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Chapter 5 Tissues

Tissues: Cells are arranged in tissues that provide specific functions for the body. Types: there are four main types of tissues: List them.
Epithelial, connective, muscular, Nervous

epithelial tissue: Where found? Epithelial tissue is widespread throughout the body, covers organs, and lines body surfaces. Characteristics: are made up of tightly packed cells containing little intercellular material, generally lack blood vessels, and are replaced frequently. They tend to have prominent nuclei when viewed under the microscope. Simple how many layers? 1 Stratified how many layers? More than 1 layer Functions: They function in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion Types of Epithelium (epithelial tissues) squamous: What shape are the top cells generally? Flat and scale-like simple: What is this best suited for? Diffusion List several places you are likely to find it. Lungs, blood vessel walls, lymph vessels stratified: What is this best suited for? Protection What does keratinized mean? Contains a substance called keratin Where are you likely to find it? Outer layers of the skin cuboidal: What shape is this cell? Cube-shaped simple: This type functions in _secretion_ and _absorption__ in the kidneys and _secretion_in the glands statified: what is the advantage of several layers? Better protection Where is this type found? Mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands columnar: What shape is this cell? --elongated What specialized cell is often found with it? Ciliary What is the function of this cell? Movement of substances across the cell surface Simple: Where is it found? Linings of stomach, intestines, uterus In intestinal cells, the surface area is increased with _microvilli_____. What is the purpose of these? Absorption of nutrients Stratified: Where is this type found? Male urethra, parts of the pharynx pseudostratified ciliated columnar: These cells appear layered but really are not. Why do they look layered? Nuclei in varying position within the cells What does ciliated mean? Having cilia on the cell surface Where are these cells found? At surfaces facing the lumen of certain passageways

Transitional epithelium: Why cant we classify this type as to shape? The shape changes as tissue distends. Where is it found and why? Urinary bladder enables it to distend without leaking glandular epithelium: This tissue is made up of cells designed to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids. Glands that secrete products into ducts are called _exocrine_ glands; those that secrete into body fluids and blood are called __endocrine glands___. . Glands are classified by the ways the glands secrete their products a. _merocrine_ glands release fluid products by exocytosis (pancreas) and are grouped as serous which produce a watery fluid or mucus, which produce a thicker, protective substance. b. __apocrine__glands lose portions of their cell bodies during secretion (mammary glands). c. ___holocrine___glands release entire cells (oil glands in the skin).

Connective Tissue: bind, support, protect, serve as frameworks, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infection, and repair tissue damage. . Unlike epithelial tissues, connective tissues have abundant matrix, or intercellular material, throughout, and have good blood supplies (except cartilage). composition: collagenous, reticular and elastic fibers. How do they differ? Collagenous is tough and silvery white; Reticular is soft and colorless, elastin is yellowish and has elasticity. cell types: what are the three cell types and their functions? Fibroblasts (produce collagen and other fibers); Macrophages (engulf bacteria and cellular debris); Mast cells (produce heparin and histamine) Types of connective tissues: There are many diverse types of connective tissues. loose fibrous connective (areolar): What are the main functions of this type? Helps hold body parts together The arrangement of the fibers gives it its name, how are they arranged? Cells are widely separated, with fibers loosely packed. What is the main cell type found in this tissue? fibroblasts adipose: is a specialized loose connective tissue designed to store __fat_. Where is it located? (Dont say everywhere!) under skin, around joints, within certain abdominal membranes dense fibrous connective: is very strong because of the arrangement of the collagenous fibers. How are they arranged to make this a tough tissue? fibers packed in dense network This tissue is found all over the body. List two common places we can

look for it. Tendons and ligaments Cartilage: Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue that provides a supportive framework for various structures. It lacks a vascular system and so heals slowly Cartilage cells are called _chondrocytes___ Cartilaginous structures are enclosed within a connective tissue called _perichondrium_______ Which is the most common type of cartilage? hyaline hyaline: Where is this found? At the ends of bones in joints elastic: is so named because it is ___flexible. Where is it found? _ears fibrocartilage: is the toughest of the three. Where is it found? Between vertebrae bone: What is its matrix composed of? Mineral salts as well as organic matrix materials What are bone cells called? osteocytes This is a pretty tissue because of the arrangement of the cells. How are they arranged? In concentric circular arrangements around haversian canals blood: is composed of __blood cells_ and a liquid __plasma___________________. What is its function? Transports materials throughout the body muscle tissue: What is the general function of all muscle tissue? Contraction for movement What are three different types of muscle tissue? Skeletal, visceral, cardiac Skeletal muscle: Where is it found? In muscles that are attached to bone Its cells are long and so are called muscle _fibers_. They may have several ___nuclei_. The cells appear striped and are said to be __striated__. Is it usually voluntary or involuntary? Usually voluntary Smooth muscle: Where is it found? In walls of hollow visceral organs What is the shape of its cells? Spindle-shaped How many nuclei does it have? One in each cell Is it voluntary or involuntary? Involuntary Cardiac muscle: It is only found in the _heart walls_. Like skeletal muscle it is striped and so is said to be __striated___. The cardiac cells are connected to each other by __intercalated_ _discs____________

Is it voluntary or involuntary? involuntary Nervous Tissue: There are two types of nervous tissue. Where are they found? Brain, spinal cord (central nervous system), and peripheral nerves (peripheral nervous system) neuron: What is its function? Generates and carries nerve impulses neuroglia cells: what are their functions? neurons Epithelial Membranes: These membranes are considered to organs because they are composed of more than one type of tissue. They are composed of a layer of __epithelial_____ tissue and a layer of __connective_ tissue List the four main types of epithelial membranes. Serous, mucous, synovial, integumentary Support and nourish