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# 1. (a) secure the can to the bench with blu-tack to prevent it from rolling.

balance the
metre rule on the can and determine the period t1 of small oscillations of the rule.

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repeat the above to find the period t2 of small oscillations of the half-metre rule.

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to what extent do your measurements confirm that the period of such oscillations is
proportional to the length of the rule?

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(6)

(b) (i) use the balance provided to find the mass m of the can and its contents.

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use the data given on the can to determine the mass m of the can itself. (1 litre of
water has a mass of 1 kg.) explain how you calculated m.

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using the information on the card, estimate the volume v of material in the can
itself.

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(3)

(ii) measure the diameter d of the central part of the can and the length l of the can.
draw a diagram below to show how you measured d.

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## the nobel school 1

calculate a value for the thickness t of the can given that, to a good approximation

V
t = πD( L + D)

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(7)
(total 16 marks)

2. (a) the apparatus shown in the diagram below has already been set up for you with
m = 100 g.

A .c . p o w e r s u p p ly

## M a g n e tic fie ld p e r p e n d ic u la r to w ire

K n ife
× × × edge C r o c o d ile c lip
× × ×
× × ×

switch on the power supply. adjust the length l of the wire between the wooden blocks and
the knife edge until you can see that the amplitude of vibration of the wire passing through
the magnetic field is at its maximum value. record the length l1 at this point.

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explain carefully how you ensured that the value of l1 was as accurate as possible.

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## the nobel school 2

estimate the percentage uncertainty in your value of l1.

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repeat the above procedure with m = 300 g to obtain a value for the new resonant
length l2.

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## switch off the power supply.

(6)

(b) when a wire is forced to vibrate at its natural frequency, the tension t in the wire and the
length 1 of the wire are related by an equation of the form

T
l2 = k

where k = a constant.

use your results from part (a) to determine two values for k. comment on the extent to
which your results support the relationship.

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(5)

## the nobel school 3

(c) measure the diameter d of the wire. hence determine a value for the density ρ of the
material of the wire given that
22
k = ρ πd f

where f = the frequency of the a.c. supply, which is given on the card.

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(5)
(total 16 marks)

3. you are to plan an investigation into the relationship between the intensity of the light passing
through a pair of polaroid filters and the angle between their planes of polarisation. you are
then to analyse a set of data from such an experiment.

(a) you have been provided with a pair of polaroid filters to observe what happens when one
filter is rotated with respect to the other, but you are not required to take any
measurements.

## the following additional apparatus would be available:

• light source
• ldr and ohmmeter together with a calibration curve enabling resistance measurements
to be converted to light intensity in a unit called lux
• light shield
• protractor
• stands and clamps

## the nobel school 4

describe, with the aid of diagrams, how you would measure the angle through which one
filter had been turned with respect to the other.

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state a suitable starting angle between the planes of polarisation of the two filters. explain
how you would determine when the planes are at this angle from your resistance readings.

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(8)

(b) the intensity i of light passing through the two polaroids is thought to be related to the
n
angle θ between their planes of polarisation by an equation of the form i = k(cos θ )
where k and n are constants.

write this equation in a suitable format which can be used to plot a linear graph.

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(1)

## the nobel school 5

(c) the following data was obtained in an investigation of the above equation.

10 481 0.985

20 450 0.940

30 398 0.866

40 330 0.766

50 256 0.643

60 172 0.500

70 98 0.342

80 40 0.174

## the nobel school 6

use the empty columns provided for your processed data, and then plot a suitable graph to
test the equation on the grid below.

(5)

## (d) use your graph to determine a value for n.

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(2)
(total 16 marks)