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The diagram shows a capacitor and a resistor connected to a 6.0 V battery. Both the ammeter and the battery have negligible internal resistance.

The switch is closed. Some time later the ammeter reads 20 μA. (a) Show that the potential difference across the capacitor at this instant is 2.0 V. (2) (b) Calculate the charge stored in the capacitor when the potential difference across it is 2.0 V. (2) (c) Calculate the electrical energy now stored in the capacitor. (1) (d) Calculate the electrical energy transferred in the battery up to this instant. (1) (e) What is the main reason for the difference between the energy values you have calculated in (c) and (d)? (1) (Total 7 marks)

2. (a) A proton has a mass of 1.67 x 1027 kg. Calculate the magnitude of the potential difference needed to accelerate it from rest to a speed of 2.77 x 105 ms-1 in a vacuum. (3) (b) The proton now passes the point A between two parallel conducting plates across which a steady potential difference is maintained. The path of the proton is shown in the diagram.

Add to the diagram the path the same proton would have taken had it entered at the point B. (1) (c)(i) An alpha particle enters at point A with the same velocity as the proton. Add its path to the diagram. (2) (ii) Explain your answer to (c) (i). (2) (Total 8 marks)

3. The diagram shows three equipotential surfaces centred about the Earth with their values marked.

(a) State two deductions that can be made from the diagram. (2) (b) The gravitational potential at the Moon’s orbit due to the Earth alone is approximately -1 .0 MJ kg-1. Use this fact and information from the diagram above to show that a spacecraft returning from the Moon’s orbit using only the gravitational attraction of the Earth, would be travelling at approximately 11 km s-1 on arrival at the Earth’s atmosphere. (4) (c) There is a point between the Earth and the Moon where their gravitational attractions on a given mass are equal and opposite. Use the formula for the gravitational attraction between point masses to show that this distance is nearly 10 times further from the Earth than from the Moon. Mass of the Earth = 6.0 x 1024 kg Mass of the Moon = 7.4 x 1022kg. (4) (Total 10 marks)

4. (a) The diagram shows a long solenoid connected to a circuit. PQ is a line that passes along the axis of the solenoid.

The magnetic flux density B is investigated along the line PQ. Typical results are shown on the graph below. The distance AB represents the region inside the solenoid.

(i) Along what length of the axis of the solenoid is the field uniform? (1) (ii) Determine the magnitude of the current in the solenoid. The solenoid has 300 turns. (3) (b) State one factor that determines the direction of the magnetic field within a solenoid. (1) (Total 5 marks)

5. The area enclosed by the dotted line is a region of uniform magnetic field of flux density 2.0 x 10-2T. The field is confined to this area and directed into the page. A square rigid metal frame PQRS, of side 12 cm, forms a closed circuit with an ammeter.

(a) The frame is moved at a constant speed of 5.0 cm s-1 through the uniform magnetic field region as shown in the diagram. (i) For each position of the frame shown in the diagram either give the direction of the current through the ammeter or if there is no current, state ‘no current’. (2) (ii) The total electrical resistance of the frame and ammeter is 2.0 . Calculate the maximum current recorded by the ammeter. (4) (b) The frame is now moved with uniform acceleration through the magnetic field. Explain how the magnitude of the current changes as the frame moves from position 1, through position 2 to position 3. You may be awarded a mark for the clarity of your answer. (4) (Total 10 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER: 40 MARKS

END

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