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Network Protocols Networking protocol suites describe processes such as:     The format or structure of the message The method

by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: An international non-profit organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity. Internet Engineering Task force- task force consisting of over 80 working groups responsible for developing Internet Standards. The IETF operates under the auspices of ISOC. Web Server: A web server is a computer program that delivers (serves) content, such as web pages, using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), over the World Wide Web. The term web server can also refer to the computer or virtual machine running the program. Web Browser: Web browsers are the applications that allow one to view HTML documents from either your own computer or from any other computer connected to the internet. Application Protocol: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a common protocol that governs the way that a web server and a web client interact. HTTP defines the content and formatting of the requests and responses exchanged between the client and server. Both the client and the web server software implement HTTP as part of the application. The HTTP protocol relies on other protocols to govern how the messages are transported between client and server Transport Protocol: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the transport protocol that manages the individual conversations between web servers and web clients. TCP divides the HTTP messages into smaller pieces, called segments, to be sent to the destination client. It is also responsible for controlling the size and rate at which messages are exchanged between the server and the client. (Used as the basis of most Internet services. It is used in conjunction with the Internet Protocol (IP). It allows for reliable communication, ensuring that packets reach their intended destinations.)

Transceivers on the network interface cards implement the appropriate standards for the media that is being used.Internetwork Protocol: The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below. data link management and the physical transmission of data on the media. Using a layered model:     Assists in protocol design. Data-link management protocols take the packets from IP and format them to be transmitted over the media. There are benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations. Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below. assigning the appropriate addresses. IP provides features for addressing. . Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities. and security. Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together. type-of-service specification. IP is responsible for taking the formatted segments from TCP. encapsulating them into packets. and selecting the best path to the destination host. The standards and protocols for the physical media govern how the signals are sent over the media and how they are interpreted by the receiving clients.) Network Access Protocols: Network access protocols describe two primary functions. (Network layer protocol in the TCP/IP stack offering a connectionless internetwork service. fragmentation and reassembly.

Here the entire TCP segment is encapsulated within an IP packet.Internetwork Layer PDU Frame . HTTP. begins the process by delivering the HTML formatted web page data to the Transport layer. which adds another label. as well as information necessary to deliver the packet to its corresponding destination process. The physical address uniquely identifies the devices on the local network. It also contains the information to enable the destination process to reassemble the data back to its original format. The trailer contains error checking information. called a header. containing information about which process running on the destination computer should receive the message.Transport Layer PDU Packet . Next.The general term for the PDU used at the Application layer Segment . called the IP header. the IP packet is sent to the Network Access layer Ethernet protocol where it is encapsulated within a frame header and trailer. There the application data is broken into TCP segments. Each TCP segment is given a label. This process is .A PDU used when physically transmitting data over the medium The Application layer protocol.Network Access Layer PDU Bits . The Transport layer encapsulates the web page HTML data within the segment and sends it to the Internet layer. The IP header contains source and destination host IP addresses. Each frame header contains a source and destination physical address. where the IP protocol is implemented. Finally the bits are encoded onto the Ethernet media by the server NIC.The TCP/IP Model APPLICATION • Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control Transport • Supports communcication between diverse devices across diverse networks Internet • Determines the best path through the network Network Access • Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network Data .

it only describes the handoff from the Internet Layer to the .reversed at the receiving host. The data is decapsulated as it moves up the stack toward the end user application. The OSI MODEL At the Network Access Layer. the TCP/IP protocol suite does not specify which protocols to use when transmitting over a physical medium.

Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. Error Recovery: A procedure that allows a user to recover from errors such as failure of either host systems or transfer process. When two end devices communicate on the local Ethernet network. the frames that are exchanged between them contain the destination and source MAC addresses. OSI Model Layer 3. the Transport layer of the OSI model. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the TCP/IP suite protocol that includes the functionality described at Layer 3. and sequencing. almost universally is used to discuss and document the range of processes that occur in all data networks to address and route messages through an internetwork. error recovery. the host physical address. called a frame. Whereas Layer 2 addresses are only used to communicate between devices on a single local network. The key parallels between the two network models occur at the OSI model Layers 3 and 4. At this layer.physical network protocols. In a LAN using Ethernet. Layer 3 protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork. These functions include acknowledgement. the Network layer. Once a frame is successfully received by the destination host. . The first identifier. Layer 3 addresses must include identifiers that enable intermediary network devices to locate hosts on different networks. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. is often used to describe general services or functions that manage individual conversations between source and destination hosts. Layer 4. The OSI Layers 1 and 2 discuss the necessary procedures to access the media and the physical means to send data over a network. the TCP/IP protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provide the necessary functionality. the Layer 2 address information is removed as the data is decapsulated and moved up the protocol stack to Layer 3. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 PDU.

usually a router. . is contained in the header of the Layer 2 PDU. In a LAN using Ethernet. Just as there are multiple layers of protocols that prepare the data for transmission to its destination. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. the frames that are exchanged between them contain the destination and source MAC addresses. decapsulates the frame to read the destination host address contained in the header of the packet. the host physical address.Getting the Data to the End Device: During the process of encapsulation. Layer 3 addresses must include identifiers that enable intermediary network devices to locate hosts on different networks. When two end devices communicate on the local Ethernet network. In the TCP/IP protocol suite. Once the path is determined. there are multiple layers of addressing to ensure its delivery. Routers use the network identifier portion of this address to determine which path to use to reach the destination host. Whereas Layer 2 addresses are only used to communicate between devices on a single local network. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. an intermediary network device. the Layer 3 PDU. the Layer 2 address information is removed as the data is decapsulated and moved up the protocol stack to Layer 3. the frame and packet headers are removed and the data moved up to Layer 4. address identifiers are added to the data as it travels down the protocol stack on the source host. Once a frame is successfully received by the destination host. called a frame. The first identifier. At the boundary of each local network. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. Getting the Data through the Internetwork: Layer 3 protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork. the router encapsulates the packet in a new frame and sends it on its way toward the destination end device. every IP host address contains information about the network where the host is located. When the frame reaches its final destination.

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The hierarchical set of related protocols in a suite t represents all the functionality required to interface the human network with the data network. A reference model provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services. the Transport layer of the OSI model. It is used for data network design. error recovery. and troubleshooting. These functions include acknowledgement.There are two basic types of networking models: protocol models and reference models. A protocol model closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite. the Network layer. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. The primary purpose of a reference model is to aid in clearer understanding of the functions and process involved. is often used to describe general services or functions that manage individual conversations between source and destination hosts. like a telephone call. In the OSI model. the Network Access layer and the Application layer of the TCP/IP model are further divided to describe discreet functions that need to occur at these layers. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the TCP/IP suite protocol that includes the functionality described at Layer 3. are not necessarily the same as the protocols for using another medium. the TCP/IP protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provide the necessary functionality. The OSI Layers 1 and 2 discuss the necessary procedures to access the media and the physical means to send data over a network. operation specifications. the TCP/IP protocol suite does not specify which protocols to use when transmitting over a physical medium. it only describes the handoff from the Internet Layer to the physical network protocols. 6 and 7 are used as references for application software developers and vendors to produce products that need to access networks for communications. whether face-to-face or over a network. The 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is the most widely known internetwork reference model. . The OSI model Layers 5. In our day-to-day personal communication. At the Network Access Layer. At this layer. A reference model is not intended to be an implementation specification or to provide a sufficient level of detail to define precisely the services of the network architecture. Protocol: All communication. almost universally is used to discuss and document the range of processes that occur in all data networks to address and route messages through an internetwork. The key parallels between the two network models occur at the OSI model Layers 3 and 4. The 4-layer TCP/IP model is a protocol model because it describes the functions that occur at each layer of protocols within the TCP/IP suite. such as a sending a letter. and sequencing. The protocols that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite can be described in terms of the OSI reference model. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. the rules we use to communicate over one medium. OSI Model Layer 3. The TCP/IP Application layer includes a number of protocols that provide specific functionality to a variety of end user applications. Layer 4.

This is commonly known as the encapsulation process. The form that a piece of data takes at any layer is called a Protocol Data Unit (PDU). a PDU has a different name to reflect its new appearance. each succeeding layer encapsulates the PDU that it receives from the layer above in accordance with the protocol being used. At each stage of the process. During encapsulation. These protocols are implemented in software and hardware that is on each host and network device. PDU & Encapsulation: As application data is passed down the protocol stack on its way to be transmitted across the network media. various protocols add information to it at each level.Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. PDUs within the protocols of the TCP/IP suite are: Data – The general term for the PDU used at the Application layer Segment – Transport Layer PDU Packet – Internetwork Layer PDU Frame – Network Access Layer PDU .

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