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# B4.

## 1-R3: COMPUTER BASED STATISTICAL AND NUMERICAL

TECHNIQUES

Question Papers
• January 2007

• July 2006

• January, 2006

• July, 2005

• January, 2005

• July, 2004

• January, 2004

JANUARY 2007

NOTE:
1. Answer question 1 and any FOUR questions from 2 to 7.
2. Parts of the same question should be answered together and in the same
sequence.

## Time: 3 Hours Total Marks: 100

1.
1
1
a) Evaluate ∫1+ x
0
2
dx using trapezoidal rule. Take h=0.125.

b) Using Newton’s forward interpolation formulae, find a cubic polynomial which takes the
following set of values

x 0 1 2 3
f (x) 1 2 1 10
c) It is known that any item produced by a certain machine will be defective with probability
0.1, independently of nay other item. What is the probability that in a sample of three
items,
i) none will be defective?
ii) at most one will be defective?
d) Suppose x1, x2, …, xn are independent and identically distributed with expected µ and
n
variable σ 2 . Defining X = ∑ X i / n , obtain E [ X ] and Var [X ].
i =1
t 11
e) The mfg of a random variate X is given by Mx(t)=(0.8e +0.2) .
i) Find P(x>0)
2
ii) Find E[x ]
f) Let xi, i=1, 2, …, 100 be independent random variables, each uniformly distributed over
(0, 1). Using central limit theorem, obtain the probability
 100 
P ∑ xi > 50 
 i =1 
g) Two file servers are compared according to their response time for retrieving a small file.
The mean response time of 50 such requests submitted to server 1 was measured to be
682 ms with a known standard deviation of 25 ms. A similar measurement on server 2
resulted in a sample mean of 675 ms with a standard deviation of 28 ms. Test the
hypothesis that server 2 provides better response than server 1 at 5% level of
significance.
(7x4)

2.
a) Solve the system of equations
28x + 4y – z = 32
x + 3y + 10z = 24
2x + 17y + 4z = 35
By using Gauss-elimination method.
b) Using the method of triangularisation, solve the following system of equations:
2x - 3y + 10z = 3
-x + 4y + 2z = 20
5x + 2y + z = -12
(9+9)

3.
a) In a state lottery, a player must choose 8 of the numbers from 1 to 40. The lottery
commission then performs an experiment that selects 8 of these 40 numbers. Assuming
 40 
that the choice of the lottery commission is equally likely to be any of the  
8
combinations, what is the probability that a player has:
i) all 8 of the numbers selected;
ii) 7 of the numbers selected;
iii) at least 6 of the numbers selected?
b) An infinite sequence of independent trials is to be performed. Each trial results in a
success will probability p and a failure will probability (1-p).
i) If we let x equal the number of trials performed until a success occurs, find E[X].
ii) Obtain the probability that exactly k failure occur in the first n trials.
(9+[6+3])

4.
a) The cumulative distribution function of the random variable X is given by
0 x<0
x
 0 ≤ x <1
2
2
F ( x) =  1≤ x < 2
3
11 2≤ x<3
12
 1 3≤ x
i) Draw the cdf of r.v.X.
ii) Compute P(x<3); P(x=1) and P(2<X≤4)
b) The joint density of X and Y is given by
1 xy
 2 − ye 0< x<∞

f ( x, y ) =  , 0< y<2
 0 otherwise

i) Compute the conditional density of X given that
Y=1 i.e. fX|Y(x|1)
x/2
ii) Obtain E[e |Y=1]
(8+10)

5.
2
a) If X is normal r.v. with parameters µ =3 and σ =9, obtain
i) P(2<X<50
ii) P(X>0)
iii) P(|X-3|>6)
Express your results in terms of cdf Φ (z) of a standard normal variate Z~ N(0,1). The cdf
z
1
∫ exp[− y
2
Φ (z) is defined as Φ (z)= / 2] dy.
2Π −∞

b) Buses arrive at a specified stop at 15-minute intervals starting at 7 A.M. (i.e. they arrive at
7, 7:15, 7:30, 7:45 and so on), if a passenger arrives at a stop at a time that is uniformly
distributed between 7 and 7:30 find the probability that he waits
i) less than 5 minutes for a bus
ii) more than 10 minutes for a bus.
(9+9)

6.
a) Define covariance between two random variables X and Y. What can you say about
Cov(X, Y), when X and Y are independent?
b) Show that Cov(aX,Y) = a Cov(X,Y)
c) In 200 tosses of a coin, 115 heads and 85 tails were observed. Test the hypothesis that
the coin is fair using significance level of
i) 0.05, and
ii) 0.01.
(5+6+7)

7.
a) In a sample of 600 men from a certain large city, 450 are found to be smoker. In another
sample 900 from another large city, 450 are smoker. Do the data indicate that the cities
are significantly different with respect to the prevalence of smoking among men?
b) The index of medical-care costs in United States for the years 1976-1984, taking the
index for 1967 as 100 is given in the table:

## Index of U.S. Medical-Care

Year Costs (1967=100)
1976 184.7
1977 202.4
1978 219.4
1979 239.7
1980 265.9
1981 294.5
1982 328.7
1983 357.3
1984 378.0

## i) Find the equation of a least-squares line fitting the data.

ii) Estimate the index for the year 1985.

JULY 2006

## B4.1-R3: COMPUTER BASED STATISTICAL AND NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES

NOTE:
1. Answer question 1 and any FOUR questions from 2 to 7.
2. Parts of the same question should be answered together and in the same
sequence.

## Time: 3 Hours Total Marks: 100

1.
1
1
a) Evaluate ∫1+ x
0
2
dx using trapezoidal rule. Take h=0.125.

b) Using Newton’s forward interpolation formulae, find a cubic polynomial which takes the
following set of values

x 0 1 2 3
f (x) 1 2 1 10
c) It is known that any item produced by a certain machine will be defective with probability
0.1, independently of nay other item. What is the probability that in a sample of three
items,
i) none will be defective?
ii) at most one will be defective?
d) Suppose x1, x2, …, xn are independent and identically distributed with expected µ and
n
variable σ 2 . Defining X = ∑ X i / n , obtain E [ X ] and Var [X ].
i =1
t 11
e) The mfg of a random variate X is given by Mx(t)=(0.8e +0.2) .
i) Find P(x>0)
2
ii) Find E[x ]
f) Let xi, i=1, 2, …, 100 be independent random variables, each uniformly distributed over
(0, 1). Using central limit theorem, obtain the probability
 100 
P ∑ xi > 50 
 i =1 
g) Two file servers are compared according to their response time for retrieving a small file.
The mean response time of 50 such requests submitted to server 1 was measured to be
682 ms with a known standard deviation of 25 ms. A similar measurement on server 2
resulted in a sample mean of 675 ms with a standard deviation of 28 ms. Test the
hypothesis that server 2 provides better response than server 1 at 5% level of
significance.
(7x4)

2.
a) Solve the system of equations
28x + 4y – z = 32
x + 3y + 10z = 24
2x + 17y + 4z = 35
By using Gauss-elimination method.
b) Using the method of triangularisation, solve the following system of equations:
2x - 3y + 10z = 3
-x + 4y + 2z = 20
5x + 2y + z = -12
(9+9)

3.
a) In a state lottery, a player must choose 8 of the numbers from 1 to 40. The lottery
commission then performs an experiment that selects 8 of these 40 numbers. Assuming
 40 
that the choice of the lottery commission is equally likely to be any of the  
8
combinations, what is the probability that a player has:
i) all 8 of the numbers selected;
ii) 7 of the numbers selected;
iii) at least 6 of the numbers selected?
b) An infinite sequence of independent trials is to be performed. Each trial results in a
success will probability p and a failure will probability (1-p).
i) If we let x equal the number of trials performed until a success occurs, find E[X].
ii) Obtain the probability that exactly k failure occur in the first n trials.
(9+[6+3])

4.
a) The cumulative distribution function of the random variable X is given by
0 x<0
x
 0 ≤ x <1
2
2
F ( x) =  1≤ x < 2
3
11 2≤ x<3
12
 1 3≤ x
i) Draw the cdf of r.v.X.
ii) Compute P(x<3); P(x=1) and P(2<X≤4)
b) The joint density of X and Y is given by
1 xy
 2 − ye 0< x<∞

f ( x, y ) =  , 0< y<2
 0 otherwise

i) Compute the conditional density of X given that
Y=1 i.e. fX|Y(x|1)
x/2
ii) Obtain E[e |Y=1]
(8+10)

5.
2
a) If X is normal r.v. with parameters µ =3 and σ =9, obtain
i) P(2<X<50
ii) P(X>0)
iii) P(|X-3|>6)
Express your results in terms of cdf Φ (z) of a standard normal variate Z~ N(0,1). The cdf
z
1
∫ exp[− y
2
Φ (z) is defined as Φ (z)= / 2] dy.
2Π −∞

b) Buses arrive at a specified stop at 15-minute intervals starting at 7 A.M. (i.e. they arrive at
7, 7:15, 7:30, 7:45 and so on), if a passenger arrives at a stop at a time that is uniformly
distributed between 7 and 7:30 find the probability that he waits
i) less than 5 minutes for a bus
ii) more than 10 minutes for a bus.
(9+9)

6.
a) Define covariance between two random variables X and Y. What can you say about
Cov(X, Y), when X and Y are independent?
b) Show that Cov(aX,Y) = a Cov(X,Y)
c) In 200 tosses of a coin, 115 heads and 85 tails were observed. Test the hypothesis that
the coin is fair using significance level of
i) 0.05, and
ii) 0.01.
(5+6+7)

7.
a) In a sample of 600 men from a certain large city, 450 are found to be smoker. In another
sample 900 from another large city, 450 are smoker. Do the data indicate that the cities
are significantly different with respect to the prevalence of smoking among men?
b) The index of medical-care costs in United States for the years 1976-1984, taking the
index for 1967 as 100 is given in the table:

## Index of U.S. Medical-Care

Year Costs (1967=100)
1976 184.7
1977 202.4
1978 219.4
1979 239.7
1980 265.9
1981 294.5
1982 328.7
1983 357.3
1984 378.0

## i) Find the equation of a least-squares line fitting the data.

ii) Estimate the index for the year 1985.
(8+10)

JANUARY 2006
NOTE:
1. Answer question 1 and any FOUR questions from 2 to 7.
2. Parts of the same question should be answered together and in the same
sequence.

## Time: 3 Hours Total Marks: 100

1.a) Compute
using Simpson’s rule of integration with h=0.2.

## x: 0.40 0.50 0.70 0.80

ln x: -0.916291 -0.693147 -0.356875 -0.223144

## c) An infinite sequence of independent trails is to be performed. Each trial results in a success

with probability p and a failure with probability 1 – p. What is the probability that

## Find E[X] and P(Y>1).

e) The average working-set size X of a program is normally distributed with unknown mean
and a known variance . The program was executed 36 times and the average
working-set size for each run recorded. The sample mean was computed to be 100 page
frames. Assuming successive runs of the program are independent, find the 95 percent
confidence interval for the mean average working-set size.

## f) Write down probability density functions of

i) Uniform Variate

## iv) Gamma Variate

g) State the axioms of probability. Using these axioms, show that P(A) £ P(B) if A Í B.

(7x4)
2.a) Consider the set of equations:

6 x + 2 y- z = 4

x+5y+z=3

2x + y+ 4 z = 27

Determine approximate solution of the system of equations using Gauss-Seidel method taking
the initiate solution as x=y=z=1.

b) For the data given below, write the Newton interpolating polynomial of degree 3 for f(x) = x
2 e -x/2.

## x: 1.10 2.00 3.50 5.00 7.10

f(x): 0.6981 1.4715 2.1287 2.0521 1.4480

Hence, find the error of the interpolate for x=1.75. (Given the tabulate value f(1.75) =
1.28611)

(9+9)

3.a) In answering a question on a multiple choice test, an examinee either knows the answer
or he guesses or he copies. Suppose each question has four choices. Let the probability that
examinee copies the answer is 1/6 and the probability that he guesses is 1/3. The probability
that his answer is correct given that he copied the answer is 1/8. Suppose an examinee
answers a question correctly, what is the probability that he really knows the answer?

b) If X and Y are independent Poisson random variables with respective parameters l 1 and l 2
, calculate

P(X=k | X+Y=n).

(8+10)

4.a) The chances of three persons Mr. X, Y and Z becoming managers of a company are
4:2:3. The probabilities that bonus scheme shall be introduced if X, Y and Z become managers
are 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 respectively. Find the probability that the bonus scheme will be introduced.
What is the probability that X is appointed as the manager?

b) State central limit theorem. Using this theorem argue that if X is binomially distributed with

## parameters n and p, the distribution of approaches as standard normal Variate as n ®

¥.
c) If and are the standard deviations of independent random samples of size n 1=61

## . For more questions papers visit www.DoeaccOnline.com, www.IgnouOnline.com

5.a) Let X i, i=1,…,10, be independent random variables, each uniformly distributed over (0,
1). Calculate an approximation to P( å X i > 6).

## unity, then show that is an unbiased estimator of m 2 + 1.

c) X is Poisson Variate with parameters l . Obtain its Mgf. Hence find E[2X+3].

(6+6+6)

6.a) Let X denote the main memory requirement of a job as a fraction of the total user-
allocatable main memory of a computing center. The density function of X has the from:

f(x) =

## A large value of k implies a preponderance of large jobs. If k =0, the distribution-of-memory

requirement is uniform. Suppose you have a sample of size 8 given by:

## b) It is suspected that the number of errors discovered in a system program is Poisson

distributed. The number of errors discovered in each one-week period is given as follows:

## Number of errors in Number of one- Poisson Expected

One-week period week period with probabilities frequencies
(i) i errors
0 14 0.150 7.50
1 11 0.284 14.20
2 9 0.270 13.50
3 6 0.171 8.55
4 5 0.081 4.05
5+ 5 0.044 2.20

Assume that the total number of errors observed in the 50 weeks was 95. Estimate the rate
parameter l for the Poisson probabilities given above. Test the hypothesis that errors occur
according to Poisson distribution using significance level of 0.05.

(8+10)

7.a) Find the coefficient of linear correlation between the variables X and Y given in the table.

X 1 3 4 6 8 9 11 14
Y 1 2 4 4 5 7 8 9

(10+4+4)

January, 2005
Note:

## 1. Answer question 1 and any FOUR questions from 2 to 7.

2. Parts of the same question should be answered together and in the same sequence.

## Time: 3 Hours Total Marks:100

1.
1. Interpolate by means of Newton’s backward formula the population for
the year 1936, given the following data:

## Year : 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951

Population(in thousands): 12 15 20 27 39 52

## 2. Gauss-Seidal method converges for

3.
4. 10x + y + z = 15
5.
6. x + 10y + 10z = 24
7.
8. x + y + 10z = 33
9.

Give reasons.

10. Suppose that flaws in plywood occur at random with an average of one
flaw per 50 square feet. What is the probability that a 4 feet x 8 feet sheet
will have no flaws? At most one flaw? Assume that the number of flaws
per unit area is Poisson distributed.
11. The joint pdf of X and Y is given by
12.
13. f(x,y) = (x+y)/8 if 0 <= x, y <=2
14.
15. = 0 otherwise
16.

## 17. Suppose that a sample of independent observations X1,X2,…,Xn is taken

from Poisson distribution each having mean m. Determine the maximum
likelyhood estimate of m.
18. Let X1,X2,…,X20 denote that random sample of size 20 from the Uniform
distribution U(0,1). Let Y = X1+X2+…+X20. Find P(8.5 <= Y <= 11.9).
19. X is a binomial variate with parameters n and p. Obtain E[ex].

(7x4)

2.
1. What is the need of Pivoting? Consider the set of equations
2.
3. 0.50 x + 1.1 y + 3.1 z = 6.0
4.
5. 2.0 x + 4.5 y + 0.36z = 0.020
6.
7. 5.0 x + 0.96 y + 6.5 z = 0.96
8.

## 1. without pivoting, and

2. with partial pivoting.
9. Find from the following table, the area bounded by the curve and x-axis
from x=7.47 to x=7.52.

## x 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51 7.52

f(x) 1.93 1.95 1.98 2.01 2.03 2.06

## 10. Given sin45°=0.7071, sin50°=0.7660, sin55°=0.8192, sin60°=0.8660. Find

sin52° of by Newton’s formula for interpolation.

(8+5+5)

3.
1. In answering a question on a multiple choice test, an examinee either
knows the answer or he guesses or he copies. Suppose each question has
four choices. Let the probability that examinee copies the answer is 1/6
and the probability that he guesses is 1/3. The probability that his answer
is correct given that he copied the answer is 1/8. Suppose an examinee
answers a question correctly, what is the probability that he really knows
2. Let the variates X and Y are jointly distributed as follows:
3.
4. f(x,y) = 6 if x2≤y≤x, 0 < x < 1
5.
6. = 0 otherwise
7.

## Find marginal distributions and E(Y).

4. (8+10)
5.
1. If Y = log10X is N(4,22) and log101202 = 3.08, log10 8318 = 3.92, find
P[ 1.202≤X≤83180000 ].
2. Let X be a random variable having binomial distribution with parameter n
and p = 0.45. Using central limit theorem, calculate n for which P [X >
n/2]≥0.99.

(9+9)

6.
1. A computer system has six I/O channels and the system personnel are
reasonably certain that the load on the channel is balanced. Out of n = 150
I/O operations observed, the number of operations directed to various
channels were: n0 = 22, n1 = 23, n2 = 29, n3 = 31, n4 = 26, n5 = 19.
Test the hypothesis that the load on the channels is balanced:
(Given Y25, 0.55  4.00)
2. Prove that in sampling from a Normal population with mean µ and
variance σ2, a sample mean is consistent estimator of µ.
3. A sample of n observations is drawn from the rectangular distribution with
density function given as
4.
5. f(x,a) = 1/a if 0 < x ≤ a, 0 < a < ∞
6.
7. = 0 elsewhere
8.

## Find the maximum likelihood estimate of a.

7. (8+5+5)
8.
1. The cdf of the continuous random variable X is defined by
2.
3. x
4.
5. F(x) = P( X ≤ x ) = -— —, x ≥ 0
6.
7. 1 + x
8.
1. Find pdf of X
2. Find the median
3. Obtain E[X].
9. Let X be a random variable that takes on the value 0,-1, and 1 with
probabilities P(X=-1)=1/4, P(X=0)=1/2 and P(X=1)=1/4. Draw the cdf of
X.
10. Write down the pdfs of Exponential, Uniform, Normal and bivariate
normal distributions.

(6+4+8)

9.
1. Use the t-test at 5% level of significance to test wether the rate of heart
beat is greater at 10°c than at 5°c, based on the data given below:
Specimen

A B C D E F G H I
°
Rate at 5 c 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 36
Rate at 10°c 39 40 39 45 46 37 47 36 39

## 2. Find the most likely price of some commodity in New Delhi

corresponding to the price of Rs. 70 at Mumbai from the following:

## New Delhi Mumbai

Average price 67 65
Standard deviation 3.5 2.5

## 3. Correlation coefficient between the prices of commodities in the two cities

is 0.8.
4. Employing method of least squares, obtain normal equations fitting a
curve of the type y=ax2 + b/x to a set of n points given as below:

x:1 2 3 4
y : -1.51 0.99 3.88 7.66

10. (6+4+8)

July, 2004
Note:

## 1. Answer question 1 and any FOUR questions from 2 to 7.

2. Parts of the same question should be answered together and in the same sequence.

## Time: 3 Hours Total Marks:100

1.
1. Determine the interpolating polynomial which fits the data

x 012 3 5
f(x) 1 5 11 19 41

## 3. If A and B are independent events then show that their complements

are also independent.
4. Find mean and variance of a random variable whose moment generating

function is .
5. Average number of weekly breakdowns of a computer is 2 and the number
of breakdowns follows a Poisson distribution. If this computer is run for
10 consecutive weeks, find the probability that there are atleast 2 weeks
each of which has no more than one breakdown.
6. Let X1, X2,..., X100 are independent and identically distributed random
varioables each taking value -1 or 1 with equal probability. Find
approximate probability P(X1, X2,..., X100 > 10) by using central limit
theorem.
7. Let the number of calls per hour X be Poisson distributed with parameter
λ. Obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of the average arrival rate of
incoming calls based on a random samle X1=x1, X2=x2,..., Xn=xn.

(7x4)

2.
1. Set up the
1. Gauss-Jacobi and
2. Guass-Seidel iteration schemes in matrix form to solve the linear
system of equations:

2x+y=5
4x+5y=13

converge.

## using Gauss-Elimination method.

3. (10+8)
4.
1. The joint pmf of random variable (X,Y,Z) is given by
pxyz(x,y,z) = kxyz, z=1,2; y=1,2,3; z=1,2.
Find k.
2. Let X be a random variable having probability density
f(x) = 6x(1-x), 0<x<1
Find the probability P(X2 < E(X2)).
3. Let E1, E2 and E3 be three different events, at least one of which is known
to have occurred. Suppose that any of these events can result in another
event A, which is also known to have occurrred. If all the probabilities pi =
P(Ei), i = 1,2,3 and qi = P(A|Ei), i = 1,2,3 are assumed to be known. Find
P(E1/A) in terms of pi and qi, i = 1,2,3.

(5+8+5)

5.
1. If A and B are two independent events in a sample space and the probaility
that both A and B occur is 0.16, while the probability that neither occurs is
0.36, what can you say about p(a) AND p(b)?
2. Using moment generating function (mgf), prove that if x,y are independent

## Given that mgf of .

3. Let(X,Y) be a bivariate random variate with joint cumulative distribution
function (cdf):

## Show that X and Y are independent random variables. Evaluate P(X<1).

6. (6+6+6)
7.
1. The claim that the variance of normal population is 4 is to be rejected if
the sample variance of a random sample of size 9 from this propulation
exceeds 7.655. What is the probability that the claim will be rejected even
though it is correct?
2. Find moment estimator of θ based on a random sample x1,x1,...x1 of size n
from normal population N(O, θ2). Find the maximum likelihood estimate
of the parameter θ where X is a binomial random variable with parameters
n and θ.

(6+6+6)

8.
1. The measurements of diameter of 8 cylindrical rods by vernier calliper and
by micrometer were as follows:

Vernier Reading(X) 2.265 2.267 2.264 2.267 2.268 2.263 2.264 2.258
Micrometer Reading (Y) 2.27 2.268 2.269 2.273 2.27 2.27 2.268 2.268

## 2. Test at 5% level of significance whether the difference between the

measurements of diameters by vernier and micrometer is significant or
not. State the assumptions used for the test.
3. In a breeding experiment, the ration of offsprings in four classes is
expected to be α:3:3:9, α being an unknown parameter.

## The experiment yielded the following data on 176 offsprings.

Class A B C D Total
Number of offsprings 11 27 36 102 176

## Test whether the data is in agreement with stipulated ratios at 5% level of

significance.
9. (9+9)
10.
1. A survey is conducted to test a claim that the prevalence of TB in slum
area is more than in a normal area. A sample of 600 persons from normal
area had 28 TB cases, while a sample of 400 persons from slum area had
96 cases of TB. Do the data support the assertion of 1% level of
significance.
2. Linear regression of Y on X was fitted by method of least squares and let
Ÿ be the estimated value of Y at X by using this regression. Compute the
correlation coefficient between Y and X using the following values of Y
and Ÿ.

Y 10 12 13 17 18
Ÿ 11 12 13 15 19

3. Write down the normal equaltions for estimating the constants A, B and C
in the least squares fit of the model
Z=A+Bx+Cy
between Z and (x,y) using n data points.

(6+6+6)

January, 2004
Note:

## 1. Answer question 1 and any FOUR questions from 2 to 7.

2. Parts of the same question should be answered together and in the same sequence.

## Time: 3 Hours Total Marks:100

1.
1.
1. Convert (0.372)10 to binary form.
2. Convert the binary number (1101001.1110011)2 to the octal
system.
2.
1. In a sample space S, A and B are events with P(A)=0.40,
P(B)=0.75 and P(AB)=0.25. Find P(AcBc).
2. A communication system consists of n components each of which
will, independently, function with probability p. The total system
will be able to operate effectively if atleast one-half of its
components function. For what values of p is a 5-component
system more likely to operate effectively than a 3-component
system?
3. Let X be a random variable having probability density function

## Compute mean and variance of the random variable X

4. Solve the linear system

## by the Cramer's rule.

5. Find estimator of p on the basis of a random sample of size n from a
binomial distribution with parameters n and p by the method of moments.
Is the estimator unbiased?
6. If 23 percent of all patients with high blood pressure have .bad side effects
from a certain kind of medicine, then, using normal approximation, find
the probability that among 120 patients with high blood pressure treated
with this medicine more than 32 will have bad side effects.
7. In 200 digits from the lottery numbers, the frequencies of the digits
0,1,2,... ,9 were 18,20,15,18,18,17,24,20,28,22. Test the hypothesis that
the digits may be taken to occur equally frequently in the lottery numbers.

(7x4)

2.
1. Solve the following system of linear equations by the Gauss elimination
method

2. Using Lagrange's formula, find log10 301 from the following data:

## x 300 304 305 307

Log10x 2.4771 2.4829 2.4843 2.4871

## 3. A solid of revolution is formed by rotating about the x-axis the area

between the x-axis, the lines x=0 and x=1 and a curve through the points
with the following coordinates:

## x: 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

y: 1 0.9896 0.9589 0.9089 0.8415

## 4. Estimate the volume V of the solid formed by applying Simpson's rule to

3. (6+6+6)
4.
1. State the Central Limit Theorem for independent and identically
distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. Let X1, X2, ... ,Xn be i.i.d. random
variables each with mean 4/3 and variance 2/9. Using central limit
theorem compute the approximate value of n so that
P(X1+ X2+ ... +Xn > 5 n /3 )= 0.01
2. If the joint probability function of X1,X2,X3 is

## Find the marginal probability function P(X1=x1) of X1.

3. A communication system transmits symbols 0,1 over a channel to a
receiver. The channel often causes errors. Let Bi and Aj denote events that
the symbols Before channel and After channel are i and j respectively (i,
j=0,1). Assume that transmission a priori probabilities are P(B0)=0.6.
P(B1)=0.4 and transition probabilities are P(Ai| Bj) = 0.2, i≠j and P(Ai| Bj)
= 0.8, i=j. Compute the reception probabilities P(Ai) and the posteriori
probabilities P(Bj |Ai).

(5+4+9)

5.
1. Using a suitable probability model, find the probability function of
geometric distribution with parameter p.

## 2. For a continuous random variable X defined in the range , the

probability distribution is such that:

.
Find the mean and the median of the distribution.
3. Write down expressions for probability density function of the following
distributions:
i) Normal, ii) Gamma, iii) Bivariate Normal, iv) Chi-Square

(4+8+6)

6.
1. If X1, X2, ... ,Xn is a random sample of size n from a Uniform distribution
over the interval [0,θ], then find maximum likelihood estimator of θ.
2. If X1, X2, ... ,Xn is a random sample from a Normal population with mean

## µ and variance unity, then show that is an unbiased estimator of µ 2+1.

3. Let X1, X2, ... ,Xn be a random sample from an infinite population with

mean θ and variance σ2. Show that are unbiased for θ and σ2
respectively.

(6+6+6)

7.
1. The mean weekly sales of soap bars in departmental stores was 146.3 bars
per store. After an advertising campaign the mean weekly sales in 22
stores for a typical week increased to. 153.7 bars and showed a standard
deviation of 17.2 bars. Test whether the advertising campaign was
successful.
2. If two independent random samples of sizes n1 = 7 and n2 = 13 are taken
from a normal population, compute the probability that the variance of the
first sample will be at least 3 times as large as that of the second sample.
3. If X(1) < X(2) < X(3) < X(4) < X(5) are order statistics in a random sample
of size 5 from a uniform distribution over the Interval [0,1]. Find the
probability density function of X(5).

(8+5+5)

8.
1. The joint distribution of X and Y is as follows:

Y1 2
X
1 0.4 0.2
2 0.1 0.3

2.
Compute E(X|Y=1).
3. Random samples of 200 men and 300 women were asked whether they
would like to have a flyover near their residence. 100 men and 162 women
were in favour of the proposal. Test the hypothesis that proportions of men
and women in favour of the proposal are same against that they are not, at
5% level of significance.
4. The following are the grades, which 10 students obtained, in the mid-term
and final examinations in a Computer Science course:

Mid-Term Exam X 71 49 80 73 93 85 58 82 64 32
Final Exam Y 83 62 76 77 89 74 48 78 76 51

## 1. Find the equation of least square line which will enable us to

predict a student's final examination grade In this course on the
basis of his her mid-term grade.
2. Compute and interpret the sample correlation coefficient between
X and Y.

(4+6+8)

9.