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Ammeter and Voltmeter

• No fundamental difference in their operating principles
– Depend upon a deflecting torque produced by an electric current

• Essential requirements of a measuring instrument are: q g
– Its introduction into the circuit, where the measurement are to be made, does not alter the circuit conditions. – The power consumed by them for their operation should be small
• For Ammeter : Pa=I2Ra • For Voltmeter : Pv=V2/Rv i.e. Ra should be small i.e. Rv should be large g

• Type of instrument used as Ammeter and Voltmeter – – – – – – – – PMMC Moving Mo ing Iron Electrodynamometer Hot wire Thermocouple Induction Electrostatic Rectifier • PMMC is only used for DC Analysis and Induction for AC – Other types of meter can be used with either DC or AC .

as it is cheapest.• Both Moving Iron (MI) and Moving Coil (MC) types depend for their action upon the magnetic effect of current – MI is most generally used form of indicating instrument. – MC instrument is the most accurate type for dc measurement . very accurate. p • It can be used for either dc or ac measurement and.

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil • Most accurate type for dc measurement • Working principle is same as that of d’Arsonval type of GM – Difference is that a direct reading instrument is provided with a pointer and a scale • Operating p Op g principle: p – when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. it is acted upon by a force which tend to move it to one side and out of field .

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PMMC Construction Details Moving Coil: • wounded with many turns of copper wire • Coil is mounted on a rectangular aluminum former which is pivoted on jeweled bearings • Coils move freely in the field of a permanent magnet • Most VM coils are wounded on metal former – to provide the required electromagnetic damping • Most AM coils are wounded on non-magnetic former – because coil turns are effectively shorted by ammeter shunt – coil itself. provides electromagnetic damping . therefore.

g . it is possible to use a small coil having In ll i t t i ibl t ll il h i small number of turns – reduction in volume • In the instruments having a large scale length – It is possible to increase the air gap length to accommodate large number of turns – Movement of coil is restricted • End pole pieces are cylindrical – To make filed radial and uniform – To decrease the reluctance of air path between poles • Hence. increases the magnetic flux .PMMC Magnet System • Consist of relatively long U-shaped permanent magnet • I small instruments.

PMMC .

– They can be modified with the help of shunts and resistances to cover a wide range of currents and voltages – They have very effective and efficient eddy-current damping Disadvantages: • Some errors are set in due to the ageing of control springs and the permanent magnets .PMMC Advantages: – They have low power consumption – Their scales are uniform and can be designed to extend over an arch of niform e tend o er 2700 or so.

Ammeter Shunt • Th basic movement of a DC ammeter is a PMMC d’Arsonval The b i t f t i d’A l galvanometer – The coil winding of basic movement is small and light – and can carry very small current (< 100mA) • In case of heavy current measurement. . • The resistance of the shunt can be calculated using conventional circuit analysis. the major part of current is bypassed through a low resistance called a shunt shunt. • General requirements for constructing the shunts are: – T Temperature coefficient of shunt and instrument should be low and nearly ffi i f h di h ld b l d l same – Resistance of shunt should not vary with time • Manganin is usually used for shunt. y – Explained on the board.

Voltage Multiplier g p • A d’Arsonval galvanometer’s basic movement is converted into a voltmeter by connecting a series resistance with it. • The multiplier limits the current through the meter so that it does not exceed the value for full scale deflection – Thus prevents the movement from being damaged • The calculation of the value of multiplier is explained on the board .

. i.Sensitivity of PMMC Voltmeter • The current sensitivity is defined as the deflection per unit current – G/K • Hence for sensitivity to be large – G should be large • Since A (=l*d) is constant for a given coil area and flux density also • Thus G can be increased when the coil is wound with many turns of fine wire Thus.e.. es s ce of e e e o o e vo ge. – Sv= 1/Ifsd = 1/Im (Ω/V) . specifies the resistance o the meter for a one volt range. printed on the meter dial.e. – K should be small • By using a light flat spring and the coil assembly lightly pivoted • Thus a higher sensitive instrument will have a larger resistance – because it is wound with many turns of fine wire • Different values of resistance are used in VM of various range • The sensitivity range. .