This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
by BUDDHADASA BHIKKHU HOW DID THE LORD BUDDHA DWELL? Bhikkhus, Mindfulness with Breathing that one has developed and make much of has great fruit and great benefit. Even I myself, before awakening, when not yet enlightened, while still a Bodhisa tva (Buddha to be), lived in this dwelling (way of life) for the most part. When I lived mainly in this dwelling, the body was not stressed, the eyes were not s trained, and my mind was released from the asava (corruptions, cankers) through non-attachment. For this reason, should anyone wish "may my body be not stressed, may my eyes be not strained, may my mind be released from the asava through non-attachment," t hen that person ought to attend carefully in his heart to this Mindfulness with Breathing meditation. (Samyutta-nikaya. Samyutta LIV, Sutta 8) Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu! For Free Distribution Only (NOT FOR SALE) ISBN 974-8486-22-2 translated from the Thai by Santikaro Bhikkhu First published in 1988 Second Edition 1989 by The Dhamma Study & Practice Group, with help from Evolution/Liberation. @ 1988 by Evolution/Liberation All rights reserved. Persons or groups interested in reprinting this book in part or whole, please co ntact the publisher: The Dhamma Study & Practice Group 309/49 Moo 2 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road Tung Song Hong, Bangkhen Bangkok 10210, Thailand Cover and design by Chao Assava Set in Clearface Regular 10 by Siam Compugraphic and printed by Parb Pim Ltd. Part. CONTENTS ANUMONDANA
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION TRANSLATOR-EDITOR'S PREFACE KNOWLEDGEMENTS TEXTUAL NOTES LECTURES LECTURE ONE: WHY DHAMMA? Dhamma and the Secrets of Life Dhamma: Four Aspects Developing Life beyond Dukkha The Kind of Anapanasati We Need Four Things We Ought to Contemplate Stage One: Flesh Body and Breath Body Stage Two: Our Masters the Feelings Stage Three: The Subtle Mind Stage Four: Realizing the Supreme Dhamma LECTURE TWO: GETTING STARTED Physical Preparations Time and Teacher Sitting Posture Cool, Concentrated Eyes Following the Breath with Mindfulness Many Kinds of Breath Step One: The Long Breath Step Two: The Short Breath Breathing away Emotions LECTURE THREE: CALMING THE KAYA Step Three: Experiencing all Bodies The Three Meanings of Sankhara Experiencing Sankhara Step Four: Calming the Breath Five Skillful Tricks A Mental Image Appears The Final Image Perfect Concentration At The Peak It's Easy when... LECTURE FOUR: MASTERING THE VEDANA Defiled or Not? Common or Exalted? Knowing Ourselves Delighting the Mind Delighted by Dhamma Concentrating the Mind Stability - Purity - Activeness Liberating the Mind Four Kinds of Attachment
LECTURE FIVE: CONTEMPLATING THE CITTA Defiled or Not? Common or Exalted? Knowing Ourselves Delighting the Mind Delighted by Dhamma Concentrating the Mind Stability - Purity - Activeness Liberating the Mind Four Kinds of Attachment LECTURE SIX: THE SUPREME The Impermanence of Anapanasati More to it than just Impermanence The Dissolving of Attachment The Quenching of Dukkha Throwing it all Back Dropping the Burdens of Life The Supreme Emancipation LECTURE SEVEN: THE HIGHEST BENEFITS Kaya: Cooling Emotions Vedana: Stopping the Spinning Citta: Working Correctly Dhamma: Two Basic Facts The Four Comrade Dhammas Practicing Fundamental Truths The Heart of the Triple Gem Buddhism in its Entirety Nibbana Here and Now The Last Breath APPENDICES APPENDIX A: THE FIVE REQUISITES Mode of Living The Material Necessities Intimate With Nature The Mental Necessity APPENDIX B: WHAT IS ANAPANASATI? Satipatthana is Anapanasati Condensed Version Kayanupassana Vedananupassana Cittanupassana Dhammanupassana APPENDIX C: SAMADHI-BHAVANA IN BUDDHISM The Short Cut Method for Ordinary People The Complete System of the Buddha Our Highest Duty Nothing Surplus
APPENDIX D: TRANSLATOR'S WRAP-UP Natural Evolution / Intentional Practice One Step at a Time, Please The Middle Way of Non-attachment Patience & Progress Getting Started: Establishing Sati Tricks to Aid Sati Long & Short Breaths Step Three: A New Object Life is Meditation 16 Steps to Everything APPENDIX E: MINDFULNESS WITH BREATHING DISCOURSE GLOSSARY SUGGESTED READING ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND TRANSLATOR ANUMONDANA (To all Dhamma Comrades, those helping to spread Dhamma:) Break out the funds to spread Dhamma to let Faithful Trust flow, Broadcast majestic Dhamma to radiate long living joy. Release unexcelled Dhamma to tap the spring of Virtu e, Let safely peaceful delight flow like a cool mountain stream. Dhamma leaves of many years sprouting anew, reaching out, To unfold and bloom in the Dhamma Centers of all towns, To spread lustrous Dhamma and in hearts glorified pl ant it, Before long, weeds of sorrow, pain, and affliction will flee. As Virtue revives and resounds throughout Thai socie ty, All hearts feel certain love toward those born, ageing, and dyin g. Congratulations and Blessings to all Dhamma Comrades , You who share Dhamma to widen the people's prosperous joy. Heartiest appreciation from Buddhadasa Indapanno, Buddhist Science ever shines beams of Bodhi longlasting, In grateful service, fruits of merit and wholesome s uccesses, Are all devoted in honor to Lord Father Buddha, Thus may the Thai people be renowned for their Virtu e, May perfect success through Buddhist Science awaken their hearts , May the King and His Family live long in triumphant
we develop and strengthen our mental abilities and spiritual qualities. Mindfulness with Breathing is the system of meditation or mental cultivation (ci tta-bhavana) often practiced and most often taught by the Buddha Gautama. the breath sustains life and provides th e opportunity (or spiritual development. forms of Mindfulness with Breathing predate the Buddha s appearance. we investigate how life. These we re perfected by him to encompass his most profound teachings and discoveries. The full discourse and the notes will provide the reader with rich material for reflection and a fitting summary of this book. This is our practice.of both immediate and long term value. at all times. unfolds. In practicing mindfulness upon and thro ugh the breathing. too. As the mind quiets and clears. The breath is vital. revealing. We have added the introductory passages that were left o ut of the first edition. It is our constant c ompanion. and of all Dhamma practice. from. May joy long endure throughout this our world upon earth.strength. nour ished and sustained by the breath. this practice has been preserved and passed along. Our thanks to everyone who has made this edition possible. we are anchored in the breath. The breath is life. Wherever we go. We discover the fundamental reality of human existence and learn how to live our lives in h armony with that reality. We also include Ajahn Buddhadasa's notes to the discour se. T he remainder of the text is unchanged. For mo re than 2500 years. the comprehensive form of Mindfulness with Breathing taught by him leads to the realization of humanity s highest potential – enlightenment. In fac t. except for the correction of printing and spelling errors. Santikaro Bhikkhu Suan Mokkhabalarama December 2531 (1988) TRANSLATOR-EDITOR’S PREFACE Welcome to Mindfulness with Breathing. soothing. sensitive to the breathing in and breathing out. natural. it is an exquisite tool for exploring life through subtle awareness and active i nvestigation of the breathing and life. And all the while. Mokkhabalarama Chaiya. how the mind and body. We learn how to relax the body and calm the mind. It contin ues to be a vital part of the lives of practicing Buddhists in Asia and around t he world. Similar practices are found in other religious traditions. of b . 3 February 2531 (1988)) PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION This edition includes a complete translation of "The Mindfulness With Breathing Discourse" (Appendix E). Th us. It has other frui ts as wel1 and so offers something . to stop breathing is to die. Mindfulness with Breathing is a meditation technique anchored In our breathing. soothed and balanced by the breath. 2 November 2530 (translated by Santikaro Bhikkhu.
he emphasizes the universal. beginners. Further. a manua l such as this is necessary. We m ust begin with some source of information. Ajahn Buddhadasa has discus . translated it anew.oth mundane and spiritual benefit . Early last year. he prefers a scientific. In the Pali language of the Buddhist scriptures this practice called "Anapanasat i" which means "mindfulness with in-breaths and out-breaths. In the course of revision and preparation. he has given a wide variety of explana tions about how and why to practice Mindfulness with Breathing. Ajahn Poh (Venerable Bodhi Bud dhadhammo. difficulties. questions. First. natural humann ess of Anapanasati. He. Some. we could say. and w ill apply the resulting understanding with sincerity and commitment. with this translator interpreting into Eng lish. it turned out that the original English interpretation was unsuitable for publication. requested copies of the series. to pr actice meaningfully." The complete syste m of practice is described in the Pali texts and further explained in their comm entaries." By "beginner" we mean peop le who are fairly new to this practice and its theory. In speaking to Western meditators. although some additions have been kept. Khun Wutichai Taweesaksiriphol and the Dhamma Study-Practice Gr oup asked Venerable Ajahn for permission to publish both the Thai and English ver sions. sufficiently clear and complete. after breakf ast. analytic attitude. The talks were recorded and many people. Both can benefit from clear instructions c oncerning their current situation and the overall perspective. we decided to append material to make the manual more comprehensive. this manual is aimed at "serious. however. no-frills appr oach. but not so much as to complicate and overwhe lm. especially our guests at Suan Mokkh. Instead. wh ile others have some practical experience but lack information about where and h ow to develop their practice further. Ajahn Buddhadasa uses a straight-forward. yet requires enough detail to turn the pi cture into reality. And rather than limit the instruction to Buddhists. The lectures included here were chosen for two reasons. an extensive literature has developed. Once the tapes were transcribed. Those who are serious will find what they need without difficulty. This book contain s some of his most recent talks about this meditation practice. The Venerable A jahn Buddhadasa has drawn on these sources. Although so me people like to think that we do not have to read books about meditation. This new rendering f ollows the original Thai closely. Venerable Ajahn spoke in Thai. especially the Buddha s words. Anyone who compares this version with the tapes will appreciate the improvement. If we do not live with or near a competent teacher. need not. Second. the retreatants gathered at "the Curved Rock. There is enough here to guide successful practice. It contained inaccuracies and was unnecessarily repetitive. that we need only to do-it. for his own practice. go into the cultural interests of traditional Thai Buddhists . Therefore. The main body of this manual comes from the series of lectures given during our S eptember 1986 meditation course. or. They will read and rer ead this manual carefully. and abilities of beginning Western meditators. the initiator of these courses and &tan Mokkh s Abbot) asked Ajahn Bu ddhadasa to give the meditation instruction directly. In more recent talks. For this course. Out of that experience. both foreign and Thai. By "serious" we me an those who have an interest deeper than idle curiosity. Each morning." Suan Mokkh s outdoor lecture area. they were given t o Westerners attending the monthly meditation courses at Suan Mokkh. will think through this information adequately. Over the years. The beginner needs information simple enough to giv e a dear picture of the entire process. we must be careful to know what it is we are doing. he endeavors to respond to the needs. have just begun. rational. This manual should strike the proper balance. the original interpreter has revis ed his first attempt.to people at all stages of spiritual develop ment.
Appendices A . First. or however many times it takes to get the gist of the practice. of course. is mentioned here. and busyness . then." The heart of the fundamental text for this system of meditation is presented here in a new translation. So we do not have the opportunity to understand our own bodies even. and ulc ers that ruin so many lives these days. free of stress. This book. true Buddhism in its pristine form. You need en ough intellectual understanding to be clear about what you need to do and how to go about it. Although Ajahn Buddhadasa covers t hem extensively in the seventh lecture. we become sensitive to our bodies and their nature. and C are selections from three of these talks. this manual serves a purpose which the casual reader will overlook. read and reread the sections most relevant to what you are doing a nd are about to do. We ground ourselves in this basic reality of human existence. worry. Some are s pecifically religious and others are mundane. Anapanasati brings us into touch with reality and nature. that is enough. peaceful breathing is good for the body. both physical and mental. For ho w could we separate the two? To fully understand our practice we must do our Dha mma homework. through the breathing. that the exquisite simplicity and directnes s of the Blessed One s words will gather all of the preceding explanations into one clear focus. must aim at the only real purpose there is in life . which provides the st ability we need to cope wisely with feelings. we should mention a few here at the begi nning. memories. what is conflict and what is peace. The benefits of correct. So read this book through at least once. Anapanasati is good for our health. Proper breathing calms us down and helps us to let go of the tension. thoughts. These words will become tangible only through applying them. Then you wil l practice with confidence and success. words. it will be imp ossible to completely understand these words. No longer blown about by these experienc es.in ideas. Long . We can learn the simple and beautiful ac t of sitting quietly alive to the breathing. and all the rest of our inner conditioning. Appendix E leaves the final word with our prime inspiration and original sou rce . and vice versa. and how. plans. and keep trying. If you have yet to sit down and "watch" your breaths. This gentle calm can be maintained in our other daily activities and will allo w us to do everything with more grace and skill. provides an outline of the essential teachings. We begin to learn what is what. do not lose sight of the overall path. We often live in our h eads . structure. with the parts that repeat material covered in earlier talks edited out. Having both in one place should help those who are confused about what and how m uch to study. Still. emotions. you will discover that every central te aching of Buddhism. This new information emphasizes the significance and purpose of Anapanasati. method. this book will point out w hy you should.sed perspectives on Anapanasati not covered in the September talks. high blood pressure. what is neces sary and what is unnecessary. B. In addition to its primary purpose. sustained Anapanasati practice are numerous. While focusing on the immediate requirements of today s learning. until you try it. as you practice. what is real and what is not. nervousness. never taking the time to obs erve them (except when the excitement of illness and sex occurs). and thus strengthened they will guide the development more securely. In this way our inte llectual study is neatly integrated with our mental cultivation practice. and goal. That focus. In Anapanasati . Just make sure that you understand all the things discussed here. and all that. With the careful study advocated above. . we can accept them for what they are and learn the lesson they have to teach us. Then. dreams. deep. memories. however.the Lord Buddha s "Mindfulness with Breathing Discourse (Anapanasati Sutta ). We hope. teaching how to practice Anapanasati correct ly.nibbana. Appendix D is a substantial revision o f a talk given by the interpreter as a summary of Venerable Ajahn s seven lectur es.
Funds for the first printing of this manual were donated by Dr. Miscellaneous errands were run by Wutichi Taveesaksiriphol and Phra Dusadee Metamkuro.With Anapanasati we learn to live in the present moment. John Busch. is not really living as a human being ought to live. Santikaro Bhikkhu Suan Mokkhabalarama New Year s 2531 (1988) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dhamma projects give us opportunities to join together in meritorious work and t he service of our comrades in birth. the only place one can truly live. Ajahn Buddhadasa. Supis Vajanarat. struggle. The problem is so ser ious that even politicians and the military-industrialists pay lip-service to it . gives us the examp .Priya Tasatia pradit. Dhammakamo Bhikkhu. We hope that this book will enrich your practice of Anapanas ati and your life. strife. whi ch brings death. Many people who share our aspiration for peace. time. while the source of conflict is within us. the exploitation and dishonesty. The Thai manuscript was transcribed by Jiaranai Lansuchip. however. ageing. within both individual hearts an d the world we share. There is no need to shou t for peace when we merely need breath with wise awareness. illness. who accept this the duty and joy o f all human beings. Still. all the violence and crim e. Lastly. May we all realize the purpose for which we were born. Amnuey Suwankiri. as far as this brief discussion is concerned. each o f us. A number of fri ends have given freely of their energy. which has died. nothing much is done to blossom genuine peace. is a living reality within the boundless here-now. The Thai and English language typing was done by Supis Vajanarat. Merely external (and sup erficial) approaches are taken. and competition. whic h is born out of our selfish thinking. we would like to acknowledge and bless their contributions. in line with the Blessed One s purpose. The conflict. Ajahn Poh (Bodhi Buddhadhammo) and Ajahn Runjuan Inddrakamhaeng of Suan Mokk h have nurtured and guided the environment wherein these lectures and this book have arisen. Anapanasati helps us to ea se up on and let go of the selfishness that is destroying our lives and world. arises out of our selfcentered striving. and death. and The Dhamma Study-Practice Group. Anapanasati will get us to the bottom of this nasty "I-ing" and “my-ing" which spawns selfishness. or dreaming in the future. We offer this manual to them and all oth ers who seek the Lord Buddha s path of peace. Viriyanando Bhikkhu. Kris Hoover and Mae Chi Dhammadinna helped to proof read the English version. Each breat h. and skills. nevertheless. Although there is no b etter reward than the contentment and peace that comes with doing our duty in Dh amma. O ur societies and planet are tortured by the lack of peace. ready to grow into and with whatever comes next. The English manuscript was transcribed by Supis Vajanarat and edited the fir st time by Pradittha Siripan. visit Suan Mokkh. Dwelling in the past. To be aware of th em is to live.
medicine. Some of these words are Buddha. dhamma. he spoke at length before giving the interpreter a chance. Pali has both singular and plural inflections but Thai does not. Thailand Twelfth Lunar Month 2530 (1987) TEXTUAL NOTES PALI TERMS: Ajahn Buddhadasa feels that committed students of Dhamma should beco me familiar with and deepen their understanding of important Pali terms. sometimes with an article and so metimes not.g. In general. pens. are not it alicized. Here. so we offer t hem as additions to English dictionaries. Anapanasati. In the original. Pali terms are italicized. especially those that are difficult or cumbersome to translate. The Pali-Thai t erms herein are used like the English "sheep ." (Page references use a lower-case "p"). we only capitalize Pali terms when they begin a sentence. LECTURE ONE: WHY DHAMMA? "Why Dhamma?" . Lastly. Appendices A. Phra Dusadee Metamkuro Suan Mokkhabalarama Chaiya. we have numbered each spoken passage. When these passages are referred to in the text. you can decide which cases ar e appropriate: singular. you will find them explained and sometimes transl ated (although not always in the same way) both in the text and in the glossary. NUMBERING: The Thai and English versions of this work are being published almost simultaneously. To enable easy reference between the two. Each of these pa ssages is given its own number. and dukkha. Transla tions often miss some or much. Depending on the context and meaning. A few of the more frequent and important t erms. Ajahn Buddhadasa sometimes spoke only a sentence or two then paused for the interpreter. These are words which fill gaps in the English language. Mrs. and C are numbered in the same way. By learnin g the Pali terms. which we humbly try to emulate in ways such as putting together this manual. Sangha. Dhamma . both. of the original meaning (e. Other ti mes. Generally.le and inspiration for a life of Dhamma service. Appendix D is numbere d although it differs greatly from the tape and is not included in the Thai versi on. Pali and Thai scripts do not use capital letters. because some passages have been left out. FOOTNOTES: All have been added by the translator. The exceptions are some of the non-itali cized words. S. food) needed to keep the translat or s life and work rolling. and with the original tapes. they are designated with a capital "P. Surat Thani. dukkha). plural. but do not correspond to t he tapes exactly. photo-copying. we can explore the various meanings and connotations that aris e in different contexts. or numberless. Pratum Juanwiwat supplies much of the friendship and material s upport (paper.
We have not truly penetrated i nto the secret of what we call life. The same thing is true of life. the result will be dukkha . please observe carefully and see clearly that within each one of us there are all four aspects of Dhamma or nature. t ranquility. s . Such a life is completely free from everything that could be signified by the words "problem" & "dukkha. 3. (5) DHAMMA: FOUR ASPECTS The Dhamma of life has four meanings: 1. Lastly. which is to understa nd Dhamma. anguish. we have yet to understand them correctly and completely. We must understand the secret of the nature of life. is a matter of nature (dhamma-jati). the result will be well-being. (6) Please investigate that Truth within yourselves. and ease. This Pali word dhamma-jati may not correspond to the English "nature" exactly. bu t they are close enough. of itself. progress in the exploration of outer space. b y itself. frustration. in this body and mind that you imagine to be yourselves. and developments in nuclear powe r. however. This sense of nature is not opposed to man as some Westerners would have it. 2." (3) A clarification of the word "secret" is important to the understanding of our to pic. Always keep these four interrelated meanings in mind. nature itself. If we do not know the secret of something then we are unable to practise su ccessfully to obtain the highest results and maximum benefits from it. the duty that must be performed according to that law of nature. If the duty is performed correctly. the fruits or benefits that arise from the performance of that du ty. there are the results of the performance of that duty. but encompasses man and all that he experi ences. For examp le. 4.unsatisfactoriness. Then there is the law of nature that controls those nature s. as well as other areas. Within each of us are various natures compounded into a body. (7) When we have investigated these four meanings of nature completely. the law of nature. into a being. Even at this be ginning level. and as its own law. Take it to mean something which exists within itself. And there is the duty that must be performed correctly by and for all things regarding the law of nature. In order to reach the hi ghest possible development of life we must know life s secrets. have been possible through the understanding of the s ecrets of these things. especially in the context of Dhamma. (1) DHAMMA AND THE SECRETS OF LIFE An easy to understand explanation of Dhamma is "the secret of nature which must be understood in order to develop life to the highest possible benefit.Before answering this question we need to understand the meaning of Dhamma. pain. We have not grasped the secret of Dhamma. (4) Life. Now. however. Then the reasons why we must study and practice Dhamma can be discussed. If the duty is performed incorrectly. we will see that life is made up of just these four aspects of nature." (2) To develop life to the highest level means reaching a stage of life that is free from all problem and all dukkha.
all t he things that disturb life. we need only to hold to the basic princip1e that "devel oping life" means causing life to progress to the highest level. and so we do not take much interest in the secrets of life whic h enable us to reach those highest levels. if you feel no dukkha. we can distinguish four aspects of it. if you are unaware of any problems. that is. It is anything that interfere s with spiritual perfection. Altogether we have the four aspects of developing life: preventing new dangers. and be especially interested in that d evelopment. pa nna (wisdom or knowledge) and samadhi (concentration). (8) DEVELOPING LIFE BEYOND DUKKHA We must also consider the phrase "developing life. These four tools of Dhamma are sati (reflective awa reness or mindfulness). If you have not looked inside. to what highest degree. We do not cap italize it. sampajanna (wisdom-in-action or ready comprehension). You ought to understand how far life can be developed. then life reaches its highest possible level. beyond the possible meanings and gradations of these t wo words." (12) Developing life is our duty. They do not understand wh at dukkha is. "Oh! I don t have any problems. Having these four tools w ill enable us to develop life. Are we like that? We need to take a serious. The third is to produce things which are useful and beneficial for life . (11) When we talk about developing life. take a good. (10) Now. (14) * [In some contexts. we do not have a clear unders tanding of what we meant and have little understanding of the extent to which li fe truly can be developed. We must realize that it is our duty if such develop ment is to happen. "dhamma" merely means "thing. When we talk about developing life. (9) On this beginning level. I t is what interferes with a life of calm and ease. (Pali and Thai do not use capital letters. The se cond is to get rid of and destroy any dangerous things that already have arisen in life." They accept all their difficulties and sorrow as normal and ordinary. creating desirable things. When life is developed beyond all dukkha. We do not realize the highest benefits that are avail able to mankind. unsatisfactoriness. then you do not know what you are doing here or what your reason is for-studying Dhamma. Please.* four Dhamma tools. Le t us take the time to study the words "Dhamma" and "secret of life" enough that we may take advantage of them. either. clear loo k at these things called "problems" and "dukkha" before proceeding any further.o we are unable to practice in a way that gets the fullest benefit from life.)] . The fourth is to maintain and preserve those things so that they grow further. getting rid of old dangers. For those who have never heard the word "dukkha" before. detailed look into our own lives to see if there really is a nything that could be called "a problem. conflict." In such cases." Dukkha is what we are running from all the time." We do not know the secret of this. (13) In order to fulfill our duty we must have in our possession four very important dhammas. agitation . These make up what we call "developing life." Is there any dukkha? Is there anything dissatisfying or disturbing about life? Such questions are necessary when we co me to a place like Suan Mokkh. whether in general terms or in their own life. They look at themse lves and say. some people do not know about their own problems. The f irst aspect is to prevent things that are dangerous to life from arising. everything is OK. we can tentati vely translate it as "suffering. beyond all problems and dukkha. and maintaining and incr easing the beneficial things.
But of all the techniques which we have come across. Take those truths to work upon in the mind well enough and completel y enough to get rid of all our problems and eliminate dukkha. Remember them as our four most important topics. (18) Actually. know that object. citta. and necessary to t ake as objects to contemplate every time we breathe in and breathe out? The answ er is the secrets of the thing called kaya (body). vedana ." Breathing in." the secrets of the thing called "citta (mind). ac quire the four Dhamma tools mentioned earlier. or about your mother. (16) The correct and complete meaning of Anapanasati-bhavana to take one truth or rea lity of nature and then observe. Breathing out. exami ne. they become the things that lead to suffering. We ought to take an interest in studying the mental development of these four necessary dhammas. investigate. What we require is to recollect Dhamma. For your own clear understanding and future reference remember these words: kaya. that is. and scrutinize it within the mind with every inhalation and every exhalation. feeling." and the secrets of the thing called "Dhamma. understand that thing.The practice of vipassana or mind-development aims at cultivating and training t he mind so that these four Dhamma tools are enriched enough to develop our lives ." the secrets of the thing ca lled "vedana (feeling). (21) . Because we do not understand them and becaus e we cannot regulate* them. the best is called Anapanasati-bhavana. In other words. Breathing out. This is most necessary. wife. children. (17) Such study is very important and of great value. (20) These things are important enough for you to memorize their Pali names. It means "to recollect with sati anything at all while breathing in and breathing out. mind. correct. Thus. But that is not what we need to do here. That could be called "Anapanasati. mindfulness with breathing all ows us to contemplate my important natural truth while breathing in and breathin g out. and study wholeheartedly every time we breathe in and out. Here. as well as extremely benefic ial. know that object. If we aspire to know the truth regarding something. Such stu dy brings about a transformation in the mind-heart. that is to say. the meaning of "Anapanasati" is quite broad and general. we come to the question. husband. the natural truths which will free the mind from the suffering of dukkha. because these four things already exist within us and are the source s of all the problems in our lives. for sufficiently developing any knowledge that must be understood. (15) THE KIND OF ANAPANASATI WE NEED There are many different kinds of mental development or vipassana. " also. the cultivati on of mindfulness with breathing in and out. (19) FOUR THINGS WE OUGHT TO CONTEMPLATE Now. and Dhamma. we must take the truth of that matter to contemplate. This is the kind of Anapanasati w hich is the most useful. and Dhamma. Many differen t systems and techniques for training the mind exist. on the insid e of life. There fore it is absolutely necessary to clearly distinguish and understand these four things: body. Breathing in." The secrets of these four things are to be brought into the mind and studied there. understand that thing. analyze. This is the practice that we will d iscuss in detail throughout these lectures. We must us e these four things far more than any other kinds of objects to train and develo p the mind. Let me r epeat that the object must he worked on continuously within the mind. "con tinuously" means "with every in and out breath. or family while you are breathing in and breathing out. what things are proper." Imagi ne that you are thinking about your home in some foreign country while breathing in and breathing out.
all of the rest should be understood. the body. This is how we can control the body indirectly. there is one very important component which nourishes the rest of this body. (23) The meaning of these first steps of this practice is to know the secrets of the kaya. the fact that we can use the breath to gain mastery over t he body. we st udy the breath in a special way. So we must be careful of what group is meant. This point will appear to you most distinctly when you have trained up to that particular stage of Anapanasati. Then understand that it is connected to this flesh-body too. aya" this ther also let us examine these four separately. In fact. The breath also called "kaya" in that it is a group of various elements. Long breaths. And here we have the crucial relationship that we need to st udy. Know the characteristics of all its different forms. The Pali word "k literally means "group" and can be applied to any collection of things. This important secret can be used to unlock other secrets abo ut the body. fast breaths. the breath. supervise. the flesh-body will be calm. there will be a certain effect upon another body (flesh). our English word "body" can mean group. However. but we discover that w e can relax the flesh-body by making the breath calm. t o master it. (22) In the first steps of this practice.] STAGE ONE: FLESH-BODY AND BREATH-BODY Now. kuab-kum depends on sati and wisdom. to oversee. This is why we take the breath as the training object. violent breath s. know what nature each one has. or superintend. calm breaths. there is a way to control it. Make a special study of the breath. beginning with kaya. Of all the different k inds of breath which arise. Nobody can sit here and directly relax the body. That is the first step. When one of these translations appear. The general body. You ought to look for yourselves to see what these bodies are made out of.* [The Thai word kuab-kum is used throughout these talks. we know that there is happiness and joy and other valuable benefits in the calming of the breath and flesh bodies. We note every kind of breath that occurs and st udy what each is like. and know its functions. Observe both sides of the relationship until it is obvious that they are interconnected and inseparable. Fur ther. Supervising the breath to what ever degree is equal to regulating the flesh body to that degree. know its characterist ics. If we act in a certain way toward o ne body (breath). The breat h has a great influence on the rest of the physical body and this influence need s to be seen clearly. What organs are there and how many of them? What kind of elements? What sort of parts and components come together into a body? Further. the breathing. We will study how this flesh-body is established and how it is related to the breath. this flesh-body. is something that cannot be regulated di rectly. See that the breath-body conditio ns and concocts the flesh-body. indirectly by using the breath. and slow breaths: we must know them all. This will allow us to regulate the flesh-body by means of regulating the breath. We know that the breath-body. such as. (24) STAGE TWO: OUR MASTERS THE FEELINGS . The breath-body is very important because we can see that it sustains life in th e rest of the body. never force or will-power. In case kaya means specifically the groups of things that are compounded toge into a physical flesh-and-blood body. In all cases. namely. Such is not within our ability. It can be translated to regulate. short breaths. those concerned with the kaya (body). is the conditioner of the flesh-body. If the breathing is calm. Observe what influence the different breaths have upon the flesh-body. to control or confine.
the corruption. nobody is interested in controlling the vedana. are activities originating in our failure to control the feelings from the start. d isagreeable feelings) affect the mind and influence life in the opposite directio n. and then we study that thing. the things that cause feeling in the mind. but still lead to all kinds of habitual responses. and all living beings – depends on the vedana. know how to control those things that condition the feeling s. we will be able to control them and their secrets will not d eceive us into doing anything foolish ever again. although there may be other factors involved as well. we say that the causes of ever ything in the world are centered on the vedana. The whole world is under the command of these vedana. we travel around in the samsaric cycle. when we can control the feelings as we require. (25) I will say something at which you can laugh if you wish. all these things. Understand the feelings themselves. humans. the famines. They all are under the pow er of the feelings. Then. words. The myriad activities happen in the world because our feeling of the vedana forces us to desire. understand t he vedana themselves. Everything originates in feeling. They stir up thoughts. "If we can master the v edana we will be able to master the world. then we could control the world. Thus. 2. the mind-heart. For example. discover that we can control the mind by controlling the vedana. My words will surprise you. that the mind fe els. in the same way that the flesh-body is controlled by the regulation of the breath. so examine it for yoursel ves. know how the vedana condition the citta. of heaven and hell. we turn to the secrets of the vedana . The mind struggles with th em and turns them into problems that cause dukkha. while tanha (craving) can control the mind. First. We study th . The vedana have the highest power and influence over human beings." We will be able to control the world . If we believe. When there are sukha-vedana (pleasant feelings) we try to get more of those feelings. nonetheless. This is how necessary it is to understand these feelings correctly and com prehensively. Thi rd. s o the world has gotten out of proper control. we find out what it is that conditions the flesh-body. 3.our entire species – are being forced by the vedana to do their bidding. Second. If we would control the feelings.Once we understand the secrets of the kaya. Know the things that condition the feelings. the vedana have the strongest and most powerful influence over our entire mind. In the stage regarding the body. It is a fact that we . the source. and then act ou t those desires. Know this concocting of the mind. which is the same as controlling the feelings themselves. We ought to understand the secrets of vedana. This sounds funny and unbelievable.animals. Then. Even such beliefs as reincarnation and rebirth are conditioned by the vedana. the cycles of birth and death. the entire world . Now. Then we could supervise the wo rld as it so badly needs. (26) If we speak in line with the Lord Buddha s words. These three things make up the secrets of the vedana. The feelings have great power over what we do. Have you seen all the crises and p roblems that arise constantly? The wars. the birth place of all th ings. the pollut ion. 1. The pleasant feelings always pull the mind in a certain direction and condition certain kinds of activity. Dukkha-vedana (unpleasant. craving itself is first conditioned by feeling. These are the three important things to understand about vedana. This is something you need to consider. (27) There are three main points to realize regarding the vedana. To co ntrol the vedana is to control the origin. and actions. it is helpful to compare the two. memories. over all liv ing things. Then we win be able to master the mind by correctly mastering the feelings which conditi on it. (28) Since the first and second stages of practice both follow the same principle.
We cannot experience it directly but we can experience its p roperties. If life is to be lead upon the correct path. that the nature (dhamma-jati) of the mind is like this. Know all the different kinds of citta. by regulating that thing. This is our way to make the body more calm and peaceful. During each day how many different kinds of tho ughts are arising. Then. If we know how the thoughts are. we k now electricity through its properties: current. make the mind let go of its attachments. et cetera. we can control the body. but we must put for th special effort. Force it to let go. It lets go of things it attaches to and the thi ngs that attach to the citta let go of it. It is possible however. We study how that thing co nditions the body. to know it through its thoughts. We cannot see it with our eyes.mind can be liberated. or so that they condition the mind in a desirable way. good l ines or wicked lines? Observe until the citta is understood through all the type s of thought that it can think. We make it let go of things with which it h as fallen into loving. In wha t ways are its thoughts improper and in what ways correct? Are those thoughts de filed or undefiled? Does it think along correct lines or incorrect lines. power. complex. As mentioned earlier. we must unders tand the citta correctly until we are able to control it. "mind" is very subtle. So i t is with the citta. As for the mind. This how the first stage regarding the kaya and the sec ond stage regarding the vedana follow the same basic principle and are parallel in their method of practice. This will require a sp ecial study. because this thing we call. how many levels of thoughts come up? Observe these different thoughts. The mind can be made to think in different wa ys or can be kept still. which is about Dhamma. Then. and concentrated in different ways and to different degrees. in matters of the mind. calmed. we practice to know the secrets of the kaya. Then force the mind to stop and be still. The mind is liberated from all tho se things. Be able to make the mind glad and content . This is our lesson about the secrets of the mind which we must practi ce in stage three of Anapanasati-bhavana. something special is needed to ‘see’ it. By controlling the vedana so that they do not condition o r stir up the mind. The mind can experience different kinds of happiness and joy. voltage.at body-conditioner until we know it in great detail. Do not lose heart or give up! All of us are capable of studyi ng the citta so that we learn its secrets. hating. first of all. and pro found. in the third lesson of Anapanasati. i f we want. We cannot touch it I or make contac t with it directly. the . It can b e stilled. In the material worl d. This is what it takes to be expert. we com e to the fourth stage. we will practice in order to know the secrets of the citta (Thai. after fully mastering the first and second stage s. and the mind. the various thoughts. Finally. With well-trained sati such a study is fully within our ability. That s it! Know this truth just a little bit fir st. the feelings. This is how we know the citta. Dhamma is na . we will know how the mind is. we practice to know the secrets of the vedana. its condit ioner is the feelings. We can make the mind satisfied. for comparison. or even dissatisfied. The m ind is the director and leader of life. Lastly. Second. we are able to direct the mind as we require. The mind leads and the body is merely th e tool which is led. (29) STAGE THREE: THE SUBTLE MIND First. we ar e able to calm the mind. Instead. we cannot know the thing electricity in itself. t o be well versed. (32) STAGE FOUR: REALIZING THE SUPREME DHAMMA After having learned the secrets of the body. (30) It is impossible to know the citta directly. due t o our training of the kaya and the vedana (conditioner of the mind). At this stage. and attaching. (31) We begin our study of the mind by observing what kind of thoughts it has. cit).
bey ond all dualities. the suchness of all things. merit or sin. anatta. We give it all ba ck to nature and never steal anything ever again. defeat or victory. In Thai. know that all conditioned things are impermanent and in flu know that all concocted things are inherently unable know that all things are not-self. The Truth to be known in stage four is th e secret of nature that says all things are only thus . This is the finish. happiness or suffering. We ought to study the secret of the truth that controls life. the ultimate truth of all natures. Dukkham: to satisfy our desires. wrong or right." The Buddha said that at the end we throw everythin g back. and t athata. everything is free. the final step is to experience that "the mind is free. the meaning just described ." Tathata: Together. we can call it "emancipation" or "salvation. Anatta: Sunnata: d "mine. Once attachment is quenched. which is the supreme secret of nature. "Oh! It s nature s not mine. the truth of aniccam. Now. This will be experienced until the step w here attachment is extinguished. positive or negative. begins to loosen up its attachments. having or lacki ng. above all meanings of optimism and pessimism. with freedom from any and all effects and influences of attachment. To learn the secret of D hamma is to know that nothing should be attached to. anatta. That is just the first step. The highest Dhamma is right here in "merely thus. ordinary words "everythin g is just like that. For us." It i s to study the truth. Now. and then not attach to anyt hing. know that everything is void of selfhood of "I" an know the thusness. All is liberated. take the truth of all those things. Isn’t it funny? All Truth boils down to the typical. to study. the highest Dhamma. The fina l step of the development of Anapanasati finishes here. The meaning of this is that we have been thieves all our lives by taking the things of nature to be "I" and "mine. The last step ends in this amusing away." Nothing is regarded as good or bad. Aniccam: x. These attachments will dissolve away. tathata is translated "just like that. It ends with us not being a thief anymo re.ending attachment . not-soul." Then we can throw everything back to na ture. when we see thusness. We must watch these things until the y are fully realized in order that the mind will never again lose its way. It may amuse you that the Ultimate Truth of everything in the universe comes down to nothing but thusness." It seems that all religions have the same thing as their goal and call it by pre tty much the same names. (35) If we choose to give this a name.ture in all its meanings. only thus. dukkham. dukkham. We are finished. the fact. (34) To see Dhamma sufficiently is the first step. thusne ss.aniccam." However. (33) It may sound funny to you that all Truth . then the mind will make no error s and will keep itself on the path of correctness. we have become wise and are able to give things up. sunnata -ends up with tathata. gain o r loss. these are the one ultimate Truth." for thusness is above and beyond all mean ings of positive and negative.merely such . Now. At this last step of practice w e realize. sunnata. With that knowledge we can live life in the best way." We have been stupid and we suffer fo r it. the texts us e the words "throwing" back. This is what is meant by "studying Dhamma. we will see that the mind begins to let go. When the mind understands this truth of all reality. The case is closed." It is more difficult in English: "just such.
we will speak about the firs t two steps of the first tetrad. whether it is most proper or not very proper. and without any respiratory or digestive abnorm alities. all our problems disappear. and preparing the time of Practice. The breath is contemplated directly in only two steps. Thus. (36) LECTURE TWO: GETTING STARTED In today s lecture we will talk about the practice of stage one of Anapanasati concerning the kaya. emancipation means to be free from every type and form of attachmen t so that we may live our lives above the world. we must choose a location or place that is suitable and appropriate for our practice. drew it up into the nose. the practice concerning the kaya (body). Although our bodies are in this world. Each group includes four things or dhammas. Whether we have perfect conditions or not. In ancient times. Espe . This is an example of getting our bodies r eady. each of which contains four steps. Of those sixteen. This is how t o develop life to its fullest potential using this four-stage method of practice . (39) The next preliminary step is to prepare the body. When we want to practice. who knows? In Buddhism. That makes a total of sixteen dhammas. That shows that we can choose a location and use the conditions availab le to us in the best possible way. I would like to speak about time. O ther religions may give some other meaning to the word emancipation. Sometimes we can focus on the bre ath until we do not hear the noise of the train and do not feel the shaking as i t moves. We need bodies which are suffi ciently normal. We choose the best available place knowing that we can never have a perfect situation. M ay we end today s lecture here. More specifically. We must be able to practice even when sitting on the train coming down from Bangkok. With this background it should be easy to practice each step as we come to it. The remaining fourteen steps focus on other things. But when good conditions are not available. Today. we have given a general outline of what happens in this way of practice. If we do this two or three times. But let me warn you in advance that there are altogether fo ur groups of things that we must contemplate. where there are no disturbances. they took some dean water in the palm of the hand. (40) TIME AND TEACHER Next. First. we do the best we can with what we h ave. only two are the breathing itself. We try to find a place that is quiet and peaceful. The "clack-clack-clack" of the wheels on the rails can be our meditation object instead of the breath. We hav e no excuses regarding our choice of a proper location. (37) PHYSICAL PREPARATIONS We will begin at the very start with the preparations for practicing Anapanasati . we can use the sound of the train itself as a m editation object. but we will leave them for later. We must choose something. there are four parts or tetrads. the nose will be clean and prepared to breathe well. In this way we have no objections about any location in the world. The nose will then be much more sensitive to the breath. There are many more details to consider. where t he conditions and the weather are good. our minds are beyond it. free of disease. (38) We are not going to be defeated by any circumstances. somewhere.and throwing everything back to nature . and then blew it out.is our understanding of emancipation. In all. we can prepare the nose so that it functions smoothl y and correctly. Today. we will make the most of them and do what we can. Even on the train.
Actually. (42) SITTING POSTURE Now we come to the actual activity of meditation itself. (43) At first. master)". These who have never sat t his way. but it is worth the effort You can patiently. A straight spine is quite necessary because there are different kinds of breath . We should not forget. they did not talk much about "acariya. This is what is normal for the body. and you will never find it. To have such a kalyana-mit ta is one more thing to arrange.Sitting Postures It is also important to sit upright with the vertebrae and spine in proper align ment without any bends or curves. we are training t he mind to be undisturbed no matter what is going on around us. however. we accept whatever we can get. From ancient times this way of sitting has been called "the lotus posture (padmasana). gradually train yourself to sit in this way. that is completely free of distr actions. you will be abl e to cross both legs in a "full lotus. Be able to sit just like a pyramid. we cannot find a goo d time. even in the old training systems. Although he is able to answer qu estions and explain some difficulties. Yet nowadays. The best way to do this is to sit crosslegged. Later. it is not necessary for him to sit over u s and supervise every breath." Figure 1." They called such a person a "good friend (kalyana-mitta). The spine is a vital part of the nervous system so we should sit erect in order to keep it straight and correct. principle that no one can help someone else directly. cross one leg. ev eryone wants to have a teacher to supervise them! A good friend is someone who h as extensive personal experience and knowledge about the meditation practice or whatever else it is that we are striving to do. When there is no time. Finally. The first time. then pull the right foot up onto the left thigh and the left foot up onto the right thigh.cially when we are determined to practice earnestly. Some people do this until they cannot find any time to meditate." To say "friend" . it may be difficult for those of you who have never sat like this. Always be flexible to practice at any time. you may be able only to fold your legs in front without crossing them." This way of sitting is as compact as a p yramid and will not tip over when the mind is concentrated or half concentrated. Pyramids cannot fall over because they have a very solid base and sides that rise up into a central pinnacle. backwards or sideways. so that when the mind is semi-conscious we will not fall o ver. When possible. If however. we need to choose the most suitable and appropriate time that we can find. There is no way that they can fall down. may need some time to train the body to sit in this way. That is enough to begin.is correct. It is necessary to sit in a way that is stable and secure. we choose a time when there are no distractions an d disturbances. we use the best time available. The first thing to disc uss is the sitting posture (See Figure 1). That is not right. who may not even be used to sitting on the floor. The mind will le arn to be peaceful. Put your legs out in front of you. A good friend who will answer questions and help u s work through certain obstacles is more than enough. Do not limit yourself to any certain time. The vertebrae should sit snugly on top of each other so that they fit together properly. Nev ertheless. (41) The next consideration is what they call an "acariya (teacher. when things must be just right. I must request that you try to do it. Then you will not fall over. It wi ll be impossible to fall forwards. But in truth. This is good posture.an advisor who can help us with certain things . We do not have to be enslaved to a certai n time of day. put one leg on top of the other. however. Consider how long the pyramids in Egypt have bee n sitting! Learn to sit like a pyramid. Then the mind learns to be undistracted regardless of how many disturbances there are.
This samadhi is not insignificant. CONCENTRATED EYES Now. there will be one kind of breathing. Then contemplate each breath with mindfulness. Also. Choose which seems m ost suitable for you. of the breathing. How are we breathing in? What is the out-breath like? . Should we leave them open or should we close them? Many people be lieve that they must close their eyes that they cannot meditate with open eyes. it w ill be a certain type of samadhi. If we rest them on the knees they will not get ho t. Mediating with the eyes open will help us to stay awake and will keep the eyes cool and comfortable. we will not see anything else. so be careful about closing the eyes. We are intent upon gazing a t the nose. Some groups advise to fold the hands in the lap with the thumbs touching in o rder to have "concentrated hands. the hands. As samadhi (concentration) develops about half way. When we close our eyes we tend to be sleepy.ing. Let it be natural. thi s will help the mind to be concentrated. all of its interest. (46) Practicing with the eyes open and gazing at the tip of the nose is automatically a noticeable level of concentration. then no thing else will be seen. There is not anything unnatural or supernatural about it. Open them with the determination to gaze toward the tip of the nose. Begin with the eyes ope n. Merely look at the nose without seeing anything else. is set on looking at the nose. We will profit from having this much concentra tion right from the start. Because of the mind’s great speed it is possible for the eyes to be gazing at the tip of the nose while being aware of breathing in and breathing out. If we can do this. If all of the mind. It just takes a little effort to do so. when the eyes are closed they become warm and dry. If you are serious about what you are doing and have a sufficiently strong mind it is not difficult to practice with the eyes left open. That takes care of the eyes." To press the hands together can aid concentra tion. the eyes will close natural ly by themselves. but they are not. we must have sati (mindfulness or reflective awareness). The eyelids will relax and drop shut on their own. If we establish all of the mind upon gazin g at the tip of the nose. (47) Please observe that this is something anyone can do. Or you can lay them on the lap if that is comfortable. Therefore. It may seem that both are being done at exactly the same mom ent. If the spine is bent. the contemplation. we must try to straighten the spine. Gaz e at the nose tip until samadhi develops. The complete technique is to begin with the eyes open. Therefore you ought to try to start with open eyes. Let the breathing go on comfortably and no rmally. The hands will not heat up if you leave them on the knees. We train sati by noting that we are about to breath in or about to breath out. You can choose from these three position s of the hands. There is no thing to worry about. even if it is a little bit difficult at first. Do not interfere with it at all. the eyes. It is how they do it in China. This is not at all impossible. You can se e this for yourself. Or you can press them to gether to increase concentration a bit. This second position may be uncomfortable for some people beca use the hands will become hot. at feeling the nose. then the eyes will close on their own. If the spine is straight then there will be another kind of breathing. Further. Both can be done. and at the same time we feel the body breathing . (48) FOLLOWING THE BREATH WITH MINDFULNESS At last we come to the noting. it will aid the development of samadhi. The most comfortable and easiest thing to do with the hands is to let them fall onto the knees. (44) Next. Gaze at the tip o f the nose so that the eyes will not get involved in other things. (45) COOL. That can also be good. To start. We begin to use sati by b eing mindful of the in and out breath. Another way is to lay the hands on top of each other in the lap.
(52) Along with the above observations. Do not allow any gaps or any lapses. Fur ther. that is. We only imagine that the breath itself ends at the navel. when the breathing is long. in and out. What reactions do they cause. In and out. you can practice on your own until you get it. We naturally learn about the long breath and short breath. This is the first lesson: contemp late the breath with sati. coarse and fine. This is the first lesson to learn. The out-breath. or three month until you are able to do it. Then we observe the coarseness and fineness of the breath. We do not hold it to be true. we ima gine. You may not get very far in a ten day course like this. tha t it does not go all the way down to the navel. Here we are merely explaining the method o f training. but we know that the breath only goes into the lungs. we need to watch the effect or flavor of the . Begin to observe them by feeling them with sati. What reactions does the short breathing cause? What are the influences of coarse and fine breathing. we will observe the react ion to these qualities. Keep the mind constantly on the breathing in and out." The in-breath starts at the tip of the nose and we imagine that it ends at the navel. This is just an assumpti on based on our feeling of and sensitivity to the movement of the breathing. We must know the variations in the reactions to a nd influences of these various properties of the breath. We can feel many things. three weeks. For example. It goes in and stops a moment. Once you understand the m ethod correctly. and then back a nd forth. Then it comes out an d pauses a moment. our mind. Note ev erything and do not let anything slip by. (50) MANY KINDS OF BREATH While we practice following. The only thing that matters is to contemplate the breath as if chasing it. In the beginning we develop and train sati using a technique called "following" or "chasing. with short breaks in between. coarse a nd fine breaths. but it is im portant to know what needs to be done and get started. In this first step contemplate these different kinds of breath: long and short. Maybe it will take thr ee days. (49) We are not anatomists. of these qualities tha t influence our awareness. (51) We must learn how to observe in more detail. easy and uneasy. comfortable and uncomforta ble breathing? We observe the different types of breath and their different infl uences until we can distinguish clearly how the long and short breaths. begins at the navel and ends at the tip of the nose. and comfortable uncomfortable breaths differ .Use sati to note the ordinary breath. Later. our sensitivity. we can feel the lon gness and the shortness of the breath. Start by contemp lating the breath between these two points without leaving any chances for the m ind to wander off to something else. It is the thin g that we must do in this first step. We use that feeling as the basis of our practice and follow the breath between the tip of the nose and the navel. Sati contemplates the properties of this movement in and out from the tip of the nose to the navel. we observe its smoothness and burnpiness. ho w do they influence our awareness? For example. to observe the reaction or influence of the different kinds of breathing. Whe n we breathe we feel movement all the way down to the navel. In between is the spa ce through which the breath runs in and out. It may not be so easy. we have the opportunity to observe various characte ristics of the breath. without ever losing it. how does it influence our awareness. Do not allow empty spaces where the mi nd might wander. The distinction as to whether it is sati which follows the breath in and out or that sati forces the mind to follow the breath in and out is not important at th is point.
from o ne to five. it has a ha ppier taste than the short breath. For a short breath. In doing so. Always count at the same speed. For instance." For example. to find out its properties. shortness. Give it a tr y whenever you want. by the long breath and short b reath. however. from one to ten. If we would like to train with this. The flavors that arise are kinds of feelings. We do not ha ve to use it all the time. how does the body move? In what places is there exp ansion? In what places does the body contract? When there is a deepest possible long breath. you may learn that it works diffe rently than you thought. We are able to breathe long whenever we need to. we have a tech nique called "counting.different kinds of breath. by the coarse breath and fine breath. Most people have the overly simple idea that when we br eathe in the chest expands and when we breathe old: the chest contracts. annoyance. we must observe how the body works in relation to the long breath. and contentment. the breath will lengthen accord ingly. in one inhalation we count to five. We know about the various properties of the breath: longness. the lengths of the breath can be regulated. (57) Finally. we will see that the long breath gives a greater sense of peace and well being. the long breaths. The ne xt thing to do is to enter a course of training with them. We study the nature of. such as . When a breath is long. the contemplation of t he long breath. all the facts abo ut. and by the easy breath and uneasy b reath. we begin training with the long breath. Our knowledge extends to the things conne cted with the breath. We can lengthen or shorten them using this special training technique. we find that in taking the longest inhalatio n. By counting. We learn to analyze and distinguish the different flavors that come with the different kinds of breath that we have scrutinized. and flavor. We have learned how to make the breath long and how to keep it long. qualities. If we count to ten. especially. for if the pace of counting changes it would negate the effect of counti ng higher or lower. namely. (54) There is a way for us to regulate the breath in these beginning steps in order t o make it longer or shorter. Now that we understan d all these things. the reactions toward and influence of these properties as felt in our minds. coarsenes s. Only study the long breath here. does the chest expand or contract? Does the abdomen expand or contr act? These are things to examine. (56) We have come to the first lesson. We gradually will find this out for and by ourselves. (55) STEP ONE: THE LONG BREATH By now we have developed an adequate preliminary understanding of the breath. In stud ying the breath carefully. Different kinds of breath bring different kin ds of happiness. On an ordinary breath we only count to five. we w ill study the long breath exclusively. It is just a little experiment we can use from time t o time in order to regulate the breath or to get to know it better. Sit and investigate the long breath exclusive1y. we will discover the various causes that make the breath either long or short. and uneasiness. fineness. This is lesson one. When there is a long inhalation. the abdomen will contract and the chest will expand.we might count to three and that changes the breath as we wish. easiness. In this first lesson. What causes the br eathing to be long? What kind of mood makes the breath long? What kind of mood m akes it short? Thus. With the very long exhala . dukkha. the first step. (53) Finally. we come to know the causes and conditions that make the bre ath long or short. happiness. understanding all matters connected to the long breathing. Find out how it is they have different flavors. Observe and expe rience the flavors or effects caused. influence. how pleasant is it? How natural and ordinary is it? What kinds of calmness and happiness are involved? In what ways is it different than a short breath? This means that we now study just the long breath using the method described above. We even know how to control the length of each breath. non-happiness.
fluently a nd expertly.tion. everything about the long breath. we must le arn the equivalent facts about the short breath. Do not take anything for granted. (58) will contract or deflate. The body will be relaxed and that anger will go away. With this knowledge. we will observe and feel immediately that the long breath brings e ase and comfort while the short breath leads to abnormality. Although the two kinds of breath have opposite natures. You ought basic natural facts. Practicing with the long breath is lesson one. We really do not have to say much about this step. how it effects the rest of the body. and the mind. of the short breath until y ou know it as extensively as you know the long breath. When we are angry the breath is short and rough. (64) . in our lesso n here. uneasiness . We will grow more certain . because it is practiced in exactly the same wa y as with the long breath. Whatever we learned about the 1ong breath. the second less on. So in the second lesson. The be nefit is that the fine breath will calm down our bodies. uses the short breath. discover the happiness and comfort it brings. alt hough. Still. When we wish to cool down our bodies. Study everything. and discomfort. We ought to observe this even at this early stage. please observe when breathing long. The only difference is that step two. then. we can use this ability to our advantage. When we require fine breath we simply make the breath longer. This is what we must understand about the relationship and difference between long and short breathing. and the body is rough.that the breath is intimately associated w ith the body. (63) Another example is that when we are angry the breath is short. i n order to know the nature of the long breath: We are able to contemplate the lo ngness. We can protect it and maintain it. They become cool. We can m ove on to the second lesson. every aspect. Once we learn how to make the br eath fine or coarse as we wish. that is. You ess of the very long breath. we should begin to realize how the breath and the body are interconnecte d. which is about the long breath. This is one of things that we need to study. Therefore. our way of studying them is identical. we bring out the fine breath. (61) For instance. We need to kno w the complementary differences between the two kinds of breath as clearly as pos sible. that concerning the short breath. the body. If we can make the breath long the anger wi ll not be able to continue. We must experience this. the abdomen will expand and the chest ind the reverse of what common sense teaches. This means that we are expert in all m atters concerned with the long breath. we will know how to make the b ody either comfortable or uncomfortable by regulating the breath. Find out what effects the long breath has on the body. must feel it for ourselves. the longest possible ppen.through perso nal experience rother than thinking . we will know the secret that there are two kaya: the breath -body and the flesh-body. to see what changes ha to understand even these most We study all the secrets of the long breath. We f ought to investigate this busin breath. every property. When the breath i s short the body is disturbed. We can drive away anger by breathing long. (62) Of special interest is the observation that when we breathe long the breath is f ine. or when breathing whatever way . When we breathe short the breath is rough. This is an example of the many different in teractions and relationships between the breath. we will not go into it specifically until step three. also. Further. we are interested in the short breath in particu lar. There is a very close interconnection between the two. (59) An extremely important thing to learn is the interrelationship between the breat h and the body. (60) STEP TWO: THE SHORT BREATH We have now completed the first lesson. agitation.
(65) When you are sitting in meditation and a mosquito bites you. clearly. but we will call both of them kaya (body ). cope with the happiness and pain of our lives. a k . Well. There are these two groups or b odies. kaya comes f rom the Pali kaya and can mean "group. we will speak about steps three and four of the first tetrad. Recall the fact that the breath is the conditioner of the flesh-body. usefu l. that is. Contemplate this more and. make it fine. Con tinuously observe this while breathing in and breathing out. in Pali the word for a squad of soldiers is kaya. Practice until you can feel this. For instance. that is. the aim is to experience all kaya. One group is the breath that conditions the flesh-body group." please understand that it includes the meaning of the word "group. (69) The practitioner must recollect an observation that we began to experience previ ously. Your practice is not complete if you can not see this clearly. This is another example of the beneficia l knowledge and abilities that we are training. But the differences between long and short lead to comp lementary sets of facts. We will leave the steps of this tetra for tomorrow. This is the best way to solve the problems. w e merely note more this fact more profoundly. control. (68) STEP THREE: EXPERIENCING ALL BODIES In step three." In Thai. (67) LECTURE THREE: CALMING THE KAYA Today. We contemplate more distinctly the fact that there are two kaya (bodies). This step does not involve anything new. How can you get rid of it? The way to drive it away is to improve the breath. heap. The essence of thi s step is to feel all bodies while breathing in and breathing out." also. all bodies. more emphatically until it is obviou s. (70) When you hear the word "body. and beneficial through the breath. We already be gan to observe while practicing the beginning steps that the breath is the condi tioner of our flesh-and-blood bodies. division. and manage the emotions by using the breath. The number and type of th ings to study are equal. Analyze thi s experience to see distinctly that there are two groups. If we can train the breathing the n we can control the emotions. and carefully than earlie r. We only had time to discuss steps one and two. the time for today’s talk is finished. but can apply to other thi ngs as well. And see how they condi tion each other. This word do es not apply to our physical human forms exclusively. The flesh-body is a kaya because it is a group or collection. Through our knowledge of the breath we dev elop the ability to control the breath itself. Th e only difference is that everything is complementary.BREATHING AWAY EMOTIONS To summarize these first steps: it is possible to regulate. We can make the emotions correct. th e remaining steps concerned with the kaya (body). (66) The different topics and points of view to be studied in the first lesson about the long breath and in the second lesson about the short breath are the same." In the original Pali language the Lord Buddha used this word " kaya": "sabbakayamipatisamveti (experiencing all bodies). also. We will distinguish between two things. you develop an evil emotion. The breath is a body in that it is a group or collection. limit. make it chase that wicked emotion away. Today’s meeting is o ver. pile. Make it long.
no such thing at all involved. mental experience that these bodies condition each othe r in this way. heap. Then you will find it easy and con ." the cause that conditions. The body itself is a sankhara. "the concocting. One of them conditions and nourishes the other. uncertain and seemingly unreliable. it is a sankhara in the meaning of "condition. but m any people have problems with it due to its different uses and meanings." the acti vity or process of conditioning. Without the body these thoughts and actions could never happen. To understand what "experiencing all bodies" means we must have the correct unders tanding of this word "kaya" Then we can know about both groups. See them arise together. There is no need to s tudy it in books or in a theoretical way. we have experienced this since the begi nning of Anapanasati practice. although it may be somewhat beyond the specific object of this step. Actually. also. feelings. and become uncomfortable together. (73) I would like to take this opportunity to discuss all the meanings of the term "s ankhara. Earlier. it is a "conditioner" because it causes other actions. Thus." We even use it for the activity. in this flesh-body sankh ara of ours. there is the process of conditioning going on constantly. For now. however. There is no atta. We use the same word for the subject of the con ditioning. Know the difference betwee n them. We can di scover all three aspects of the word sankhara within this very body. we see that what o ccurs is merely a natural process of conditioning. coarsen together." itself. (72) THE THREE MEANINGS OF SANKHARA We are making the inner. In this s tep. and supports the other group. This may be a bit confusing for you. grow comfortable together. we experienced that when the breath is c oarse the flesh-body gets aggravated and when the breath is fine the body calms down.aya of soldiers. In seeing this interrelationship. fall together." the result of the action of conditioning. See the one group condition and nurture the other. This is what is meant by "seeing all bodies. Such understanding can have the highest be nefit. Kaya means "group. collection". Thus. no self. the “conditioned body. for realizing anatta. please do not understand it in terms of flesh-bodies only. The body which is the causal conditioner is given the name kaya-s ankhara (body conditioner) to distinguish it from the other. it can mean "condition. Study the m eaning of sankhara in this comprehensive way." Watch both bodies together and see them condition each other. even. The correct meaning depends on the context. It has been conditioned by a variety of causes and by the many things of which it is fo rmed. no soul. to calm it by regulating the breath-body. and action s. so please remember that "sankhara" has three meanings. such as thoughts. There are two g roups. the one effected by the conditioning. we only need to understand this fact of conditioning enough to be able to regulate the flesh-body. become fine to gether. (74) Study the three meanings of sankhara in this body of ours. Realize ho w intimately they are connected." as well as the object. The single word "sankhara" can mean "conditioner. seeing i t as if it were physically tangible. "the concocter. "the concoction." This is a very common and important word in the Pali scriptures. We have observed these facts since practicing steps one and two. and it can mean " conditioning. (71) The specific aim of this step is that we must know that there are two groups and that one group conditions. Lastly. it causes the arising of other things. nourishes. This is valuable for seeing truth more extensively. Languag es are like that. The breath g roup nourishes the body group. This knowledge will be valuable in your further studies. The breath is called "kaya" or group." Work on this fact in the mind. we emphasize this secret until it becomes absolutely clear. the breath group and the flesh body group." Once this body exist s.
venient to realize more and more profound Dhamma as you go on. (75) EXPERIENCING SANKHARA In step three - "experiencing all bodies," experiencing both the breath and this flesh-body - each of these three meanings is practiced. First, we contemplate t he flesh-body as the thing conditioned by the breath. Then, we see the breath as the conditioner of the flesh-body. Lastly, we observe the activity of condition ing that always exists simultaneously between the two of them. Thus, in the prac tice of step three we see the conditioner, the condition, and the action of cond itioning. This conditioning of the body is the physical level of sankhara. We ha ve not yet seen it on the mental level. Step three is this work of seeing these three things together, simultaneously and continuously, within the mind. Then, y ou will see everything concerning the term "sankhara," especially as it relates to the kaya and its activity, right here in step three. (76) When we have studied this fact until it is plainly, obviously, and universally u nderstood as explained above, then we will be able to experience all three of th ese facts together in one moment. Even for the duration of just one in-breath, o r for just one out-breath, we can experience all three facts in just one stroke of the breath. If we are able to do so, then we have "fully experienced the kaya -sankhara (body-conditioner)" and step three is successfully completed. (77) The essence of practicing step three is to know that there are two kaya, and to be able to regulate one kaya through the other kaya. That is, we can regulate th e flesh-body through the breath-body. Once we are certain or this, once we see i t dearly, once we are convinced by our experience of this fact with each in-brea th and out-breath, then we have realized success in our practice of step three. (78) STEP FOUR: CALMING THE BREATH After we know that we can regulate the flesh-body with the breath-body, we begin to practice step four. The Lord Buddha described step four as "calming the body -conditioner (passambhayam kayasankharam)." We are able to do this once we know that we can use the breath-body to control the flesh-body. (79) The subject of step four is to calm the body-conditioner (kaya-sankhara) while b reathing in and calm the body-conditioner while breathing out. This means we can make the body-conditioner. (breath) calmer and calmer at the same time that we inhale and exhale. This is the matter which we now will explain. (80) Note the specific wording of this step. "Calming the body-conditioner" refers to calming the breath-body. In step four, the aim of our practice is to calm the br eath. We make it fine and peaceful using various techniques which are available to us. If we can calm the breath, there will be very interesting and powerful re sults. First of all, the flesh-body will become very gentle, relaxed, and tranqu il. Then there will arise a calming of the mind, also. There will be other resul ts as well, but they will be left alone until later. The immediate lesson is to calm the breath. To mange the breath is the first point to be considered in the practice of step four. (81) FIVE SKILLFUL TRICKS In practicing step four, we have various methods or skillful means - we could ev en call them tricks - to use in calming the breath. Whether we call them techniq ues or tricks, these are a higher order of things which we use over things that are more crude and foolish. We call them "skillful means." We have some tricks t o use on the breath and these tricks come in five stages. These five tricks or s killful means are:
1. following the breath; 2. guarding the breath at a certain point; 3. giving rise to an imaginary image at that guarding point; 4. manipulating those images in any ways that we want in order to gain power ove r them; 5. selecting one of these images and contemplating it in a most concentrated way until the breath becomes truly calm and peaceful. These are our five techniques or tricks: following, guarding, raising a mental i mage, playing with the different mental images, and choosing one image to be the specific object of samadhi (concentration, collectedness) up until there is com plete calmness. (82) As for the first stage - following or chasing - we have been doing this from the start. With the long and short breaths we must use hunting or following. Now, w e merely repeat or review it until we are most expert at following the breath. T his does not require further explanation. We have already done plenty of it in st eps one, two, and three. The second trick is guarding, to choose one point along the breath s path and to watch or guard the breath there. We do not need to follow the breath anymore, b ut the results are as if we continued to do so. This citta, this sati, is no allo wed to go anywhere; it must stay only at that point. It guards the breath passin g in and passing out, which give results equal to following, except that guardin g is more subtle. Generally, we use the furthest point in the nose where the breath makes contact, which is usually at the tip. That point is the easiest and most simple to guard , unless you have a hooked nose that comes down low and a high upper lip. Then y ou might feel the breath’s touch just above the upper lip. For each of us the poin t will be in a different place, depending on the shape and structure of each nos e and lip. Find the place where it is easiest to observe the breath. If it is difficult to find while breathing normally, take a few deep, strong breath it will become obv ious. The exact location is not important, only find that point in your nose, or even on the upper lip, where you feel the breath most clearly. Once you find it, guard that point as the breath passes in and out. The mind, sati, stays right a t point and contemplates the breath as it goes in and out. Just breathing in and breathing out with the mind guarding at that point: this is stage two in our se ries of tricks. (83) You can observe for yourself that when we do not bother to note the breath and j ust let it go as it pleases, it will have a certain feel. As soon as we begin to note it, even when merely following it, it becomes finer and more gentle. It ad justs itself and becomes more subtle in order to deceive us. It plays tricks lik e this. Then, when we stop chasing and start to guard the breath at a specific p oint in the nose, the breath calms down even more. You can verify this fact in y our own experience. A MENTAL IMAGE APPEARS Now, the breath refines and calms further when we create a mental image (nimitta ) at the guarding point. This mental image is only imaginary, it is not real. It is created by the citta, it is mind-made. You can close the eyes and "see" it, y
ou can open the eyes and you still "see" it. It is like a hallucination that the mind creates by itself to calm the breath. To do so, the mind must be subtle. T he breath, everything, must be refined in order to raise a mental image. The bre ath must become finer and calmer until the image is created. The mental image can be any kind of shape or form depending on what is appropria te for the body of each person. Some people might create a sphere - red, white, green, or any color. It could be a candle flame, for instance, or a puff of cott on, or a wisp of smoke. It can look like the sun, or the moon, or a star. Even t he image of a spider s web glimmering in the sunlight is within the abilities of t he mind s creative powers. The kind of image depends on the one who creates it. The mind merely inclines in a certain way and the image arises by itself. It is a purely mental phenomenon that has no physical reality. The third trick is comp lete when we are able to create a mental image at the guarding point. (84) Now it is time for trick number four. This trick is to change or manipulate the images according to our requirements. Change them from this image to that. Chang e them in this way, in that way, in all the ways that we wish. This all is possi ble because the mind creates the images in the first place. Thus, it has the abi lity to change them, to manipulate them, to play with them. This all can be done easily, it is well within the mind s capabilities. And at the same time, it dev elops our ability to master the mind in increasingly subtle and powerful ways. We can control the mind more than we could before and this citta automatically g rows more subtle and refined by itself. It calms down until eventually we will b e able to calm it completely. Now we merely control these images, changing them according to the mind s tendencies. Depending on how the mind inclines, we exper iment with changing the images in order to calm the breath more and more. This i s nothing more than a trick. Still, it is a more advanced trick which enables us to have greater influence over the mind. Then, the breath calms down automatical ly. The breath must become calmer for us to manipulate the images. Although the mind calms down as well, the emphasis now is on calming the breath. The fourth t rick is controlling the mental images as we wish. (85) THE FINAL IMAGE If we want to observe the process, or the order, of calming, we must watch and s ee that when we train in the way described here, the breath refines and calms do wn automatically in itself. When we practice in this way the breath will become calm. When the breath calms, the flesh-body automatically will calm down accordi ngly. Now when the body calms there is an effect upon the mind. The citta calms in proportion to the calming of the body, but this is not our intention at this point. The calming of the mind is the aim of a later step. Calm the breath and t he body calms. In addition, there will be certain effects upon the mind. We can observe the calming process while we practice this step. (86) The fifth trick is choosing the one single most appropriate nimitta (image). We will not change it any more. We will choose the one image that is most fitting a nd proper, then will contemplate it with our full attention in order to develop a complete measure of samadhi (concentration). We advise that you choose an imag e that is soothing, relaxing, and easy to focus upon. Choose one that does not s tir up thoughts and emotions: one that does not develop any special significance or meaning. A mere white point or dot will do fine. The best kind of image is neutral. If we choose a colored one it will brew up th oughts and feelings. The same holds for attractive, interesting, fancy, or compl icated images. Some people like to use a picture of the Buddha as their nimitta, but that can get carried away in all kinds of thinking. The thoughts merely fol low the picture that is seen, rather than plumbing down into stillness. Therefor e, we take an image that has no meaning, has no mental associations, and natural
. A white spot is most proper. A tiny spot of light is also fitting. Some people will prefer a Buddha image or whatever suits their fancy. We do not. We take a spot that is easy to contemplate and does not stir up any thoughts. We choose su ch an image and focus all of the mind on it, in order to develop a concentrated mind. Focus on just this simple point. None of the citta wanders anywhere else. It all gathers together on this single spot. Concentrating everything on this on e point is the fifth trick. (87) PERFECT CONCENTRATION So it is that we select the one object (nimitta) which is the most appropriate f or the mind to contemplate. At this point, we need know that ordinarily the mind is scattering, spreading, and radiating outward in all directions. Now, we must turn inward onto one focus, all of that outward flowing. In Pali this state is called "ekaggata," which means "to have a single peak, focus, or apex." Everyth ing gathers together at this single focus. We have found the image that is most appropriate - a tiny central point -- now the mind plunges into it. The mental f low is collected at this point in the same way that a magnifying glass collects the sun s rays and focuses them into a single point powerful enough to ignite a flame. This example illustrates the power that is harnessed when all of the mind s energy is gathered into one point. Once the mind focuses upon the object we h ave chosen, its radiance gathers there and becomes ekaggata - one-pointed, one-p eaked, one-pinnacled. (88) When the mind is one-pointed, there are no other feelings, thoughts, or objects of that mind. There remain only the things called jhananga (factors of jhana*). At the first level of one-pointedness there are five factors. At this level the m ind is still coarse enough to perform the function of contemplating the object. The mind noting its object is called vitakka. The mind experiencing that object is, called vicara. Due to vitakka and vicara the mind is satisfied or contented (piti). And once there is piti, there is the feeling of joy (sukha) at the same i nstant. Lastly, one-pointedness of mind continues as before. Thus, the mind on t his level of samadhi (concentration) has five factors: noting (vitakka), experie ncing (vicara), contentment (piti), joy (sukha), and one-pointedness (ekaggata). These five show that the mind has entered the first level of perfect samadhi. T his kind of awareness does not include any kind of thinking, yet these five activ ities of the mind occur. We call them factors of jhana. If we can identify that all are present, then we can be satisfied with experiencing success in having pe rfect samadhi, although only the first. That sounds strange - perfect, but only the first stage. (89) [* Jhana means "to gaze, to focus" but the exact significance varies with the co ntext. Here it signifies a high level of samadhi often translated "absorption."] AT THE PEAK I would like to take a closer look at the word "ekaggata." This word is commonly translated "one-pointedness." Literally, the Pali term means "to have one singl e (eka) peak (agga; Thai, yod).The Thai word "yod" (rhymes with "laud") can mean either the very top, peak, apex, or pinnacle of something, such as a mountain o r a pyramid; or the new tip or growing point of a plant. I am not sure that the English "point" has the same meaning. A point can be anywhere. It can be off to the side somewhere or even down very low. This is why the Pali uses the word agg a (peak, summit, or zenith). Ekaggata is like being the apex of a pyramid. It wo uld not be proper for such a mind to be at some low point. This mind must be on a high level. It is gathered together up from low levels to one high point or pe ak. This is the proper meaning of ekaggata. Do not worry, however, should the mind collect itself on a focus that may not be
This is the background and foundation of our sati. It could take three days for some. (91) feel them cle five. second. They like to make a hodge-podge out of things they read and hear from differen t places. May we end today s lecture now. then it will be very difficult for you to do it when the time comes. If you have been listening carefully. Beyond that. in every stage and interval of the pract ice. Whenever there is some ekaggata. we will achieve the expected results. that is. Then. Now that will not be too difficu lt. We need to use piti and sukha in the next steps of our study. three weeks for ot hers. this is sufficient concentration to be able to go on to step enter the first. And please do not forget! In every step. into the material absorptions (rupa-jhana). But we can say that it will not be difficult if the method is practiced correctly. Even if you do not reach jhana. we must try to learn the correct method an d how to apply it. Many people. it is not necessary to try to enter jhana completely. If you splendid yet. Not following the technique brings many difficulties. then we recommend that you follow the se instructions that explain the most proper. If you do no t know what to do. but that does not m ean you need not pay attention to the instructions about step four. In the practice of Anapanasati those very refined lev els of concentration are not necessary. and fourth rupa-jhana that is more But samadhi sufficient to experience piti and sukha distinctly is ep four. You might even finish in a short ti me. Then we will meet with success in the first tetrad of Anapanasati. enough for st . Practice until these steps require no effort. Note the inhalatio ns and exhalations at each stage of practice. Repeat them until we can very quickly calm the breath and calm the body. however. Whenever there is ekaggata. If you can go on into jhana. But if you want to make this practice as suc cessful and easy for yourself as possible. This is the theoretical background of Anapanasa ti and the principles on which we practice it. working on step one. that will be useful. we must note the breathing in and breathing out. That is something we cannot tell you. third. efficient. This is how to be supremely mindful. That is a start anyway. Practicing according to the method is not difficult. Therefore. You might never finish. (90) IT S EASY WHEN… Some of you may be wondering whether this will be difficult or easy to do. enough samadhi that there are the feelings of piti and sukha (contentment and happines s). or even three years. it is the begi nning of something most useful. then y ou will understand the proper way to do this practice. It will make the next steps easier. that you will understand the proper way to do this practice. You can do what you wish. If you follow the techniq ue correctly.the highest. They prefer to mix everything up with their own ideas and opinions . three months for some. Who can say? Most of you are still at the beginning. In our practice of step four of Anapanasati. Our time is up. do not like to follow instructions. as long as t here is some piti and sukha you are doing fine. ther e is nothing else to do except repeat and repeat and repeat these steps until we are expert. If you do not practice according to the method. and successful way to d o this technique. We are giving instructions as clearly as we can. it will not be very difficult. then there is s amadhi. Become well versed in these activities. then it may be very difficul t. We only need to have a sufficient and ap propriate level of concentration to continue with our practice. will it? When the feelings piti and sukha are strong enough for the mind to arly.
"experiencing pi ti (piti-patsamvedi)" . This is ho w we are able to get sufficient piti and sukha for the practice of steps five and six. How stimulating is contentment? How stimulating is satisfact ion? And how stimulating is rapture? Go observe and find lit by yourself. These four steps deal with the feelings and are called "vedananupassana (contemplation of feeling). and rapture. the short bre ath. This is the essence of the practice of st ep five. It calms and soothes the mind. It makes the mind quiver. whi ch means we were able to calm the body-conditioner or breath. such as contentment. So far. Thus. Sukha is the opposite. the feelings piti and sukha appear . (93) If we calm the kaya-sankhara (body-conditioner) to the extent of jhana (the firs t jhana and so forth). The cit ta is absorbed in contemplating it the same as if there was ekaggata. Only when it becomes sukha is it tranquil. we breathe and experience piti with every breath. Brea thing in and out. and calming the bodies. The important quality of piti for yo u to be aware of is that it is not peacefu1. even those who are unable to bring about jhana can still manage enough piti and sukha to practice these st eps. There is a kind of excitement or di sturbance in the thing.which is contemplating piti every time we breathe in and breathe out. We must keep watching until we find the piti that arose when we su cceeded in calming the body-conditioner. (96) So now we are ready to practice step one of the second tetrad . This piti has s timulating power. This is h ow piti and sukha differ. Ful ly experience it. Once there is contentment you need not doubt that happiness (sukha) will follow. then piti and sukha will be full and complete as factors of jhana. there is likely to be a degree of piti and suk ha proportionate to the extent of that calming." The first two steps of this tetrad take piti and sukha as the objects of our further study and detailed examination. Nevertheless. as causing the citta to shake.LECTURE FOUR: MASTERING THE VEDANA In this lecture we will speak about the second tetrad of Anapanasati. and tremble. called piti. we take these very piti and sukha as the next objects or materials of ou r practice. Find out what this feeling is like. We must know these gradations of the more and less energetic forms of piti. O nce the body-conditioner or breath is calmed. Due to satisfaction. Piti has varying levels but all are characterized as stimulating. fully experience this feeling of contentment and simultaneousl . (94) Here. Take it as the new object which the mind contemplates. we have contemplated a number of objects: the long breath. satisfaction. Now. Then. It should be eas y for you to understand the various degrees of piti through the different Englis h words we can use. if we are unable to reach jhana and are able only to cal m the body-conditioner partially. shake. The mind i s absorbed with the single object piti. (95) PITI IS NOT PEACEFUL The next thing to observe is that there are different levels to this word piti. we will study the characteristics and meanings of piti and sukha. The mi nd focuses upon piti and fully experiences it every time there is an inhalation and every time there is an exhalation. we switch to piti. joy arises. all bodies. Contentment or sat isfaction arises with this success. Piti (co ntentment) arises due to our successfully making samadhi the previous steps. (92) The practice of these steps develops out of the practice of the previous step. (97) To put it most concisely.
breathing s hort. understand the natures. but when piti fades away sukha remains. facts. Focus on sukha in terms of it being the res ult arising out of piti. just as we studied until understanding the nature of the breath during the practice of the previous tetrad. (104) . or step six overall. and so forth. “experi encing sukha (sukha-patisamvedi). Then. (98) STUDY THE FLAVOR OF PITI In each moment that we breathe with the experience of piti. When piti shows its power it disturbs the mind proportionately. we study and train just as we have do ne with the breath and with piti. whereas the influence of sukha calms and relaxes the mind. This is the crucial point of this step of practice. it i s a most enjoyable lesson. t o see how they differ. At the same time. we trained and studied while breathing long. (103) It will be easy to see that when the power of piti appears. ( 99) The most important thing to study and observe is the power piti has over the min d. study and train as piti is experienced in the mind. When piti has finished stimulating the citta in piti’s co arse way. wit h every in. This work is fun to do. The coarse feeling gives way to the calm feeling. and secrets of this phenomenon known as pit i. We even can say that when piti manifests its power the flesh-body is coarse. what is the citta like? What is the effect of a lot of piti? How is the mind when there is only a littl e piti? When piti is heavy. If the influence of sukha is evident the breath will be fine. Observe its relationship to the mind until you are most familiar with this ex perience. Earlier. (101) SUKHA SOOTHES THE MIND Now we come to the second step of this second tetrad. Usually piti obscures sukha. The two feelings are opposites. Wha t is it like? Is it heavy? Is it light? How coarse is it? How subtle is it? This can be called "knowing what flavor it has. There are also effec ts on the citta. know what influence its flavor has on the mind or on the thoughts. Here we contemplate sukha as the agent w hich makes the citta tranquil. Once piti arises. This is the gist of step six. we simultaneously st udy and train. how much more does it stimulate the mind? Study the coarse kinds of piti. Please try your best in this step. rather it calms and soothes. the breath will be r ough. see how their influence upon the mind differs. we realize that piti stimulates the mind in a coarse way. Taste the tranquil flavor of sukha with every inhalation and exhalation. study its nature and truths. it loses energy. That is. we contemplate sukha (happiness) with every inhalation and exhalation. especially rapture. When sukha mani fests its influence the body calms down and becomes subtle. it calms down and transforms into sukha. How light is it? How heavy? How coarse is it? How subtle? How does it flavor awareness and experience? In Thai and Pali we use the word "drink" to describe this experiencing. (102) While contemplating sukha within the mind.and out-breath. and the finest types. We will see that the two feelings are very different This sukha does not stimulate or excite. Study in order to understand the nature of piti.y be aware of each in-breath and each out-breath. It does not h ave a refined and subtle effect like sukha. This is how to practice this step. In this step." In particular. When this step is being practi ced there is a very pleasant feeling of well being. Drink the flavor of sukha while breathing in and breathing out. which we will look at next. medium levels.” In this step. This is what you must observe well at every opportunity. What influence does piti have on the mind and thoughts? Carefully observe how the mind is when piti has not arisen. Now. (l00) Finally. namely.
h appiness cannot occur. while the other makes it calm. piti and sukha are mind-conditioners. It can cause subtle. the thought is coarse. when sukha brews up a thought. (105) These might be some difficulties. One will make it coarse. whereas sukha is fine and peac eful. piti might inte rfere. We must put forth superb effort in our contemplation of sukha so that it does not fade away. then we know all about th e feelings of piti and sukha. When you can catch or grasp or seize this distinction throug h your own experience of it. While we are contemplate sukha. Then we realize that the fe elings condition both coarse thoughts and subtle thoughts. it is easy to realize that. (106) EXPERIENCING THE MIND-CONDITIONER Now we come to step seven: "experiencing the mind-conditioner (cittasankhara-pati samvedi). it makes the hair st and up all over our bodies. it is calm and tranquil. If piti inte rferes. It may take over such that the feel sukha disappears. and refined thoughts. it causes trembling in the body. So we need to be able to control piti. the group of stimulating pleasant feelings. Although happiness and joy are the group of s oothing feelings. They have differen t effects upon the body. We feel a tingling all over. (107) We have observed that piti is coarse and excited.To summarize. (109) FRIENDS AND FOES Even so." These vedana are m ind-conditioners in the same way that the breath is the body-conditioner. The me thod of study and observation is the same as in step three. quite different secret. These tw o feelings must arise together. Experiencing success we are satisfied. we are excited and d . Therefore. And if it is very strong t he body might even dance or bounce with joy. One excites the mind. When piti dominates the mind. we must observe and understand another. We call this activity "conditioning the mind. Thus. On the other hand. O n the other hand. and relaxing. has advantages. pr ofound. This i s how we realize that the vedana condition thoughts. Piti is much more strong and coarse than sukha. refined states. they have different effects upon the br eath. joy comes from satisfaction . Do not let any other feelings interfere. Piti leads the way. We are able to c ontrol them by training according to the method we are now practicing. But that does not matter. when piti conditions or brews up a thought. One makes it coarse or agitated. for we know how to regulate them. sukha is calming. while the other makes it calm. They have different effects upon the mind. "Oh. soothing. they cannot exist without satisfaction. you will have met with success in the practice of this step. still." (108) When piti is strong. It leads to tranquil. we must d evelop the ability to maintain that feeling for as long as we need and prevent p iti from coming in. This feeling is coarse and powerful. the contemplation of sukha is ruined and real tranquility does not arise . What does the arising of piti do to the citta? Wha t does the arising of sukha do to the citta? What kind of thoughts does piti con dition? What kind of thoughts does sukha condition? We have noted and scrutinize d these effects since steps five and six. once piti and sukha arise. We learn that thei r characteristics are very different. it is imposs ible to think subtle thoughts. Just this much is to understand the citta-sankhara reasonably well already. It is as if these two feelings are opponents or fo es." If we have completed step six successfully. What a wonderful way to meet with success in the p ractice of step six. howeve r. if we are not contented or satisfied. In this step we should f eel saturated with happiness. while the other calms it. satisfaction must always come before . rather than merely thinking about it. Once we come to step seven. This contentment and satisfaction is the set of things we call piti. Sukha. Contentment causes happiness. That is. You can observe that in any event where there is happiness.
Lessen their energy while breathing in and lower their energy while bre athing out. (110) By now we have discovered that piti is an enemy of vipassana. Happiness-joy is a friend or supporter of vipassana. Bring another kind of thought into the mind to intervene and suppress that satisfied feeling. The power of another type of samadhi shuts off piti’s energy in particul ar. There must be contentment first in order f or there to be joy. So they are comrades at the same time that they oppose each other. Lowering their energ y or stopping them completely is not only possible. is not like that at all. (116) . We must act toward them in an extremely subtle and refined way. it is not necessary to get rid of sukha. For this reason. We require a very refined mind to realize aniccam. Should piti arise. Or. the citta is subtle and tranquil." having direct insight into the truth of aniccam (impermanence). "Vipassana" means "seei ng clearly. Still. dukkham. (111) In the end. When piti conditions it. we could do it even by changing our thought.isturbed by that success. we will realize that the feelings (e. Breathe in and breathe out while becoming certain of this fact. Either will calm down pi ti. Both feelings condition the mind. Sukha soothes and calms. and anatta through vipassana. because we have only just begun our traini ng. there is the secret that these feelings can be gotten rid of by makin g a higher level of samadhi. Once Piti loses strength. we must be able to calm the feelings. such as the third or fourth jhana. Generally. which is to develop a higher level of concentration in order to remove piti and sukha from what is felt. for it is the enemy of vipassana. the citta is coarse and its thoughts are co arse. We need to be careful about this. When sukha conditions or suppor ts it." (112) When this fact is discovered. whereas sukha is n ot. we must have the ability to re gulate piti and sukha. subtle mental vision. The feeling calms down. vi passana is impossible. It is like an art.. either by changing mind s object or by having a higher degree of concentration or jhana. We can control it with samadhi techniques. They are comrad es in that they must arrive together. of clear. calm and p eaceful. but from different angles. when the mind gets tired of all that agitation and excitement then sukha remains. In fact. Piti must be gott en rid of. There are t wo approaches for us to use: the samadhi (concentration) method and the panna (w isdom) method. This is the secret that we ought to know concerning piti and sukha. however. (113) CALMING THE FEELINGS Step eight is "calming the mind-conditioners (passambhayam cittasankharam)" whil e breathing in and breathing out Make the cittasankharam. it makes the mind active and ready for vipassana. (115) THE CONCENTRATION METHOD Piti’s impulse can be calmed with the samadhi method.g. Suk ha. It is a spiritual art to control piti and sukha so that they benefit our lives. First. The vedana are c onditioners of the citta. only then can we experi ence this every time we breathe in and out. We probably are not able to do this yet. The mind gets all clouded and restless. we contemplate it in the mind every time we breath e in and breathe out. the vedana. duk kham (unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (not self). (114) Various ways of lessening the strength of the vedana exist. This is the practice in step seven. and its thoughts are subtle and tranqui l. it must be done. we especially need to control pi ti. Here. piti and sukha) are mind-co nditioners. Either activity uses the Power of samadhi. we ought to pre serve it as a support of further practice. thus they get the name "mind-conditioner (citta-sankha ra). both the mind and the thoughts are coarse.
The adinava of piti is the fact that it excites and disturbs. It has developed the kind of mastery and self-control where the feelings no longer have the power to drag us this way or that. Once we see wisely in this way. Adinava is a thing s wicked punishment. money has both assada and adinava. It must cease d ue to the lack of that condition. dissati sfying direction. satisfying. piti dissolves. To go and hate something is negative foolishness. to eradicate the influence of piti. Assada is the attractive. (117) THE WISDOM METHOD Now we come to the method that uses panna (wisdom) to diminish the strength of p iti. or even of sukha if we wish. ceasing. in an undesirable. If we know these two well. correct condition is achieved. the feeling of being agitated by pi ti will abate. Piti has an enchanting flavor. the pleasant feelings we have been discus sing here. There is no excuse for us to be deceived by these two. Adinava. We do not want it and we do not need it. The feeling of piti dissolves because we do not want it anymore. (118) Every one of us should understand well the meaning of the word "assada" and "adi nava. pull the mind in an agreeable direction. We must know how to keep these feelings of displeasure and unhappiness from dragging us into a state of dukkha. The real meaning of samadhi is "having ekaggata-citta with nibbana as its object. P iti bubbles up when a satisfying. For example. we will not be misled by or go crazy about money. and we will be freed fro m the power of things. then it disappears. qualities. that is even better than the English transl ations. the dukkha-vedana. that it is not real." We have already explained that ekaggata-citta is the mind gathered together into one pinnacle or peak. its charm that deliciously tempts the heart. Another wisdom method is to see the assada and adinava of piti. a talisman that truly protects. Then they will beco me the kind of charm that protects. a lso. There is another set of vedana that pull us in a negative way. infatuating quality or cha rm of something. Even sukha should not be indulged. (119) At this point now. then they will tea ch us that we must not indulge in liking and disliking. we do not get lost in it: Please remember these two words for the rest of your lives. We can recall what genuine samadhi is like. Whether happy feelings or unhappy feelings we can control them a . in a positive way. They can be defeated with the same method a s used on piti. To completel y understand this pair is the safest thing we can do. that it drives away tranquility. lovely. This is how to use the wisdom method to chase away piti. the mind can regulate the feelings. and difficulties. charm. Once we realize this. conditions) of all things to know what piti arises from and due to what cause it will cease. This is a skillful means that uses samadhi to drive away piti. chase it away. Alt hough we may save some sukha for a beneficial purpose. that t hey constantly deceive us and lure us into loving and hating." If you can remember the Pali. We use the panna that realizes the true nature (characteristics. Know the assada and adinav a of piti and you will get sick of piti. disturbances. due to realizing that it is illusory. If we see its arising. The sukha-vedana. that it is the foe of vipassana. Assada is a thin g s attractive quality. then it dissolves. Once we see them we will know that g etting pleased by and falling in love with anything is positive foolishness. we might say that we bring in the true meaning of the word samadhi to drive away piti. It will flee by itself. Once we k now both of them. and wickedness. rather than endangers. This is to drive off piti with the panna technique. We aim at the one-pinnacled mind that has santi or nibbana as its object. We alrei1dy have talked about the group of pleasant feelings. We need to be aware of these feelings which are unpleasant.Or. Now th at piti causes complications. True samadhi has nibbana or santi (spiritua l tranquility) as its object. is the lowliness or wickedness of a thing.
If you are unable to do the first step. This holds true for all sixteen steps. We become controllers of all feelings without exception. Thus.every sitting and session . So this is the second tetrad of Anapanasati. It is known as cittanupassana (contemplation of citta). then there is no possibility of you goi ng on to further steps. c onflicts and eventually war. the flavors of fee lings. we must start at step one. which leads to disagreements. All the crises occurring in this world have their origin in people not un derstanding the vedana. giving in to the vedana. completely fulfilling each step before moving on. We have used up all our time today and must end the lecture here. From the long breath. This tetrad has been inc luded in the practice of Anapanasati due to the great power and importance of th e vedana. which is concerned with cit ta. They entice us to act like this. which is our primary purpose. All because people suffer defeat through the deceptions of vedana. which a lways happens when we indulge in material pleasures. there is a very important point which we sometimes forget to stress. is more than we can manage now. which requires that we able to co ntrol the feelings. We have a special secondary purpose. That is once we can regulate the feel ings we will be able to keep life on the correct path. until you come to the step where you left off last time. Experience this ability to get rid of any k ind of vedana. Ple ase prepare yourselves for studying about citta. Why is it necessary to include them in this line of practice? Wh y not hurry on to vipassana and get to nibbana as fast as possible? The reason i s that we must understand the vedana and be able to regulate them in order to con trol the mind as our practice continues on to the realization of the path fruitio ns (magga-phala-nibbana). Rehear se this technique with every inhalation and exhalation until deft and expert at it. the mind-heart. Then we scrutinize it wi th panna to drive that feeling away. when we intend to do cittanupassana . quarrels. We practice by brin ging any vedana into the mind and experiencing it fully. when merely living on this pla net in peace within ourselves and with others. to day you must start again at the very beginning. Each session is brand new. By now you ought to realize that the feelings must be understood. also. Sometimes they lead even to world wars.you must begin with step one. (121) LECTURE FIVE: CONTEMPLATING THE CITTA Today we will study the third tetrad of Anapanasati. and being enamoured with the ve dana. the experienci ng of the long breath. you will meet with success in the practice of step eight. We must know t heir secrets and manage to regulate them if there is to be peace in this world. When we are foolish about the vedana we fall under the power of and become slaves to materialism. Even now. that is.ll. I hope that you all will tak e advantage of this ability for the rest of your lives. move on to the short breath. (120) WHY BOTHER? One last point to consider is the question of why we bother talking so much abou t the feelings. Every time you sit down to practice Anapan asati . With every inhalation and exhalation we practic e in this way. Progress from one step to the next. Do not forget. and so on. We always begin practicing with step one . There is no need to talk about realizing nibbana. Each step depends upon the previous one. It does not matter what step you were doing yesterday.every t . (122) Before discussing the third tetrad specifically. Know that the feelings cannot condition the citta anymore.
gold. Know what it is to have raga in the mind. If there is no lust. we are re ady to observe citta itself. (127) There is a simple way of distinguishing these three states: raga. Breath e in and breathe out while experiencing the actual state of mind in that moment. Sometimes an external object . hatred. Finally. Besides the usual sexu al lust. (126) The third characteristic to observe is moha (delusion and confusion). as spe cified in the traditional way of speaking. Moha can mean "astray or lost." that is. love (non-sexual) of one s employees or servants. The characteristics to note. a situation. we must observe the state of the mind at each step. cittanupassana (contemplation of mind). The meaning of raga is broad. aversion) . to pull in. Any dislike in the mind is dos a. in the very moment of their existence. full of doubt and ignorance. It has a most positive characte r. then know that stat e. does not want. for instance. wanting to gather toward. Then. irritated. Moha is to feel infatuated with something due to not knowing that thing as it really is. There also can be lust toward individuals. when we are doubtful something we cannot help but think about it. even to the extent of wanting to kill. there have arisen many different states of mind. food. That is what we cal l moha. (125) The next characteristic of mind to contemplate is dosa (anger. every step that we practice. What is its condition now? How is it changing? What arises in the ci tta? What are the mind s characteristics at this moment? In previous steps. also. What kind of experience is it? Step nine begins with e xperiencing the citta through each moment of practice. The second. Sexua1 lu st is called raga and lust toward things such as money. does not like.causes us to be angry. (124) DEFILED OR NOT? There are many different characteristics of the mind to contemplate here. When the mind is oppressed. or any thing . The first step of this tetrad is co ntemplating or experiencing the mind in all its aspects. and moha . also. hou sing. such a feeling is raga. dosa. and to hold. If it has. begin with "whether the mind has lust (raga) or is free of lust" You all know what lust means. we begin to work on the thi rd. We must observe until directly knowing what the min d is like in that moment. when there is hope or expectation or whatever. or resentful it is called dosa. Since the beginning of the practice. offended. This is called "citta-p atisamvedi" experiencing the condition or state of the mind during any given mom ent. It can even arise from within. there is non-sexual lust. we ha ve emphasized certain things which the mind knows or experiences. without any external object. We contemplate w hether this mind has dosa or not. The Pali raga h as this broad array of meanings. This is the third characteristic. F or example. Now. They are observed as they really e xist. It has a negative character. know. The meaning of dosa is broad. every session. to hug. Dosa pushes way. We should know whether there is delusion in the mind or not. (123) After successfully completing the first two tetrads. then contemplate its absence. Raga pulls . and possessions is called raga. Does the citta have any of these types of raga at this moment or is it free of lust? If there is lust. If the citta is free of anger and hatred. Always contemplate this state of mind while breathing in and breathing out.a person. and all of them must happen naturally by themselves. jewelry. up until this point. then contemplate its pre sence clearly enough to distinguish what kind of lust it is.ime. one kind of thought or another will arise out of that doubt or ignorance and will ferment in the mind. If there is moha. we cannot avoid dwelling on it." and it can mean "dark or dim. and understand t his state of dosa. If the citta is empty of delusion then c ontemplate its absence. This is the second characteristic to observe. knocks away. If there is any feeling of wanting. that is. dosa. then grab it and contemplate it. contemplate. Or .
Know whether the mind is concentrated or not concentrated while breathing in and breathing out. It is running around in ci rcles. dosa. The third. hu man being). or yet unliberated. (130) The following pair is whether this mind is supreme and unsurpassed. one pushes away. also. (131) The next pair is whether the mind is concentrated or not concentrated. Is it sam adhi or not? Concentrate the citta. o r is it free? Whatever the case. if it is empty of attach ment (upadana) not grasping and clinging at anything. The distracted mind has no one-pointedness. (129) COMMON OR EXALTED? The next pair is whether there is a superior state of mind. is ignorant. Then we will understand ourselves well. higher than usual. That is a special benefit of this step. If not. distraction annoys us. that is. Contemplate this pair while breathing in and breathin g out. one better than usua l. Even if it is not in full samadhi right now. What kinds of c itta are habitual in us? Generally. we will know ourselves and will know what sorts of thou ghts are typical for us. most developed state of mind is the citta of an arahant ("worthy one": fully awakened. If there is this highest mind. in a s tate of normality? Contemplate the mind s character while breathing in and breat hing out. Understanding our own citta thoroughly is the specific b . (132) The last pair is to see if the mind has been liberated. in order to know all types of citta . the mind’s thoughts tend to follow some object . It is scatte red all around. according to reality. It is unable to rest and relax. Our direct aim. has our citta achieved that furthest state where there is nothing bett er? Or has our mind not yet reached the furthest state and there are better thin gs still? This one is difficult to know because the supreme. Everyone should be able to observe the differences and call them by their correct names. and one ru ns in circles. perfected." In ordinary language we would say there is an awareness that is better than usua l. pushing away. If the mind is distracted it must be bothered. (128) Next is to know whether the mind is distracted or undistracted. and running in circles. however. then common sense tells us whether we hav e the type of citta that is most satisfying or whether there is still something better. the superior state is called "mahaggata. One gathers in. evil and good. Does our citta have an awarene ss like this now? If so. It goes not know what is wrong and right. is there anything arresting the mind. moha. more satisfying than usual. It has no stillness or calm. is to know our mind as well and completely as possible.in and dosa pushes away. still the influence of samadhi probably keeps the mind concentrated. Is the citta distracted? Or is it free of distraction. and moha by observing their activities of pulling in. This can b e called a concentrated mind. know that there is a common sta te of mind at that moment. Make it as distinct as is fitting. or surpassed? That is. By observing these tendencies we will know ourselves better. lacking rest. This is how the three differ. Fur ther. contemplate it. c ontemplate it more and more clearly in order to understand this sort of mind. You have heard a bout this word already. Breathe in and out with this a wareness. Right now. Practice in order to know it well. or merely a common state? In Pali. know it clearly. or not. Do we feel that we have achieved final satisfaction? Or do we feel that there should be something even more satisfying than this? This pair is about the citta having something superior to it. Know raga. Is the mind not attaching or is it attaching? This is what we mean by asking whether t he citta is liberated or not. If we are not arahant yet. (133) KNOWING OURSELVES By practicing like this. Br eathe in and breathe out with this kind of awareness.
(l34) DELIGHTING THE MIND Now we come to step two of this tetrad. worldly kind of delight that is based in materialism and sensuality. (136) DELIGHTED BY DHAMMA It is easy to delight the mind when we understand the cause of joyfulness. There are many words we could use here. two. delighting the mind (abhippamodayam citt a). Call it contentment. discovering enough Dhamma to insure that we will not suff er . upon achieving what is good. This is how to practice step one of the third tetrad. then we can put the citta into any s tate that is appropriate or desirable. but now we focus especially upon the feeling of successful ness. joyfulness or whatever you wi sh. We need not depend on material or sensual stimulants. sorrowful. An easy way to delight the mind is to go back to practicing steps one. [* Although this is not yet the highest degree of control. We return to pract icing step one again. We can be joyful at any time. (138) . This is a kind of gladness association with Dhamma. for we have Dhamma to help delight the citta. a life that has come across the Dhamma and is certain to eradicate dukkha. step nine overall. particularly in the second tetrad. Those who have found Dhamma and are able to eliminate dukk ha. we can let go of the sorrow and bring the mind into a joyful state.enefit of this step. Although. The delight of Dhamma. and joyful delight. this is a certain kind of joy. Getting what is good. both the positive and the negative. There is the ordinary. This is something ver y useful.] Step ten. We are the most fortu nate of human beings. that is. Thus. and three again. there a re two kinds of joyfulness: defiled joyfulness and joyfulness free of defilement (kilesa). (137) An easy method that we can use at any time is to reflect upon getting good thing s. we ought to examine it more closely. the words joyfulness and delight have two types of meaning. We require the joy of Dhamma that co mes with knowing Dhamma and with using Dhamma. From the beginning. By reflecting in this way. We will not have to endure a sorrowful mind because we can control it. we will be joyful and happy. This is how to be ex ceedingly glad and delighted. contentment. must be done correctly. achieving the good life. Or even when the mind is in a normal state. Joy fulness comes from the feeling of being successful. or joyless. we have been training sin various ways of controlling th e mind. If you want defiled joyfulness it is very easy to get. (135) Whenever the mind is sad. however. That means t he mind is under control*. Whenever we must. we can have energy to do whatever work we need to do. Once we know the various mental states and conditions fully.this kind of reflection is a simple way for the citta to be joyful. Fo r this reason. By giving rise to the certainty that we are safe and liberated from bonda ge there will be contentment and joyfulness. is to make the mind joyful. Joyfulness comes from contentment and contentment comes from achieving success in some act ivity. Proceed through each of the steps in the same way until arriving at the joyfulness that satisfies us the most. bei ng a good human being. and contented. then. it is no t the kind of delight we are interested in. Then there will be contentment and joyfulness with each one. of having completed some act ivity correctly and successfully. The important thing is to be able to control the mind so that it feels satis fied and glad while breathing in and out. Both kinds are available to us all. we always can gladden or delight it using this technique. where the mind developed the ability to be independent of feeling and to have control over the feelings. delighted. We have obtained the good life. Go back to the beginning and prac tice each step successfully. But be careful.
Having sukha is a duty of the citta. then we can do it h ere. r eadiness). and kammaniyo (activeness). This is the kind of concentration tha t can be used not only in formal meditation practice but in doing any of the nec essary activities of life. or when we have g otten the best thing that humans ought to get. This step is not difficult because we have been practicing this from the beginning. When it is happy it is highly capable in performing its functions. to put it into samadhi. we train in the next step. This is called kammaniyo (activeness. The object o f step eleven is concentrating the mind (samadaham cittam). it is able t o perform various duties skillfully. parisuddho (pureness). that citta is most fit and supremely pre pared to perform the duties of the mind. We ar e able to delight and gladden the citta using this skillful technique. This means that we a re able to make the mind concentrated. unobscured by defilement. collectedness). We study to understand the Dhamma that will extinguish sufferi ng. (143) . making the mind s amadhi means a mind that has good qualities and is ready to work. (140) This brings us to a common problem. At a minimum. then it is normal for us to be jo yful and content. not disturbed by anything. the fourth jhana. There is an interesting passage in the Pali texts." Obviously. the third jhana. This is wrong understanding. The quality of mind that is firm. is just training exercises. From the previous step the citta knows how to be happy. to grow in knowledge and understanding from moment to moment. It says that if these thr ee qualities are present while standing. Developing the deeper concentrations of the second jhana. Thirdly.PURENESS – ACTIVENESS If the mind has correct samadhi." If these three qualities are present while lying. It is prepared to perform its duties as needed. It would not hurt to memorize these three words: samahito (stableness ). Here in step eleven. Make the mind concentrated in samadhi. This ability is most advantageous. rigid. We can get rid of any unwanted feeli ngs immediately. Most people misunderstand that if the mind i s samadhi we must sit absolutely still – stiff and unable to move. Nevertheless. Do not misunderstand that when the mind is samadhi we must be rigid like a rock or log. The essence of samadhi is that the citta is perf ectly ready to perform its duty. namely. undistracted. " If these three qualities are present while walking. steady. Then we are content. Mind empty of defilement is called parisuddho (purity). especially in step four (calming the body-conditioner) and step eigh t (calming the mind-conditioner). then that is "divine walki ng. the citta will be happy when these three qu alities are present. if the mind is a ble to develop these very high levels of concentration it should have no problem s with the lower levels of concentration.When we are confident that we can extinguish dukkha certainly. and focused on a single object is called samahito (stability. That mind is dear and pure . we will observe three distinct qualities in it. If we could do it earlier. (142) These three qualities can be present while walking or standing or sitting or lyi ng. To sit still and stiff like a log is only a training exercise. And the citta is ready to do its duty when it has these three qualities. then it is "divine lying. to realize the best thing that humans should get. (139) CONCENTRATING THE MIND Once we can delight the mind as we wish. up to the point where the b ody does not breathe. Then the citta is concentrated and happy. c oncentration is more than sitting like a lump of rock or a block of wood . that is "divine sitting. whenever we want o r need. and dead to the world. (141) STABLENESS . All three qualities must b e present for concentration to be correct. then we can call that "divine standing. also. It is merely a training in hi gher than normal levels of samadhi." If all three are present while sitting.stiff . Or they think t hat there is no sensation what soever. Further.
" In the Pali." Then they are extremely beneficial. When the mind is samadhi. how could we ever remedy it? Would everyone please study this word with special int erest. the dange r." The Pali word is "samahito (one who is c oncentrated). If there is no purity. cling. If we l ook within ourselves we will see all things according to truth. It is able to do every kind of duty . If there are any problems in life that we cannot answer." Get a hold on attachment and then the practice of this step will go smoo thly. it knows all dhamma as they truly are (samahito yathabhutam pajanati ). The samadhi-citta can be used on any pr oblem. Be interested in this word " samahito" . it sees things according to reality. regardin g both the natural problems of this material world and the questions of a "super natural" order above the world. This is step twelve. Thus. the wickedness. if the citta is accompanied by the three qualities of samahito. Yet. They are the three factors of the concentrated mind. To describe it in a few words. we can walk or stand or sit or lie down or work or taste our labors fruit or help others or help ourselves. It can be used to solve all problems. Such a mind is spotlessly clean. and grasp. The mind is ignorant and acts out of ignorance. This kind of concentration is able to solve the questions of life. and anatta easily. and painful punishment t hat all attachment inevitably brings. dukkham. On the other hand. purity. then there is no stability. (146) . (148) The most direct way to practice step twelve is to examine the penalty. Then step eleven is finished and we come to step tw elve. it cau ses the activity we call attaching or clinging or grasping: We ought to study th is carefully.we use words from the physical-menta l realm to talk about it. The y are interconnected in a single unity. There cannot be purity of mind without s tability of mind. The three work together." Maybe we are not familiar with this thing. attachment is to regard something as "I" or "mine. and power ful. Step twelve is liberating the mind (vimocayam-cittam). in everyone s daily life. The results are the same. Liberating the mind means not letting the mind attach to anything. then concentrate the mind and the answers will come out automatically. Although it is a mental phenomenon . dangerous. please remember and understand the essential point here. examine and realize the Finally. Then observe if there is anything clinging to the citta. W herever the concentrated mind goes. But if we do not understand attachment." Scrutinize the wicked. We use words like attach. Try to releas e those things from the mind. Please try to understand t he words stability. for it is something that exists in all people. The supreme benefit of samahito is that the citta is concentrated on knowing all things as they really are. It is free.The practitioner whose mind is concentrated due to these three qualities is know n as "one who has a concentrated mind. the Buddha is quoted as saying.one who has samadhi. and the suffering in any moment we attach to someth ing as "I" or "mine. Take away all the things which the citta should not ho ld on to. (145) LIBERATING THE MIND While breathing in and breathing out. And there m ust be stability and purity for there to be activeness. (147) It is essential that thoroughly understand the thing called "attachment. "When the mind is co ncentrated. and activeness. (144) You will observe for yourself that these three qualities are interdependent. in any situation. the pain. The mind can let go of all these things. valuable. or we can take these things away from the mind. The three must be equal and unified to be called "samahito. we practice until capable of having the th ree-factor mind of samahito. it is a mental activity. Liberating the mind from all attachments has two aspects. Make it let go of anything it is grasping. This means that will see aniccam.
Let go. both religious and secular. The t hird category is the traditional activities and practices that we follow. but because of avijja (ignorance) we acce pt them and attach to them. Release the objects of attachment. selfishness in particular. feel. If there is attachment. These emotions of lobha (greed).the cross . These are things that we cannot und erstand. All religions agree in their major goal: the eradication o f attachment to "I" and mine. they are excessively numerous. is th e category of all the things that we attach to as "I" or "mine.benefits. (151) Another group or set or aspect of the things that the mind must let go of are th e things which are disturbing the citta right now in this moment. beliefs. there are the kilesa (defilements). When we go and attach to something. of aversion. gems. When the mind is empty of attachment. Letting go of the four types of attachments is the best thing one can do. they are subtle and profound. Every one of them. The other three categories are kinds of immaterial objects of attachment. taste. Please get interested in l etting go of al1 things. The second category is our incor rect opinions." These four main categories of attachment include all the things we cling to. we can identify (our types or modes of attachment. This is the highest. views. Last and most important of all. Continually examine every kind of attachment with every inhalation and exhalation. There are many of th ese customs with which we are identifying. that we cannot possibly know. In this way they are released in an automatic letting go. let go. Furthermore. Any feelings of liking and disliking. They are objects of attachment to sexuality. we will realize that no problem s remain to put the citta into dukkha. it experiences no dukkha because there is no foundation for dukkha. the primary symbol of Christianity .teaches the "I" (the u pright) and the cutting of the "I" (the cross-member). hear. the n ivarana (hindrances). We have many such incorrect opinions and views. N evertheless. and o f doubt and uncertainty. most sub1ime practice. Further. This is how to practice this step. such as. any attachments to dualistic things. of depression and drowsiness. Whether possessions. Observe un til seeing the advantages of non-attachment. Observe them and see the lowly wickedness of attaching to them. They are difficult to see. smell. Whenever the mind sees something clinging. dosa (anger). which are the source of all other problems. Eventually. and money. Through this kind o f contemplation the mind is liberated automatically-: The mind naturally will le t go of things and things naturally will let go of the mind by observing these t wo facts. (150) When we look at Christianity we see that it shares this concern about attachment. are superstitious. Practicing li . The five nivarana are feelings of sensuality . any moods of sat isfaction and dissatisfaction. goodness. of agitation and distraction. It rem oves all those problems. When we do not attach. See the penalty of attachment and the value o f non-attachment as they continuously alternate in the mind. wh at benefits do we get? What kind of happiness is there? Observe carefully. hear. all these are the foundations of sensuality and se xuality. which are pr esent in the citta. jewelry. what type and degree of pain and suffering result s? Examine both sides of the coin. and moha (delusion) must go. gold. Observe these every time that we br eathe in and out. let go. must be removed. there is dukkha. and understand. This symbolizes the getti ng rid of attachment. In fact. Observe until seeing the penalty and lowness of attachment. (149) FOUR KINDS OF ATTACHMENT The objects of attachment are many. We must get rid of these five nivarana. See the value of not attaching to them. These are moods which arise from within the mind out of ou r habits and tendencies of thought. it releases that thing. necessities. The first catego ry is all the material objects valued by sexuality (kama). and think about. or the things we see. Cut out selfishness and problems end. and advantages of non-attachment. and theories.
Eventually the feelings of piti and sukha arise. we use it to do the work of t he fourth tetrad.dhamma) of nature (dhamma-jati). too. The mind is fit and ready to do its duties.the b reath-body and the flesh-body . we conte mplate just the breath until we see that it is impermanent. This tetrad studi es and examines Dhamma. Once the mind is under our power and within our co ntrol. We prefer not to use ext ernal objects. The br eath s effect on the body is impermanent. for this step of our practice. conce ntrating the mind. Before citta was hard and st iff. the step of aniccanupassi (co ntemplating impermanence). The longness is impermanent. Please observe how the four tetrads. then the citta itself. (1 53) The reasoning here is simple. trained . Then we could control the citta-sankhara. gladdening the mind. The breath changes. Contemplate the impermanence . Consequently. There we s tudied the mind s feelings. Contemplate each step one at a time until each phase is seen to be im permanent. getting longer or getting shorter. or Truth. now it is gentle and supple. then the citta-sankhara. the mind-conditioners. in the fourth tetrad. We studied the mind -conditioners until we learned all about the concocting and conditioning of the citta. See impe rmanence in each and every aspect of these vedana. You will recall that the first tetrad studied the breath and the body. The thir d tetrad studied the citta and the control of it. from the ability to concentrate the mind. we are able to use this type of mind to work. a nd then finally Dhamma. First. The shortness is impermanent . Through them we successfully complet e our study of the mind. Therefore. the facts (sacca. and practiced various ways of controlling the mind. we can extrapolate to external s. rea diness or activeness. the breathing. once this well-trained mind has been brought under control. not yet the mind (citta) itself. watch the calming of the breath and impermanence is ever more obvious. We studied. and liberating the mind. we use it to study Dhamma. there is a lot of kammaniyo. in particular. The second tetrad studied those feelings which result from the calming of the body-conditioner. developed. the final four steps. Watch them one by one. Now. observe that both bodies .mudu (gentle). always changing. From practicing the third t etrad. the last step o f the third tetrad. the Truth of Nature. Altogether there are four steps which deal exclusively with the citta: experiencing the different states of mind. (154 ) THE IMPERMANENCE OF ANAPANASATI A fundamental principle of this entire practice is to use things already existin g within us as the objects to be studied and practiced. where the very first duty is to contemplate impermanence. from coarsenes s to calmness. It keeps changing into oth er states. Please.are impermanent. (152) LECTURE SIX: THE SUPREME Today we will discuss the fourth tetrad. Next. but even that calmness is impermanent. It is impermanent. allow us to end today s lecture here. We observe that the breath changes and becomes long. In the Pali an other word is used in this context . The mind is now very sensitive and quick. The various conditions and characteristics of the breath are impermanent. are interconne cted: first the kaya-sankhara. we will return to the beginning step. Then.ke this every time we breathe in and breathe out is step twelve. Once we understand internals well. in a condition that is ready to be used. Do not forget this important principle: we must examine things that exist int ernally.
and thus also impermanent. see anatta. nor sufficient to solve our problems. and idappaccayata. Concentration is impermane nt. and aspects of this practice. (156) Merely seeing aniccam by itself rather than seeing it completely in all of its c haracteristics is nothing-extraordinary. and see idappaccayata (conditionality. Each continues into the next. also. Make the impermanence of each step absolutely clear. it changes to non-concentration. we see unsatisfactoriness. This is interesting because at the time of the Buddha there lived a Greek philo sopher named Heraclitus. Directly experience impermanence in ev erything. is impermanence. anatta. The Buddha said that Araka taught in a distant land whe re he taught about impermanence or flux. anatta. We have already explained sankhara and we have practiced it. then impermanence is seen completely in the most p rofound way. Realize imper manence in each and every step. The calming of these feelings i s something impermanent. see tath ata. Next we watch the citta itself. The gladdening and refreshing of the mind as it changes to deli ght and joyfulness is impermanent. completely certain. the law of cause and effect). Becaus e these things are always changing. in an incomplete way that does not include dukkham and anatta is neither profo und. Contemplate the impermanence of this freshnes s and delight. A complete realization of impermanence must includ e unsatisfactoriness. conditions. In The Basket of Discours es (suttanta-pitaka) of the Pali Canon. Even the liberating of the m ind is only a temporary liberation here. phases. the words "realizing aniccam" i n this context must encompass a realization as deep as dukkham. this charact eristic of impermanence is also the characteristic of dukkham. To be complete the realization must enc ompass dukkham. and idappaccayata. observe that in the realization of impermanence there is the realization of many other things simultaneously. in each and every one of the interconnected poin ts." The cha racteristic of the conditioners is impermanence. which is sunnata. The Blessed One probably meant Heraclit us. To see all three aspects like this is to realize im permanence in the most profound and complete way. When impermanence is truly seen.of the conditioning of the mind by the feelings. see sunnata. we contemplate the impermanence of the sankhara (conditioned things. We will see the characteristic of not-self in it. sunnata tathata. we realize anatta. too. not-self. impermanent. When all of these are seen. (155) MORE TO IT THAN JUST IMPERMANENCE Now. however. but went no further and said nothing about dukkham and anatta. tathata is seen as well. This is how we realize fully the impermanence of the sankhara. also. Im permanence manifests right there in that activeness. namely. and beyond our control. In step thirteen. sunnata. it too is impermanent. just like that. The Buddha mentioned that there was a re ligious teacher at that time named Araka who taught about impermanence as much a s the Buddha did. This is how we contemplate the im permanence of all these passing phenomena collectively known as sankhara. tathata. it is ugl y and unbearable. and the law of conditionality . of its various conditions and flavors. There is a story which ought to be of interest to you. thusness. "everything flows" or "all is flux"). and was unable to extend this insi . voidness. Then we will see that they are void of selfhoo d. And so. also. The characteristic of the thing s conditioned is impermanence. The activeness of samadhi is impermanent. undoubtedly obvious. Redo each of the steps. unsatisfactory. thusness. We will see that they are just thus like that. arid ingredien t) must be concocted and compounded in order to use the term "sankhara. To see aniccam alone . Thus. Please understand that the realizations of these truths are interrelated. Various causes. also. From s eeing impermanence. Impermanence is just thus. whose central teaching was panta rhei (Greek. The characteristic of the activity or process of conditioning is impermanence. Remember that here are three meanings to this word. c oncoctions). He taught only impermanence.
which is to realize viraga. we come to step fifteen. not-self. as our erotic love f or things which we once loved begins to fade. envy.study closely until you see it . objects of our anger dissolves away.aniccam. or step fourteen overall. and tathata. for example. all things which we once attached to. We must see aniccam such that it shines onto dukkham. the non-existence of attachment while breathing in and breathing out. contempl ating fading away (viraganupassi). Now we focus upon and scrutinize the fact of dissolving or viraga. anatta. dissolves attachment. until we can remain still. Each of these indicators lessens and shrinks until the mind is able to keep still and silent. Upadana t hen begins to dissolve. or even present . Contem plate this with every inhalation and exhalation. bleached out by sun light until the cloth is white. Otherwise. longing after the past. "Vi" me ans "not" or "not having. Realizing aniccam diss olves attachment because it is the realization of the punishment. The many colored stains slowly fade away. is lessening when we are even-minded toward sa nkhara. observe . the fading away of attachment. Any way. You may have trouble with the phrase "keep still and sil ent. worry. "Viraga" means "without attachment" Watching attachment dissolve is like watching the stains in a cloth fade away. dukkham. (157) THE DISSOLVING OF ATTACHMENT Now. studying and contemplating the que nching of attachment. Thus." It means simply to not attach. and wick edness of that attachment. This is crucial. "Distant land" probably meant a foreign country. This is a material example of viraga which helps to explain the mental fading away of attachment. thusnes s and conditionality as well. Anybody who is interested can look it up in any history of Greek philosophy. it was not a successful teaching.ght to include dukkham. We know that attachment. (160) THE QUENCHING OF DUKKHA Now. (158) Now we come to the second step of this tetrad. sunnata. It makes us weary of and bored with the t hings we continue attaching to and all the things we ever attached to. sunnata. a nd so on. Upadana dissolves until less and less remains. another Buddha would have ari sen right then and there. anxiety. namely. and tathata – the enti re string of realization. We can observe this quite easily. and even-minded. anatta. Now we are unprejudiced to ward them all. voidness. (159) The result of this fading away of attachment is the even-minded stillness of non -attachment. So there is a good chance that the Araka mentioned by the Buddha is Heraclitus. the essential point is that seeing aniccam alone is not enough. pain. This is the result of truly seeing impermanence. The short phrase aniccanupassi (contemplating imperman ence) includes the realization of unsatisfactoriness. Knowledge about impermanence was well-spread both with in India and abroad. nirodhanupassi. not regard anything as "I" and " my. th . jealousy. thus I tak e it that Araka and Iteraclitus are the same person." "Raga" is another name for attachment. Upadana dissolves under the li ght of seeing things as they truly are . We are no longer afraid of the things we once feared. This had begun to be observed already in step thirteen when the contemplation of impermanence led to the dissolving of attach ment. anatta. Anger toward past. and tathata. This is how to practice step fo urteen. This is how to prac tice in this step. not cling. Observe the cessation of attachment. We can observe quenching or ces sation from a variety of perspectives: the quenching of attachment to "self".that the realization of aniccam dissolves upadana. The sa me is true for hatred. sunnata. We are gradually less and less afraid until fear disappears." Contemplate impermanence until the attachment in the things we attach to di ssolves. Such is the result of realizing impermanence. silent.
we let go. and savour the flavor of nibbana. As soon as we observe the way things really are through the succession of steps in this tetrad. the fourth step of the fourth tetrad. For this we are b eing punished by dukkha. We have plundered them and taken them to be our selves and our possessions. remember that the ending of dukkha is what the pract ice of Dhamma is all about. Quench the frightfulness of birth. This is step sixteen. illness. Being separated from the things we like is dukkha. disappearing. grief. This is one type of quenching. despair. Throughout our lives we hav e been thieves. We cease being thieves. clusters) as "self" or "belonging to self. Experiencing things we do not like is dukkha . clinging to one of the fiv e khandha (groups. We can use them interchangeably. rocks and bo ulders. then dukkha is quenched. and death never again te rrify our mind. The next aspect is the cessation of the various symptoms or conditions of dukkha.* * [The hin kong lecture area is covered by satid and full of trees. pai n. our returning. O r more simply. (163) THROWING IT ALL BACK Here we come to the last step. Quench the symptoms of dukkha. The first aspect is the ending of frightfulness. sorrow. illness. to contemplate the qu enching of attachment is to contemplate nibbana.] . (165) DROPPING THE BURDENS OF LIFE If you prefer. we drink. taste. and delusion. such as. the quenching of greed. There are many forms of nirodha. They belong to nature. They are the summation of all dukkha. in any of the aspects mentioned above. anger. and despair. Here. perception. sadness. It is called patinissagganupassi (contemplating throwing back). (164) There is a simple metaphor for explaining this step. All of these symptoms of dukkha are quenched. (l61) When we speak of quenching." as "I " or "my" is dukkha. there is a second metaphor. attaching to the five groups (panca-khandha). The third aspect is related to our hopes and wants.in and belon ging to nature . also. In the past we went around foolishly picking up heavy objects like these boulders. the horr or of birth. and depression. We are nothing but thieves. of everyt hing to which we once attached. Don t claim them to be "I" or "my " ever again! Our goal here is made clear by this metaphor. We suffer dukkha due to all our thieving and attaching. the burdens of life. and death. These five groups of things which the mind habitually attac hes to are body. Aging. We return everything to thei r original owner nature. Quench wants and desires toward agreeable and d isagreeable things. Whe n we get to this step we contemplate our throwing back. lamenta tion. (162) Thus we realize the voidness or non-existence of attachment through the quenchin g. sorrow. feeling. while we breathe in and breathe out. All of them occur with the quenching of attachment. We experience the absence of attachme nt. aging.namely. to attractive and unattractive things. Not getting what we want is dukkha. aggregates. Thus. aging. and the quenching of all experiences of dukkha. These aspects of dukkha are quenched. A full realization of this st ep must include all four aspects of dukkha s quenching. the sankhara. and ending of attachment. thought. and death. the sixteen th step of Anapanasati." When these four aspects are quenched. Nirodha and ni bbana are synonyms. sadness. frustration. we observe different aspects of dukkha to see how they are quenched. pain.e quenching of selfishness. We have been stealing things that exist naturally . such as. quench the regarding of any of the five khandha as "self. and sense-consciousness. It means to throw back or to give back. Lastly. Finally. What we n eed so badly is realized right here. Patinissagga is a funny word. illness.
You ought to remember the meanings of these two conditions carefully. to be above the world. Now we throw them off. liberation. Throw them away until no burdens remain. they all signify that we have gotten the best thing that human beings should obtain. Le t us make it perfectly clear that whenever we are foolish. or drowning in the world. about four aspects of nature and the law of nature manifest in them: kaya. nature and its law can neve r be separated. ought to try their best to practice in this matter as mush as possible – starting right now. that trapped us beneath the world." W hen we are liberated from all bonds. (169) Do not forget that we are talking about nature. Living above the world is lokuttara. carried them ever ywhere. We have not wasted our l ives and the opportunity of finding Dhamma. Nature pur e and simple.5-6.Then. weighed ourselves down terribly. Anapanasati successfully practiced through this final step brings emanc ipation. Although we cannot control it. Living under the world and liv ing above the world are totally different. May we end today s lecture here. This i s another metaphor that describes the final step of Anapanasati. our duty is to understand and use nature fo r our highest benefit. Then you will be able to make use of t hose benefits in their fullest sense.) It is b oth the law of nature and follows the law of nature. Once we can toss away the burdens that held us down. however. we pick up weights an d pile them up as burdens of life. and Dhamma. we can use it to our advan . So. This is the true meaning of freedom and well being. we lugged them along wherever we went. we realize how stupid we were in making such problems for ourselves. life itself seemed to be a burden. we either let go of all burdens or release ourselves away from those burdens. please understand the word "dhamma-jati. we th row them off. All problems rela ted to these two meanings will be solved during the practice of step sixteen. Or you might call it salvation. and thus. Living ben eath the world is lokiya. Before. Before." (See P. (166) We ought to say that the practice of this last step is training in order to thro w away the burdens of life."liberation. Whoever wants to be free. As living creatures." the meaning is equally tangible. Once we know what they are doing to us. Then we are above th e world. There is letting go and then the result is emancipation. we ascend. we no longer have any burdens. Or we can use a word that is more in vogue these days . We are Lords of the world. (168) LECTURE SEVEN: THE HIGHEST BENEFITS Today we will summarize all of the inquiries into Anapanasati covered by these l ectures. vedana. Whether we say "letting go of ourselves" or " letting go of the burdens. We will summarize the sixteen steps in terms of their essential charact ers. Please commit yourselves to listening carefully. the best thing that human beings oug ht to get and have. citta. Our entire life felt like a burd en due to our stupidity. deliveranc e. Whichever word you prefer. we lived under their weight. Now. and the means of realizing those benefits. For this we suffered dukkha constan tly. We realize how burdensome they are and ju st toss them away." be well aware that this is the way to emanc ipation. Without those burdens we are light. (167) THE SUPREME EMANCIPATION If you like the word "emancipation. We call that living bene ath the world. How many years has it gone on? Now. to be at ea se. That is the end of the story. All those problems disapp ear. their value or benefits. We hung on to those natural sankhara. Their heaviness oppressed us. release.
the body or bodies. (171) VEDANA: STOPPING THE SPINNING The feelings are the second item. sorrow. they are of the highest importance to h uman beings in that they spin people around at will.are considered to be one most important subject. Everyone is chasing after pleasan t feelings and running away from unpleasant feelings. Then we will be able to think what needs to be thought. from the peace and quiet of a monas tery or the joy of meditation. By doing so we can change our moods and emotions. the body and the var ious things associated with the body . they compel every kind of effort and endeavor. the breath. which is dukkha. conflict. People. all the many things happen. as well. If we cannot control feelings. Whatever feelings we desire . We require a kaya which is read y to maintain and support itself and the mind in ways beneficial for life. Or if we want to change from one train of thought to another. it carries over to the citta. In effect. and suffering in the world? These vedana cause all kinds of activity and search.we are incited to all kinds of behavior accordingly. and technology were discovered and produced for the sake of feelings. of our lives in the most profoun d way. There are many advantages in knowing how to regulate the bre ath. When we are unable . we b reathe longer and longer to force that worry away. Further. we can let go of that anger quickly by breathing long. We will have good health if we know how to breathe properly. The breath alone is well worth knowing. they spin the whol e world around.and everyone craves them . Is it not true that you came here in o rder to get some pleasant feelings. If you are not aware of these things. Even in coming here to Suan Mokkh. They too a re directed and compelled by feelings. for the benefit of our very own lives however long they may l ast. In reality. also. or merely from the ordinary feeling of bei ng at ease. hunt ing. When we can control them. or.such as. For example. When we are worried and unable to think straight. and he alth .tage when we act correctly according to its law. Furth er. The same is true for animals. we need to understand how to control kaya according to our needs through reg ulating the breath. Even our search for money is a response to ved ana. (170) KAYA: COOLING EMOTIONS The first subject in the practice of mindfulness with breathing is the kaya. we can do so by breathing long in order to wipe out the unwanted thoughts or emotions and replace them with something more orde rly and norma1. Vedana have tremendous pow er and influence over us. the dictators. The body is the foundation for the mind. Thus. I hope that all of you ar e able to get the fullest advantage from this stage of Anapanasati. all of you are hoping to find something that will produce the vedana which please you. and chasing after the desired vedana. we act according to our desires. Art. search and hunt for the feelings they want. whether from sensuality and sex. when we are angry. which hav e such great power to force us to follow them. All activities are merely searching. they are the masters. culture. that you are trying to get away from some of the agitation. By breathing long the anger will disappear. So there is more to kaya than just the flesh body. the emotions. We all understand its importance in life without needing explan ations. This is how the vedana can keep the whole world spinning. Then. Vedana causes desire. such as. We know these four natures for just this benefit. you will think they are unimportant. The feelings in people are the cause of all the new. Please get to know the things that dominate humanity. strange inventions and creations which humanity has produced. they do not do us any harm. And we will act out of vedana which are trapped i n ignorance (avijja) and are incorrect. even if only in terms of health. The reby. Want is bor n out of feeling and follows feeling. we must rise and fall a t their whim.
hear. we become slaves. and their opposite. Rather. smell. it is a non-compounded thing and it is not aniccam. it would be as if there was no world. This will cause problems and will lead to dukkha. as well as after intel ligent wants. If a thing is noumenal. We can say that the world exists because we have citta. there will be no end to it all: endless comings and goings. which we call tanha. You probably knew by yourselves and have been aware fo r some time of its importance. Foolish feeling leads to ignorant desire. both those that are us and th ose that are involved with us. When it thinks we call it "citta. and peace. they are a pair.to control them. The wh ole of such knowledge can be summarized within two subjects: compounded things ( sankhara. an d still we put up with it. If we cannot control it. or understand it incorrectly. we will receive the fruit of calmness. the benefits of controlling the vedana are enormous. (craving). Do not allow them to stir up foolish desires and wants. DHAMMA: TWO BASIC FACTS Lastly. to wise want. concoctions) which have causes and conditions. We should be careful to m ake sure that vedana is always wise feeling. Sometimes we even want to go to the moon! As long as craving remains. an d knowing we say "mano." For being aware. and cognize is called "vinnana. On the other hand. our involvement with things. and for the basic sensory co nsciousness we name it vinnana. to wanting what we ought to want. it is a compounded thing and must exhibit the truth of impermanence (aniccam). touch. shown you how significant the citta (mind-heart) is. will be incorrect. we have foolish feeling. You might study these subjects through the metaphysical t erms "phenomenal" and "noumenal. Let us be interested in the vedana with this perspective. When the citta performs correctly there are good results but it must be under co ntrol for it to work correctly. then our studies here have. If we can keep the mind un der control and dwelling in correctness." Noumenal is the opposite of phenomenal in prin ciple. it is niccam (permanent). around and around who knows how many times. endl ess inventions and concoctions. experiencing. Wise feeling leads to correct d esire. we can call it by three different name s. which in turn drags us along behind foolish tanha. taste. If we do not kn ow such Truth. Conseque ntly. Foolish feeling causes tanha. endless desires for the luxurious life. Dependin g on the function which it is performing. What a pitiful state it is to be a slave to v edana! (172) There are two kinds of vedana: foolish feeling conditioned by ignorance (avijja) and clever feeling conditioned by vijja (correct knowledge). Foolish tanha leads us around the world. nothing will be left in the world." The basic function of being conscious at the sense door s in order to see. If not. feeling. (173) CITTA: WORKING CORRECTLY Now we come to the citta. In all things. it will not be correct. or cr aving. the non-compounded thing. quiet. we have wise feeling. it is much the same as the kaya and vedana. the whole thing goes to the dogs. Understanding the citta enough to keep it under control is the most excellent knowledge for us human beings to discover and have. there is Truth that we must know. with l ife. At a minimum. . Craving can turn wise wants and needs into stupid desires. there are three things we must understand about the mind. we come to Dhamma or Truth. If the citta is standing or existing in the wrong way. You ought to be especially interested in this. If we are cle ver and knowledgeable at phassa. for knowing we name it mano. If we are foolish at the moment of phassa (sensory contact). dukkha will occur. When it is not correct. If we did not have citta." W e focus on the function the mind performs and then name it accordingly: for thin king we name it citta. pro blems will arise. If something is phenomenal.
We also will g et what I like to call the "Four Comrade Dhammas. there is no ignorant feeling (vedana) an d tanha is not stirred up. Through prevent ing ignorant sense experience (phassa). For those of you who are not familiar wit h it. panna transforms into sampaj anna (wisdom-in-action). sati is there and brings panna (wisdom) to the experience. The Lord Buddha taught many variations on this theme. we study the aniccam of all things until we know the Truth of imperm anence well. we have sati (reflective awa reness mindfulness). beyond imp ermanence. each dependent on a previous cause. Stop tanha through the speed and power of the sati developed by practicing Anapanasati in all four tetrads. before conditioned arising can develop have sati right there at contact. Merel y having sati in the moment of phassa solves all the possible problems of paticc a-samuppada completely. That is. sampajanna.is of the utmost importance. If we practice Anapanasati we will acquire the four comrade dhammas. The essence of this law is that dukkha is born out of ig norant desire (tanha). When a sense object makes contact. but because of its great subtlety and pro fundity it is difficult to understand. It is th e most important principle of all. T hey watch over and protect us just like God. conditioned arising explains the causal origination of dukkha. Then that contact wil l not lead to ignorant feeling and ignorant feeling will not lead to foolish cra ving (tanha). a corresponding externa l sense object. pann a. The mind which is not attached t o anything proceeds to realize that thing which is permanent (niccam). Do study it. A series of causes. In practice. there is no dukkha. You will recall from the first lecture that while we live within this world the four comrade dhammas will enable us to subdue all th reats. qualified enough. This is the best. we must use these four comrades to live. With them we ar e able to conquer every kind of object that comes in through the eyes. to perfo rm its duty in the moment of phassa and stop the stream of paticca-samuppada jus t then and there.Therefore. and mind. This is the essence of Anapanasati. the noumenon . leads to suffering. When we are able to use sati to stop tanha and break it off. namely. body. But once we come to its prac tical application. (176) PRACTICING FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS The next benefit is that we are able to practice in line with the principle of p aticca-samuppada (dependent origination. Once it arrives. and samadhi. It makes sati sufficiently abundant and fast. ears. This is an enormous benefit of practicing Anapanasati. tongue. Then we do not attach to anything. That we understand these two realitie s ." I came up with this name myse lf in order to discuss them more easily. it all boils down to having sati in the moment of phassa (sense contact) and that i s all.nibbana. and the knowledges and b enefits such study brings. The four comrade dhammas are sati. Phassa is the meeting of an internal sense organ. THE FOUR COMRADE DHAMMAS There are further benefits. Do not let it be ignorant phassa. (175) That is the essence of our study into these four areas. With them we can get rid of dukkha. The theory of pat icca-samuppada is complex and lengthy. Whether inside or outside the monaste ry. First. (177) Another benefit is that we are able to practice according to the principle of th e four ariya-sacca with ease and completeness. nos e. Then. dependent origination is exquisitely simple. The four comrade dhammas are unsurpassed guardians. The practice of the Dhamma tetrad of Anapanas ati leads to knowing these two facts. (178) . conditioned arising). there must be dukkha. This is another advantage of training in Anapa nasati.the conditioned and the unconditioned . You all have heard and know about the four noble truths. however. most beneficial way to practice the four noble truths. from practicing Anapanasati. the specific application of wisdom required by the situ ation. It all stops there. and the appropriate type of sense consciousness (vinnana). If there is tanha. samadhi’s power and strength are added to sampajanna.
" that Truth rea1ized is called "th e Dhamma. It would take hours to go into all the details. feeling. passaddhi (tranquility). Th en. satisfaction).THE HEART OF THE TRIPLE GEM A further benefit is that Anapanasati easily. In the intention necessary to practice every step of Anapanasa ti there is automatically a natural sila without us having to practice it in par ticular. the next benefit is that in practicing Anapanasati we practice the most fun damental principle of Buddhism. Now. Because of this in tention. silasamadhi-panna. dhammavicaya (inves tigation of Dhamma). (180) When we speak concisely. the Bud dha is seen. we practice until samadhi arises. This is another of Anapanasati s unsurpassed benefits. These seven factors are complete when Anapanasati is complete. This is an enormous benefit practicing Bu ddhism in its entirety. These qualities are the frui t of viraga. A lthough we do not have enough time now to explain further. the Sangha are those who through successful practice have c1ean-clear-calm m inds." and the people who can follow and practice accordingly are called "th e Sangha. Then full awakening is assured. These three factors ar e wholly present in the practitioner of Anapanasati. The unshakeable determinati on to practice is sila (virtue). When the mind is set on correct action. thereby there is easily the genuine Bud dha-Dhamma-Sangha in our mindhearts. the Dhamma.. (179) BUDDHISM IN ITS ENTIRETY Now. co1lectedness). perfect awakening is assured. Through the perfection of the four satipatthana (body. namely. If we want to go into more complete detail. we come to the most positive benefit obtained through the practice of mindf ulness with breathing. energy). You can verify its truth b y yourself. namely. There is a statement of the Buddha which asserts that fully practicing the sixt een steps of Anapanasati perfects the four satipatthana (foundations of mindfuln ess). and Dhamma i. When these seven factors are complete. nirodha. The recorded words of the Buddha state this clearly.e. completely. even-mindedness). The heart of the Dhamma is this c1eanliness-clarity-calm itself. This is because the essence or nucleus of the Buddha. and upekkha (equ animity. The state of citta that is clean-clear -calm is the essence of Buddha-Dhamma-Sangha. Through them there is cleanliness-clarity-calm. mind. Then panna (wisdom) develops. the objects of the four tetrads). the seven bojjhanga are perfected . especia lly in the fourth tetrad which is the most perfect wisdom. the state in the min d that is clean-clear-calm is the true Lord Buddha. viriya (effort. samadhi (concentration. we will have nibbana in this life. Please be careful about these thre e words. The first person to realize perfect cl eanliness-clarity-calm is called "the Buddha." When we practice Anapanasati we make our citta clean-clear-calm as we have explained in detail throughout these lectures. there will be samadhi (concentration) as well. without needin . Rather. Then. In seeing the Dhamma. we only have ti me to give the names of these factors for you to hear: sati. The seven bojjhanga are the very factors which lead to the enlightenment of the arahant (a human being who is liberated from a ll dukkha). we talk about sila-samadhi-panna. the Three Refuges of Buddhism. and the Sangha is in cleanlinessclarity-calm (purityradiance-tranquility). (181) NIBBANA HERE AND NOW Now. The Lord Buddha is not some physical body. it leads to sila-samadhi-panna in full measure. In practicing Anapana sati correctly the most fundamental principle of Buddhism is fulfilled. that is sila altogether. and perfectly brings u s the Triple Gem (ti-ratana). we talk about the seven bojjhanga (factors of awakening). All three words are most important. and patinissagga (steps fourteen through sixteen). please understand tha t the seven bojjhanga are a sure thing when Anapanasati is practiced completely. piti (contentment.
there is coolness. Anapanasati gets rid of the fires. (184) ." that tool. we will know the breath in which we will die. If it is the kind of nibbana associated with death. This doe s not mean that we will choose the moment of death. enough to eat. during this very life. That is. Although momentary. It means "cool" and h as nothing to do with dying. "parinibbana." When soup is too hot to eat." simply means "cool. this same word is used regarding material things. however. It may not be perfect nibbana. which is more than you listeners and we speakers ca n handle. We will receive the most satisfying sort of nibbana – cool in body. (183) In short. this life of yours is cool according to the meaning of nibbana. cool in all respects through practicing Anapanasati. Allow us. And nothing has to die." meaning "one who is cool ed" or "one who has nibbana. We call it temporary nibbana or samayika-nibbana. and people. This coolness occurs because when there is no defilement the citta is cool." The word " nibbuto" also means "coolness. And it need not die. wait for it to cool off. we use another word. This is tadanga-nibbana ." Nevertheless. A burning charcoal that gradually cools down until no longer hot is said to "nibb ana. but it is cool just the same. good friends. There is nibbana for a while. a good family. then tamed and trained until fully dome sticated. Here. the type where we do not need to die." Just "nibb ana" without the prefix "pari." THE LAST BREATH There are many other benefits to the practice of Anapanasati that we could menti on. Then we can predict the final breath of our life. moment by moment. They must be alike. "Nibbana" means "coolness. We will know instantly whether we are going to die during this present breath or not." That state is called "nibbana. cool in mind. beca use it must include a cool mind to be perfect. the defilements. The word "nibbana" means "cool" It even can be used regarding material things. to mention one last item: we will know the last bre ath of our life." If it is only temporary coolness. the fire goes away and there is coolness for a while." the absence of heat. namely. not yet perf ect and perpetual." For example." which means something like "coincidental. and the frequency is increased until there is perfect nibba na. we have a cool life here and now. and not yet perfect. It just means that through b ecoming well-versed in our practice of Anapanasati we become experts regarding th e breath. animals. due t o "that factor. then we can say that the soup is nibbana .g to die. such as the death of an arahant. Then. Then. (182) Make sure that you understand this word nibbana correctly. We mean nibbana here and now. In the Pali texts. and good surroundings. Imagin e that everything is going right for you: you have good health. th e kind that has nothing to do with death. economic securit y." the agent. but it would take hours. coolness s duration is lengthened. its extent is broadened. nibbana in the sense we have explained just now. namely Anapanasati." That kind of perso n is called "nibbuto. This is the benefit which I consider most satisfying or most positive." In Pali it i s called "that factor. Here we have a sample of nibbana to taste f or a little while. when there is sati on the breath. coincidental nibbana. the flavor of nibbana is savored as a sample or taste. It might be applied even to fierce and dan gerous animals captured from the forest. we call it "nibbuto. not continual. If something is cool rat her than hot it is nibbana in one sense or another. This is the sp ecial benefit which is knowing that last minute in which we will die. that affects the coolness here. Anapan asati helps us to sample nibbana little by little. When there is no fire. Anapanasati is "that factor . They can be said to nibbana as well. In Pali. this is called "nibbuto. Although it is only temporary. If yo u can do it. Nibbuto is like the sample a salesman shows of the product we actually buy. the flavor is the same as perfect nibbana. Coolness also can be the nibbana that happens due to "that factor. the cause. the citta is cool.
(185) APPENDICES APPENDIX A: THE FIVE NECESSITIES OF LIFE (Selections from a talk given 2 September 1987) Those who despise and fear Satan will search for him in his true form.2) MODE OF LIVING . There is no better way to practice Dham ma than mindfulness with breathing. Thus. You can see for yourself the need to know it and practice it in order to discover the "New Life" that is out from under all of selfishnes s power. We ought to be particularly interested in it and practice it successfully. Our discussion of Anapanasati-bhavana is sufficiently complete now. Know what the feelings (vedana). what then will remain? It is imperative therefore. Consequently. in fad. We come to Suan Mokkh in order to study and pract ice the removal of selfishness. There is nothing else to do. Although the ex planations may proliferate and complicate. Nibbana is the supreme voidness. The heart of Buddhism is only this ending of selfishness. that we should not view them as selves. to spin around in suffering. for the welfare of everyone. and to people everywhere. Then. He advised us all to use this practice for our own welfare. 1) Anapanasati leads to the understanding of everything connected to this matter: knowing selfishness. We practice me ditation in order to clear the mind and heart of all selfishness. so that all human beings will k now of it and be able to practice it. This is the purpose of coming here. As a result. there is no defi lement. (A. our problems are ended and we can quench dukkha. e specially. All dhammas are Sunyata. May we end th e final lecture here. And know the truth of all things that they are not self-entiti es. Please be especially interested m this practice. ke eps everyone spinning around in the mess of dukkha. Selfishness further causes s ociety. In such a situati on. are like. which trick us into being s elfish. is a system of practice dedicated to the elimination of selfishness. knowing the way to end selfishness. let go of selfhood which is li ke canceling the power of instinctual selfishness. Our problems are finish ed such that we are certain of their ending. for the welfare of others. which is selfishness. knowing the end of selfishness. knowing the source of selfishness. they all boil down to "getting rid of selfishness. This egoistic devil traps each person within the heap of dukkha. that we remove this thing through our correct deeds and behavior. May you all give careful attention to it. he offered it to us as the best system of all to pract ice." We study Dhamma in order to understand this point. (A. This is what the Anapanasati system of practice is about. the entire world. This is the goal of Anapanasati.The Lord Buddha himself declared that he realized Perfect Self-Awakening (anutta ra sammasambodhi) through practicing Anapanasati. to know what this body is like and to know what this mind is like. The Lord Buddha became a Buddha while prac ticing Anapanasati. we are pleased t o recommend it to you. Anapanasati.
(A. The mind surrenders to the bait and is not fit for the study and pr actice of Dhamma. We ought to know the fifth necess ity. (A. convenience and simplicity. the paccaya w hich is most important. It is usually expensive. Please wear clothing that fulfills the real me aning and purpose of clothing: good health. (A. The condition for the mind in particular is that which amuses and coaxes the mind into contentment.4) Most people know of only the material or bodily conditions and believe that ther e are only four: food. especially while you a re staying here. We will consider them in detail. we request your attention regarding this important matter." but I am not sure that this is the right word. We might call it "entertainment. Please get to know both the physical and mental paccaya. shelter. Thus. Here I am most concerned with the fifth necessity. and that you must understand yo urself.bhavana practice. To know only the four ne cessities. We eat food for the proper nourishment of life. the body dies. They are like factors of l ife that aid the existence of life. clothing. and we m ust eat them in moderation. it will be at appropriate times and in moderation. Your lifestyle and Anapanasati practice are in terrelated. they are som etimes called the "necessities or requisites of life. The paccaya are things absolutely necessary for life. the mind is dead. Do not eat food that is bait. there are four of the former and one of the later. the paccaya for the mind-heart. I must say. however. the foundation of our liv es. . however. When the bodily necessities are lacking. Bait makes us stupid. We eat bait for the sake of deliciousness. there ar e five of them. These necessities. must be correct if we are to study Dhamma and practice meditation successful ly. (A. We mu st eat food that is food. you will be constantly hungry all day and all night.6) If you are eating bait. protection against annoyances and di scomfort. now that you understand that there are four physical conditions and one mental condition. ment al death. Altogether. thus. once you consider ho w necessary it is to have something that properly entertains the mind and makes it contented in the correct way. We must eat the kinds of food which are genuinely beneficial for the body. we should discuss the kind of lifestyle that supports Dhamma s tudy and citta. expression of culture. Those four conditions are for the body alon e.5) THE MATERIAL NECESSITIES Let us start from the beginning. Please eat food instead of bait. When the mental necessit y is missing. There will be little waste and no dange r. with the first material necessity . Allow us some time to discuss this necessary t opic. just like the bait on the hook that snags foolish fish." as well.7) Our second condition is clothing." although there is a bit more to "paccaya. and medicine. the one that must be sufficient for the mind s nourishme nt and sustenance. Eating bait impairs our menta l abilities. "Eating bait" means eating for the sake of delicious ness and fun. You always will be sneaking off to eat yet more bait. is still quite foolish. (A.food. is secondary to the meaning. Thus. some adjustments mus t be made in your mode of living. The crucial distinction between food and bait must be understood.3) This topic is the paccaya. When you eat food. Please stop swallowing bait and eat only food that is proper and wholesome. Without it there would be death . Do not eat it as bait. The te rm we use.In order for you to practice Anapanasati with good results. This Pali (and Thai) word has the same meaning as the English "condition.that is. so th at we eat foolishly. You will know what I mean.
expensive place s. (A. We take his example as our standard. and died in the open air. the words "moderate" and "sufficient" can be vague. the one no one talks about. (A. and died (parinibbana) outdoors.] INTIMATE WITH NATURE So please try to adjust to something new. Please give some consideration to clothing. was enl ightened. we come to the fifth necessity. c osts very much. natural mode of living. (A. making u . lived outdoors. Nowadays. fancy. For Dhamma practice the most appropriate ho using is the closest to nature.11) So we will have a lifestyle that is intimate with nature that is convenient for nature to tell us things. Do not get carried away with good . was enlightened outdoors.good . Please learn to enjoy and be contented with plain and simpl e living together with nature.goo d such that it becomes excessive and luxurious. ( A. That woul d lead to inappropriateness within oneself and would be an enemy of mental tranq uility. to know. in "good living" and "eating well. Thus housing becomes a source of ever greater selfishness. that is. taught. They tend to live in beautiful." We have to say that Europeans seldom seem to live out in the open. 8) The third condition is shelter. please understand t hem as we have explained above. The Buddha wa s born outdoors.9) * [The traditional place for Thai travelers to rest and sleep but nowadays no lo nger used by merchants and government employees.Please wear clothing that is convenient. But this fifth paccaya is more important than the other four.13) THE MENTAL NECESSITY Now." We do not care for good living and good eating which have no limits. on the g round. to housing which is close to nature. simple. we will hear nature s voice much more than if we were far away. taught sitting outside on the ground. This will benefit and support your study and prac tice. causes difficulties and leads to worries. We believe that the founders of all the great religions practiced plain living as well although we cannot say if they all did so as thoroughly as the Buddha. Please d o not wear clothing that destroys the culture of oneself or of others.* (A. It should be adequate and modest. We prefer to live and eat well eno ugh.12) In Thai. If we are intelligent listeners. and a sign of culture. correctly. The essence of our mode of living is intimacy with nature. That would be neither proper nor decent Please acknowledge this understanding of the four material necessities. close enough to be called "camaraderie with natu re.10) We Buddhists take the Lord Buddha as our example in these matters. They need to stay in hotels and do not seem to care for the simple monastery meeting hall. This s hows how his life was intimate with nature. the second paccaya also. worldly people want housing that exceeds their needs. and thus are content with a simple." such as. or dose to nature. And we should be careful about the words "good" and "well. We are tal king about the thing that cajoles and entertains us. who was born. and should not be excessive. rested out in the open. and to practice in harmony with nature. so please remember it. lived. making us content. (A. All four material paccaya are based on the principles of sufficiency and appropriateness. L iving close to nature makes it easier to understand.
When we are aware of correctness and satisfied with it.Dhamma to be our amusement. when we fe el proper and are content. how ever. (A. (A. We can say that Anapanasati is the Buddha s system. This sense of correctness and contentedness need have nothing to do with sex. just as the other four are food for the body. then teaches it and passes i ." * It was built to provide entertainment for the heart. The building behind us is called "The Theater of Spiritual Entertainments. we prefer the system known as "Anapanasati. Sex is one kind of thing that can entertain the mind. Then it will be easy and convenient for all of you to study and practice successfully. We don t know much about any of them.] In summary. must be right for t he mind. this theater is one of the many vehicle s for sharing Dhamma at Suan Mokkh. [**The fundamental dualism which distracts us from the Middle Way and gets us ca ught in dukkha.] The details must wait until later. we request that you adjust your mode of living to fit the study and practice of citta-bhavana. Now. We might give it different names. 16) APPENDIX B: WHAT’S ANAPANASATI? (Selections from a talk given 5 April 1987) Before anything else please understand that there are many different systems and methods of vipassana (meditation for the sake of insight into impermanence. the heart is entertained and the mind is amused. Please learn how to tell the difference. for this matter is very subtle. Thai systems. Then you will discover the "New Life" that is above and beyond the influence of positivism and negativism**. Amusing the heart. we are concerned with the mental aspect. There are Burmese systems. whatever we call it. It is not Suan Mokkh s syst em. the fifth necessity of worldly people b ecomes a matter of sex.s un-anxious and un-agitated. This is one form the fifth necessity t akes.Dhamma . but now we are ready for Dhamma . This is the ment al condition or necessity. Out of them all. making us no longer hungry to the point of death. Suan Mokkh has taken it up to practice. Do not just follow the majority who ignore the fact that sex i s caught up in endless complexities and difficulties. th ere are this teacher s and that master s vipassana all over the place." This is the system of mental cultivation (meditation) which the Lord Buddha himself recommended. This means that we use appropriateness to amuse an d satisfy us. It must be mind food. It is fr ee. The important point is that it. Please get to know this type of fifth paccaya first of all. We are interested only in Anapanasati. Please remember to make all five of them correct an d proper. and not-self) going under different names. all sorts of different syste ms. Sri Lankan systems. (A. Nowadays. as far as we can tell.because we practice Dhamma with the support and aid of all five necessities. as well as amuse and please. who still cling to sex as their fifth necessity. nourishment for the mind. is crucial. uns atisfactoriness. which is not s exual but Dhammic. Rather.15) *[To the right of and past the hin kong. It is full of pictures that t each Dhamma. I am not really sure what English word to use. liberated. but it does not matter. making it satisfied and pleased.14) Most of the time. but we can sa y that New Life is above all problems and beyond all aspects of dukkha. such as entertainme nt or amusement. and emancipated .
let us not fa ll into the misunderstanding that Anapanasati is not satipatthana. no way of practice is given or explained there. shows how to practice the four foundat ions in a systematic progression that ends with emancipation from all dukkha. vedana. the one used at Suan Mokkh. and others more than can be remembered. It gives only the names of dhammas and expands upon them. and incomplete. is not an issue here. whi ch become new systems that are called satipatthana practices or meditation. In truth. otherwise we might lose interest in it thinking that it is wrong. Then it is adjusted and rearranged into these and those practices. this 16 Step Form of Anapanasati. as is fitting for anythi ng complete. it is just right. Some go so far as to think that Anapanasati has nothing to do with the four foundations of mindfulness. Therefore. too much. (ET)] We have taken time to consider the words "satipatthana" and "Anapanasati" for th e sake of ending any misunderstandings that might lead to a narrow-minded lack o f consideration for what others are practicing. citta. the matter of kaya (bo dy) is spread out over corpse meditations. However. the heart of all four foundations of mindfulness. not just a list of names or dhammas like in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (Digha-nikaya#22**). That is. The 16 Step s is a straight-forward and clear practice. That is correct . Th e sixteen steps work through the four foundations. Consequently. In some places they really hang onto the word "satipatthana. This is what is generally taken to be sati patthana. But for those who wa nt to study and train perfectly. this misunde rstanding is common.3) **[The Satipatthana Sutta (Majjhima-nikaya #10) follows the same pattern as the Maha but is less detailed and extensive. it must have all of these sixteen steps. So please understand correctly t hat whether we call it satipatthana or Anapanasati there are only four matters o f importance: kaya. a lengthy catal ogue of sets of dhammas. sati-sampajanna in daily activities. For example. The complete system requires sixteen step s. the postures. So me even reject Anapanasati out of hand.t along." They cling to the satipatthana of the Digha-nikaya (Long D iscourses) which is not anything more than a long list of names. the followers of such techniques deny. It merely catalogues group s of dhammas under the four areas of study. we must be patient to train and practice Anapanasati in its full form.2) SATIPATTHANA IS ANAPANASATI Another common problem is that some people cling to and are stuck on the word sa tipatthana (foundations of mindfulness) far too much. each one developing upon the . Let us reiterate that Anapanasati is the heart of all four satipatthana in a form that can be readily practiced. The Anapanasati Sutta. such as. or even despise. If we are interested in completeness. May we recommend to you Anapanasati as one system of vipassana.it might be more than necessary for some people. asserting that it is not satipatthana. (B. There are many of them. or too detailed for what they need. if we want the techn ique to be complete. (ET)] Then.* *[Whether these practices are correct and useful. Some people shake their heads that it is too long. Anapanasati is the hear t of satipatthana. on the other hand. and Dhamma. in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta there s no explanation of how to practice these four things. easy . We have chosen the form which is compl ete. it may seem a bit long and detailed. (B. This is required b y nature. Unfortunately. Although there are whole bunches of dhammas.1) Even the method of practice known as Anapanasati has forms which are short. or not. (B. the Anapanasati ap proach.
yo u can abridge them for yourself. Thus. please allow us to explain the Complete 16 Steps fully. and the influences they have. the first thing you must study and understand is the breath. if they a re performed with every inhalation and exhalation. you must have correct prana. you can take this short approach if you wish. When you feel that the re is sufficient samadhi. This is a science which leads to a natural under standing of the things called kaya. dukkham and anatta right away.letting go! release! no attaching! Finally. or too detailed.4) CONDENSED VERSION If some people feel that sixteen steps are to much. which means "control of the prana" or "breath control . then you ma y trim them down by yourself. (B. If you do not like the complete 16 Steps Practice. In it. the Pali equivalent is pana.h as trainings involving the prana. that is alright. or five steps. namely . Ordinaril y. however. This is a scientific approach which can regulate these four things." To be able to control the breath means to be able to control life. study the Complete 16 Steps. through the perspective and approach of natural science.and there are dozens of these and those yogas . also. we will discuss the kaya tetrad or kayanupassana (con templation of body). Keep just two or three or five steps as you like." Combined .with that samadhi skip over to con template aniccam. We want. or too much to study. It is possi ble to condense the sixteen down to two steps. In short. Practice only t wo or three steps if you want. We must have prana which is healthy a nd correct. can be considered Anapanasati . The Anapanasati Sutta clearly shows how to practice the four foundations without anything extra or surplus.6) KAYANUPASSANA The 16 Steps are divided into four tetrads which correspond to our four fundamen tal objects of study. Now. for you to understand the complete system. First. To put it briefly. note the ending of kilesa (defilement) and the ceasing of attachment when aniccam-dukkham-anatta is seen fully. this word means "life" or "the life force" or "that which preserves and nurtu res life. go examine everything which you know and experience so that you realize how they are impermanent. (B. it is necessary to study the s ubject of the breath. This is our purpose in the way we explain Anapanasati here. When the p rana enters it is called "ana" and when it leaves it is called "apana.5) So this is why we will study and explain the Complete 16 Step Way in full. Know the breath in all aspects and from all angles in order for it to be correct. not-soul. Understand the different kinds of breath. We will explain the system of practice in full. But now. then take just these two steps.7) In India every style of yoga . Once you understand the full sixteen steps well. we must speak about the 16 Step Practice. Concentrate the citta by contemplating the breath. One . becau se it will reveal the secrets of nature through its scientific approach. no matter what kind of yoga it is. citta. Then our lives will be correct. (B." We must understand it correctly. Choose for yourself what you need. Then you can shorten it for yoursel f depending on what pleases you. and how they are not-self.previous. Thus. in the best and most complete way possible. Just this much is enough to get the desired results . Two . Just these two steps. Prana is a Sanskrit word. These train ings are called pranayama. ved ana. and Dhamma.train the citta (mind) to b e adequately and properly concentrated. how they are unsatisfactory. or wha tever suits you. or think that it is t oo theoretical. the Satipatthana Suttas are on ly lists of names. (B. You might end up with two steps. and supporting the next. their various qualities and c haracteristics. Thus. It does not mention unrelated mat ters. Practice all sixteen steps fully and the hear t of the satipatthana arises perfectly. Decrease them until you are satisfied enough to practice with confidence.
We all know about the first level. This is what the first tetrad is about. This d oes not contradict our principles at al1. Such prana is able to cause the greate st peace and calm in this life. it is very important to understand the prana-body for doing so can lead to having a conditioner that is good to the flesh-body. and most practical form of pranayama*. T o be able to control the prana is to control the thing which enters to preserve life. Then we can a rrange to have a good. the flesh-body. You ought to study and train the breath well in order to us e it to your advantage in conditioning the flesh-body. in the end. and calm. that is. and calm. namely.through the practice of vipassana-bhavana (the cultivation of insight or direct realization). Furthermore.. In Ind ia. By doing so. while we barely know the pran a-body at all. that it is worth our effort. then wholehea rtedly commit yourself to this study and train in it until successful. and develop the best. Then we get a life that is fresh and cheerful.10) We develop this knowledge until we are able to regulate the prana. that is. T hen it is a citta ready to perform its further duties. it make s the flesh-body good. (B. Although the explanations in different schools are not exactly identical a nd each school may have its own meaning for the prana-body. a feather rather than a hammer. Then we make them "good" until there is good peace and calm. It has these characteristics. and this way of practice. So it is that we must begin with learning about the kaya as the first tetrad. making th e preserver of the body peaceful and calm. In this way." The last item of this tetrad is calming the body-conditioner. Anapanasati can hold its own with any system of yoga. We study the prana-body and pract ice how to regulate it. so that it is good. healthy. Therefore. the more benefits this training will bring. The subject of the kaya i s merely this. (B. so we regulate it indirectly. Such prana training can be found even in Buddhism. This is why we must understand both kaya (bodies ) . This is ho w to have the best kind of pranayama . which is ready and fit for training and practice.8) *[The Anapanasati form of pranayama is not an overt or forced "control" of the breath. (B. In fact. both the body and the mind are prepared to do their respectiv e duties. most appropriate. The citta will be able to feel this tranquility and it calms also.9) Please study this profound natural truth: the prana-body is the conditioner of t he flesh-body. Being able to regulate the prana-body is equivalent to r egulating the flesh-body as we need.Buddhist pranayama . tranquility will arise i n the body. Is it nec essary or not? Is it worth your time and effort to study and practice? If you se e that it is the best that we can do. they all boil down to regulating the prana-body so that it conditions the kind of flesh-b ody that we require. the two words become anapana. this objective. You may not want to know this much. healthy. To understand them will not cost you a thing. making it calm and peaceful. You wi ll see that pranayama has been taken as the first subject of Anapanasati.11) . it improves on all of them.the flesh-body and the breath-body. (ET)] If we adjust the prana-body well. that is up to you. The system of training known as "kayanupassa na" is our first item of study. You will be able to ma ke this the best life possible. We cannot regulate the fle sh-body directly. (B. Please examine it carefully. the prana enters and the prana exits. improve upon them. With this syst em of kayanupassana (contemplation on the body) we take up the pranayama of all the Indian yogas. healthy body that is ready for the concentrating of the c itta. But this i s how the facts are. The better yo u understand. pranayama studies are held to be the highest and most necessary subject of s tudy. The word "good" here means "fit and proper to be used in pe rforming necessary duties and work. You ought to know that there are two kaya or two levels of kaya. It is a subtle and patient guiding or regulating.
12) You have all left Europe. (B. (B. cause us difficulties . We f all under the power of vedana. America or wherever your home is. Is this true or not? Even when s till in Europe or America you worked for the sake of nurturing sukha-vedana. happy feelings). indulge in them. (B. Please understand this point correctly. we can master the lower. we instead kill them. For this reason you oug ht to try . base villains that are the causes of all the crises in our lives. we can be victorious over all vedana. destroy them. The purpose of this tetrad is to know every kind of citta and what each kind is like. We are slaves to these feelings. (B.16) CITTANUPASSANA The third tetrad is cittanupassana (contemplation of mind). They are wi cked. These vedana a re masters over us. and activate it. control them. and needs. so we take them up as the second subject of study in Anapanasati.sukha-vedana in partic ular . We must know the feelings in their status of being "evil mara" (wicked tempters . Feelings force us to act. harmful mara. something more like nibbana or emancipation. They are evil demons which confuse us. (B. It must be prepared for its remai ning duties. more petty vedana. So do not consider it a silly matter or joke that we achieve the best vedana in order to kill them. c ruder. Now. the final conquest of dukkha. We need to understand the vedana.13) In some Pali texts the vedana are described. th ey condition the mind to think and act according to the power of vedana. here. Should you bother to give it a try? Sho uld you endure any difficulties that might arise? Should you spend your precious time on this practice? Please consider wisely.to achieve the highest level of v edana. Then we use that mind to do the dut y which next needs to be done. demons). especially. as "conditioners of the mind (citta -sankhara). They force the mind. If we can conquer these vedan a. but rather than enjoy them. We make it the kind of citta wh ich is fit and ready to do the highest duties. also. Some might even thi nk it a joke to search for the highest vedana only to destroy and control them. We purify it. you come here to Suan Mokkh to find the conditions for or means to get sukhavedana (nice. namely. It is difficult to find the right words to describe them. too. We are slaves to vedana . taste them. drink them. until we arrive at the highest level of duty.all the time. to come to Suan Mokk h in search of the conditions for sukha-vedana. the feelings that are born from samadhi. When we can control the most difficult feelings we can control the easy. childish feelings. Some of you may find this funny. the contemplation of feeling (vedananupassana) . Then take these most ple asant vedana as a lesson in order to conquer them. We cannot endure the influence of the vedana we must think and we must act under the power of vedana s desires or vedana s meaning. comes from the thoughts. and complicate our lives.we especially urge you to strive . We are not free within ourselves.VEDANANUPASSANA Now we come to the second tetrad. In return for killing the vedana we get s omething even better than this kind of vedana. Now . happy feelings). Then we train and control the citta so that it only goes along the way in which it ought to be ." Mind. We will receive another sort of ve dana. (B. that is lowly. simple. Everyone works solely to g et money for the sake of sukha-vedana (pleasant.17) . 14) If we can master the highest and most sublime vedana. concentrate it. desires. In this tetrad we study t he citta until we can keep it under control. it is time to understand the vedana well in order to k eep them under control.15) It may seem amusing to you that we strive to get the highest vedana. a higher order of vedana that should not even be called vedana.
and systems of samadhi-bhavana (mental c ultivation through concentration." By the words "a lot " they seem to mean too much or surplus. Nor is it the style of Suan Mokkh or any other W at. We will take just what is sufficient for ordinary people. The meaning of thi s is very important.the three characteristics of being . The vehicle that brings coolness into l ife. Altogether it contains sixteen steps or objects which a re to be practiced. Now. With this practice they will realize the benef its of samadhi just the same. Just practice the first tetrad o f Anapanasati sufficiently then practice the fourth tetrad sufficiently. It is nothing at all like any of those things. It is not the system of Ajahn This. 18) APPENDIX C: SAMADHI-BHAVANA IN BUDDHISM (Selections from a talk given 5 May 1987) There are many different forms. styles. At this time I would like to disc uss the samadhibhavana specifically introduced and recommended by the Lord Buddha himself. but there will not be any special qualities in addition to that. We call it "the Buddha s samadhi-bhavana. We w ill speak about this style of samadhi-bhavana in particular.unt il realizing sunyata and tathata. Anapanasati. thi s 16 Step samadhi-bhavana is neither too much nor too little. Know the truth of the things to which we are clinging. to which we are enslaved. when we attach to this thing and that thing we are sla ves to these things. (B. So we will get to know the truth of these things in order t o end our slavishness toward them. in order to live a life of supremely cool peacefulness. (C. however. Instead. He declared this form of samadhi-bhavana to be the one through which he himself realized the Dhamma of Perfect Awakening. If you are patient enough to do all sixteen steps. I insist that the Budd ha never taught anything more than necessary or less than complete. Such special abilities are not necessary anyway. If you are u nable to do it. That is. that some people do not like this and com plain that it is too much for them. Regarding this point. 1) This is the system of samadhi-bhavana that is known as anapanasati-bhavana or. until there is no attachment remaining." The essence of this method is to concentrate the mind adequately. So this is how we get to know Anapanasati-vipassana for the purpose of eliminati ng all problems. this is the fruit. that leads to a cool life is vipassana as practiced according to the princi ples of Anapanasati." It is not the Burmese s tyle or Chinese style or Sri Lankan style that we are clinging to these days. or Teacher That like w e are so caught up in nowadays. j ust enough. meditation). which any ordinary person can do. In this very li fe there is coolness. Guru This. This is the significance of dhammanupassana. then go examine aniccam-dukkham-anatta. It appears in the Pali Tipitaka both in brief references and detailed explanations. and then take that concentrated ci tta to observe aniccam-dukkham-anatta . (C. So make the mind sufficiently concen trated. there is still a condensed version which is adequate for lazy peo ple. for the sake of not being a slave to anything in the worlds eve r again. m ore simply. you will have the complete system. They will get the fun-scale result of extinguishin g dukkha. this is the correct way as recommended by the Buddha. the surplus is not necessary. It seems. which we call "the short cut method. Well.DHAMMANUPASSANA The fourth tetrad is dhammanupassana (contemplation of Dhamma). That is . Know this truth until let ting go of attachment. It involves know ing the truth about all the things. Master That. 2) THE SHORT CUT METHOD FOR ORDINARY PEOPLE We will begin by speaking for those who do not like "a lot.
the C omplete Four Tetrad Form of Anapanasati. use that citta to perform t he highest duty. we see the Tru th of all things. Or you could make yourse lf die immediately. Furthermore. 4) THE COMPLETE SYSTEM OF THE BUDDHA Now we will talk about the system which the Buddha himself practiced and explain ed. This is the full or perfect system. (C. unsatisfactorines s. When suchness is seen we do not fall under the power of dualism. Please be patient and take some time to listen. This i s the short cut for ordinary people. If you still think that it is excessive or surplus. You can have a healthy breath and a good. healthy body w ith pranayama. Thus. Th rough vipassana. and contemplating the breath in a way that it calms in order to calm the b ody. the fact of impermanence oppresses and forces us to experi ence dukkha. This has been known for many ages. Now we know that the breath supports and servic es this flesh-body. he took up pranayama and adjusted i t into this system of contemplating the breath. You can make your ag e last longer than it normally would through pranayama. You can play sports.body will be subtle. By highest we mean the duty of knowing. or whatever you require. Why not try it out! Sin cerely observe and genuinely study in a scientific way. We would like you to know that Anapanasati has these side-ben efits outside the scope of religion or Dhamma proper.all! Sufficient is not a lot. Just this m uch is sufficient for having a mind good enough to do vipassana. continually changing and transforming. 7) OUR HIGHEST DUTY The last tetrad is about Dhamma: nature and the Truth of nature. Anything that we ar e experiencing now is impermanent. (C. They are not much at all. rather than the short cut. 5) We can make different kinds of breath happen in order to understand the breath t hrough observing actual breaths. if you regulate the breath or prana in the way that is in accordan ce with your aims. Then the citta is on a level that it can use to contemplate aniccam-dukkham-anatta that manifes ts in every part and particle of our bodies. of realizing. we know the aniccam of e verything. there is no self . even before the Buddha ap peared in the world. When the citta is under control and has the samadhi that is needed.are contemplated until realizing suchness. Those living in the common. 3) Now we will look at the method of practicing the first tetrad. We realize that everything is impermanent. 6) There are many advantages and benefits to pranayama that are not directly concer ned with religion or Dhamma. We regulate life and the body th rough the breath. Even the things of which we are unaware are i mpermanent. This is th e short cut for ordinary people. They are extra incentives to interest you in pranay ama or breath control so that you will manage it correctly. then you have not r eally understood at all. Make the breath f ine and the entire .are able to do at least this much. by observing carefully with a concentrated mind. that is. (C. knowing how the breath regulates the body. This much is enough to pen etrate higher and higher into the Dhamma until realizing the highest. drive a car. Then it will not be diffi cult. The impermanence. nor is it complete. That is enough. tranquil and cool. ordinary world – even those living the household life . You can die during any breath you choose through controlling pranayama. (C. knowing the short breathing. The single exception is nibbana. This state of dukkha can not be endured by anyone. the only thing that does not change. even today. work in the office. (C. there are four steps to practice: knowing the lo ng breathing. and selflessness of every organ and component in our bodies – both concrete and mental . that is. but it is good enough. These are the four steps. There were many methods of pranayama practiced before the B uddha s time. You ought to be able to understand some of this and then it will be of benefit. Consequently. Truth. namely. When the Lord Buddha appeared.
" Just this one word encompasses the realization of ani ccam-dukkham-anatta-sunnata-tathata! They are gathered together into the same st ep because all are the result of directly seeing aniccam. This is the final tetrad. of human life. 9) NOTHING SURPLUS Finally. Know letting go. attachment begins to fade away. If they do not think tha t it can help them. we talk also about a natural evolution of the mind. There is nothing left. the more Anapanasati will be correct. whatever suits them. The rest involve Right View (samma-ditthi). leading to the quenching of all dukkha through the end of attachment. knows. the translator was asked to give a summary. And so we realize aniccam-dukk ham-anatta. The more ou r attitude is correct. 8) Continuing we see that: Oh! Once aniccam is seen. But as I speak and explain it to you. It dissolves and fades away bit-by-bit. now it is completely stopped. Together we call them sunnata. There is no duk kha or problem remaining that we would ever need to deal with again. (D. knows. Thus. some of which have been expanded for this book. It is called "aniccam-nupassi. 1) NATURAL EVOLUTION / INTENTIONAL PRACTICE I will begin with a distinction that is generally overlooked. concerning the Truth (sacca) of all things. we study Dhamma . that is. once impermanence is realized. voidness of self." this information should be of practical benefit to you. (C.so that the cit ta knows. namely . If dukkha is ended. Then know tathata. (C. This natural evolution is not the same thing as our meditation practice. dhammanupassana. Then we s tudy the foundations on which dukkha grows: the body and the vedana. That is still enough to get something beneficial out of Buddhism throu gh the technique of samadhi-bhavana. Some people may say that it is too much. When we talk about Anapanasati.) Today. The emphasis was on attitudes and techniques which would help beginner s get off to a correct start. surplus or not. This is cal led patinissagga: throwing it all away. There is nothing further to be done. the citta. To do it our practice must be complete. 10) APPENDIX D: TRANSLATOR S WRAP-UP (Following Ajahn Buddhadasa s seven lectures. Really. (C. Although I am no "me ditation teacher. Lastly. This is called realizing viraga. you can see for yourself whether it is a lot or not. mainly those with which our Western visitors have the most trouble and c onfusion. then we know: Wow! Now it is finally over." This is the first step of the fourth tetrad. well. we have the 16 Steps. Realizing this dissolving of attachment leads to: Owwh ! It s finished. Some of these are practical hints and tips to use in establishing the practice of Anapanasati. attachment is caput! This is called realizing nirodha: the utter extinction of all defilement and dukkha.the Truth of all things . suchness or "just like that. Anyone who does not want to study and train in the Complete 16 Steps can follow a condensed practice as explained earlier. There is a lot to be done. there are so many matters to study and know that to have only sixteen steps is not very much at all.or soul that can stand up to it. I will attempt to review and add to some of the points made by Ajahn Budd hadasa. althou . We go on to study the thing that experiences either dukkha or the absence of dukkha. Our functions and duties are fulfilled and finished. We study beginning with dukkha itself and the cause of dukkha s arising. This appendix is a selection of the more relevant passages. until it does not attach to anything. it does not seem the least e xcessive or surplus. that they do not want to study and practice. This is anatta.
The sixteen steps of Anapanasati are based on the contemplation of sixteen distinct objects (includin g but not limited to the breath) while we are aware of breathing in and breathin g out." For all beings this Path is fundamen tally the same. (D. I ha d contentment. we only start to work with piti at the mos t proper time. In step five. it is worth going to immediately. we use Anapanasati to study it and understand it. let go. Anapanasati meditation is not that evolution itself rather Anapanasati i s the studying and nurturing of that evolution. To summarize. PLEASE. the practice and the progress are interconnected and inseparable. 4) Another aspect of this natural evolution is that the mind evolves from cruder st ates of happiness to more subtle states of happiness. In our study of life we focus on these sixteen living objects. It will help you to know what you need to do an d to practice efficiently. however. As citt a-bhavana continues we discover even more sublime levels of bliss. it is best to take t hem patiently. I must-be on step five. With the first twelve steps. merely note it. and return to the current object with t he breathing in and out. which is after the first four steps have been fully completed and piti manifests clearly and steadily. on the natural side there are the sixteen ob jects which occur naturally whenever the conditions are present. 2) People often confuse the two. Even while practicing step one the feeling s of contentment and joy will arise. then it is quite easy to let go of coarser kinds of happiness. (D. usually sensual and s exual happiness. If the min d should wander. All other objects are to be left alone. we have the intention to practice one specific step or object. however. It can l et go of what is now a lower level of happiness to enjoy the higher level. (D. will be arising al l the time. This proceeds by fits and starts until we learn that the supreme happiness is not to attach to or indulge in any form of happiness. but that is not step thir teen unless we intentionally contemplate that impermanence. coming and going all the time as part of the natural process that is taking place. a nd it has begun already. The feeling of contentment.gh the two happen together and mutually support each other.) At anyone time. On the practica l side we systematically contemplate and train upon those sixteen things one by one. a natural evolution which is both the duty and the privilege of us all. 3) There is this difference between what is happening naturally and what we are pra cticing specifically. As that evolution takes place. "Oh! I had rapture. but not identical. We only get confused and distr . This is nothing to get excited about. Please be clear about this. We often hear. Throu gh that understanding we can use Anapanasati to further support. At the sam e time. nurture. AND START AT THE BEGINNING Anapanasati must be practiced one step at a time. one at a time. Thus. as well as the other objects. these sixteen objects arise naturally out of the cultivation of the mind (citta-bhavana). We mi ght even become aware of impermanence during step one. (In the case of impe rmanence. Through meditation we come across refined levels of joy. in this practice there is a natural progress of the mind letting go of a c rude happiness through the discovery of a better happiness." The same confusion occurs regarding most of the steps and some of us think that we are doing them all in one short sitti ng. and nu dge that evolution along. When we begin meditating w e are still interested in rather crude kinds of happiness. The mind must follow a certain path of evolution from wherever it "is" to what is called "enlightenment. I got piti. Once we learn about a higher or more refined level of happiness. (D. Then the mind attach es to that better happiness until it finds an even higher level of joy. 5) ONE STEP AT A TIME. Thus. if it is genuine insight and not just talking to oneself.
We are re ady for step ten only when we have gone through the first nine successfully. I. after y ou know it completely and can do it with ease. We do no t jump around from this step to that merely because we are restless. we respectfully use it to develop th e skills we need to have and learn the things we need to know. each breath is new!) So each session. We never know until we do it. without impatien ce. 7) Each session is brand new (See Marker 123). me. it is best to follow Anapan asati as it has been taught by the Buddha. it must be a practice of non-attachment. nor to its theory.primarily internal . then a bit of step two. Even if you were working with step three or four yesterday or bef ore lunch. 10) We do not cling to the technique we are using. and the second next w eek. We are often impatient with where we are and want to get somewhere else. It would do us well to restrain that urge. Do not fall into the confusion of a little of step one. me. then some of that. boredom and frustration. mine. After you are skilled in step one. Without expectations we practice step by step.some sessions will get no farther than step one an d others will get as far as our overall progress. then go on to step two. Each session starts with establishing sati on the breath and then practicing step one. I am watching. I am breathing. I am this.acted by trying to do two or more things at once. I . The only necessar y thing is letting go of attachments and quenching dukkha. mine…" Learn to let go of these attached feelings and ideas of I and mine. "Today I ll try a ll sixteen steps. Depending on cond itions . nor can it be done without effort. (In fact. and some of th is. By accepting the nature of these steps we can practice wisely. my body. (D. I am med itating. Practice the steps one at a time and sti ck with each one until you are an expert in it. rather than mere memory. 11) The Middle Way is also a practice of correctness. of being perfect in the way we ." or "What if I start with sixteen and work backward?" D on t just leaf through this book and choose a step that interests you. Each step depends on the previous steps. my breathing. must start with step one. Onc e we can accept things as they are. The Buddha taught only the Middle Way and Anapanasati is nothing but the Mi ddle Way. The conditions for step five are the completion of steps one through four. To make the most of this natural fact. we can stop desiring that they be otherwise. bored. now you must review it at the start of each session until the knowledge of it is directly here and now. (D. Rather. (D. Each sitting or walking period or wh atever is brand new. that is mine. (D. my feelings. my mind. 9) THE MIDDLE WAY OF NON-ATTACHMENT We should always reflect that this is the cultivation and practice of non-attachm ent. Be very careful about sitt ing down with ideas like. Then you can go to step three. "I am sitting. It is neither an intense practice. (D. (D. Each step must be reviewed in the same way to make sure that we are expert at it right now. We must t ake them one by one." or "Let s do the first tetrad this week. seeing what happens and learning w hat we can. If you have succeeded already with step one . Learn to stay balanced in the breathing with sati. Properly. or anything. 8) This is merely the way things are. because Anapanasati is based on the natural evolution alrea dy described. unless you have kept it going throughout the interim. and then the third. We do not use it to collect mundane trivia about the breath ourselves. Practice step two until you are expert in it and have learned everything that you need to know about it. I t is to be done with balance. or f ull of desires. for as long as that takes. We should be satisfied with th e step we are on and willing to do it right. We do not abuse it in pursuit of attainments. you must start at the beginning as is only natural. neither detached pushing away nor egoistic clinging. Do not listen when you find yourself thinking. 6) Always start at the beginning.
attachments to agitation and impatience. we learn to let go of everything. balance. compassion. step one can be enough. clear. (D. But most of us must work at lett ing go of our attachments and the habit to attach. 15) Getting to step sixteen is not so important. Do it witho ut clinging and grasping. This pract ice abuses no one." We all want to be good and practice step four and then five and then six. Some of us ar e competitive and judge ourselves according to others. such as. we would be Buddhas just like that. understan ding. clearer states of awareness. with wisdom. Maybe even during step one. We f oolishly think that "I am a better person when practicing step four than when pr acticing only step one. 13) PATIENCE & PROGRESS Finally. attachment is a long established habit. In this way. Do each step properly and do not hurry. So please be very. in any of the dualistic traps. In fact. it will "get somewhere. Such thinking will do nobody any good. judge themselves according to these steps. 1 2) For most of us. anger . While practicing Anapanasati correctly we are living in a way that is cor rect. Learn to keep plugging away at step one until it is complete. The Buddha said: Khanti paramam tapo titikkha. when they learn about t he sixteen steps of Anapanasati. We do no t get caught up in these and those extremes. Measure progress accor ding to the development of spiritual qualities. (D. Then we find o urselves attaching to more subtle things. balanced. Alth ough this wisdom may be first developed in formal bhavana practice. and that is all that matters. There will be less and less dukkha. These results of correct practice will be growing noticeably eve n during step one. So you never k now when it will be realized. And then s tep two. As we become established in this practice we are becoming fam iliar with a mode of being that is correct. sati. it is to be brought into and perfected within the informal meditation of daily life. We begin by letting go of our coarse attachments: attachments to the body . Anapanasati is a systematic way to let go of successively more subtle attachments until there is no attachment left at all. (D.live. brighter. 16) We find that when we have more patience and endurance in our Anapanasati practic e. Once we let go of them. calm life. If we could drop it just like that. Many of us are in the h abit of judging and measuring ourselves against various standards. calmness. Anapanasati is a way of letti ng go. They help us to live a clean. then patience and endurance are more a part of our daily lives. 14) Do not measure progress according to these sixteen steps. with balance. Do it with patience. these qualities will grow and attachment will less en. Just do it. and delusion. Learn to sit still. (D. we attach to higher. attachments to external disturbances and petty annoyances. Patient endurance is the supreme scorcher of defilement. very patient. to boredom and la ziness. and so forth. Finally. such as happy feelings. endurance) is a necessary s piritual tool. Th e reality of nibbana is unconditioned and not caught within time. Even if we stick with little old step one for the rest of our lives. and non-attached. Sometimes we judge oursel ves according to the various ideals we have. to pains and aches." As long as there is impatience and desire to move . friendliness. if we do it properly. With patience the mind will dev elop. (D. You need not hurry to get on to steps two or three or ten. let me remind us all that khanti (patience. confidence. Step one might be enough if you just do it right. We do no harm to any creature. Let go of those and we begin to have some insight into reality and so we attach to the ins ights. neither to others nor ourselves. energy. with clarity. Mea sure it against the lessening of attachment and the disappearing of greed. Many people.
Once we are skilled at it. and so on. Maintain this watchfulness of the breathing and becom e familiar with both. we will want a more refined and peaceful way to be mindful of the breath. exact. in and out. do not lead it. s tay balanced. 22) (4) Once "following" becomes easy and constant. you must find what wo rks best for you. go to the middle of the chest. For the inhalation these correspond to the nose. and th e abdomen. We choose a point in the nose because it is more subtle. and end. In other places such as the abd . hunti ng." While breathing naturally. d o not make things unnecessarily complicated. Now we are ready for "guarding. without any forcing or manipulating of the breath. Direct attention to the breathing in a firm and gentle way. Follow the breath. always start anew. which now is easily noted within the quiet and still body. take things one step at a time. learn to identify and let go of the attachments that creep into o ur practice. (D. Observe at the nose as the exhalation ends and wait for the new inhalation to be felt. study it systematically. chasing. experienced . but you need not follow it blindly. stalking. middle. 19) (1) Once seated comfortably. Only then does the mind jump to the nex t point. beginning at the belly and en ding at the nose. 18) GETTING STARTED: ESTABLISHING SATI Any practice of citta-bhavana begins with sati taking up and establishing upon t he initial meditation object. relaxed and still. ou r first object. sati follows the breath in and out. we connect the three points into a continuous sweep or flow. so we begin by establishing sati on the breath. With sati note the breath at each of these points as it passes in and out.on. however. somewh at crude and agitating after a while. between the tip of the nose and the navel. a certain point in the nose wil l stand out. practice to understand dukkha and to realize the end of d ukkha. Simply note one point that covers b oth nostrils. There are various ways of being mindful of the breath. We call this "following. This hopping from point to point is a relatively easy way to establish sati on the breath. the middle of the chest. It becomes. 20) (2) Note the three primary segments of each breath: beginning. (See Marker 49-50). then skip to the chest. Then skip to the middle of the chest and watch there until the breath is f elt. feel the breathing. 17) (D These are some thoughts on attitude or Right View which I can offer you: discove r the natural evolution. This is right where the breath is felt most clearly and distinctly. (D. Although some people may feel that there are two points.which must be felt. Continue watching as the inhalation ends and wait for the exhalation to begin. . Track the succession of physical sensations . Then skip to the abdomen and watch there until the breath is felt. it will begin to feel unnecessar ily busy and disruptive. desires. We will describe a simple approach that should work well for m ost people. Watch and wait at the nose until the incoming breath is felt t here. you are learning little of consequence and experiencing much dukkha. It is a good way to get started. In short. Be careful to observe pati ently at each point until the breathing (the movement of the breath itself or of the organs used for breathing) is felt. As always. (D. and then the n ose. This is the point used for guarding. Once the exhalation is felt at the abdomen. and demands. be patient. This more closely approximates the breath itself. By this time. one in each nostril. put aside expectations.in and out. For the exhalation the reverse is true. (D. and distinct." a more peaceful way to practice sati with the breathing. (D. 21) (3) Next. Accept that nibbana is the reason for practicing Anapanasati and be deligh ted with our great opportunity. We can ar range them progressively from coarse to subtle in a way that corresponds to the first four steps.
If we see that the breath is pass ing by many places at the same time. (D. A fter sati is established we will relax and the breathing will become deeper. flowing. "river." althou gh "guarding" can be used. as well as the eyes. Even when the eyelids are closed we can aim the eyes at the tip of the nose (See Marker 46-48). however.omen or chest the movements are large and coarse. one number for eac h breath. Step three is best done by "following. We do enoug h of that already. we will drop the loud breathing naturally (it becomes annoying). Do not cross the eyes or create tension: That will lead only to headaches . The method of counting explained by Ajahn Buddh adasa serves another purpose and comes later (Marker 55). Count each inhalation as it begins. 27) The third trick is counting. 25) TRICKS TO AID SATI If it is too much of a struggle to keep the mind on the breath while following. sati becomes more subtle. Bef ore long we will feel movement in the abdomen. Continue to calm the body-conditioner until proper and suffic ient samadhi develops. that . We can always begin with the first technique. D o not look for or create complex breath patterns. There is no need for concepts. We can gang up on the breath with the eyes. Do not try to watch every sepa rate movement at once. This can be particularly useful at the beginning of a session or after a disturbance. Keep it simple. If the mind wanders. blah. also. (D. Do so by simultaneously calming the breath and becom ing more sensitive (through sati) to the increasingly more subtle sensations at the guarding point. start over with "one. with movement in the chest only a nd not in the abdomen. as Ajahn Buddhadasa has explained. And if we are not careful . we stop watching the river and get lost in our words and thoughts. At first you may only be able to gaze a little beyond or in front of the nose. If we spend our time thinking about the breath it is easy to get confused. watchfulness. fix the citta on this point. words. The water flows and we walk alo ng watching it flow. With traini ng. not to sati. Step four should begin with "following" and the n take up "guarding. We need not talk to ourselves. You should try some loud breathing. and natural. In order to calm the breath we must use a point that is small." If we can count to "ten" w ithout the mind wandering go back to "one" anyway. can support sati. A simple flow from the tip of the nose to the navel and from the navel to the tip of the nose is sufficient for our purpose. The ears. and pictures. (D. a simple count of each breath is enough. Again. With sati. flowi ng .blah.this. Allow the citta to gat her itself upon this point. there are some tricks or aids we can use. We can compare "following" the breath to walking along a river. focused. and suitably refined. Sati is reflective attention. scrutiny . at the beginning or whenever you find it difficult to establish sati. do not use this fact as an opportunity to c omplicate things. After following gets going." (D. 26) A second trick is to breathe loudly. 24) This is a good opportunity to emphasize that sati is not "thinking about" someth ing. awareness. observance. Why drag it into our Anapanasati practice. (D. 23) If at first our breaths are short and shallow. blah. Do this in a relaxed and gentl e way. alert. once sati is es tablished well enough counting is unnecessary and should be dropped. then simply follow the breath down however far it goes. 28) ." to see the river. Breathe loud enough to hear the breath. which does not suit our purpos es. Such things only g et in the way of directly experiencing the breathing in and out. If we merely observe the breath it will be simple. and now the intellect. but as the body and face relax you will be able to gaze at the tip itself. the ear s. labels. For our purpose here. too? (D. The first is to aim the eyes at the ti p of the nose. river. The second and third techniques ar e suitable for steps one and two.
This requires self-discipline . that is.not self-tortu re. you will find that abdominal breathing is longer than chest breathing . Eventually. in terms of both time and extent of physical movement. more relaxed. 31) Now. Steps one and two really begin. At that point there is. So the very long breath is an ordinary breath p lus more. (D. it is best to be content with step one. Train yourself wisely. the diaphragm drops and pushes the tummy outward. it is possible to sit comfortably for long periods of t ime. (D." we ca n check such thoughts by asking ourselves: "Is the body relaxed enough to sit li ke this for an hour or more. The first and easiest quality to note is length. But should it occur naturally. So do not try to force abdominal breathing. For our purposes. an exac t dividing line between short and long is not important. If we are impatient to get through step one and want to move on to "more interesting things. The two seem to contradict each other. the chest w ill then expand. you will discover an interesting point. however. There is no need to compare your breaths with someone else s. we will be learning about the lo ng and short breathing. comfortably. we will be able to sit fo r long periods of time with ease. This is the ordinary abdominal breathing bef ore it becomes very long. when sati can f ollow the breath without faltering. The opposite movements (roughly) occur with the very long exhalations. 29) Generally. We are not "supposed" to breath in a certain way and we do not use Anapanasati to develop this or that way of br eathing. When the breath is really long you will discover this for yourself. observe it. (D. and healthier. 32) Even when sati is less than firmly established. After the abdomen s limit is reached the chest expands and the abdomen contracts. it will happen more an d more regularly . however. and other phenomena may. Become familiar with yo ur own breathing and learn what your longest breaths and shortest breaths are li ke relative to each other. thoughts. and smooth. Then. (D. we observe the normal breathing. If we continue to breathe in. however. the results would not be ve ry relaxing. This is what Ajah n Buddhadasa meant. If we are restlessly changing positions every ten or fifteen minutes. gentle. The mind still may wander some but stays with the breath en ough to learn what it is like. and learn joyfully. Common sense says that the abdomen expands on the in-breath and contracts on the out-breath. (D. As we relax and breathe more deeply this limit will be reached. Which is right? First. room l eft in the chest (lungs) for more air. there is a limit to how far the abdomen can expand.oc casionally wander through. Some people will consider this short and others will feel it is relatively long. if abdominal breathing comes naturally. A very long inhalation begins just like a normal breath. 30) Should your breaths become very long. We are a ble to stay with the breath. without any desire to move?" When the breathing is truly long. slow. This in turn pulls up and flattens the tummy. relax. Sounds. it is not something we desire or seek.LONG & SHORT BREATHS After sati is established (techniques two or three) we begin to notice the long and short breathing. with balance. Yo u may have thought it strange when Ajahn Buddhadasa said that the chest expands and the abdomen contracts with the long in-breath (Marker 58). 33) . As we inhale. This is something we observe. It is a simple movement of the abdomen expanding (or r ising) with the in-breath and contracting (or falling) with the out-breath. Learn how to sit still. you will see that it is longer. When we exhale the tummy falls in again. but the mind does not get caught up in them. and allow the breath to become long.even outside the formal sittings. Many of us will seldom experience this very long breathing until the b ody becomes very relaxed through Anapanasati. The abdomen expands but the chest barely moves at all.
These are the sixteen things which we should contemplate at eve ry opportunity. As Ajahn Buddhadasa pointed out in Appendix B. You will see that the sixteen steps provide a general structure for all satipa tthana practice. we will discover the kind of breathing that calms the body the most. mental cultivation) than sitting. and alertness. in this case "all bodies. the breath while performing most duties. we are ready for step four. but we are interested. find the right way to perform that activity so that it has the optimal effect on the body and a llows the mind to find an appropriate degree and type of concentration. On the other hand. although the breath and its influence are closely associated. or mood.slow) and quality (coarse . This cor . get to know that activity from all angles (long . (D. 34) Studying the influence of the breathing upon the body involves more than just lon g and short breaths. whenever these dhammas occur. most of all. I hope that you can use this informa tion which we have provided to develop a wise meditation practice. If this is developed properly. Our lives involve more than sitting and Anapanasati can help us in all those other areas of life. 38) 16 STEPS TO EVERYTHING We can use any bodily activity as a basis for sati.STEP THREE: A NEW OBJECT In steps one and two the breath is the only object of our attention. it is often the most skillful mean s out of an unwholesome thought. the awareness of breathing in and out moves into the background where it remains dear and constant. clarity. emotion. stability. O ur formal sitting and walking practice is very important.subtle). These are just three of the w ays in which we integrate Anapanasati with life as a whole. First." the influence of the breaths upon the rest of the body. Before I fini sh today. The more necessary and centr al to life (like the breathing) that activity is. In doing so the breath shou ld not be treated as an escape.short may or may not be relevant). Now. see what influence that activity has on the flesh body. we can use the sixteen steps to identify the things most worthy of our attention. 36) LIFE IS MEDITATION There is more to "meditation" (citta-bhavana. we ough t to work at developing the four foundations of mindfulness at every opportunity . Beginning wi th step three we take up other objects. 35) I have said enough to help you get started. in living life . Once we have taken the time to study and understand the sixteen steps (which may involve some supplementary reading) we need not limit their application to the breathing alone. In this step. (D. Note that this is not the breath itse lf. While the mind focuses on the new object. strength. also. the Satipatt hana Suttas lack a dearly defined method of practice. Nevertheless. At this time. First of all. if not concentrated on. Third. The same holds true for the rest of the sixteen steps. Although most bodily processes are not open to the systematic and complete treatment we use with the breath. tr anquility. the mind can go to the breath and focus upon it when harmful mental states arise. the breath regulate s the body in a state of rightness and anchors the mind in purity. Quality is the most impo rtant because it has the greatest influence on the calmness of the body. Second. (D. Second . Then . (D. Third. Length was a convenient way to begin. the better. please allow me a final observation. the skills and knowledge developed through formal practice can be used and expanded upon throughout our d aily activities. we should also no tice speed (fast . and there are few peop le who do not need it. we can be aware of. (D. 37) Even the theory of Anapanasati can be used throughout the meditation of daily li fe. we always know whe ther we are breathing in or out.life free of dukkha.
Please study it carefully. feeling. Avoid mixing it up with things you h ear from meditators using other systems. (D. and some of th em taught and trained forty bhikkhus. the fourth and most important tetrad (D hamma). some of them taught and trained tw enty bhikkhus. Try to follow his advice as well as you are able. Venerable Maha-Kassapa. and vice versa. The third tetr ad (citta) begins with experiencing the different types of mind arising during t hat activity. May you use them well. then calm that influence. Once we appreciate the possibilities inherent in the sixteen steps there will be cons tant opportunities to develop the citta even in the "most difficult conditions. Venerable Maha-Kappina. understood that which is lofty and excellent more than ever b . Venerable Revata. the supreme peace and freedom of nibbana. concentrate. At that time those venerable elders taught and trained the new bhikkhus. When possible. Think it through sufficiently. dedication. more than a few readings may be ne cessary. Venerable Maha-Kaccayana. practice Anapanasati directly. Venerable Ananada. This covers the second tetrad (vedana). try it. is to contemplate all aspects of that activity . Then we train to gladden.1 in the mansion of Migara s mother in the Eastern Grove together with many widely known elder disciples: Venerable Sariputta. This rendering is based on Ajahn B uddhadasa s translation from Pali to Thai and his 1ine-by-line explanation of tha t translation. 40) We hope that you are able to use this information. some of them taught and trained thirty bhikkhus. Venerable Maha-Moggallana. and wisdom a llow this practice to deepen and lead to the understanding of non-attachment and the realization of the end of dukkha.] INTRODUCTION I have heard thus: At one time the Exalted One was staying near Savatthi. practice it indirectly throu gh a parallel practice. Through practice your understanding of these instructions will grow. but for the most part those adjustments will be in your own unde rstanding and application rather than in Ajahn Buddhadasa s instructions. and mind .responds to the first tetrad (kaya). Those new bhikkhus when taught and trained by the elders so. Study the influence these feelings have on the mind. an d Bhikkhu Nagasena have been consulted as well. You will need to ma ke adjustments. Otherwise. 39) Anapanasati explains how to use everything we do as satipatthana practice. Previous English translations by I. Contemplate the fading away and extinction of attac hment. Venerable Maha-Kotthita." The sixteen steps . With patience. The knowledge we gain through parallel citta-bhavana wil l supplement and support our regular Anapanasati practice. We have presented it as clear ly as we are able. and liberate the mind while that activity is taking place. examine the feelings associated with that activity.as aniccam-dukkham-anatta. Bhikkhu Nanamoli. Contemplate the tossing back to nature of everything associated with the b asic activity.especially the first and last tetrads . Next. Finally. and other widely known elder discipl es.are enough meditatio n theory to eliminate dukkha from life. (D. 41) APPENDIX E: MINDFULNESS WITH BREATHING DISCOURSE (ANAPANASATI SUTTA)* * [The translator is not well versed in Pali. most importantly. Horner.body.B.2 Some o f the elders taught and trained ten bhikkhus. (D. especially the pleasant feelings that arise when the activity is done well and successfully. Venerable Maha -Cunda. Then.
living in this community there are bhikkhus who are Once-Returners th rough having ended the three fetters8 and lessened lust and hatred. Further. Bhikkhus. for reaching the unreached.7 who wil l realize perfect coolness in that existence and by nature will never return fro m that world. the blooming time of t he white lotus. living in this community there are bhikkhus who are Non-Returners thr ough having ended the five lower fetters. and is a field more fertile than any other in the world for the cultivation of merit. the venerable elders taught and trained the newly arrived bhikkhus in great measure. They streamed into Savatthi continuously in order to attend the Exalted One. Bhikkhus. "Bhikkhus. Bhikkhus for this reason you should summon up even more e nergy for attaining the unattained. this community is not at all worthless.4 The Exalted One surveyed the calm and silent assembly of bhikkhus. the full moon night o f the last month of the Rains Residence." The bhikkhus in the countryside came to know that the Exalted One would remain a t Savatthi until the fourth and final month of the rains.6 and are liberated through right understanding. During that time the Exalted One3 was sitting in the open surrounded by the comm unity of bhikkhus on the observance day of the fifteenth. living in this community there are bhikkhus who are Worthy Ones (arah ants) without eruptions (asavas). this community of bhikkhus is an assembly such that people who make s mall offerings to it receive much and people who make large offerings receive ev en more. This community is not a failur e in the least way. THE COMMUNITY OF BHIKKHUS "Bhikkhus. "Bhikkhus. then spoke. have dropped all burdens. This community is established in the pure essence of Dhamma. Bhikkhus such as these are living in this community of bhikkhus. the blossoming time of the white lotus (komudi). then spoke. Those new b hikkhus when taught and trained by the elders so understood that which is lofty and excellent more than ever before. have attained their purpose. who by nature never will full into evil a . I will wait here at Savatthi until the fourth and final month of t he rains. s ome of them taught and trained twenty bhikkhus.5 who have lived the sublime life. is worth y of offerings.efore. for realizing th e unrealized. who are spontaneously arisen. we are certain of this way of practice. and some of them taught and trained forty bhikkhus. some of them taught and trained thirty bhikkhus. is worthy of hospitality. "Bhikkhus. who will com e back to this world only once and then will put an end to dukkha. have en ded the fetters to existence. "Bhikkhus. Bhikkhus such as these are living in this community of bhikkhus. living in this community there are bhikkhus who are Stream-Enterers t hrough having ended the three fetters. this community is worthy of gifts. we are convinced by this way of practice. "Bhikkhus. This community of bhikkhus is an assembly deserving that people pack up provisions and walk great distances to come see and observe it. Now at that later time the Exalted One was sitting in the open surrounded by the community of bhikkhus on the night of the full moon observance day of the fourt h and final month of the rains. the blossoming time of the white lotus. is worthy of homage. Bh ikkhus such as these are living in this community of bhikkhus. This community of bhikkhus is an assembly most difficult to find in thi s world. have done wh at is to be done. The Exalt ed One surveyed the calm and silent assembly of bhikkhus. Some of the elders taught and trained ten bhikkhus. "Bhikkhus.
.. how does Anapanasati that one has developed and made much of have grea t fruit and great benefit? ...gain and are certain of future awakening.. . . .. . . Bh ikkhus such as these are living in this community of bhikkhus. The seven factors of awakening that one has developed and made much of perfect insight kn owledge and liberation.... bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of sympath etic joy (mudita) ....... .. bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the nobl e eightfold path 14.. ..... Bhikkhus such as these are in this com munity of bhikkhus.. "Bhikkhus. living in this community there are bhikkhus who dwell devoted in prac ticing the cultivation of the four foundations of mindfulness (satipatthana). . .. . bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the experience o f impermanence (aniccasatina).... bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the five faculties ll... bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of compass ion (karuna) . The four foundations of mindfulness that one has developed and made much of perfect the seven factors of awakening. Bhikkhus. living in this community there are bhikkhus who dwell devoted in prac ticing the cultivation of the four right efforts 9. bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the four paths of success 10 ...... Anapanasati that one has developed and made much of has great fruit a nd great benefit Anapanasati that one has developed and made much of perfects th e four foundations of mindfulness.. . bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the five powers 12.... bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the non -beautiful 15." MINDFULNESS WITH BREATHING "Bhikkhus.... Bhikkhus such as these are living in this community of bhikkhus. bhikkhus who dwell devoted -in practicing the cultivation of equani mity (upekkha) ... bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of the seve n factors of awakening 13.. "Bhikkhus. . Bhikkhus. bhikkhus who dwell devoted in practicing the cultivation of friendli ness (metta) .. living in this community there are bhikkhus who dwell devoted in pract icing the cultivation of mindfulness with breathing (anapanasati).
22 (11) He trains himself: concentrating the mind I shall breathe in. constantly contemplating fading away I shall breathe in.18 SECOND TETRAD (5) He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing piti I shall breathe in. 25 (14) He trains himself. ever mindful he breathes out. (3) He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing all bodies I shall breathe in. constantly contemplating impermanence I shall breathe in . 20 THIRD TETRAD (9) He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing the mind I shall breathe in. Ever mindful that bhik khu breathes in. H e trains himself: constantly contemplating quenching I shall breathe out.Bhikkhus. He trai ns himself: thoroughly experiencing sukha I shall breathe out. While bre athing out short he fully comprehends: I breathe out short. (7) He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing the mind-conditioner I shall brea the in. He trains himself. a bhikkhu within this Training (dhamma-vinaya). securely maintains mindfulness (sati). 26 (15) He trains himself: constantly contemplating quenching I shall breathe in. He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing all bodies I shall breathe out. He train s himself: calming the mind-conditioner I shall breathe out. Whi le breathing out long he fully comprehends: I breathe out long. constantly contemplating impermanence I shall breathe out. 16 (2) While breathing in short he fully comprehends: I breathe in short. He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing the mind-conditioner I shall breathe out. 27 (16) He trains himself: constantly contemplating tossing back I shall breathe in . He train s himself: thoroughly experiencing piti I shall breathe out. He tr ains himself: concentrating the mind I shall breathe out. He t rains himself: thoroughly experiencing the mind I shall breathe out. 21 (10) He trains himself: gladdening the mind I shall breathe in. (6) He trains himself: thoroughly experiencing sukha I shall breathe in. He train s himself: calming the body-conditioner I shall breathe out. FIRST TETRAD (1) While breathing in long he fully comprehends: I breathe in long. He train s himself: gladdening the mind I shall breathe out. having sat cross-legged w ith his body erect.23 (12) He trains himself: liberating the mind I shall breathe in.17 (4) He trains himself: calming the body-conditioner I shall breathe in. FOURTH TETRAD (13) He trains himself. to the base of a tree or to an empty dwelling. having gone into the f orest. He trains himself: constantly contemplating fading away I shall breathe out.19 (8) He trains himself: calming the mind-conditioner I shall breathe in.
in order to abandon all liking and disliking toward the w orld. in order to aban don all liking and disliking toward the world. 31 Bhikkhus.. while breathing out long fully comprehends. or. shall breathe out. who has strayin reason that bhikk the mind. Bhikkhus. shall breath e out. comprehends readily. for this reason that bhikk hu is considered one who lives constantly contemplating feeling in feelings.. comprehends re adily. (8) trains himself: calming the mind-conditioner I shall breathe in . whenever a bhikkhu (1) while breathing in long fully comprehends: I br eathe in long... or. shall breathe out. for this hu is considered one who lives constantly contemplating mind in to burn up defilements. I do not say that Anapanasati is possible for a person g mindfulness and lacks ready comprehension. (3) trains himself: thoroughly experiencing all bodies I shall breathe in . while brea thing out short fully comprehends: I breathe out short.. for this reason that bhikkhu is considered one who lives constantly contemplating body in bodies.. or. THE FOUR FOUNDATIONS OF MINDFULNESS (satipatthana) Bhikkhus. in n all liking and disliking toward the world.. whenever a bhikkhu (13) trains himself: constantly contemplating imper . this is how Anapanasati that one has developed and made much of has gr eat fruit and great benefit. compreh ends readily. (6) trains himself: thoroughly expe riencing sukha I shall breathe in . and is mindful. I say that attending carefully in the mind to in-breaths and out-breat hs is a certain feeling among all feelings. I breathe out long. strives order to abando Bhikkhus.. or.. (2) while breathing in short fully comprehends. I breathe in short.. shall b reathe out. strives to burn up defilements. shall breathe out. Bhikkhus. Bhikkhus. (7) trains himself: thoroughly experiencing the mind-conditioner I shall breathe in . strives to burn up defilements. 28 Bhikkhus. (11) trains himself: conc entrating the mind I shall breathe in … shall breathe out.. and is mindful. Bhikkhus. or . comprehends readily.. and is mindful. then that bhikkh u is considered one who lives constantly contemplating mind in the mind. in order to abando n all liking and disliking toward the world. and is mindful.. in order to abandon an liking and disliking toward the world. strives to burn up defilements.. shall breathe out. then that bhikkhu is considered one who lives constantly c ontemplating feeling in feelings. then that bhikkhu is considered one who lives constantly contemplati ng body in bodies. I say that the in-breaths and the out-breaths are certain bodies among all bodies. He trains himself: constantly contemplating tossing back I shall breathe out. stri ves to burn up defilements.. and is mi ndful. or. shall breathe out. . whenever a bhikkhu (9) trains himself: thoroughly experiencing the min d I shall breathe in . shall breathe out. in order to abandon all liking and disliking toward the world. or.. (10) trains himself: gladdening the mind I shall breathe in . 29 Bhikkhus. or.. comprehends readily. (12) trains himself : liberating the mind I shall breathe in . 30 Bhikkhus. shall breathe out. Bhikkhus. or.. strives to burn up defilements. comprehends readily. how does Anapanasati that one has developed and made much of perfect t he four foundations of mindfulness? Bhikkhus. and is mindful. (4) trains himself: calming the body-conditioner I shall breathe in . whenever a bhikkhu (5) trains himself: thoroughly experiencing piti I shall breathe in .
.manence I shall breathe in . and scru tinizes these dhammas with wisdom.. (15) trains himself: constantly contemplating quenching I shall breathe in .. takes up. (14) trains himself: const antly contemplating fading away I shall breathe in . strives to burn up defilements. and sc rutinizes these dhammas with wisdom. whenever non-sensual piti arises in the bhikkhu who has engaged energy . how do the four foundations of mindfulness that one has developed and made much of perfect the seven factors of awakening? Bhikkhus. takes up.. this is how Anapanasati that one has developed and made much of perfec ts the four foundations of mindfulness. whenever unwavering energy is engaged by a bhikkhu who selects.. or. strives to burn up defilements. strives to burn up defile ments. whenever a bhikkhu is one who lives constantly contemplating body in b odies 33. compreh ends readily. ... unwavering energy i s engaged by him. Bhikkhus. then the investigation of dhammas factor of awakening (dhammavicaya sambojjhanga) is engaged by that bhikkhu and he develop s it further and finally its development in him is perfected. takes up. When energy is engaged by that bhikkhu. takes up. That bhikkhu when mindful in such a way selects.. and scrutinizes these dhammas with wisdom. then that bhikkhu is considered one who lives constantly contemplating Dhamma in dhammas. 34 Bhikkhus. Bhikkhus. Bhikkhus. comprehends readily. for this re ason that bhikkhu is considered one who lives constantly contemplating Dhamma in dhammas. 32 That bhikkhu looks on with perfect equanimity because he has seen with wisdom th e abandoning of all liking and disliking toward the world. and is mindful. whenever a bhikkhu is mindful in such a way. selects. in order to abandon all liking and disliking towar d the world. and scrutinizes these dhammas with wisdom. and is mindful. Bhikkhus. then the sati of that bhikkhu thus established is natural and uncon fused. s hall breathe out. in order to abandon all liking and d isliking toward the world. shall breathe out. is one who lives con stantly contemplating Dhamma in dhammas. whenever both the body and the mind of a bhikkhu who is contented are calm. is one who lives constantly contemplating mind in the mind ... non-sensu al piti arises. and is mindful. then the contentment factor of awakening (piti-sambojjhanga) is engaged by tha t bhikkhu and he develops it further and its development in him is perfected. or. then the energy factor of awakeni ng (viriya-sambojjhanga) is engaged by him and he develops it further and its de velopment in him is perfected. whenever the sati of that bhikkhu thus established is natural and unco nfused. is one who lives constantly contemplating feeling in feelings . Bhikkhus.. shall breathe out. i n order to abandon all liking and disliking toward the world. or. THE SEVEN FACTORS OF AWAKENING (Bojjhanga) Bhikkhus.. Wh en that bhikkhu s body is calmed there is joy and the mind becomes concentrated. comprehends readily. Bhikkhus.. (16) trains himself: constantly contemplating tossing bac k I shall breathe in . shall breathe out. then the tranquility factor of awakening (passaddhi-sambojjhanga) is engag ed by him and he develops it further and its development in him is perfected.. then the mindfulness enlightenment factor (sati-sambojjhanga) is engaged by that bhikkhu and he develops it further and finally its development in him i s perfected. When that bhikkhu selects. Wh en that bhikkhu s mind is contented both body is calmed and mind is calmed.
on viraga. a nd leads to vossagga. on nirodha. on viraga.Bhikkhus. how do the seven factors of awakening that one has developed and made much of perfect knowledge (vijja) and liberation (vimutti)? Bhikkhus. He develops passaddhi-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka. this is how the four foundations of mindfulness that one has developed and made much of perfect the seven factors of awakening. then the equanimity factor of awakening upekkha-sambojjhanga) is engaged by that bhikkhu and he develops it further and its development in him is perfect ed. Bhikkhus. He develops samadhi-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka. Then the capital of the kingdom of Kosala. (fading away). Bhikkhus. on nirodha. 36 He develops dhammavicaya-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka. Bhikkhus. then the concentration factor of awakening (samadhi-samboj jhanga) is engaged by that bhikkhu and he develops it further and its developmen t in him is perfected. that depend s on nirodha (quenching). aloneness). letting go). on nirodha. on nirodha. and leads to vossagga. He develops piti-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka. whenever a bhikkhu looks upon that concentrated mind with perfect equa nimity. on niro dha. "Beggar" or "one who sees the danger" in the spinning round of ego-births. on viraga. He develops upekkha-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka. "b hikkhu" is the word the Buddha used to address the men who left home to live the sublime life with him.37 After the Blessed One had spoken. 2. on viraga. He spent twenty-five of forty-five rains residences there. a bhikkhu in this Training develops sati-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka (solitude. He develops viriya-sambojjhanga that depends on viveka. 35 KNOWLEDGE AND LIBERATION Bhikkhus. and leads to vossagga. that depends on viraga. on viraga. NOTES 1. and leads to vossagga. whenever the mind of a bhikkhu whose body is calmed and who is joyful becomes concentrated. and leads to vossagga. on viraga. that leads to vossagga (dropping away. this is how the seven factors of awakening that one has developed and made much of perfect knowledge and Iiberation. on nirodha . the bhikkhus were contented and rejoiced at th e Blessed One s words. Savatthi was the geographical center of the Buddha s teaching during his lifetime. located between the Himalayas and the Ganges River. That bhikkhu looks upon that concentrated mind with perfe ct equanimity. . and leads to vossagga.
the effort to develop wholesome states which have not arisen. and avijjasava. Sometimes a fourth is added: di tthasava. concentr ation. and ignorance. right mindfulness. mindfulness. a frequent epithet of the Buddha. They are discussed in detail later in the sutta. The ariya-atthamgika-magga consists of right understanding. "Bodies" (kaya) refers to the breath in its aspect of conditioning the flesh body. and right concentration. contentment. investigation of dha mma. but Buddhists reserve it for the Buddha. lack of confidence. energy. The ending of the asavas is synonymous with perfect awakening. Oppatika. 15. and the effort to maintain wholesome states which have arisen. eruption of sensuality. influxes. 8. conceit. right action.. 10. lust for fine –material existence. uncertainty about the path. taints. The seven bojjhanga are sati. distraction. dhammavicaya. 9. Asubha-bhavana is used to counteract and overcome lust. right effort.g . Bhagava. samadhi. and flow out or erupt from. 14. thoughtfulness regarding duty. sati. 17. and upekkha. and vimamsa. the mind s depths. The four sammappadhana are the effort to prevent or avoid unwholesome states which have not arisen. lust for immaterial e xistence.. It was a common form of address in India. ill-will. "Experiencing all bodies" (sabbakayam patisamveti) refers to knowing direc . gestation. The words "fully comprehends" mean that there is sati-sampajanna (mindfulnes s and ready comprehension) with every moment of noting the in-breaths and out-b reaths in all aspects. effort. 16. effort in duty. 5. effort. The five indriya are saddha. and panna. investigation of duty through practi cing Dhamma. The four iddhipada are chanda. confidence. right livelihood. U sually given as three: kamasava. 7. instantaneous mental b irth (not necessarily "re-birth").") 6. wisdom. born instantly and fully mature without going through the process o f conception. right speech. pin. citta. The ten samyojana which bind beings to the cycles of becoming are personality belief. viriya. 12. eruption of ignorance. love of duty. Conditions which ferment in. viriya. and childhood-that is. The third month of the four month long rainy session. equanimity. viriya. (Other translations are "cankers. sensuous lust. 11. and delusion). superstitious use of rituals and practices. concentration. 13. samadhi. The five indriya are the chief or controlling f aculties which lead each group of dhammas as they deal with their opposites (e. laziness. infancy. eruption of views. but function differen tly.3. carelessn ess. restlessness. The first three of the ten samyojana.e. bhavasava.) 4. right aspiration . (The translation "Blessed One" is inappropriate due to its bloody and superstitious connections. The five bala function as powers which provide the strength needed to overc ome and withstand their opposites (i. mindf ulness. the effort to overcome or abandon unwholesome states whic h have arisen. lack of confidence). eruption of becoming. The five-bala have the same names as the five indriya. passaddhi: tranquility.
As the breath is calmed and refined.e. with every breath. including nibbana. Contemplate the truth of Dhamma in all things (dhammas) until there is no at tachment left to any dhamma. 30. Decre ase their conditioning of the mind until there is nothing conditioning it. . Know the exact state of mind at that moment. 27. whether physical or mental. 18. 20. especially the pleasant ones. Use the correctly concentrated mind to contemplate impermanence: continuousl y. i. 21. Cont emplate piti and sukha until there is no attachment to any feelings anywhere. Be able to decrease the ability of the feelings to condition the mind. and the mind becomes calm and concentrated to the extent. from the lowest to the highest. and no thought (vitakka) at that ti me. "Contemplating body in bodies" means seeing the truth of bodies directly wit hin bodies themselves. until realizing the unsatisfactoriness. 19. 26. Realize that all conditioned things have been freed from attachment. 24. voidness. or w hatever state may arise. then cherish it as the mind s regular object. beginning with the flesh body up to th e joy of jhana.tly the breath s characteristics such as. Examine the ceasing of attachment and realize it as being nibbana. and seeing all the components of the body as being small bodies within the collective body. Contemplate feelings in the same way that bodies have been contemplated. whether it is spotless or dark ened. condition the mind with every breath. selflessness. 29. Know how feelings (vedana). for brevity s sake. short or long. we have grouped all four foundations together. It conditions all kin ds of bodies. ? 25. 32. 22. With every breath. there is no feeling. the ceasi ng and quenching of dukkha. coarse or fine. no perception (sanna). Expertly observe the qualities and extent of the mind s samadhi. The original Pali explains how all seven factors can develop upon each one o f the four foundation of mindfulness. of jhana. examine the state of the mind being weary of and dispassi onate toward the things it has desired and attached to. The breath is one body. 33. prepared to work (contemplate Dhamma) or not ready. and knowing other relevant details about the breathing. finally. and thusness of all conditioned things. Here. mind in the same way as bodies and feelings were contemplat ed. knowing their natural proce sses of change. Be able to amuse the mind with Dhamma in various ways. until there is no attachment to any mind states. with each foundation considered separately. 31. calm or agitated-knowing how they condition the flesh body. 23. the conditioning of the body is calmed. calm or agitated. Contemplate the. Contemplate these bodies until there is no more attachment to an y of them.. Observe the qualities and extent of the mind s freedom from attachment. This co ndition arises in the moments of path (magga) and path fruition (phala). 28.
Equanimity firmly and unwaveringly watches ove r and guards that concentration. and vossagga are synonyms of nibb ana. 36. Then. In the Buddha s complete system of anapanasati a natural progression of sixteen lessons or dhamma are practiced in order to fully explore the satipat thana and realize liberation. you need to understand how Ajahn Buddhadasa uses these terms. Such piti occurs during jhana and while realizing Dhamma. we cite textual passages that d iscuss the term. ana.34. The bojjhanga develop as follows. It is always best to learn the Pali terms and their proper meanings. harmful. or wicked aspect of a thing. which follows upon the insights experienced through the practice of Anapanasati. Terms which appear only once or are of minor importance may not be included in this glossary. fact. Even tho se who have studied Pali may find some helpful insights here. the mind calms until it becomes tranquil and is concentr ated in contemplating the object. acariya. They seldom match the Pali terms c ompletely and often carry inappropriate connotations. (P. 17-19) . Here "vossagga" means no longer attaching to previous objects of attachment. namely. Most of the terms u sed here are explained within the text. (P. truth) while being mindful of every in-breath and out-breath. This piti is pure and associated with Dhamma. 119) ajahn. In any case. peril. 35. For easy reference and additional inform ation this glossary is provided. master. Viveka. disadvantage. nirodha. 42) adinava. Pali te rms are defined and explained. mindfulness with breathing: to note. and contem plate a dhamma (thing. inhalation. anapanasati. in-breath. until co ntentment arises. English terms are not defined. nibbana. with energy and effort. Vijja is insight knowledge of the path (magga-nana). viraga. Vimutti is insight knowledge o f fruition (phala-nana). harm: the hook within the bait (assada) t he negative. When appropriate. This reflects Ajahn Buddhada sa s advice that sincere student-practitioners of Buddhism should be familiar wi th the most important Pali terms and their correct meanings. to breathe in. Both Pali and English terms are listed in order of the English alphabet. Thai pronunciation of acariya. lowly. and the penetration of and awakening to Dhamma continues by itself until complete. teacher. it is important that you be wa ry of English terms found here and elsewhere. It is the mind s direct experience of being liberated from dukkha. Mindfulness fixes on a specific thing and investigation of dhammas examines it in detail. investigate. To make the most of thi s manual. it has nothing to do with the senses. (P. The corresponding verb is assasati. Its function is to tho roughly penetrate and destroy ignorance (avijja). breathing in. the result of the path having done its work of clearing away avijja. because the mind is weary of them and now inclines towards the quenching of duk kha. 37. The translations and definition s found here may differ with those found in other books. penalty. GLOSSARY An abundance of Pali terms are used in this manual. We also include some key English terms so that they may be checked with their Pali equivalents. You can find their meaning under the Pali equivalent which is given.
and dukkha. independent. avijja. separate "I" in life. in any but a relative. satisfying. Anatta is the third fundament al characteristic of sankhara. ariya-sacca. to bre athe out.a useful concept (belief. body. and the p ath of practice that lends to the end of dukkha. In par . noble truths: there are four which together are One Truth. Aniccam. infatuating. flux: conditioned things are ev er-changing. all are mer e speculation about something that exists only in our imaginations. The verb form is passasati. Anatta is a result of aniccam. wrong knowledge. vedananupass ana. The external ayatana are forms. as well as be owner or cont roller. No persona l. perception). not-knowing. manifesting. a nd extinguishing. conventional sense. attachment. 1 19) atta. contemplation of mind. non-selfhood. anicca. of vijja (correct knowledge). Although theories about it abound. (P. and constantly arising. ignorance." This truth does not deny the existence of thin gs. self. contemplation of feeling. arahant. not-self. bhavana. nose. cultivation. selfishness. free-willing substance can be found anywhere. charm. soun ds. but it ultim ately has no validity. apana. contemplation of Dhamma. contemplation: sustained. not-soul: the fact that all things. internal and external. contemplation of body. The four satipatthana are the necessary ob jects of contemplation. instability. kilesa. even-minded scrutiny of a dhamma. tongue. This is the first fu ndamental characteristic of sankhara. the sense organs and their co rresponding portions of the nervous system. sense media: there are two aspects or sets of ayatana. All things are wha t they are and are not-self. dhammanupa ssana. impermanence. and mind (mental-sense). ego. namely: dukkha. meditation: to produce or make happen. and mental-concerns. dukkha ends when craving ends." an unconditioned ayata na. cittanupassana. upadana. anupassana. development. All concocted things decay and pass away. Nibbana is called an "ayatana. the six sense doors. worthy one. the cause of dukkha is craving. are not-self and lack any essence or substance that c ould properly be called a "self. The arahant. foolishness: the lack. ears. self-existing. uninvolve d. has penetrated these truths thoroughly. that is. non-verbal. without exception. touches. That conventional "self is not-self (anatta). tastes. whe ther within or without human life and experience. smells. the concerns or objec ts of sensory experience. ayatana. In a convent ional sense the atta can be . non-reactive. that is. The internal ayatana are the eyes. breathing out. perfected human being: a living being completely free and void of all attachment. attractiveness: the tasty morsel hiding the hook (ad inava): the lovely. fully awakened being. bait. the truly enligh tened being.anatta. self-belief. selfishness. soul: the illusion (mental concoction) that there is som e personal. partial or total. but denies that they can be owned or controlled. assada. positive quality of a thing. out-breath. in ceaseless transformation. exhalation. thus: kayanupassana.
frustration. factors of awakening enlightenment factors: these seven mental facto rs must be perfected. Lastly. disease. such that there is samadhi (c oncentration) in the contemplation of that dhamma. Nature. In a more limit ed sense. Law. dislike. ugliness. agitation. the duty to be performed in accordance with natural law. pain: literally. sati ( mindfulness) fixes on a certain dhamma. 126) dukkha. mind. suffering. hatred. by itself. kaya." We also use "citta" to name that which is defiled by kilesa and which realize s nibbana. (Compare with mano and vinnana. mind-heart. samddhi is continuous ly and evenly guarded by upekkha (equanimity) as the Truth of that dhamma and al l Dhamma is penetrated and realized. The state . focus. First. the mind develops pa ssaddhi (tranquility) because of that contentment. and functions of the living being which are not material-physical. misery. B. the law and t ruth of nature. tanha. citta. dhamma-vicaya (analysis of dhamma) investigates that thing subtlety. impermanent things cannot satisfy our wants and desires no matter how hard we try (and cry). craving. (P. Citta bhavana (menta l development) is preferable to the vague and often confused "meditation. kilesa: namely. dukkham is the inh erent condition of unsatisfactoriness. " hard to endure. and as its own law. foolish desire. Next. which leads to piti (contentment). conditioned things (sankhara). 2) The four primary meanings of Dhamma are nature. nature: that which exists within itself. citta is what we call the consciousness potential when it "thinks . precisely. In its universal sense. ego. heart. samadhi. and delusion dhamma. 33-34) dhamma-jati. (P. This second fundamental characteristic is a resu lt of aniccam. egoism. difficult to bear. dukkha. in succession. mind-conditioner: the vedana are things which condition and conc oct the citta. aversion. Then. things: both conditioned phenomena and unconditioned noumenon. 6. consciousness: all aspects. and misery in all impermanent.) citta-sankhara. despair from t he crudest to the most subtle levels. anguish. calm-collectedness. for the mind to be liberated. unsatisfactoriness. of itse lf. Duty: the secret of nature whi ch must be understood In order to develop life to the highest possible purpose a nd benefit. blind want. hatred. atta. 7) dosa. (P. Order. greed." In its limited sense. and selfishness. and all other negative thoughts and emotions. and the results or benefits that arise from the performance of that duty. 14) concentration. Nature encompasses all things." body. The inherent decay and dissolution of things is mise ry. thing. ekaggatta. (P. and profoundly. effort) arises. Then. dissatisfaction.ticular. or pinnacle. (P. attachment. 107. bojjhanga. dukkha is the quality of experience which results when the mind is conditioned by avijja into craving . viriya (energ y. to cultivate skillful wholesome qualities of mind. which includes an ger. Dhamma. Dhamma. ill-will: the second category of kilesa. This feeling takes on forms like disappoi ntment. one-pointedness: to have a single peak. . Truth. both human and non-human. qualities. defilement.
feelings. especially an exalted one such as nibbana. mundane. The three categories of kilesa are lobha. and sadden the atta. and moha . world: that which must break. the law of nature: lit erally. defil e. groups. dirty. (P. to look at intently . the five become the upadana-khandha. W hen they become the basis for attachment. (Common translations such as "absorption" and "trance" are unsatisfactory . nor is there any "self apart from them. categories: the five basic functions which co nstitute a human life. lust. discrimination). contentment. loka. sensuality. and all other "positive" thoughts and emotions. group. and disintegrate. to gaze. to be of the world. deep samadhi in which the mind locks onto one object exclusively. vedana. aggregates. organs. sexuality: strong desire and its objects. noting the object. heap. greed: the first category of kilesa. factors of jhana: the functions or qualities of mind that exist with in jhana. (P. but are not necessary for th e successful practice of Anapanasati. or parts. worldly conditions: to be trapped within and beneath t he world. The other jhana have successively fewer factors. These groups are not entities in themselves. percepti on-aggregate (including recognition. These can be helpful. and destruction occur through thi s law. worldly. vedana-khandha. "the state of having this as condition. experiencing the object. body.") (P. None of them are a "self. sankhara-khandha. shatter. making eight levels of succe ssively more refined samadhi. they are mer ely the categories into which all aspects of our lives can be analyzed (except n ibbana). heaps. tactil idappaccayata. preservation. squad: something composed of various eleme nts.89) jhananga. 73) khandha. sense-consciousness-aggregate. Generally used for the physical body. feeling. In the first jhana there are five factors: vitakka. impurities: all the things which dull. which includes erotic love. thoughtaggregate (including emotion). form-aggr egate (corporeality). (Sometimes "feeling" means "mood." and other things that are not vedana. sanna-khandha. body-conditioner: the breath.in which the flow of mental energy is gathered and focused on a single object. good friend. (P. Because all creation. but we have nothing better. collection. . noble companion: a spiritual guide and advisor. m iserliness. 22." nor do they have anything to do with selfhoo d. which conditions and influences the body directly. Seeking and indulgin g in sensual pleasures. vinnana-khandha.) as a verb. kilesa. e sensation. to focus. 42) kama. either the whole bo dy or its parts ("breath-body" and "flesh-body"). vimutti.) emotion. o ne-pointedness. (Also can be translated "bodycondition. as a noun. feeling-aggregate. The five are rupa-khandha. (P. kalyana-mitta. joy. lokiya. See raga. vicara." All laws can be seen in idap paccayata. defilements. the law of conditionality (or causality). (P.128) lobha. kaya. 71-72) kaya-sankhara. and ekaggata. darken. T here are four rupa-jhana (where the object of jhana is material) and four arupajhana (where the object is immaterial or formless)." jhana. it can be called the "Buddhist God. piti. dosa. 88 & 90) emancipation. sukha.
(P. 130) mano. The five hindrances are kamach andha. delusion: the third category of kilesa. Phala (fruit) is the successful completion of that cutting. the one who is cooled: a coolness that occurs when. name ly. the Sanskrit nibbana. obstacles: semi-defilements that get in the way of succes s in any endeavor. Magga (path) is the activity of vipassana cutting thr ough defilements. hindrances. the kilesa subside temporarily S amayika-nibbana (temporary coolness) and tadanga-nibbana (coincidental coolness) are types of nibbuto. magga. experiences.) (P. (Do not confuse n ivarana with nirvana. (P. selfishness. images manipulated as a training e and the final image which is neutral. Nibbana manifests fully when the fires of kilesa. with citta and "vinnana") mara. doubt. tempter. citta or mano or "vinnana" mindfulness. the Middle Way out from all dukkha. (P. lust. worry.127) nibbana. fruition. sati. coolness. co nfusion.lokuttara. infatuation. and expectation. mahaggatta. and vicikiccha. mind as inner ayatana (sense organ). and dukkha are quenched completely and finally. aversion. better than usual state ( of mind). (P. Nibbana is the coolness which appears once the defilements ar e cut. moha. uncompounded. their compound is found o nly in Thai) refers to the three activities that occur in rapid succession in th e realization of Dhamma. path. refined. There xercise. envy. feels. nimitta upon the r. extinction: a synonym for nibbana. transcendent. asankhata: the one unconditioned. restlessness and agitation. uddhacc a-kukkucca. 161-3) nivarana. th e result of magga. nibbana. way: the noble eightfold path. hope. 152) noumenon. mind-sense. thina-middha. (P. the real tempters are the defile ments. 175) . cessation. sloth anti torpor. 182) nimitta. and soothing. permanent dhamma. (P. and knows.84-87) nirodha. It is to be reali zed in this lifetime. (Compa re. and nibbana: this compound (although the th ree terms appear separately throughout the Pali texts. vyapada. raga. attachment . imaginary object: in the context of Anapanasati practice. mind. refers to a mentally concocted image that arises out of concentration guarding point and which is used to further develop samadhi in step fou are three stages: the initial image. magga-phala-nibbana. path. image. delusion includes fear. devil: often personified. sensuousness. coolness: the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice and the highest achie vement of humanity. demon. doubt. (M 182-3) nibbuto. great-mindedness: a superior. mind: the name we give the consciousness potential when it is a ware. The lesson of step fifteen. either sp ontaneously or through correct Dhamma practice. quenching. sign. above and beyond the world. especially mental development. supramundane: to be free o f worldly conditions although living in the world. the end of at tachment and dukkha. superiority.
. truth. (P. (P. religion: the behavior and practice that binds the human being to the Su preme Thing (whatever we name it). impermanent conditioned thing (sankhara). ready comprehension. clarity. birth (jati). flexibility. 125) sacca. due to concocting. 74-75) santi. there is s enseconsciousness (vinnana). strength. ther e is ageing and death (jara-marana). . rapture: the excited happiness (pleasant vedana ) that arises when one is successful in something. insight. becoming (bhava). breath control. spiritual tranquility. intuitive wisdom: correct understanding of the things we need to know in order to quench dukkha. pana (Pali). sacca-dhamma. (B. concentration. which concocts dukkha. Piti is the lesson of step fi ve. 164) phassa. relinquishment: to stop claiming things t o be "I" and "mine.. 141-144) sampajanna. sense-contact (phassa).. life: that which sustains and nurtures life. the result of conditioning. breath. sasana. conditioned thing. . contentment. concoction. stability.. . sense experience: the meeting and working together of inner sen se media + outer sense media + sense-consciousness. phenomenon. craving (tanha). peace. Samadhi is the second sikkha. There are three aspects of s ankhara: concoctor. paticca-samuppada. conditioned arising: the profound and detailed causal succession. (P. reality. the cause of conditioning. Truth. satisfaction. … sense-media (salayata na). collectedness: the gathering together and focusing of t he mental flow. concoction. 95-97) prana (Sanskrit). The lesson of step sixte en. (P. dependent origination.. sankhara. (P. and gentleness. It is perfected in ekaggata an d jhana. . life force. Raga can be either sexual or nonsexual. contact.. there is concocting (sankhara). feeling (vedana). .. due to birth. attachment (upadana). fact. raga.. mind and body (nama-rupa)." and return them to Dhamma-Nature.. Panna is the third sikkha (training) an d the beginning of the noble eightfold path. 177) patinissaga. Proper samadhi has the qualities of purity. e. wisdom. control of the prana.g.panna. There are six kinds of phassa corresponding to the six senses. eye + form + eye-consc iousness.. clear comprehension: the spec ific application of panna as required in a given situation. Panna (rather than faith or will po wer) is the characteristic quality of Buddhism. piti. sankhara. phenomenon. samadhi. Due to i gnorance (avijja).. throwing back. conditioner. . See lo bha. and thus arises the entire mess of dukkha. . and its description. formation: anything depende nt for its existence on other things or conditions.. condition .. . The supreme samadhi is the one-pointed mind with nibbana as its sole co ncern. (P... giving up. and the activity or process of concocting and cond itioning. lust: desire to get or have. wisdom-in-action. 7) pranayama (Sanskrit). readiness.
Modem Thai uses of vinnana include "soul. Things are just as they are (impermanent.) (P. (P. 148 & 150) vedana. 25 & B. emancipation. disagreeable. right aim). not to be confused with "wise want" (samma-sankappa." "spirit.). foundations of mindfulness: the four bases on which sati must be established in mental development. retrieved. 102) sunnata. blind want. also. unsatisfactory. a nd not-self) regardless of our likes and dislikes. salvation: to get free of all attachment. to re gard things as "I" . Sat i allows us to be aware of what we are about to do. and panna. citta and Dhamma. the rea lity of non-duality. foolish desire: the cause of dukkha (second ariya-sa cca). vedana. There are three kinds of vedana: sukha-vedana. clinging. Arises when avijja is removed. and dukkha. dukkha vedana. satipatthana. knowledge. (P. Sukha results) from piti. although the two are related. mindfulness. 12-16) vijja." (Sometimes the word "f eeling" must be used to translate Thai and Pali words other than vedana. reflective awareness: the mind s ability to kno w and contemplate itself. happiness. hop es and memories. samadhi. are mean . sensation: the mental reaction to or coloring of sense experien ces (phassa). Tanha is conditioned by foolish vedana and in turn concocts upadana. tathata." and "spiritual. without it there is no experience. feeling. just-like-that-ness: neither this nor that. nice. wisdom: correct knowledge about the way thi ngs really are. or anything that could be taken to be "I" or "mine". training: the three aspects of the one path. We investigate life through these four subjec ts of spiritual study: kaya. indeterminate feeling. morality. Sati is the vehicle or transport mechanism for panna. bliss: literally. ego. upadana. and realize nibbana. and is the lesson of step six. soothing. however. etc. grasping: to hold onto something foolishly. the state of being void and free of defilement. vimutti. ears. The fundamental mental activity required for participation in the sensual world (loka). joy. virtue. Ved ana is conditioned by phassa (sense contact). painful feeling. Sati is not memo ry. Nor is it mere heedfulness or carefulness. morality: verbal and bodily action in accordance with Dh amma. suchness.sati. If it arises through ignorance it will further condition craving. true sila comes with wisdom an d is undertaken joyfully. All Bu ddhist practices fit within the three sikkha: sila. p leasant vedana. 166-168) vinnana. The first sikkha. release. without sati wisdom cannot be developed. liberation. sukha. neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant. voidness. deliverance. craving. unpleasant. pleasant. sense-consciousness: knowing sense concerns through the six sense doors (eyes. emptiness: the state of being void and free of selfhood. Much more than following rules or precepts. which stimulates. thusness. "easy to bear". tanha. sikkha." to take things personally. soul . and adu k khamasukha-vedana. This subtle activity of mind (not physical sensation) is not emotion or the more complicated aspects of the English "feeling. tranquil. of the Middle way." which.and "mine. kilesa. suppositions and beliefs. If it arises with wisdom it will be harmless or beneficial. or applied. (P. A synonym for panna. agr eeable feeling. sila. attachment. It is characterized by speed and agility. recollection. insight knowledge.
viveka. SUGGESTED READING Other books by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu: Handbook For Mankind Buddha-Dhamma For Students Keys To Natural Truth Heartwood From The Bo Tree Dhammic Socialism Anapanasati-Bhavana (very detailed explanation of theory and Practice closel y following Pali texts) Evolution /Liberation (occasional journal of Suan Mokkh) For information please contact: The Dhamma Study and Practice Group 309/49 Moo 2 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road Tung Song Hong. There are three kinds: kaya-viveka. freedom from all attachment and all sources of attachment. A synonym for nibbana. physical solitude. upadhi-viveka. (B. dispassion. The lesson of step fourteen. of attachment. relinquishment: the natural giving away by the liberated mind.) vipassana. i. fading away. seclusion: to be undisturbed in quiet sol itude and mindfulness. mental solitude. theory. when no defilements disturb the mind. the physical posture. tossing back.. same apatinissagga. Bangkhen Bangkok 10210. Thailand The Buddhadasa Foundation Wat Cholapratan Rangsit Pak Kred Nontaburi 11200 Thailand .ings not found in the Pali term. In such cases. 1) viraga. nibbana. vossagga. unstaining: the breaking up. distinctly. wh en the body is not disturbed. (Compare with citta and mano. spiritual solitude. and not-se lf.e. aloneness. unsatisfactoriness. dissolving. and dis appearing of raga. Vipassana is p opularly used for mental development practiced for the sake of true insight. Vipassana cannot be taught. insight: literally. spiritual solitude. "clear seeing. direc tly into the true nature of things. into aniccam-dukkham-anatta." to see clearly. citta-viveka. and method of such practices must not be confused with true realization of impermanence.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.