n o f Geothermal E n e r g y : P i s a . Spec. C. D. V o l . L . Blackwell. Q u a r t e r l y P r o g r e s s R e p o r t f o r P e r i o d F e b r u a r y 1. H u t c h i n s o n . P a r t 2 . . p . S. A . Geothermal Energy. 1. 1921. 79-81. and Mase. . D . 2 . p. 1979. V o l . Geothermal Resources C o u n c i l . A g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e i n t h e g e o c h e m i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f water a n a l y s e s .. 914-923.. K . P a p e r s i n Hydrology. 1978. 1979. T r a n s a c t i o n s . L e p l e y . W. Hahnan. . V o l . NOAA. 1979. L y s o n s k i . D. FUGRO. . A s h e v i l l e . M. M. J. The V u l t u r e Mine. T e r r a i n e Corrected R e s i d u a l Bouguer G r a v i t y Map of A r i z o n a . p. . J. V o l .. J . K. Chemistry i n t h e e x p l o r a t i o n a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n of h y d r o t h e r m a l s y s t e m s . P e r s o n a l communication. 1979. i n press. G. 19-20. . N o . Chapman. and Sumner. 7 . 1970. i n Low T e m p e r a t u r e Geothermal R e s e r v o i r S i t e E v a l u a t i z i n Arizona. R . Bureau of Geology a n d M i n e r a l Techn o l o g y . L a n d s a t l i n e a m e n t map of Arizona w i t h e m p h a s i s on Q u a t e r n a r y f e a t u r e s . 40 . S. P i p e r . Geothermal e n e r g y i n Arizona. p. Tucson. American G e o p h y s i c a l Union. V o l . Arizona. Monthly n o r m a l s ox x e m p e r a t z r e . p. S . . 1978A p r i l 30. S . 1310-1322. T r a n s a c t i o n s . p . L..BIBLIOGRAPHY B a t z l e . C. Geot h e r m i c s . E n g i n e e r i n g ar_d Mining J o u r n a l . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t and h e a t f l o w data for B a s i n and Range g e o t h e r m a l s y s t e m s . T r a n s a c t i o n s . p. T e m p e r a t u r e s and t h e i r dependence on groundwater f l o w i n shallow geothermal systems Geothermal Resources C o u n c i l . 1978. and Chapman.

R e s i d u a l AeromagDepartment of G e o s c i e n c e s . and S u n n e r . on t h e D e v e l o p m z t and U t i l i z a t i o n of Geothermal Znergy: P i s a . and Cooper.000 scale. p . 1. . 1970. G e o t h e r a i c s . Vol. i o . A r i z o n a . 1:1. W. S a u c k . and e x p l o i t a t i o n of g e o t h e r m a l energy r e s o u r c e s . W . A . E . i n p r e s s . B a s i n and Range p r o v i n c e .000. W h i t e . Regional t e c t o n i c stress d u r i n g L a r a n i d e and l a t e T e r t i a r y i n t r u s i v e p e r i o d s . Geochemistry a p p l i e d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y . Geoiogic Map of Arizona. . P a r t 2 . U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a . D. A . Moore. Wilson. A r i z o n a . Spec. 205-22s. Geochronology m d geology of the V u l t u r e Mountains. Vol. 41 . E . A . . 1 2 . . 58-80. L . 1 9 7 0 . and H e i d r i c k . I l a r i c o p a County. Arizona G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y D i g e s t . ' i n P r o c e e d i n g s U n i t e d N a t i o n s Syinp. K . Refirig. Vol. e v a l u a t i o n . S .aehrig. l i . . . A r i z o n a . p . I s s u e 2 . P . and Damon. Arizona G e o l o g i c a l Socit3W D i g e s t . 1976. S h a f i q u i l a h . 1979. TUCSOG. 1969. n e t i c $lap of Arizona. T. J .