Source: Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers


Roger S. Boraas
Consulting Engineer HNTB Corporation Denver, Colorado



ail transportation is considered in this section as a system in which vehicles are supported and guided by rails or other guideways. Rail-transportation engineering deals with the need, planning, selection, design, and construction of such systems for movement of passengers and freight. It involves roadbed, track, bridges, trestles, culverts, yards, terminals, stations, office buildings, locomotive fueling facilities, environmental protection facilities, signals and communications, track-side protection devices, and railroad-car, locomotive, and transit-vehicle maintenance facilities. Engineers may be responsible for maintenance of way and structures. And they must be familiar with motive power, railway cars, and other equipment. Rail transportation is the most effective way to handle increased transportation demands with relatively low power requirements, a low land requirement, little air pollution, and few accidents involving fatalities and injuries. As a result, as population and gross national product increase, rail transportation increases in importance. The U.S. Congress, in recognition of this, has passed legislation that, in particular, has added to the importance of rail transportation of freight and of passenger rail transit, for example, through deregulation under the Staggers Act in the early 1980s and the Intermodal Surface Transportation

Efficiency Act (ISTEA) about a decade later. In 1998, Congress passed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). A portion of this law authorizes Federal funding for grade crossing safety, transit and high speed rail systems and additional research on magnetic levitation technology. Additional legislation is being considered to fund development of viable high speed rail corridors.



Following are terms commonly encountered in railtransportation engineering: Alignment. Horizontal location of a railroad as described by tangents and curves. Apron, Car Ferry. Bridge structure supporting tracks and connecting the car deck of a car ferry to land. The apron is hinged at the shore end so that it is free to move vertically at the outboard end to accommodate varying elevations of the ferry. Apron, Track. Railroad track along the waterfront edge of a pier or wharf for direct transfer of cargo between ship and car. Ballast. Selected material, such as crushed stone, placed on the roadbed to hold the track in line and surface. Batter Rail. The deformation of the surface of the head of a rail at the end. Batter (Pile). Slope of inclined piles.

*Updated and revised from Sec. 19, Rail-Transportation Engineering, by D.L. McCammon in the fourth edition.

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19.2 n Section Nineteen
Branch Line. Secondary line or lines of a railway. Branding. Identification markings hot-rolled in raised figures and letters on a rail web indicating weight of rail and section number, type of rail, kind of steel, name of manufacturer and mill, and year and month rolled. Car, Light Rall (Trolley Car). A self-propelled vehicle operating on rails, generally in streets, and drawing electric power from overhead or underground conductors. Car, Motor. A powered track car for transporting two to six people. Car, Push. A four-wheeled railway work car designed to be pushed by hand or towed by a motorcar. It is used to transport materials too heavy to be carried on a motorcar. Car, Track. Any car or machine operated on track, such as a motorcar, handcar, or trailer. Car Retarder. Braking device, usually poweroperated, built into a railway track to reduce the speed of cars. Brake shoes, when set in braking position, press against the sides of the lower portion of the car wheels. Compromise Joint. Joint bars for connecting rails of different fishing height and section, or rails of the same section but with different joint drillings. Cradle. Structure riding on an inclined track on a riverbank and having a horizontal deck with a track on it for transfer of railroad cars to and from boats at different water elevations. Crib. Space between two successive ties. Crossing, Grade. An at-grade crossing of a railroad and a highway, usually with protective devices such as warning signs, flashing lights, bells or gates. Crossing (Track). Construction used where one track crosses another at grade; it consists of four connected frogs. Crossing, Bolted Rail. A crossing in which all the running surfaces are of rolled rail. The parts are held together with bolts. Crossing, Manganese-Steel Insert. A crossing in which a manganese-steel casting is inserted at each of the four intersections. Fitted into rolled rails, the casting forms the points and wings of the crossing frogs. Crossing, Solid Manganese-Steel. A crossing in which the frogs are of the solid manganese-steel type. Crossing, Movable-Point. A crossing of small angle in which each of the two center frogs consists essentially of a knuckle rail and two opposed movable center points with the necessary fixtures. Crossing, Single-Rail. A crossing in which the connections between the end frogs and the center frogs consist of running rails only. Crossing, Two-Rail. A crossing in which the connections between the end frogs and the center frogs consist of running rails and guardrails. Crossing, Three-Rail. A crossing in which the connections between the end frogs and the center frogs consist of running rails, guardrails, and easer rails. Crossing Plates. Plates interposed between a crossing and the ties or other timbers to protect the ties and to support the crossing better by distributing loads over larger areas. Crossover. Two turnouts with the track between the frogs arranged to form a continuous passage between two nearby and generally parallel tracks (Fig. 19.15). Crossover, Double. Two crossovers that intersect between the connected tracks; also two crossovers within a short distance that allow movements to connected tracks. Curve, Compound. A continuous change in alignment effected with two or more contiguous, simple curves of different radii but with a common tangent at each junction (Fig. 19.5). Curve, Degree of. (See Degree of Curve.) Curve, Easement. A curve whose radius varies to provide gradual transition between a tangent and a simple curve or between two simple curves of different radii (Fig. 19.7). Curve, Lead. Curve between switch and frog in a turnout (Fig. 19.15). Curve, Reverse. Curve formed by two contiguous, simple curves with a common tangent but with centers of curvature on opposite sides of the tangent (Fig. 19.6). Curve, Simple. A continuous change in alignment effected with an arc of constant radius and fixed center (Fig. 19.4).

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Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19.3
Curve, Spiral. (See Curve, Easement.) Curve, Vertical. An easement curve connecting intersecting grade (sloped) lines (Fig. 19.8). Degree of Curve. Angle subtended at the center of a simple curve by a 100-ft chord. Derail. A track structure for derailing rolling stock in an emergency. Easer. (See Rail, Easer.) Elevation of Curves (Superelevation). Height of outer rail above inner rail along a curve. Fishing Space. Space between head and base of a rail occupied by a joint bar (Fig. 19.13). Flangeway. Open way through a track structure that provides a passageway for wheel flanges (Fig. 19.16). Flare. A tapered widening of the flangeway at the end of a guard line of a track structure. A flare may be at the end of a guardrail or at the end of a frog or crossing wing rail (Fig. 19.16). Foot Guard. Filler for space between converging rails to prevent a foot from being accidentally wedged between the rails. Frog. A track structure at the intersection of two running rails to provide support for wheels and passageways for their flanges, thus permitting wheels on either rail to cross the other (Fig. 19.16). Frog Angle. The angle formed by the intersecting gage lines of a frog. Frog, Bolted Rigid. A frog built of rolled rails with fillers between, held together with bolts. Frog, Center. Either of the two frogs at the opposite ends of the short diagonal of a crossing. Frog, End. Either of the two frogs at the opposite ends of the long diagonal of a crossing. Frog, Flange. (See Frog, Self-Guarded.) Frog, Heel of. The end of the frog farthest from the switch. Frog, Movable Point. A frog with a movable point to eliminate the flangeway gap in locations with small frog angles. Frog Number. Half the cotangent of half the frog angle. Frog Point. That part of a frog lying between the extensions of the gage lines from their intersection toward the heel end (part farthest from the switch). The theoretical point is the intersection of the gage lines. The half-inch point is located at a distance from the theoretical point toward the heel equal, in inches, to half the frog number and at which the spread between the gage lines is 1⁄2 in. Usually, measurements are made from the half-inch frog point. Frog, Rail-Bound Manganese-Steel. A frog consisting essentially of a manganese-steel body casting fitted into and between rolled rails and held together with bolts (Fig. 19.16a). Frog, Self-Guarded (Flange Frog). A frog with guides or flanges above its running surface to contact the tread rims of wheels to guide their flanges safely past the point of the frog (Fig. 19.16b). Frog, Solid Manganese-Steel. A frog consisting essentially of a single manganese-steel casting (Fig. 19.16b). Frog, Spring-Rail. A frog with a movable wing rail normally held against the point rail by springs. The rails thus form an unbroken running surface for wheels on one track, whereas the flanges of the wheels on the other track force the movable wing rail away from the point rail to provide a passageway. Viewed from the toe end toward the point, a right-hand frog has the movable wing rail on the right-hand side. Frog, Toe of. The end of the frog closest to the switch. Gage (Track). Distance between gage lines (Fig. 19.9). (Standard gage is 4 ft 81⁄2 in.) Gage (Track Tool). A device by which the gage of a track is established or measured. Gage Line. A line 5⁄8 in below the top of the center line of head of running rail or corresponding location of tread portion of other track structures along that side nearer the center of track. Grade Line. Line on profile representing tops of embankments and bottoms of cuts ready to receive ballast. This line is the intersection of the plane of the roadbed with a vertical plane through the center line. Guard, Stock. A barrier between and along track rails to prevent passage of livestock on or along the track.

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19.4 n Section Nineteen
Guard Check Gage. Distance between guard and gage lines, measured perpendicular to gage lines across the track. Guard Face Gage. Distance between guard lines, measured perpendicular to gage line across the track. Guard Line. A line along that side of the flangeway nearer the center of track and at the same elevation as the gage line. Guard Timber. A longitudinal timber placed outside the track rail to maintain tie spacing. Guardrail. A rail or other structure parallel to the running rails of a track used to prevent wheels from being derailed, or to hold wheels in correct alignment to prevent their flanges from striking the points of turnouts, crossing frogs, or switches. Also, a guardrail is a rail or other structure laid parallel to the running rails of a track to keep derailed wheels adjacent to running rails. Guardrail, Frog. A rail or other device to guide a wheel flange so that it is kept clear of the point of a frog. Guardrail, Inner. A longitudinal member, usually a metal rail, secured on top of the ties inside the track rail to guide derailed wheels. Guardrail, One-Piece. A guardrail consisting of a single component so designed that no auxiliary parts or fastenings other than spikes are required for its installation. Hi-Rail Vehicle. A truck or other vehicle with special wheel assemblies that allow for travel on track in addition to highways. Joint, Compromise. See Compromise Joint. Joint, Insulated. A rail joint with insulating material to prevent the flow of electric current between abutting rail ends. Joint, Rail. Splice uniting abutting ends of contiguous rails. Joint Bar. A stiff steel member commonly used (in pairs) to join rail ends and to hold them firmly, evenly, and accurately in surface and gage-side alignment (Fig. 19.13). Joint Gap. Distance between ends of contiguous rails in track, measured on the outside of the head 5 ⁄8in below top of rail. Lead. Distance between actual point of a switch and half-inch point of a frog. The actual lead is measured along the line of the parent track (Fig. 19.15). The curved lead is measured to the half-inch point of the frog but along the outside gage line of the turnout. The theoretical lead is the distance from the theoretical point of a uniform turnout curve to the theoretical point of the frog, measured along the line of the parent track. Nosing. A transverse, horizontal motion of a locomotive that exerts a lateral force on the supporting structure. Out of Face (Trackwork). Work, such as tie replacement, that proceeds completely and continuously over a given piece of track as distinguished from work at disconnected points. Rail (Track). A rolled steel shape, commonly a T section, laid end to end, on crossties or other suitable supports, to form a track for railway rolling stock (Fig. 19.10). Rail, Closure. Rail between the parts of any special trackwork layout, such as the rail between switch and frog in a turnout (sometimes called lead or connecting rail); also the rail connecting the frogs of a crossing or of adjacent crossings but not a part of the crossings (Fig. 19.15). Rail, Compromise. Relatively short rail with two ends of different section to correspond with the ends of rails to be joined. It provides the transition between rails of different section. Rail, Easer. A rail that provides a bearing for the portion of hollowed-out treads of worn wheels that overhangs a running rail. Sloped at the ends, an easer is laid with its head along the outside of and close to the head of the running rail. Rail, Guard. (See Guardrail.) Rail, Knuckle. A bent rail or equivalent structure forming an obtuse point at a movable-point crossing or slip switch. When set for traffic, the movable points of the crossing or switch rest against the obtuse point. Rail, Reinforcing. A bent rail placed with its head outside of and close to the head of a knuckle rail to strengthen it and act as an easer rail; or a piece of rail similarly applied to a movable center point. Rail, Running. Rail or surface on which the tread of a wheel bears.

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Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19.5
Rail, Stock. Running rail against which the switch rail operates. Rail, Switch (Switch Point or Switch-Point Rail). Tapered rail of a split switch (Fig. 19.17). Rail, Welded. Two or more rails welded together to form a length less than 400 ft. When the length is 400 ft or more, the result is called a continuous welded rail. Retarder, Car. See Car Retarder. Retarder, Insert. A braking device without external power, built into a railway track to reduce the speed of cars with brake shoes against the sides of the lower portions of wheels. Sometimes, means are provided to open the retarder to nullify its braking effect. Right-of-Way. Lands or rights used or held for railroad operation. Shoulder. That portion of the ballast between the end of the tie and the toe of the ballast slope. Siding. Track, auxiliary to the main track, used to permit trains to pass. Spot Board. A sighting board placed above and across the track at a proposed elevation for the rails to indicate the new surface and insure its uniformity. Stamping. Figures and letters indented, after hot sawing, in the center of the rail web, parallel with the direction of rolling, to indicate the serial heat number, ingot number as cast or rolled, and position of each rail relative to top of ingot. Station, Loop. A form of through station in which the station track layout embraces a loop or part of a circle. Trains move in one direction only and turn relative to the station. Station, Stub. Station with tracks connected at one end only. Station, Through. Station with tracks connected at both ends. Stock Pass. A culvert or bridge opening under a track primarily for passage of livestock. Subballast. Material of superior character spread on the finished subgrade of a roadbed below the top-ballast to provide good drainage, prevent frost upheaval, and distribute the load over the roadbed (Figs. 19.1 and 19.9). Subgrade. Finished surface of roadbed below ballast and track. Surface, Running (Tread). Top part of structures on which the treads of wheels bear. Switch. A track structure for diverting rolling stock from one track to another (Fig. 19.17). Switch Rod. The rod connecting to the switch stand to enable movement of the switch points. Switch, Slip. A combination of a crossing with left- and right-hand switches and curves between them within the limits of the crossing connecting the two intersecting tracks on both sides of the crossing without separate turnout frogs. A single slip switch combines a crossing with one right-hand and one left-hand switch; a double slip switch, with two right-hand and two left-hand switches. Switch, Split. A switch consisting essentially of two movable-point rails with necessary fixtures (Fig. 19.17). Switch, Spring. A switch with an operating mechanism incorporating a spring device to return the movable points automatically to their original or normal position. This action takes place after the points have been shifted by the flanges of trailing wheels passing along the track other than that for which the points are set for facing movements. Switch Angle. Angle between the gage lines of a stock rail and the switch rail at its point. Switch Detector Bar. Strip of metal, alongside the track rail, connected with the throwing mechanism of a switch to prevent moving of the switch under trains. Switch Heel. End of a switch rail nearer the frog. Heel spread is distance at the heel between gage lines of stock and switch rails (standardized at 61⁄4in for straight switches). Switch Point. (See also Rail, Switch.) Theoretically, the intersection of the gage line of the switch rail, extended, and the gage line of the stock rail. The actual point is that end of the switch rail farther from the frog; the point where the spread between the gage lines of stock and switch rails is sufficient for a practicable switch point (Fig. 19.17). Switch Stand. Device for manual operation of switches or movable center points.

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Connecting. and provide good drainage (Fig. Tie. straight track contiguous with a curve.9). 19. 19. top. House. Wye. Track. Track. Distance through which points of switch rails are moved sideways (standardized at 43⁄4 in).6 n Section Nineteen Switch Throw. A tie that functions as a crosstie but is longer and also supports a crossover or turnout. locomotives. Team. specifically. Track. Tie. Track connecting the body tracks of a yard.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.digitalengineeringlibrary. Track. Tie Plate. Tie. A tie sawed on ends. 19. A tie with sapwood no wider than one-fourth the width of the tie top between 20 and 40 in from midlength. Main. An adzed tie has plate-bearing areas on top made plane and smooth by machine. All rails. (See Crossover. Two turnouts with the track between the frogs arranged to form a continuous passage between one track and another intersecting or oblique track or another remote. . Track extending through yards and between stations and on which trains are operated by timetable or train order. A bored tie has machine-made holes for spikes. Drill. A grooved tie has depressions machine-gouged across its top into which ribs on the bottom of a tie plate fit. Track. It is measured along the center line of the No. or both. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Track. A track so located with respect to other tracks and transferring facilities as to facilitate transfer of lading from one car to another. Track on which cars are placed for transfer of freight between cars and highway vehicles. All rights reserved. Track. Turnout. 1 switch rod or head rod. Track. Running.) Track. and trains may be turned. Material of superior character spread over a subballast to support the track structure. Turntable. and fittings other than plain unguarded track that is neither curved nor fabricated before laying. Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Switch. Triangular arrangement of tracks on which cars. Body. A stub track diverging from another track. Topballast. Track. Wye. Cross. Tie. Spur. Slabbed (Pole Tie. Track. Plate interposed between a tie and rail or other track structure (Fig. A track in a hump yard on which a conveyance is operated for returning car riders to the summit of the hump. Arrangement of a switch and frog for diverting rolling stock from one track to another (Fig. Track. locomotives. distribute the load. A track auxiliary to the main track for use other than as a siding. Track Bolt. Tie. Wye. Track. track structures. Track. Rider.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Turnout Number. or the use of which is governed by block signals. Sapwood. Assembly of rails. (See Track. Stub. Top surface of a railhead that contacts the wheels. and fastenings over which cars. Track. 19. A tie with sapwood wider than one-fourth the width of the tie top between 20 and 40 in from midlength. Special. ties. and trains move. Track. Heartwood. Track connected with another track only at one end. A buttonhead bolt with oval neck and threaded nut for fastening rails and joint bars. A structure at the center of radial tracks that allows locomotives or cars to be turned and positioned for movement onto any of the tracks. An extended track connecting either end of a yard with the main track. A track connecting with a ladder track and over which locomotives and cars pass in switching. and bottom only. Track. parallel track. Ladder. A track alongside or entering a freight house and used for cars receiving or delivering freight. Tread. Number corresponding to the frog number of the frog used in the turnout. Side. Crossover.9). A track reserved for movement through a yard.1). Straight rails or track. The transverse member of the track structure to which rails are fastened to provide proper gage and to cushion and distribute traffic loads (Fig. Round Tie). Each of the parallel tracks of a yard on which cars are moved or stored. Lead. Track.15). Transfer.

Yard. ability to handle 1000 passengers or 10. structures. and sorting cars and over which movements not authorized by timetable or train order may be made. Successful freight service depends on fair rates. Freight railroads move all types of goods.2. and monorail and magneticlevitation fixed-guideway systems. attractive decor.digitalengineeringlibrary. low energy requirements (a rolling resistance of 3 to 8 lb/ton for steel wheels on steel rails).RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. . such as bulk goods like coal and grain. which has the objective of taking passengers from one station on the line to any other station on the line with a minimum of waiting time for a car and no intervening stops. without material aid from gravity. Characteristic engineering requirements for a satisfactory passenger service include cars having trucks equipped with very long travel springs. which are trains composed entirely of one type of car. Suite 1125.2 Intercity and High Speed Passenger Systems 19.2. 19. intercity rail passenger service was provided by freight railroads. dependability of service under all weather conditions. most intercity passenger travel is by private automobile or airplane with only a small percentage travelling by rail. Amtrak began operations on Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Currently.arema. Departure times. Congress established a quasi-public corporation—the National Railroad Passenger Corporation. with material aid from gravity. comfortable and roomy seats. maintain their own track. subject to prescribed signals and rules or special instructions. and vistadome lounge cars (except for overnight service). Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. build and Standard intercity passenger service provides safe and reliable movement of people across the country at speeds up to 80 miles per hour. Railroads operating intercity passenger service were given the option to continue their own service or join Amtrak by contract. a minimum amount of land required for right-of-way.3200) (www. cross stabilizers. Railroads joining Amtrak. clean and adequate toilet facilities. Flat. by payment of considerable fees.7 Yard. good lighting.2 Rail-Transportation Systems There are three principal types of rail-transportation systems: intercity passenger and freight. freight railroads are private industries that own or lease their right-of-way. Yard in which car classification is accomplished by pushing the cars over a summit. good dining car service reasonably priced. and low fares are also important factors. Yard in which car classification is accomplished by locomotive.459. Yard. Retarder. were relieved of all responsibility for provision of intercity rail passenger service. which are comprised of many types of cars. 19. are moved in unit trains. Outstanding attributes of each are safety. American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA)—8201 Corporate Drive. air conditioning. Due to huge deficits incurred for this service. Maryland 207852230 (301. Hump yard equipped with retarders to control car speed during descent to classification tracks.000 tons of freight (or more) with one train. usually called Amtrak—to operate a basic national passenger system. speed. on-time arrivals. signal systems and communication systems and operate trains of owned or leased equipment. standard intercity passenger service uses tracks of freight rail companies and therefore shares the track with freight trains. Landover. in the United States. Yard.1 Freight Systems Generally. Good engineering and operation are required to provide profitable freight service. A yard in which car movements are accomplished by locomotive. Other goods are moved in mixed trains. and ease of loading and unloading cargo. beyond which they run by gravity. snubbers. commuter. Hump. Some. Typically. and little atmospheric Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Until 1971. Sorting. All rights reserved. System of tracks for such purposes as making up trains. Gravity. freedom of lading damage. Yard in which cars are classified in greater detail after they have passed through a classification yard. convenient baggage storage. Other types of railtransportation systems are personal rapid transit. Yard. storing cars. These railroads provide for the movement of freight between cities across the country and between bordering countries. and rapid transit. consistent transit times and on-time delivery.

with air conditioning. The justification for such state and Federal aid has been saving of money and land that would otherwise be used for additional expressways. and in other cities that have no rapid-transit system. even with good commuter service. However. The advantages of rail rapid transit are much the same as those given for commuter lines. and a degree of comfort consistent with the other requirements. In some congested areas. potential improvement in air quality. HSR typically has its own designated track and right-of-way separate from any freight service. During rush hours.8 n Section Nineteen May 1. 19. . and comfortable seats. and less noise and air pollution. Characteristic requirements are frequent and dependable service. Also. although some provide service to nearby suburbs. Japan. serving major cities between Washington D.4 Rail Transit Systems 19. multiple passenger cars and a food service car between the power Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. even with some increase in fares.000 route miles in 45 states and is subsidized by the federal government. trackage traditionally has been located in subways or on elevated structures. Some large urban areas have created transit districts that fund development and operation of commuter rail systems. Eventually all railroads signed contracts with Amtrak. Germany and France have had this service for many years and continue to build new routes. Trains typically travel on standard railroad track. High Speed Rail (HSR) service is generally accepted to be for speeds of 110 miles per hour and above. fewer automobile accidents. reduction in the amount of parking space required in cities. on-time performance and frequent scheduling. Attractions are trains at frequent intervals. Important requirements are reliability. in several central city areas and major transit hub areas. to study the desirability of providing a rapid-transit rail system or some other type of system to provide adequate transportation for the increased population. Amtrak has started HSR service in the Northeast Corridor. Amtrak continues to provide intercity rail passenger service on more than 22. transit development has led to construction of pedestrian malls in conjunction with shopping areas. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary. commuter cars. Although the likelihood of a rail rapid-transit system being self-supporting is not Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. light weight for rapid acceleration and deceleration. These trainsets are aerodynamically shaped to reduce airflow resistance. Recently. railroads have been unable to operate this service profitably. relief of automobile congestion in cities. Some studies indicate that rail transit in lieu of highways offers lower construction costs by decreasing requirements for right-of-way and travel lanes for automobiles.2. In several localities existing underutilized or abandoned railroad freight lines have been purchased or refurbished to establish commuter service.3 Commuter Systems These usually provide short-haul passenger service between a large city and its suburbs and operate as part of a larger rail system.2. Some state governments also subsidize Amtrak for specific trains that operate within their states. and Boston. Use of double-deck. some states subsidize commuter operation where it is considered advantageous to do so. and economy. The United States is just starting to develop plans for HSR in corridors where such service will provide competitive timing to the airlines. passengers usually have to stand for a portion of the run. 1971 and operated about 60% of the intercity passenger trains that had existed before its creation. With population growth. Rapid-transit vehicles are primarily propelled by some form of external electricity. convenience. and push-pull operation have resulted in substantial increase in commuter travel. stainless-steel These are primarily intracity. quick loading and unloading. They may incorporate self-powered cars or be moved by diesel-electric locomotives. possible saving in travel time. and economy. a French TGV traveled from Calais to Marseilles averaging 306 km/hr (190 mph). automobile-traffic lanes of a highway have been replaced by trackage. Peak periods for transportation of workers occur during early morning and late afternoon. it becomes desirable to extend or add to the rapid-transit system in some cities. But some service must be provided throughout the day. In congested areas. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. High Speed Rail service uses trainsets composed of two power cars. comfort. Automobile travel competes with commuter service. with baggage cars. one on each end. protection from inclement weather. minimum travel time. good lighting. low fares.C. As a result. so it is important that engineers design a commuter system that will attract the maximum possible volume of travel.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.

and road crossings. Ticket selling and collecting are also automatic. For contemplated rail-transit. and taxes for the added trackage. and provide capacity for increased Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. reduction in track maintenance costs. 19.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. traffic. The cost benefit analysis is complex as dedicated right-of-way with no grade crossings is required. signal equipment. and quarries should be based on the added revenue the new lines may be expected to produce and balanced against the cost of construction. Therefore. to compete better for freight business.2. The justification for grade reductions is to permit longer trains to be hauled with one crew or to eliminate the cost of helper engines. They are electrically operated. including but not limited to sidings. mines. quarries. The location of terminals. increase in land values. The FTA also sponsors research aimed at improvement of rapid-transit components and development of new transit concepts. especially that applicable to passenger vehicles. commuter. Reduction of curvature and shortening of the line also reduce maintenance costs. and trackage to serve new industries.19. maintenance. Rapid transit is subsidized with Federal funds distributed by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). stations. along with quality of on board service. and elimination of fixed-plant facilities. studies should be made to determine location and station spacing that will be most compatible with feeder buses at stations and will also be most convenient for the maximum number of people. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. the cost-benefit analysis is more involved. The cost of the line changes or grade revisions should be estimated from the cost of right-of-way required and the cost of building the new line. and the car will proceed to that station without stopping at any intervening station. Benefits of the line or grade change should be estimated from reduced trip time. is used extensively for new at-grade systems. The best type of system allows a passenger to call a PRT car to a station by pushing a button or dialing. helping railroads to be more competitive with other transportation modes. PRT systems are also called Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) or People Movers. The justification for line changes is primarily reduction of curvature to permit higher speeds or shortening the line to reduce running time. The benefits of new line construction for industries. decrease in rollingequipment wear. The PRT cars are relatively small. The benefits obtained by these measures may be determined from data given in Art. The objective is to minimize waiting and transit time. This. Almost all new construction for intercity rail passenger service is contemplated to be for High Speed Rail. 19. length of the route and speed of operation determine total travel time from origin to destination.digitalengineeringlibrary. reduction in locomotives in inventory. must be comparable or better than equivalent airline travel. new construction of freight systems consists mostly of line changes. After boarding. the passenger can designate the station to which he or she wants to travel by pushing a button or dialing. mines. The operation is completely Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 19.9 good. decrease in track-component replacement costs. few cities are able to provide. These include land cost savings. One principal difference between commuter systems and rapid transit is that rapid transit involves new construction in most cases. reduced auto operating and parking costs. including rail transit. Quantifiable benefits are those that produce a net economic gain and are directly attributable to the rapid-transit system. grade revisions. using computercontrolled vending machines and turnstiles. Department of Transportation (DOT). bus service that is selfsupporting. savings in rider time. and local or area transit authorities. on existing streets and highways.3 Cost-Benefit Analyses of Rail Transportation Systems In the United States. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) sponsors utilization of all modes of transportation. European technology. fuel savings. All rights reserved. There are also a number of nonquantifiable benefits that should influence the final decision. . or personal rapid-transit systems. Cost and benefit comparisons should be made between alternative rail-transit systems as well as with other forms of mass transit and highway systems required to move an equivalent volume of persons efficiently and costeffectively.5 Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) Providing passengers with individualized service. Interference with other cars operating on the same line is prevented by computer scheduling.

may cause some errors in ground elevations as well as hide some salient features critical to project success. Grade is expressed as the ratio of rise to distance in percent (a 1% grade rises 1 ft/100 ft). however. contour maps made (photogrammetry). Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Various scenarios are developed for analyses of alternative systems to determine the most cost-effective program for transportation improvement for a given locality. it will probably be desirable to have aerial Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. With computer programs developed for roadway design. and 1 on 1⁄4 in solid rock (Fig. and recreational facilities. added employment in the construction. a minimum distance between track centers of 15 ft is recommended. All rights reserved. It is assumed that maintenance and operating costs are included in the quantifiable transportation cost savings. Since grading and bridge structures will probably be the only items that can be varied. and operation of the system.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.4 Route Selection As stated in Art.1). adequate transportation for the young and aged. Tying the control points to the local coordinate system also allows development of right-of-way information. For sidings or multiple track. amortization of equipment at the interest rate that must be paid over a period of 25 to 30 years (some equipment has been used longer but should have been replaced because of obsolescence). use should be made of existing government topographical and geological maps to the extent they will suffice. engineers can prepare plans and determine earthwork quantities. improvements in air quality. the grade and curvature may be selected to give minimum costs.3. the side slopes should be at least 1 on 11⁄2 in earth. From these studies. On fills. Rail-transportation alternatives. subtended by a 100-ft chord. A minimum width of roadway crown of 24 ft is recommended for top of subgrade with subballast. increased accessibility to educational. This gage should be used if equipment is to be interchanged with other railroads having standard gage. development of community centers. Rate of curvature is the central angle. Locomotives. stations. first on a large scale to lay out one or more possible routes and then at small scale along each route to arrive at estimated grading quantities. Most transportation planning agencies use a 15-year horizon for project planning and transportation system modeling. A roadway cross section must also be adopted. and cost savings for insurance and transportation. The cost-benefit analysis should be made for a reasonable period of time into the future and include projected population growth. The only consideration in route selection is to obtain the desired objective at lowest cost with minimum environmental damage. maintenance. especially when the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act is taken into account. 1 on 1⁄2 in loose rock. When aerial surveying techniques are used in conjunction with physically located control points along the chosen route. Standard gage for railway track in the United States (and many other countries) is 4 ft 81⁄2 in. It is desirable that both grade and rate of curvature be kept to a minimum. new construction for freight systems usually involves line changes. and shops). are being selected in those localities where population growth and density justify the cost. Maximum grade and rate of curvature must be established before a location can be chosen. or trackage to new industries. and track placed on top. 19.10 n Section Nineteen less congestion for auto traffic. institutional. . Studies should be made of several routes having different grades and rates of curvature. preliminary and final design can be accomplished with minimal field surveying.digitalengineeringlibrary. grade revisions. cars. ballast. but almost always a lower grade and rate of curvature mean increased construction cost and sometimes a longer time. and interest on the cost of rapid-transit fixed facilities (roadway. Nonquantifiable benefits include increased regional growth. taking into account the annual carrying charges on construction cost and the estimated costs for the anticipated train operation. reduction in air pollution. attraction of new industrial development. a personal reconnaissance of the 19. and reduction in the total energy required. Track gage must be decided on early. reduced adverse effects on the environment. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. reduced need for a second or third car for some families. If a considerable amount of trackage is involved. degrees. and mechanized work equipment are commonly manufactured for this gage. measured between the inner sides of the heads of the two rails of the track at a distance 5⁄8 in below the top of the rails. Hence. less pedestrian congestion in business districts. decreased noise pollution. Heavily wooded and bushy areas along the route. A calculation of running time should be made and considered in making this decision.

and opportunities to enhance neighborhood growth. For new HSR systems. an important factor in the cost. Availability of right-of-way. recreation. Before construction starts.1 Intercity Systems High Speed Rail systems being planned will require new dedicated right-of-way or substantial upgrading of existing rail routes.2 Commuter and Rail-Transit Systems Route selection for these shorter lines is determined by a number of factors. and other public facilities). and publicly owned land and streets will minimize acquisition costs and relocation of homes and businesses. 100 ft beyond length of platform. environmental effects of construction and avoidance of any at grade crossings. and other cultural and recreational areas. 19. it is possible to use steeper grades than for intercity passenger and freight lines.11 Fig. . the amount of superelevation provided. electric power sources. the degree of curvature should be kept to the minimum practicable. about 3700 yd3/ mi. Since these systems are to serve people. schools. churches. For horizontal curves. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. 19.1 Typical roadbed and ballast cross section for straight single track. The maximum curvature permitted will depend on the desired running speed. For rail-transit lines. 75 ft. safety. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. noise. a route that will be closest to the largest number of people connecting activity hubs is to be preferred. parks.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. Consideration should also be given to the length of car to be operated in a subway because the sharper the curve.digitalengineeringlibrary. vacant undeveloped land. neighborhoods passed through. the following track standards have been established: Tangent: desired minimum length.4. residential areas. These include a gentle alignment and profile. extension at stations. zoo. and characteristics of the rolling equipment. This may be done by taking into account the following: Service to existing land use. 500 ft and absolute minimum. which includes major employment areas. 19. Current plans and proposals for public and private projects that are contemplated for the future. to provide adequate information for the construction contractor. All rights Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Alternative alignments that make use of existing right-of-way. top ballast. a final survey should be made to locate physically the control points and alignment and to stake the project. about 4900 yd3/mi (includes 15% shrinkage).4. although here again minimum practical grades will afford operating economies. there are many considerations in route selection. the greater the width required (due to overhang) and the higher the cost of the tunnel construction. For one rail-transit system. institutions (hospitals. and sports. site is advisable before a final alignment has been selected. subballast. Impacts of proposed transit on the environment.

Where vertical and horizontal curves are combined and an unbalanced superelevation in excess of 1 in is present. the track support is of either reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete. In this case. fill. Figure 19. minimum track radius for track in circular tunnels. 500 ft. 100 times the algebraic difference of the grades being connected. Elevated trackage is in most cases preferable to cuts.5%.3 Right-of-Way For intercity passenger and freight lines. or a combination of the two. except in yard or slow-speed trackage. Superelevation should be the equilibrium for the speed permitted. the track location has already been decided.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. in modern elevatedtrack construction. in which case special fastenings will be used with resilient pads between the rail and the deck to reduce the noise level. the length should be doubled. Open cuts will probably require reinforced concrete retaining walls on each side of the trackage. The elevated construction may have a ballast deck so that the trackage can be supported on ballast. with a maximum of 4 in. In residential areas. Vertical curves should be used between changes in grade. and sidehill cut and fill—or natural ground surface is the most economical and is to be preferred where practicable.digitalengineeringlibrary.5 Track Location 19. 3. Unless a line is being located in a densely populated area or land cost is very high. Rail-transit systems in subways. principally in terms of aesthetics. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. fills. and departure yards is governed primarily by operating requirements. All rights reserved. Spiral or transition curves should be used between tangent and curvature of 18 or more. This could be avoided by use of a tunnel. 0. but a tunnel is more costly to construct and maintain. at grade.3%. for yard tracks.2. but not less than 200 ft. anticipating the construction of rapid-transit trackage at a later date when population growth would require it. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. 250 ft. At one time. as well as long-term maintenance costs and effects of the transit system on businesses and travel should be considered in determination of the best right-ofway for the system chosen for mass transit serving a specific area. Grades: maximum between stations. Otherwise.4. However. or on elevated structures are advantageous in densely populated areas. The choice between the two is largely a matter of which costs the least from an overall standpoint of first cost and maintenance. construction on businesses and travel. or the rails may be supported directly on the concrete floor. minimum length of constant-profile grade. 19. in some instances. which does much to reduce the noise. Construction costs. effects of Location of the tracks on prepared roadbed— including cut. Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. other storage tracks and yard areas. trackage for new rapid-transit systems should be constructed in open roadbed wherever practicable. 1000 ft. An unbalanced elevation of up to 11 in is permitted for 2 speeds requiring more than 4-in elevation. adding or taking off diesel units at intermediate points if conditions justify. and the effects of noise on nearby residents. It has its disadvantages. through stations and at terminal storage tracks. Location of receiving. and borrow pits. the rightof-way should accommodate the number of tracks and the slope for the cuts. minimum curve length. However. with a chain link fence and barbed-wire outriggers on top of each retaining wall to prevent children or others from falling into the cut. This applies particularly to rail-transit systems that are to be constructed. for example. a city has provided space for trackage in the median strip of expressways when they were constructed. a minimum right-ofway width of 50 ft each side of the track should be obtained. Allowance should also be made for any stations or yard facilities that may be required. In some instances. it is generally preferable to handle the same train from origin to destination. classification. Reversed curves should not be used without incorporating the minimum tangent length or length required for the two runoffs of elevation. . With diesel power and the need to avoid delay due to switching. 1000 ft. also should be used between compound curves.12 n Section Nineteen Curvature: desirable minimum radius for mainline track. the trackage should be elevated or placed in open cuts to avoid street grade crossings. and of pleasing appearance. yards were provided between divisions having different ruling grades. other locations are more desirable for reasons more important than the first cost. whichever is greater.

fastener. developed for use on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit system and later used for other installations. The sound barrier may be a vertical wall extending from the ground to 10 in above the bottom of the car side Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. All rights reserved. . and 70 to 80 dB(A) to usual noise in commercial and retail districts.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19.2 Tangent track construction used in subways of the Toronto Transit Commission. shows the rail fasteners used in tangent track construction in subways of the Toronto Transit Commission. The opposite sides of a 3⁄4 base plate is bolted directly to the supporting structure. Figure 19. For speeds of 50 mi/h or above. The elastomeric pad not only insulates the rail plate from the base plate but permits an elastic deflection of about 1⁄4 in for attenuating noise and vibration.3 shows the Landis direct-fixation rail Fig. In commercial and retail areas. In residential areas. a sound barrier should be placed between the track and any house within 120 ft. 19. A rubber pad is inserted under the steel rail plate for noise and vibration attenuation. This device for directly affixing rail to a rigid support structure incorporates a shear -in-thick steel rail fastening pad consisting of a 1⁄2 -in-thick steel base plate bonded on plate and a 1⁄4 -in-thick elastomeric pad. 19. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. tracks should not be closer to homes than 100 to 120 ft for elevated structures or ballast on grade or on fill. A noise level of 70 to 75 dB(A) is comparable to noise frequently encountered in residential areas.13 Fig. trackage can be as close to buildings as 30 ft if a sound barrier is provided.digitalengineeringlibrary.3 Landis direct-fixation rail Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

and depart from the station. the time it takes for train A to go from one passing track to the next and meet train B and then for train B to get to the first passing track determines the capacity of the railway in trains per day. operating at 5-min intervals. all the passengers for one train would not unload or load at a single station. or similar facility from which large numbers of passengers may be discharged in a short time. One such system provides emergency taxi service during the day for patrons to travel back to the suburbs. . passing tracks spaced close together afford larger line capacity than those spaced far apart. However. In some areas with high demand at rush hour (morning and evening). even longer passing tracks are desirable to permit passing without stopping the trains.2 Commuter and Rail-Transit Systems Capacity 19. the location of passing tracks and yard tracks should be taken into account in establishing the grade line.14 n Section Nineteen skirt with 8 to 10 in clearance. It is necessary to have cross- A simple curve has a constant radius throughout.3). If centralized traffic control is Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The capacity of a double-track system is normally about 40. The determining factor is the time required for a train to come into a station. Normally.) Such a sound barrier will lower the noise level about 12 dB(A). Several rapid-transit systems are in successful operation with at-grade alignments with resilient rail supports and continuous welded rail. if that were needed.5. are greater than those of a rapidtransit line at grade. a disabled car or train bypassed. and freight traffic utilizes the lines when the commuter trains are not operating. All rights reserved.6. and wheels kept ground smooth will minimize transmission of train vibrations through the ground to nearby buildings.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. overs suitably located to permit use of only one track at slack periods so that track repairs can be made. This is based on 10-car trains. It is also desirable to keep the car wheels ground smooth to reduce impact noise. station design should be planned accordingly. Construction and other costs of a subway or elevated line. These systems provide transit in the morning and evening. 19. commuter systems are operating successfully over existing freight railroad lines.2 and 19. Addition of a third and fourth track would be the most effective way to increase capacity. Designers of these systems took into account the effect on traffic. however. football stadium. Capacities in excess of 40. the addition of crossovers cannot be expected to add much to traffic capacity of such a double-track line. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. third rail or trolley repairs made. Thus. The exceptions are stations that serve a baseball field. If the line is for a single track. and reverse curves. The degree of curvature generally is measured by Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.1 Simple Curves Commuter and rail-transit lines will be doubletrack in most cases. Placing a rapid-transit line in a subway in a main business district can eliminate the adverse effects of train noise and reduce street space requirements.1 Intercity System Capacity For intercity passenger and freight lines.digitalengineeringlibrary. with 300 passengers per car. The sidings should be long enough for the maximum length of train to be clear of the main line. or for other reasons.000 passengers per track per hour.5.000 per track per hour are possible if the stations can be designed to handle passengers at the proposed rate. Use of continuous welded rail with the running surface periodically ground smooth with a grinding car or a train of such cars is also helpful for reducing the noise level. superelevation required for such curves. (Most of the noise from the rapid-transit car comes from the trucks and wheel impacts. 19. continuous welded rail periodically ground. and spiral curves as a means of introducing the superelevation on a gradual and uniform basis. 19. Use of resilient rail supports (Figs. If capacities of this amount or more are contemplated. unload and load passengers. Elevating the tracks also decreases the impact on street space but has the disadvantage of reducing the penetration of daylight to the street level.6 Horizontal Curves for Railways These include simple. lined on the inside with acoustic material. and some emergency that requires many passengers to leave a station swiftly. 19. compound.

The transit then should be moved to the T. to P.C. length measured along the curve is practically the same as that measured with 100-ft chords. 19. may be determined from T ¼ R tan D 2 (19:3) where L ¼ length of curve.digitalengineeringlibrary. A compound curve comprises two or more simple curves. multiply by 60) Suppose.. Next.2 Compound and Reverse Curves where D and D are in degrees. and degree of curve D are related by R¼ 50 sin(D=2) (19:1) and D/2 turned for a check on C. the tangents (to its ends) should be extended.I.C. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. for example.C. the increment of deflection is 50 Â 2. comes at 1108 þ 10. The transit should be moved to the beginning point of each simple curve to stake it.T. Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. This can be done by setting a transit at P.6) is a combination of two simple curves with centers on opposite sides of a common tangent. The transit deflections degrees (angle between tangent and line from T. a stake is to be set and tacked at 1108 þ 50 when the T. The point of curve T.4).5 Â 60/ 200 ¼ 30 min turned with the transit. to P.000 5730 ¼ 2pD D D. is given approximately by L¼ 100D D (19:4) 19.5). 19. for each stake equals For curves up to 78.C. and sighting along each tangent.7 (19:2) a¼ LD 200 (19:5) For curves of more than 78.4 Simple curve. The tangent distance T from the point of curve.5 min. from T..5 ft should be taped from the T.I.C. C. 19.C. but preferably more. are staked as for a simple curve. Compound curves should be avoided.6.C. and C. at least 100 ft long.15 the central angle subtended by a 100-ft-long chord. stakes should be set every 50 ft for flat curves. For each succeeding stake.T. (See also Spirals. to an intersection P. and end of curve C. ft D ¼ degree of curve (for a in minutes. the radius R of a curve is given approximately by R¼ 36. It is good practice to mark stations (100-ft intervals) around the curve and to set a stake at each station and at plus 50. the error in radius increases with the degree of curve. if possible.T. The degree and central angle for each simple curve of the compound curve have to be known or decided on in advance. and a deflection angle of 39. Fig. but they may be used where excessive excavation or fixed objects that must be cleared justify or require such a curve. should be placed between curves of opposite direction in main line. A short tangent.5 and the degree of curve is 28 300 . at 50-ft intervals.. Length of curve. each successive curve having a common tangent with the preceding curve (Fig. and from the end of curve.5 Â 2. to point on the curve). The measurement should be made with 100-ft chords for curves over 78. Radius R. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.5 ¼ 39. to set the stake at 1108 þ 50. In the location or staking of the center line of a simple curve.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19.I.I. and the intersection angle D measured (Fig. A length of 50– 10.) A reverse curve (Fig. although calculation of the tangent distances is more involved.T.T. Hence. All rights reserved. 19. sighted on P. . to C. Stakes should be driven and tacked to mark the T. T.C..5 Â 60/200 ¼ 37. ft. Reverse curves are acceptable in slow-speed passing and yard tracks but should never be used in main line.

the amount of superelevation is usually limited to 7 in to prevent undue tilting of the train if it stops on the curve.3 Superelevation of Curves Elevation of the outer rail of a curve relative to the inner rail is desirable on main-line track. If too much elevation is provided. which combine speed. amount of overbalance. is a matter of judgment. If too little elevation is provided for the predominating traffic and speed. curvature. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. subject to change from service experience. The amount of superelevation to be provided on a curve. the inner rail will show excessive flow on the top of the railhead toward 19. Most freight railroads have their own Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Passenger-train service on freight lines. For sharp curves. and on single-track lines particularly. curvature and desired operating speed around the curve. not all trains will go around a given curve at the same speed.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. and length of spiral to determine allowable superelevation. it may be necessary to restrict train speed so that it will not exceed by too much the speed for which the curve is elevated.6. 19. however. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. The amount of superelevation depends on degree of Fig.digitalengineeringlibrary.6 Reverse curve. affects superelevation requirements. the outer rail will show excessive wear on the gage side from the wheel flanges. .16 n Section Nineteen Fig. Usually. up to the 7-in maximum. All rights reserved. However. 19.5 Compound curve.

These requirements may change as high-speed passenger trains and “tilt trains” come into use. thus avoiding an abrupt change in the rate of lateral displacement of cars. Thus. a somewhat higher deficiency is permissible (Proceedings. Deflections may be calculated to place the stakes on even stations and plus 50. from tangent to circular curve extended at midlength of spiral The deflection from the tangent to the end of the spiral. mi/h E ¼ superelevation of outer rail. the permissible speed will have a deficiency in elevation of 3 in.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. Other key elements shown in Fig. multiplied by 4 19. 125).C. with the transit set at T. and the deflection a. A spiral increases in curvature gradually. however. is one-third of D.S. (Fig. 19. S. 19. the spiral may be divided into segments of equal length. say 10. a deflection of 2⁄3 must be turned off to put the line of sight tangent to the circular curve. ft Permissible speed somewhat in excess of equilibrium speed will not cause discomfort to passengers or other undesirable effects. The deflections for the circular curve then should be turned from this tangent.708 ft. For example. d ¼ ks where d ¼ degree of curvature at any point k ¼ increase in degree of curvature per 100-ft station s ¼ length in 100-ft stations from beginning of spiral to any point The central angle d. This is acceptable for the type of equipment in general use in the United States.S. Or if preferred to simplify calculation of deflections.7). for a 38 curve with 5-in superelevation and a track gage of 4. ft from either the tangent or the circular curve varies as the cube of the distance. The one generally used in the United States increases Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. T. Stakes on the spiral should be set every 50 ft as for a simple curve.C. (19:6) degree of curvature with length. When the transit is set at S. vary as the square of the length.6.. For a given degree of curve and elevation sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi E V¼ 0:000149gD where V ¼ equilibrium speed. Equilibrium speed is the speed at which outward centrifugal force from curvature is just balanced by the inward component of car weight resulting from elevation of the curve.. degrees.17 the gage and field sides and sometimes surface corrugation.6) by adding 3 in to the actual elevation of curve.4 Spirals An easement curve or spiral should be placed between tangents and each end of a simple curve and between the simple curves of a compound curve. and a backsight D is taken on T. Then. degrees. American Railway Engineering Association. ft O ¼ offset. For some types of freight cars having a very high center of gravity (over 96 in above top of rail). vol. The permissible speed. degrees R ¼ radius of circular curve. the deflection may be computed for the first segment. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. p. All rights reserved. Several forms of spiral may be used. 56. This permissible speed may be obtained readily from Eq. . (19. a somewhat smaller deficiency may be desirable to guard against Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. is 62 mi/h (equilibrium speed for 8-in elevation).S. in D ¼ degree of curve g ¼ gage of track. the offset of the spiral.7 may be computed from Xo ¼ S(50 À 0:000508D2 ) Ts ¼ Xo þ (R þ O) tan I 2 (19:10) (19:11) (19:12) (19:13) (19:7)   I Es ¼ O þ (R þ O) sec À 1 2 O ¼ 0:1454DS where S ¼ total length of spiral in 100-ft stations D ¼ total central angle of spiral. ft. 1 d ¼ ks2 (19:8) 2 1 a ¼ ks2 (19:9) 6 Also. the equilibrium speed is 49 mi/h. from the tangent at T. It also provides a means of gradually elevating the high rail in proper relation to the degree of curvature.. from the beginning of spiral.S.digitalengineeringlibrary. For passenger cars having antiroll devices.

7 Vertical Curves for Railways At changes in grade on main line.18 n Section Nineteen Fig.20% descending to 0. The length of spiral should be such as to give passengers a time interval to adjust to the unbalanced centrifugal force without feeling a jerk on entering or leaving the curve.digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved. if the grade changes from 0.10% on summits or 0. To set the stakes for the spiral at a distance s with the transit at S. in Ea ¼ elevation of outer rail. in (“Manual for Railway Engineering. (19. a vertical curve of sufficient length should be provided to prevent excessive slack action in long freight trains or a sensation of discomfort to passengers at maximum speed.) 19. subtract the deflection computed from Eq. (square of 2) to obtain the second deflection. The desired minimum length of spiral. 19.9) from the deflection computed for the same length of the circular curve extended. is the greater of the lengths determined from L ¼ 1:63Eu V L ¼ 62Ea (19:14a) (19:14b) where V ¼ maximum train speed on curve. . This deflection is then turned from the tangent at S. Experience has shown that the rate of change in grade per 100-ft station on vertical curves should not exceed 0.05% in sags. by 9 (square of 3) for the third. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.C. Thus.20% ascending in a Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the total Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. ft. Also.. by 16 for the fourth (square of 4).RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.C. mi/h Eu ¼ unbalanced elevation (deficiency).7 Spiral provides transition between tangent and curved track. and so on. to locate each stake.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association. the rate of change of elevation should be sufficiently gradual to prevent undue twisting of the car body.

25 939. use a vertical curve of 8 stations.) Table Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. One-half this difference is the offset from tangent.00 0.05 Station P.05)] ¼ 0.I.8) varies as the square of the distance from P. New York (books.19 change in grade is 0. It is simpler and satisfactory to use a vertical curve of the next even number of stations.5 stations 0:10 Use 6 stations.60 þ 939. the length of vertical curve should be 400 ft. (Fig. with the vehicles supported above or suspended below the monorail and electricpowered.60 938.20 939. varies as the square of the distance from P.40%. weight support.8). to P. determine the elevations at the beginning and end of the vertical curve.C.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19.45 939. to P. A monorail supported on its under side may be used for elevated construction and in subway.40  100/0.1 illustrates the method of calculating a vertical curve on a summit. (C. mcgraw-hill.27 939.24 939. F. A suspended monorail may be used for elevated construction. Offset at P.C.T. ft* 0.65 2 1⁄2(938. “Railroad Curves and Earthwork. 19.05 Verticalcurve elevation 938. and a vertical curve 0.05 ¼ 800 ft long should be provided.2 stations.digitalengineeringlibrary. Add these and divide by 2 to obtain the average. resulting in a high and costly opening. Fig. F. Hickerson. Table 19. The form of the vertical curve is parabolic in a vertical plane. it must have a grade separation at all highway and street crossings.12 939. Allen.C. 1008 þ 00 1009 þ 00 1010 þ 00 P.90 939. 1011 þ 00 Offset. or correction. First.18 0. or 600-ft vertical curve.41 ft Grade elevation 938.95 939. 19.8 Parabolic vertical curve connects two grades at a summit. All rights reserved. to be made at the middle of the vertical curve (Fig. If a similar change in grade occurs on a summit.” and T. Offset from P. .30 939. depending on the type of rail-transportation service and the physical characteristics of the environment: Monorail One line of a suitable type of rail and rail support.65 939.I.05 0. construction cost. 1005 þ 00 1006 þ 00 1007 þ 00 P. i. 19. The correction at other points varies as the square of the ratio of the distance from the nearest end of the vertical curve to half the length of the curve.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.05 0. the length of vertical curve determined in this manner will not be an even number of stations.41 0. if the calculated length is 7. Its use in tunnel and subway construction would require that it be supported by the top of the opening.T.. 19. “Route Location and Design. ¼ 1⁄2[939. Enough clearance should be provided below the vehicle bottom for street and highway crossings. (The economics of a system in tunnel or subway construction depends a great deal on the area of the required opening.I. but if used at ground level. a monorail system has disadvantages in switching. Ordinarily.e.18 0.60 938.T. and ride quality.1 Curve Offsets from Tangent for Vertical Length of curve ¼ þ0:35ÀðÀ0:20Þ ¼ 5.) Track Construction There are several different types of track construction used. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.00 *Offset P. Determine the difference between this average and the elevation at the intersection of the two grades.

digitalengineeringlibrary.19) to provide support and guidance for electric-powered rubber-tired vehicles. 19. dual-rail track on tangent.3). The dual-rail systems with steel wheels on steel rails. However. or rubber-tired wheels on steel or concrete beams (Figs. or subgrade. ties and rail. which is bolted to the invert floor but separated by an insulating and cushioning pad and insulating thimbles and washers for the fastening bolts (Figs. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Other systems either use some of the same components or are proprietary. even if a depth of only 6 in of ballast is used under the tie.8.1 Roadbed The roadbed. ties. either air-cushion or magnetic (tracked air-cushion or Maglev vehicles). and its construction are covered in detail. thus resulting in increased height of tunnel or subway opening. in which case the details of construction can best be obtained from the owners.9) which is used for the bulk of the railway track miles in the United States.or electric-powered vehicles. is to a large extent offset by the narrower width of the opening required for the vehicles used in this system.9 Typical standard-gage. steel running rails supported on tie plates. 19. . Two parallel lines of steel or concrete beams (Fig. however.18) can be used for on-ground or elevated-track construction. The dual rail system with ties and ballast ( Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 19. in subway construction. 19. 19. 19.20 n Section Nineteen Dual Rail Two lines of parallel. Two parallel lines of suitably designed rails for the support of levitation-type vehicles. with linear-induction or turbojet motor power for traction. The dualrail system with rubber tires on steel or concrete beams has some disadvantage in first cost because a larger-diameter tire must be used than for the steel wheel. and ballast (Fig. This fastening is more economical than the provision of additional tunnel or subway height to provide for tie and ballast depths.9) for diesel-electric. with ties and ballast.2 and 19. 19. the dualrail steel-wheel-on-steel-rail system has the rails fastened to an insulated tie plate. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. is a prepared ground on which to put the ballast.16 to 19. The subgrade Fig. This.

19. gradients should not be so steep that erosion occurs due to high flow velocities. Poorly drained roadbed can cause accumulation of debris in the ballast. Undersized or blocked drainageways may cause flooding. velocities and backwater created for particular opening sizes and configurations. ditches and openings through the roadway should be provided. subdrains made out of rock. All rights reserved. under rivers or to bypass other topographic features that could hinder train operation. or steel bridge. 19. and maximum intensity of rainfall that may be expected within a given period of time. pumping or low joints. Good drainage of groundwater in tunnels is an important factor in reducing track maintenance also. The fencing should be galvanized woven wire of No. Subballast is a finer graded material layer. The soil conditions will determine the type of construction necessary to keep the tunnel stable. They are also used to allow trains to travel below ground in congested urban Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 19.3% should be maintained to avoid sedimentation buildup. Proper drainage helps to keep track alignment. However. 9 gage.9. The principal factors affecting the required size of a waterway opening are the area of the watershed. or barbed wire. The top of the roadbed may be sloped downward away from the centerline to facilitate drainage from the ballast. see the “Manual for Railway Engineering” produced by the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. or galvanized steel ribbon. Additional information on tunnels is found in Section 20. Where a high watertable is naturally occurring. may be used to intercept the water and direct it away from the roadbed.2 Drainage Drainage of the roadbed and track structure is one of the most important aspects of good railroad construction and maintenance. The type and height of fencing are Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Each railroad has their own standard as to the minimum opening required and to the allowable effects of high flows on their right-ofway and facilities. A typical roadbed section used on freight railroads is shown in Figure 19. livestock. the height of fill (or depth of cut) and the side slopes of the cut or fill section. .3 Tunnels Tunnels are used to pass through mountains. between 6 and 12 inches thick. culverts or drainage structures should be large enough to permit easy maintenance and cleaning. For additional information on these methods and on waterway crossings in general. It is most often used in mainline construction. The important dimensions to be considered in roadbed design are the top width of the roadbed. Conversely. In cold weather. slope and characteristics of the ground within the watershed. The subballast can also provide protection to the subgrade against moisture infiltration from the track structure. with or without perforated pipe. The base of the roadbed must be wide enough to transmit the track and train loading within the allowable pressures of the natural ground material. concrete box or timber. Posts should be not more than 16 ft 6 in apart. The top width of the subgrade must accommodate the track and ballast and may need to provide a walkway area outside of the ballast section. Intercept ditches and borrow ditches are primarily used to intercept surface water and carry it to nearby streams or other waterways. smooth round. particularly at shallow culvert locations. Culvert pipe and box culverts should have headwalls to prevent water erosion of fill. that is placed on the subgrade and acts as separation between the course rock ballast and the subgrade. concrete.8. trapped moisture may lead to frost heaves. or poultry.4 Fencing Right-of-way should be fenced if it is desired to keep off trespassers. The new type of waterway opening provided may be galvanized steel or concrete pipe. Many methods are available to determine the maximum flow rates. which leads to tie deterioration. Soil that is wet or saturated has reduced bearing capacity. profile and roadbed in good condition. Adequate side slopes. Suitable drainage openings must be provided where the track construction crosses over waterways. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.8.digitalengineeringlibrary. ditch gradients are determined by the track profile. and problems with track surface geometry. Typically. In addition. washouts or settling of embankments.8.21 consists of compacted soil material that supports the track and train loading while transmitting and distributing the load with diminishing pressure to the natural ground below. a minimum gradient of 0.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. Abutment of bridges should have suitable wingwalls to contain fill and prevent erosion.

10 Principal rail dimensions.3 22.5 41⁄4 25 AREA (RE) AREA (RE) NYC AREA (RE) AREA (RE) CB AREA (RE) AREA (RE) CF&I AREA (RE) ARA-A (RA-A) ARA-B (RA-B) ASCE ARA-A (RA-A) ARA-B (RA-B) ASCE ASCE ASCE ASCE ASCE 6 6 61⁄4 6 6 6 51⁄12 51⁄2 51⁄2 53⁄8 51⁄2 59⁄64 53⁄4 51⁄8 449⁄64 53⁄8 53⁄16 5 413⁄16 41⁄4 41⁄16 43⁄16 45⁄32 315⁄16 43⁄16 3 ⁄32 313⁄16 313⁄16 33⁄8 39⁄32 33⁄8 255⁄64 35⁄64 35⁄32 25⁄8 255⁄64 23⁄4 25⁄8 235⁄64 217⁄64 19 3 215⁄16 215⁄16 3 3 2 ⁄16 221⁄32 223⁄32 221⁄32 211⁄16 23⁄4 221⁄32 23⁄4 29⁄16 29⁄16 25⁄8 29⁄16 21⁄2 215⁄32 23⁄8 15 21⁄16 115⁄16 131⁄32 115⁄16 13⁄4 115⁄16 17⁄8 111⁄16 13⁄4 121⁄32 19⁄16 145⁄64 145⁄64 115⁄32 139⁄64 119⁄32 135⁄64 11⁄211/2 127⁄64 17⁄32 3 ⁄4 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄32 ⁄32 3 33⁄32 3 33⁄32 13.0 13.3 133.9 22.8 71⁄16 231.8 17.5 245.64 95.0 48. But the head is made narrower and deeper than the flange of an ordinary I beam to resist the contact pressure and wear from flanged wheels better. it must be capable of distributing the wheel load over several ties along the track and it must be able to do this repeatedly without breaking.0 18. 2 in4 area.95 9.4 79⁄32 234.5 12. in3 in3 Base to Min Max Net center web head Head tons Base Nominal Calculated per Height width Fishing width depth thickness of both holes.0 75⁄16 239. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.6 6 ⁄32 208. the mill.) 19.5 100.84 8.83 8. A W T D mile H B F 140 136 136 133 132 122 119 115 106 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 85 80 75 60 139.45 9.25 10. .3 517⁄64 158.1 10.6 24.3 34. (For details of fencing.9 27.6 53⁄8 149.4 100. 19.82 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄16 ⁄169/16 ⁄169/16 ⁄64 ⁄32 ⁄64 9 9 9 9 9 237⁄64 8.84 9. To do Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.7 122.0 90.87 8.5 12.6 12. Base.10) Moment Cross sectional of inertia.6 53⁄4 158.1 26.93 9 35 17 31 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.7 114.4 65.7 413⁄16 106.33 7.6 101.9 86.01 11.8 60.9 613⁄16 201. the section number.9 41.digitalengineeringlibrary.1 6.6 28.6 135. Table 19. in (see Fig.4 18.2 87.4 23.9 53.1 9.8 136. in Section modulus Head.1 85.0 71.6 6 175.91 12.6 613⁄16 178.7 14. 19. see AREMA Manual.4 90.7 32.32 13.3 44.9 94.2 28.9 13.4 55⁄8 159.6 53⁄16 141.3 22.2 11.9 14.85 9.5 90. The standard length of rail in the United States and Canada is 39 ft. The heavier sections are used for heavy traffic and high-speed lines.2 5 131.7 106.0 80.7 16.10 show the principal dimensions and physical properties of sections that have been rolled in substantial rail tonnage or Table 19.2 11. flexural strength and fatigue strength.2 93.6 19.6 49. rail is shaped in section somewhat like an I beam. All rights reserved.4 20.1 26.2 13.9 Rails and Rail Accessories Rail serves three functions.5 118.0 38. It must resist contact pressure from the wheels.7 75⁄16 239. To provide flexural stiffness and strength.9 541⁄64 175.2 and Fig.9 74.8 15.3 23.5 100.2 13.1 9. are being rolled today in the United States.36 13.1 16.4 30.33 5.1 15.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.1 11 11 11 21 21 5 ⁄8 27⁄8 245⁄64 ⁄32 5 ⁄8 19 9 9 11.7 23.86 7.9 7.1 15.6 11. the year and Dimensions.2 Physical Properties of Rail Sections Weight Rail section Lb per yd Fig.07 12. The branding rolled in raised letters on one side of the rail web gives the weight of rail in pounds per yard.2 74.4 22.1 15.6 28. 19.8 71⁄8 215.9 65⁄8 187. rail must be hard and have sufficient stiffness.4 131.8 22.22 n Section Nineteen dictated by the local conditions and statutory requirements.8 17.6 6 176.

” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. Currently. required to depress the rail 1 in. lb/in. and the method of manufacture. lb/ lin in of rail. It is further assumed that the pressure.72 to 0.000 ksi) I ¼ moment of inertia of rail. 19. Mo ¼ 0:318PX1 Yo ¼ À0:393 where P ¼ wheel load. The tie load or reaction can be determined by calculating the average rail depression for the tie spacing and multiplying by the tie spacing and modulus u. This value ranges from 500 Rail stresses and depressions for unusually heavy loads may be computed by considering a rail as a Table 19. continuous beam on an elastic support (American Railway Engineering Association Proceedings.11. Rail specifications may be found in the “Manual for Railway Engineering. Percentage by Weight Nominal weight of rail. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. in.82 0. to withstand better the flange wear that occurs on the high rail of curves and the flow and corrugation that occur on the low rail. Another significant term is the distance X1. These may lead to development of transverse fissures in service.60 Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. On curves.digitalengineeringlibrary. vol. Sulfur. The maximum flexural stress in the rail base at this point may then be determined by dividing the total bending moment by the section modulus of the rail for the base. only rails with weights of 115 lbs per yard or higher are manufactured unless by special order. max.10 to 0. which has the top part of the head heat-treated. The value of u must be determined by actual measurement in track.035 0. The Brinell hardness in high-strength rail (alloy or heat treated) normally ranges from 340 to 380.3. The chemical composition of typical rail is shown in Table 19. Rail is ultrasonically tested for internal defects and must meet specific dimensional tolerance requirements for sidesweep and upsweep over a 39 ft length. lb/yd Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus. Control cooling of rail (retarding the cooling rate under controlled conditions) is effective in preventing shatter cracks.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. lb Mo ¼ bending moment due to wheel load. .23 month rolled. rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi p 4 4EI (19:16) X1 ¼ 4 u where E ¼ modulus of elasticity of rail steel (30. in-lb P uX1 (19:17) (19:18) 19. or alloy-steel rail. and ingot number. many railroads use fully heat-treated rail.037 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. the bending moment and rail depression along a rail may be determined in terms of Mo and Yo from Fig. rail letter (position in the ingot).3 Limitations on Chemical Content of Steel Rails. in. pp.9. of the rail on its support at any point is p ¼ uy (19:15) where y ¼ rail depression.1 0.80 to 1. from point of application of a wheel load to the point where the bending moment caused by that load becomes zero and then reverses in direction. The minimum Brinell hardness specified for standard rails is 300. max. The modulus of elasticity of rail support u is the uniform load. the rail is hotstamped to show the heat number. A typical branding is as follows: 115 RE (weight (Type) or section number) CC (If controlled cooled) Manufacturer 1977 IIIII (Mill (Year (Month brand) rolled) rolled) On the opposite side of the web. the master diagram may be used to determine the moment and depression at any point in the rail for all wheels by taking one wheel at a time and combining the effects algebraically. except when rails are made from vacuum degassed steel. 878-896). All rights reserved. 19. in Since there is always more than one wheel load. the assumption that rail is continuously supported will not cause significant error. so control cooling is included in rail specifications. in4 For a single wheel load. 115 or more 0.1 Stress and Strain in Rails Yo ¼ rail depression under wheel load. With the tie spacings in general use.

An approximate value of stress for other weights may be determined by multiplying the values shown by the ratio of the wheel weights on the rail.digitalengineeringlibrary.12 shows the bending stresses calculated by this method for a typical 100-ton freight car with four-wheel trucks. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. There is no established impact effect or permissible working stress in rail because of variability of conditions on different railways. the rails are welded end to end by a thermite welding process.11 Diagram for calculating rail bending moment and depression under a single wheel load. However.9. in. with a 36-in-diameter wheel at 60 mi/h. The value of u is not critical in calculating rail stresses but is significant for rail depression. mi/h. A flexural stress at the extreme fiber of the base in jointed track of 35 ksi is permissible at speeds below 35 mi/h. most railways use continuous welded rail (CWR). Thus. 25 ksi.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. The following may be used as a guide: Multiply the stress for static loads by a percent impact factor of 33V/D. In an alternative welding process. When in place in the track. where V is the speed. Figure 19. or 30 ksi at higher speeds. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill ( Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. in continuous welded rail. which are delivered to the job site in special trains.) for track with little ballast and poorly compacted roadbed to 2000 or more on track with adequate ballast and well-compacted roadbed. and D the wheel diameter.24 n Section Nineteen Fig. 19. (ASCE-AREA Special Committee on Stresses in Railroad Track.2 Continuous Welded Rail For new rail. All rights reserved. the impact factor is 55%. Secondhand bolted rail is cropped to remove worn and battered ends and bolt holes and then is butt-welded before it is laid in track. 19. any length of continuous rail that is 400 feet or longer is considered to be CWR. machines are used to butt weld in the field in the same manner as in the shop. It is usually placed in quarter-mile lengths. .

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. a tensile stress of 19. The force developed by these stresses will cause the rail to move sideways. As an alternative. the rail and track will buckle. A minimum top of ballast shoulder width of 12 in is recommended. if continuous welded rail is laid at 70 8F and the rail temperature drops to 2 30 8F. The welded strings are joined with rail-joint bars or thermite welds. An effort is made to lay continuous welded rail at about a mean temperature. When the rail temperature decreases below the laying temperature.000 lb). A tensile stress of 195 psi is produced in the rail by a 1 8F temperature drop. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.4). This movement is prevented by the use of rail anchors and sufficient ballast shoulders. (c) continuous welded rail on main line. The restraint stresses the rail.9. All rights reserved. loose or broken bolts and track surface geometry deterioration.500 psi develops in the rail because it is restrained from shortening.9. so it may be desirable to adjust the rail length later if difficulty with track buckling or joint pull-aparts occurs. Unless this force is restrained. When the rail temperature increases above the laying temperature.12 Calculated rail stresses produced by a typical 100-ton-capacity hopper car (gross load of 263.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. Expansion and contraction of continuous welded rail are controlled by the rail joints and the rail fastenings or anchors. rail is butt-welded into long lengths before it is laid in track. compressive stresses develop in the rail due to the restrained ends of the rail string. 19.25 Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. For example. . which may require the rail to be heated or cooled.digitalengineeringlibrary.3 Jointed Rail Jointed rail is made up of short rail lengths (33 to 39 feet) joined together by joint bars with track bolts. This was the standard type of track before the development of continuous welded rail but is still widely used. This is not always practical. 19. The rail anchors provide a relatively uniform distribution of the lateral rail force to the ties and the ballast shoulder provides resistance to lateral tie movement. (b) jointed rail on main line. Wheel impacts at joints can cause rail end batter. Additional rail anchors are used to restrain movement of the rail at joint locations (see Article 19. Recommended work stresses: (a) Jointed rail on branch line with speeds under 35 mi/h. the rail tries to contract and induces tension at rail joints. Rail-joint bars are used to join together abutting rails. Jointed rail in mainlines requires a higher level of maintenance than CWR. The restraint at rail joints from track bolt shear strength and rail-joint friction may not be enough to maintain the joint integrity and a pull-apart will occur.

RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.26 n Section Nineteen In jointed tracks. yield point of 70 ksi. 119 RE and 133 RE rail are 1-in diameter. not over 1. 119 RE. .” American Railway Engineering Association. and 25% reduction of area are minimum requirements. 19. Bar punching is spaced 6-6-71⁄8 -6-6 in/(AREMA Manual). manganese. The “Manual for Railway and Maintenance of Way Engineering. Since about 1930. most joint bars have been shaped more like an I beam and are called joint bars or sometimes short-toe joint bars. Track bolts for 132 Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Tensile strength of 100 ksi. a camber of 1⁄16 in in either direction in the horizontal plane is acceptable. 136 RE and 140 RE rail are 1-1⁄8 in diameter. the bar may not be low or more than 1⁄16 in high at midlength. There are 271 rail joints per mile of jointed track. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Track bolts for 115 RE. 133 RE. Head contact bars have a slope on both the head and the base to match the fishing surfaces of the rail. most railways use two 36-in joint bars with six bolts and spring washers per rail joint (Fig. and take-up for wear is provided at both head and base. For 36-in bars. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. manufactured in accordance with specifications given in the AREMA Manual. and 140 RE rail. not over 0.04%. Most rail-joint bars are made of oil-quenched carbon steel. the bars can be used on either side of the rail and always have an oval and circular hole match for the track bolt. The bolt-and-nut design is in accordance with American National Standards Institute Standard B18. The threads are rolled. joint bars were shaped somewhat like an angle in cross section and were called angle bars. Steel companies that roll joint bars can furnish design drawings of bars they are equipped to roll. Most railways purchase heat-treated carbon-steel track bolts and carbon-steel nuts in accordance with specifications in the AREMA Manual or ASTM Standards.3 Track Bolts These are used for bolting a pair of joint bars in position. Track bolts have a forged button-type head with either an oval or elliptic neck to prevent turning in the joint bar.9. 136 RE.digitalengineeringlibrary.2. Carbon is specified at 0. Headfree bars fit into the upper fillet between rail web and head. Take-up for contact-surface (fishing-surface) wear is provided in the base. 132 RE. But in the vertical plane. Brinell hardness is not specified but usually varies from 225 to 275. In years past.60%.20%. gives designs of joint bars for 115 RE. Hence. to distinguish them from the long-toe angle bar. It is important that the bars be straight or cambered in the least harmful direction. A minimum carbon of Fig. 19.13). and phosphorus. 12% elongation in 2 in. A bend test is also required. All rights reserved.13 Six-hole rail joint. Most railways specify a Class 2 or finger-free fit. Results with both types of bars have been equal in service tests.35 to 0. Rail-joint bars are punched with alternate oval and circular holes. 19. or ASTM Standards.

digitalengineeringlibrary. every tie within 200 feet of the interruption. . The plates. 76. yield point of 80 ksi. For the 1-in-nominal-diameter -in. use eight forward and two backup anchors per 39-ft rail length. maximum phosphorus of 0. For continuous welded rail. a total of 16. which permits the joint bars to move closer together.560 lb. should be box anchored. A bend test is specified.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 to 30. regardless of traffic.06% are specified. such as at turnouts or crossings. 12% elongation in 2 in. The high initial tension allows for proper seating of the joint bar and some subsequent relaxation of tension in service.30%. Tensile strength of 110 ksi.04%. every other tie should be have rail anchors applied on both rails on both sides of the tie. use eight anchors per 39-ft rail length to resist movement in each direction. 11⁄6 83. Under average conditions. Bolts must be checked for proper tension at regular intervals.360 lb. rolled to the desired cross section. Tests have shown that track bolts become loose because of fishing-surface wear. spring washers will maintain a reactive force of at least 5000 lb. Most types engage the rail base by a spring clamping action and bear against the side of the tie or tie plate to restrain rail movement. There are many different types in use. All rights reserved. reduce tie abrasion and hold the rail to gage better. are sheared to a width generally of 73⁄4 or 8 in. and 11⁄8 -in. Fig. and 25% reduction in area are minimum requirements. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Where interruptions in CWR occur. 19.4 Rail Anchors A rail anchor is a device used to restrain lengthwise movement of rail. (a) For main track carrying traffic essentially in one direction. and a bolt tension of 5000 lb is sufficient to ensure proper functioning of the rail joint.5 19. Specifications for spring washers in the AREMA Manual require that.900 lb. The anchor should have sufficient holding power to move the tie in the ballast rather than permit the rail to slip through the anchor. (b) For main track carrying traffic in both directions. A cant of 1 : 40 is provided in the rail seat to incline the rail slightly inward. The trend has been toward larger tie plates and use of double shoulders. changes and train movements.000 to 25. Box anchoring will provide effective resistance to longitudinal stresses in the rail from temperature Tie Plates A rolled-steel plate is used between rail and tie to distribute the rail load. This amount of release is adequate for the fishing wear that occurs in a year’s service.14 shows a good method for anchoring jointed track with this type of anchor (AREMA Manual). with a release of 0. Larger-diameter bolts have some value in resisting bending from the contraction force in the rail in cold weather. Tie plates having a length of 12 to 14 in are commonly used in the United States for rails having a base width of 51⁄2 in and a length of 13 to 16 in for rails with a base width of 6 in. Figure 19.14 Methods of anchoring jointed track. This is called box anchoring. and maximum sulfur of 0. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. with any type of ballast.000 lb. instead of just one shoulder to restrain the outer edge of the rail base.9. A greater length of tie plate is provided on the field side of the rail than on the gage side (from 1⁄2 to 21⁄2 in) to better resist the outward lateral forces on the rail on curves. not because of vibration.9. Under average conditions. with any type of ballast. as is the minimum tension load that the bolt with nut fully engaged must withstand without stripping the nut or breaking the bolt.000 lb is recommended.27 0. in both directions. Initial bolt tension in track of 20. Tension of inservice bolts should range from 15.000 lbs.03 in from an initial compression of 20. bolt. Spring washers are used to maintain bolt tension and reduce the amount of bolt tightening required. 19. this is 66.

or more than one-fourth the width of the surface on which it appears when outside the sections of the tie between 20 and 40 in from its middle. 19. two hold-down spikes are used in oppositely staggered holes. Ties are made of many types of materials. see ASTM Standards and the AREMA Manual. They are formed with a wedge-shaped point to cut the tie fibers and prevent splitting.6 Rail Fastening Rail fasteners consist of any device or system of components used to fasten the rail to the tie or other support. On tangent track. air seasoning has been used wherein ties are stacked such that air flow is main- Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. This part of the tree is less desirable for lumber but more desirable for ties. All rights reserved. except when outside the same 20to 40-in zone. it is usual practice to use two line spikes in staggered holes for each tie plate. 19. two line and two hold-down spikes are used per plate. a hole more than 3 in deep and 1⁄2 in in diameter when between 20 and 40 in from midlength. For main-line track. Drive spikes. some railroads apply antisplitting devices.20% is sometimes specified to give corrosion resistance. Generally. On curves. a knot having an average diameter in excess of one-fourth the width of the surface on which it appears. Carbon content varies from a minimum of 0.28 n Section Nineteen Generally. They are also used to anchor tie plates to the ties. it is oval in shape and eccentric on the shank to provide a length of 11⁄16 in to engage the top of the rail base. an additional line spike is used at the inner edge of the rail base.9). Elastic clips are designed to deform measurably under load but return to their initial condition when unloaded. for holding rails to gage. Some tie plates that are designed for use with elastic rail clips may have special configurations to allow for attachment of the clips to the plate. are commonly 5⁄8 in square and 6 in long under the head. are steel screws with square heads that may be used for tie plate hold downs. On curves of 68 and over with heavy traffic density. lateral and rotational movement of the rail. Ties should be seasoned prior to treatment with preservatives. tie plates have four holes.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. gum. 19. Some fasteners.2. steel and composite materials. and a slant in grain in excess of 1 in 15 (AREMA manual). See also Art. However. Tie plates are made by various processes. The head is rounded on top to facilitate driving. Clips may fit into special slots in the tie plate or be anchored to the support with bolts or screws. Many different types of rail fasteners are in use today. a split more than 5 in long.9. mostly oak. Cut spikes are usually used to fasten rails to ties. Most ties in railway track in the United States are of treated wood. such as 6 Â 8 in by 8 ft long. When ties are received at the treating plant for seasoning. punched near the corners for tie-plate fastening or hold-down spikes (Fig. . Line spikes.digitalengineeringlibrary. or fir. ties containing the following will not be accepted by purchasers: decay. Sometimes. timber crossing hold downs and other timber applications. Drive spikes have material properties similar to cut spikes and come in diameters of 1⁄2to 3⁄4 in. 11⁄16 in square. including wood. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. for fastening tie plates to ties. A copper content of 0. Smaller sizes are used for yard tracks. a shake larger than one-third the tie width. punched through the shoulders for spikes to hold the rail to line. Cross ties provide support for the rails and distribute rail loads to the ballast. For design and specifications. such as elastic clips may provide some restraint against longitudinal movement of the rail as well. the most common size is 7 Â 9 in by 9 ft long. Rail clips are designed to have contact with both the top surface of the rail base and the tie or rail support. Low-carbon plates may be coldworked. Hold-down spikes. Ties are sawn rather than hewn and consist mostly of heartwood. high-carbon plates must be hot-worked. to some or all ties. Traditionally. generally by open-hearth or basic-oxygen. Rigid clips do not deform measurably under load. are commonly 9⁄16 in square and 51⁄2 in long under the head.10 Ties 19. The plates also have four holes. 3⁄4 in square. The most widely used is the steel cut spike. Switch ties serve the same purpose as standard cross ties but are longer to support the widened sections of turnouts or railroad crossings. pine.15% for low-carbon plates to a maximum of 0.85% for highcarbon plates. elastic or rigid steel clips and drive or screw spikes also are used. such as nail plates. also known as screw spikes. Designs and specifications may be found in ASTM Standards and the AREMA Manual. Rail fasteners provide restraint against Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. concrete.11.

Steel ties are often used in locations where vertical clearance is a factor. Due to the design of the steel ties.12 Turnouts and Crossings 19.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. Depending on the wood type. After several years of service. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. including the topballast. Prestressed concrete ties are used in locations with heavy tonnage. chat (residue after extracting ore from rock). Fouled ballast does not provide for drainage of water away from the ties and rail and should be cleaned or replaced. The topballast may be of hard rock crushed to suitable size. Before the seasoned ties are treated with preservatives. see “Manual for Railway Engineering.11. Seasoning removes sufficient moisture from the wood to permit addition of a preservative. Concrete strengths are generally 7000 psi and above. on this layer. and a set of turnout ties (Fig. Type and gradation of the material to be used for ballast and the cross section are important with respect to the cost of maintaining line and surface. if there is a sufficient quantity of angular material to prevent rolling. and sand make acceptable subballast. 19. Tie plates are not used but insulating or cushioning pads are placed beneath the rail to absorb impact and prevent signal currents in the rail from entering the ties. undercutting may be done to remove excess ballast. Therefore.29 tained around the ties to dry them to the proper moisture content. On most existing track. Tie treatments must meet specifications C-6 of the American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA). retention of coal tar or petroleum-based preservatives should be between 6 and 8 pcf. A 12-in depth of top-ballast below the bottom of the ties and a 12-in depth of subballast will generally provide good track support for heavy loading and traffic (AREMA Manual). This cost must be balanced against the original cost. the depth of ballast under the ties will probably be considerably increased. Other preservatives. . the distance from top of tie to bottom of ballast is less than for standard wood or concrete ties. All rights reserved. If overhead clearances are reduced due to the additional ballast depth. Stone or slag screenings. vapor drying and steam conditioning. roadbed. Prestressed concrete ties are manufactured with dimensions similar to wood ties.11 Ballast Ballast supports the ties. a frog. ties are renewed only as required or on a spot renewal basis. it will be necessary to add additional ballast to resurface the track from time to time.digitalengineeringlibrary. Coal Tar Creosote or mixtures with coal tar or heavy petroleum are the primary preservatives used. crushed blast-furnace or properly processed open-hearth slag.15). A turnout is made up of a pair of switch points with accessories. Treatment results are measured in pounds percubic foot of retention of the preservative. In new track construction. Ties made of composite materials are being developed and tested to determine if they have the durability and flexibility to be used as replacement ties. As the roadbed becomes further compacted by traffic. Different types of wood respond differently to these methods and therefore care should be taken to select the best method. 19. Subballast should be placed in layers and thoroughly compacted. they are less economical for tie renewals in existing track. best results can usually be obtained by placing a layer of subballast on top of the roadway and supporting the track structure. Ties are treated with preservatives to prevent decay and extend the life of the tie. Inserts for rail fasteners are cast into the concrete. may also be used. The subballast should be small particles of a material that will not disintegrate. or crushed gravel. they should be adzed for the tie plates and bored for the track spikes. Ballast also absorbs impact loads. Other seasoning methods include Boulton Drying. it is time consuming. For complete specifications for ballast Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. a pair of guardrails. high traffic volume or where steep grades or sharp curves are present. As this is a natural drying process. Prestressedconcrete ties should be placed out of face to give best results. Ballast may also become fouled from ballast particle degradation or other sources. 19. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. A recommended ballast section is shown in Fig. restricts movement of the ties and transmits rail loads to the subgrade or A turnout provides the means for trains to be directed from one track to another. such as water-born salt or pentachlorophenol. Its purpose is to provide drainage and keep the subgrade from penetrating up into the topballast while wet and under pressure.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. Individual railroads have different preferences for size of ballast.

19. The number also is given by half the cotangent of half the frog angle. One side of the frog has a regular flangeway like a bolted-rail rigid frog. This is placed in the main running track. Bolted-rail frogs cost the least. The frog is joined to the two running rails at toe and heel by regular rail-joint bars and connecting bolts.15 Crossover consists of two turnouts and a crossover (connecting) track. side. to contact the back of each passing wheel and prevent the flange of its mating Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. the smaller-numbered ones. The spring-rail frog provides a continuous running surface with a minimum of impact for the main running Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (Hadfield manganese steel is a high-manganese alloy. or distance between gage lines. Numbers indicate dimensions given in Table 19. at that distance. are used in yard tracks where speed is slow. the movable point control is tied to the switch control so that the frog point is always in the correct position for train movements through the switch.) The insert is supported by bent sections of rail.4 gives these data for frog numbers from 5 to 20. but they do not last as long and require more maintenance than the rail-bound or solid manganese. . Where extremely shallow frog angles are used. the degree of turnout curvature. which normally is held against the side of the frog point. The movable point eliminates the long flangeway gap at the intersection of the flangeways caused by the shallow angle.16) includes a cast insert of Hadfield manganese steel.2 Guardrails A guardrail is fastened to each rail directly opposite the frog point. It is designated by number and type. The frog number is the ratio of the distance from the intersection of two gage lines to the spread. In turnouts.1 Frogs A frog is a special unit of trackwork that permits two rails to cross. Since speed is limited by curvature.30 n Section Nineteen Fig. which when properly heat-treated increases in hardness with cold working. Frogs are either rigid or spring-rail types. components are made from regular rolled rail. which forms the point and wings. has a spring wing rail. Rigid frogs are of bolted rail. 19. particularly in high speed operations. or distance from the point of switch to the point of frog. or solid manganese-steel construction. or turnout. Self-guarded solid manganese frogs are used mostly for the smaller-numbered frogs in yard tracks where speeds are relatively slow. A rail-bound manganese-steel frog (Fig. The frog number determines the frog angle.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. the frogs with sharper turnout. The assembly is held together by bolts through the rail webs. All rights reserved. Wheels passing through the turnout side force the spring rail out. In a boltedrail rigid frog. and the assembly is fastened together with bolts through the binding rails and the insert. and wear. and the lead. A solid manganese-steel rigid frog (Fig.digitalengineeringlibrary. 19. so it is especially well-suited to resist batter at frog corners. the locations most subject to impact.12. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. rail-bound manganese-steel. The other. with the components separated by filler blocks to form the flangeway. Table 19. Spring-type frogs are not recommended where there are many movements through the turnout side requiring frequent opening of the spring rail or on the outside of curves. It usually is self-guarded to save the cost of separate guardrails. against spring resistance.12.4 19. a movable point frog may be used.16b) is made entirely of cast Hadfield manganese steel. to provide a flangeway. A spring-rail frog is made of machined rail sections. batter. 19. The larger-numbered frogs are used in main-line locations to permit desired speed to the extent practical. planed or machined as required.

80 258. lead In 0 9 101⁄2 41 46 49 56 63 67 76 87 92 100 111 0 3.63 3 3 2 2 1 44 32 57 9 85 6 113 13 20 55 0 80 0 105 0 3 51 18 53 0 76 0 99 0 19 48 51 9 73 6 95 3 121⁄8 123⁄4 37 28 41 11⁄4 60 79 21⁄2 33⁄4 127⁄8 211⁄4 221⁄8 5 11 20 38 81⁄2 55 5 72 11⁄2 127⁄16 215⁄8 6 10 56 37 81⁄2 53 5 69 2 2 2 11⁄2 121⁄4 213⁄8 7 21 24 29 113⁄4 43 21 2 51⁄2 56 111⁄4 121⁄4 85⁄8 93⁄4 97⁄8 93⁄4 2 107⁄16 131⁄16 2211⁄16 2 113⁄16 9 19 30 28 101⁄4 41 53 2 21⁄2 63⁄4 125⁄16 213⁄8 97⁄16 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 11 46 44 27 71⁄4 38 49 7 81⁄2 93⁄4 117⁄8 209⁄16 2 85⁄16 15 43 16 26 21⁄4 35 101⁄2 45 8 63⁄4 113⁄8 199⁄16 2 67⁄8 10 9 21 43 12 46 5 49 34 10 51 22 17 58 19 21⁄4 27 35 2 10 9 31 41⁄2 63⁄4 123⁄8 215⁄8 38 16 10 35 29 18 19 27 6 47 56 51 32 39 56 18 0 25 0 32 0 1113⁄16 2 8 ⁄8 11 25 16 205⁄8 7 Actual.4 Lead curve 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Gage line offsets Properties of frogs Turnout and Crossover Data for Straight Split Switches* Crossover data For change of 12 in in track centers Closure distance 4 5 1 2 3 Length of Frog switch No.15. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. 12 or No.59 487. for mainline slow-speed movements.27 1.289. 13-ft track centers Ft 16 20 31⁄2 24 27 71⁄2 31 34 81⁄2 38 61⁄2 41 71⁄2 14 111⁄2 48 14 111⁄2 52 16 01⁄2 18 7 01⁄2 19 10 55 21⁄2 62 In 105⁄16 51⁄2 03⁄8 71⁄8 15⁄8 81⁄8 21⁄2 83⁄4 91⁄4 95⁄8 97⁄8 69 10 19 Crossover track.720. 10.29 0 2.007.digitalengineeringlibrary. 13-ft track centers Ft 18 21 28 35 38 42 49 37⁄16 52 56 63 70 In 1 ⁄8 61⁄2 24 115⁄8 47⁄8 31 103⁄8 37⁄8 7 Straight track Ft 4 5 6 7 8 9 91⁄2 10 31⁄4 11 23⁄16 13 85⁄8 14 21⁄2 15 23⁄16 17 2 19 In 117⁄16 111⁄2 119⁄16 115⁄8 1111⁄16 113⁄4 113⁄4 Comfortable Cross. 19. No.57 365. No.20 0 0 0 71⁄4 71⁄2 5 5 10 101⁄4 101⁄2 51⁄4 111⁄2 11 11 11 11⁄4 33 0 28 4 9 10 12 13 16 16 18 20 23 24 26 29 Ft In In Ft In Ft In In In Ft In Deg Min Sec Ft In 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 7 0 3 Ft 3 3 4 5 6 6 81⁄2 7 7 8 41⁄2 9 9 11 30 101⁄2 11 Straight closure rail Frog angle Overall Toe length length Radius of center line. Calculated for turnouts from straight track for 4-ft 81⁄2-in gage.77 63⁄4 1. . rail Curved closure rail Degree of curve Deg Min Sec Ft 177. 20.Table 19. Column numbers refer to dimensions in Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.28 615. 16 or No. No. Comfortable speed added. Turnouts and crossovers recommended: for main-line high-speed movements.79 0 2.581. mi/h over track Ft In 5 05⁄8 6 01⁄2 7 07⁄16 8 03⁄8 9 05⁄16 1111⁄16 10 05⁄16 11 01⁄4 12 01⁄4 1113⁄16 14 01⁄4 1113⁄16 15 03⁄16 1113⁄16 16 03⁄16 1113⁄16 18 03⁄16 117⁄8 20 01⁄8 12 13 17 19 21 24 26 28 34 35 38 40 40 Ft In Ft In Ft 5 11 0 42 61⁄2 28 6 11 0 47 6 32 7 16 6 62 1 40 8 16 6 68 0 46 9 16 6 72 31⁄2 49 10 16 6 78 9 55 11 22 0 91 101⁄4 62 12 22 0 96 8 66 14 22 0 107 03⁄4 76 225⁄16 2 101⁄2 RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 15 30 0 126 41⁄2 86 16 30 0 131 4 91 127⁄16 2113⁄16 2 105⁄16 18 30 0 140 111⁄2 99 20 30 0 151 111⁄2 110 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.104. All rights reserved.39 927. ft In Ft 6 ⁄2 5 9 1 5 0 6 81⁄2 7 7 41⁄2 9 10 11 91⁄2 12 5 5 1 Heel length In 51⁄2 3 11 1 Straight track.12 779.578.12 03⁄4 1. * Adapted from AREA Trackwork Plans. 8. for yards and sidings to meet general conditions.speed.

It is important that the guardrails be long enough and properly positioned to ensure that the wheels are guarded past the frog point. A short switch point and large angle are satisfactory for slow-speed operation. For a high-speed turnout. Each tie thereafter is made long enough to extend from each outer rail base the same distance as on regular track.4 Crossings A crossing of two tracks requires four crossing frogs. To ensure that such guardrails are effective in preventing the wheel flanges from entering the wrong side of the point. wheel on the axle from going down the wrong side of the frog point. 19. such as a No. length of point is satisfactory for a No. 8 turnout. Each running rail has a guardrail with a 2-in-wide flangeway between. Switch ties must be provided for turnouts. 18 and 20 turnouts.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. (b) Solid manganese-steel self-guarded frog for yard tracks. 30-ft points are used. main and connecting rods.16 Frogs used where rails intersect. It is also important that the guard check gage (distance between guard and gage lines) be maintained at not less than 4 ft 65⁄8 in (for standard gage). Guardrails are of rail or castmanganese-steel construction. The heel spread (distance between the two gage lines) is 61⁄4 in. so the switch angle is fixed by this distance and the length of the switch-point rail. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. a set of switch slide plates with braces. switch points are made straight.digitalengineeringlibrary.12. Comfortable operating speeds through turnouts are shown in Table 19. Usually. 20. The switch-point rails are planed from regular rolled rail and reinforced on each side of the web with steel straps riveted in place. and both are fastened to the other running rail. and a manually or power-actuated switch stand (Fig. 19. a 16-ft 6-in 19. crossings should not be made with an angle of less Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill ( Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. For example. of rail-bound manganese-steel castings. Guardrails are not required with self-guarded frogs. 19. Whenever the switch tie becomes as long as twice the length of a regular tie. But for high speeds. the switch ties are discontinued and regular ties used.3 Switches A switch consists of a pair of switch points. Crossing frogs are made of bolted rails with either regular controlcooled rail or heat-treated rail.4. Two long ties must be provided at the switch point for the switch stand. . the switch points are sometimes curved and 39 ft long for No. All rights reserved. These are usually spaced on about 20-in centers. The ends are flared inwardly of the track to engage the back of the wheel flanges and guide the pair of wheels on each axle into proper lateral position in the track.17). Heel blocks are used to join each switch-point rail to the adjoining lead rail. and crossing ties.32 n Section Nineteen Fig. or of all manganese-steel castings. (a) Rail-bound manganese-steel frog for main line.12. frog plates.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Some major freight railroads. than 98 360 on tangents. They are cheaper to install and maintain than other types of openings. Care must be exercised in placing the fill on the sides and over the larger-sized culverts because side pressure against the culvert is a large factor in its ability to support vertical pressure. Ballasted decks are more expensive in first cost but require less work to keep the track in line and surface and offer less of a fire hazard Treated-timber trestles are economical. if any. Concrete trestles usually have ballasted decks. and Bridges Culverts provide waterway openings under tracks.) It is desirable to locate crossings on tangent on both intersecting tracks. split switch. the intersection angle. Steel trestles may have open or ballasted decks. culverts consist of galvanized corruga Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.5 Trackwork Plans Details and specification of material required for turnouts and crossings are given in the Trackwork Plans of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA). have their own standard plans and specifications for this material and these differ from those of the AREMA. Trestles have either an open deck or ballasted deck. or prestressed concrete. Trestles often are built of treated-timber stringers supported on capped and braced treated-timber piles. Trestles. All rights reserved. rolled beams are generally used for spans up to 50 ft. with a concrete cap supporting steel or concrete stringers. have a life of 40 years or more. When crossings are to be ordered.12. 19. Trestles are also constructed of steel or concrete piles. see American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association Trackwork Plan No. Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (For curves. the curvature. and the rail size should be specified. For steel bridges. either reinforced or prestressed. Usually. 820.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. ted pipe or arches. When trackwork material is to be ordered for a railroad. 19.17 Left-hand. and require no painting.13 Culverts. crossings can be made to fit any condition of curvature. Metal culverts of up to 180 ft2 and reinforced concrete culverts of up to 300 ft2 in opening area are in use. Bridges generally are built of steel. reinforced concrete. the abutments and piers are of reinforced concrete. first the standards to be used should be determined and then the railroad and plan number should be specified and specifications given. .33 Fig. Plate girders of bolted or welded construction may be used for spans up to 19. straight. reinforced concrete pipe. however.digitalengineeringlibrary. or reinforced concrete rigid-frame boxes. but when this is not practical.

indicates the degree of curvature at that station. All rights reserved. trestles.. On-track equipment. and permissible design stresses.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. and trusses. Washington.14. such as the 140 RE. This may be done manually or with automated equipment found on some tamper/liner work equipment. Chemical weed killers or track burners may be used to keep the ballast section clear of vegetation. In addition. 19. Gross tons equal the total weight of the locomotives and cars and their loading. using care not to disturb track in very hot weather. such as Jordan spreaders and shovels. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. (AAR Research and Test Department Report R-454. gives recommended designs and specifications for construction of all types of bridges. Mechanized equipment is used for this to a major extent in the United States. DC 20001. and 132 RE. and culverts. “Manual for Railway Engineering. appropriate measures should be taken by issuing slow orders and by track strengthening or stress relieving the rail when track buckles or impending track buckles are observed. in the ballast shoulders. and the probability of occurrence increases as the degree of curvature increases. short Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. either through or deck type. Calculations can be made based on the mid-ordinates to determine the amount of track shift necessary to obtain a uniform curve. periodic tightening of track bolts. lining the track to correct deviations from alignment. NW.5 or 31 foot stations.34 n Section Nineteen about 150 ft. Open or ballasted decks are placed on steel bridges. They are also more likely to occur on curves than on tangent track. Side-dump cars may be used for transporting material from ditches in cuts for bank widening on fills. 19. String lining is a convenient and satisfactory method of checking the alignment of curves.14. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.” Association of American Railroads. and special trackmounted ditching machines may be used for ditching. Track buckles are more likely to occur during hot spells in the spring in the afternoon. and improper rail laying or adjusting for temperature. allowance for impact effects. .1 Track Maintenance Maintenance of track structure includes. Then the mid-ordinate of a 62 ft string line or chord is measured at each station. disturbing the tie bed during 19. Ballasted decks. and off-track equipment. under comparable operating conditions.2 Rail Life This is usually expressed in million gross tons of traffic carried before rail must be replaced. such as the 100 RE.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. Ballast-cleaning equipment is available for cleaning ballast between ties. and 119 RE. The mid-ordinate. continual maintenance is required to keep it in condition for operation. Rail life is determined by a number of factors: 1. Automated equipment will create a uniformly smooth curve but the curve may not be at a specific degree of curvature. The heavier sections. for longer spans.) tie renewals or track surfacing. A study of a large number of track buckles that occurred over 3 years on a major railroad indicated the following: The principal causes of track buckling are inadequate ballast. shovels. Derailments caused by track buckles can be minimized by maintaining a full ballast section. Use of continuous welded rail increases the likelihood of track buckling in very hot weather and rail pull-aparts in very cold weather. and adding ballast and dressing the ballast section.14 Maintenance of Way After a railway is completed. Automated equipment will document the measurements and translate the calculated shifts directly to the track liner. and inspecting track in the afternoons of the first days of early hot spells. “An Investigation of Railroad Maintenance Practices to Prevent Track Buckling. These include recommendations for live load in terms of Cooper’s E loading. Chemical weed and brush killers or power mowers or cutters may be used to control undesirable weeds and brush on the rightof-way. draglines. tie renewals. however. The manual procedure requires that the outside rail be marked in 15. will have a longer rail life than the lighter sections. raising the track to correct variations in surface and cross level. Size of the Rail. 115 RE. 50 F St.digitalengineeringlibrary. measured in inches. 17. 136 RE. and under the ties. such as bulldozers. are preferred for all types of bridges because of ease of track maintenance and reduction of impact. (See also Sec.

RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19.) The rail life of CWR on tangent track and light curves (18 or under) is determined by the number of service and detected rail failures.14. although grinding trains are usually used to correct this rail surface condition unless it gets too bad. Adequate lubrication of the outer rail on curves will greatly extend the rail life. H. Most railways use alloy or heattreated rail on very sharp curves. and damaged rail. progressive fractures within the head. Most of the rail defects that do develop are in the head or web within the joint-bar area. Some lubricators are designed for application from hi-rail or track inspection vehicles. except at insulated joints. detail fracture. branch lines. vertical split head. 5. AREA Proceedings. This may be a factor in rail life. several feet long. the rail life may be prolonged beyond the most economical life. care should be taken to minimize the chance of lubricant building up on the top of the rail where it may cause locomotive traction may be reduced. the sharper the curve. Manufacturer’s instructions should be followed with respect to location and type of lubricant. The contact pressures from the wheel loads of the heavier cars increase wear on the gage side of the outer rail and plastic flow on the top and sides of the head on the inner rail of curves faster than the increase in wheel loads. In general. The life of rail under 100-ton cars is appreciably less than under 70-ton cars but longer than under 125-ton cars. Metallurgy. when the rail is too dry. there are no rail joints. engine-burn fracture. Also. 8.35 2. However. yard.14. Corrugation. compound fissure. If funds are lacking. 7. Rail defects develop from service use and are classified as transverse fissure. 6. crushed head. broken base. the frequency of occurrence of such failures makes it more economical to replace the rail than to cut out the failures or detected defects and weld in a length of repair rail. Track lubricators reduce flange wear of outer rails and curve resistance to train movement. a track lubricator consists of a reservoir containing a suitable type of grease. Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and a plunger activated by each passing wheel to pump a small quantity of grease into the applicator. The applicator is a steel member. an applicator. vol. Generally. 19. p. This may be a factor in rail life. which increase in frequency with the cumulative number of wheel loadings. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. the shorter is the rail life. the wheel loads from the heavier cars cause a disproportionate increase in the number of rail failures (“Comparison of Rail Behavior with 125-ton and 100-ton Cars. because of improvements in rail design.digitalengineeringlibrary. horizontal split head. or industry tracks. head and web separation. Need for Relay Rail. rails do not have as long a life on curves as on tangent track. Wheel Load. split web. With either method. 576. (The relatively few insulated joints are now generally glued to prevent rail-end movement within the joint bars. and maintenance practices. These are mostly transverse. This has made a decided improvement in the service life of rail on tangent track.1.) 4. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. It makes possible removal of defective rail before a service failure occurs. Curvature. Either jointed rail or CWR may be removed although it would have further service life if there is a requirement for this rail for relay purposes on curves. Availability of funds to purchase and lay new rails is a practical consideration in rail life. 3. This method allows applications to be made at any location. Rail-defect-detection equipment is available with which such defects can generally be detected. manufacture. All rights reserved. See also Art. Several types of lubricators are available.” D. the number of rail defects that develop is remarkably small. 81. Stone. rail weld failures or defects. placed against the gage side of the rail and incorporating small holes through which the grease is pumped to contact wheel flanges. Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). The devices are fastened to the rails at curves to apply lubricant to the flange of each passing wheel. bolt-hole crack. At some point. Available Funds. With CWR. With jointed rail. not just fixed points. piped rail.3 Rail Defects Rail-defect detection is an important factor in safe operation of railroads. This decreases the rate of side wear on the outer rail and the plastic flow on the top and sides of the inner rail and thus materially extends the rail life. only shop or field butt welds. the principal factors determining rail life are fishingsurface wear and rail-end batter at rail joints. .

Records of all inspections should be maintained. and in frogs. spikers. This work is typically done with large gangs with many pieces of specialized equipment (see Article 19. power wrenches. Also.5 Structures Maintenance At least annually. Cranbury. and replace- When rails or ties are replaced out-of-face. This inspection should also establish maintenance requirements or replacement options.14. 400 Windsor Corporate Center.6 Mechanized Work Equipment 19. Mechanized.36 n Section Nineteen Rail-defect-detector cars are available that travel over the track at testing speeds of 6 to 15 mi/h. as required by the railroad.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. Computer systems for management of structures may be utilized to assist in decision making and planning.digitalengineeringlibrary. while appropriate safety measures are in effect to allow movement of trains. often rail replacements just involve curve rail. ment of any parts. particularly at rail joints. tie-adzers. Patrolling and inspection of bridge and drainage structures may be required during storms and periods of high water level and after earthquakes. Work not of an emergency nature.. By utilizing electrical magnetism or ultrasonic waves. . Recommended inspection practices are detailed in the “Manual of Railway Engineering.” This is published quarterly by Commonwealth Business Media. due to the cost of ballast and surfacing required for just tie renewals. perform this work. ballast regulators are utilized in arranged sequences to remove and replace rail. scarifiers. As rail on curves generally wears out before rail on tangents. such as underwater inspections or detailed structural inspections. repairing concrete deterioration. Periodic interim inspections noting the condition of bridges and trestles should be made at every opportunity in accordance with the railroad’s policy. There are also full production machines that can changeout both ties and rail in one continuous operation. the outside or high side rail may be replaced with new rail and then reused on the inside or low rail. track liners. The low rail may then be scrapped or reused in sidings or yards. and culverts. Inc. Out-of-face renewals are used when large volumes of ties or continuous rail sections are replaced. The spot renewal method is used when only a few scattered ties or rail sections need to be replaced. NJ 08512. Small gangs with limited equipment.14. mechanized equipment is available for handling almost every item or work.4 Railroad Tie Renewals Two methods are used for rail and tie replacements. 19. The rail-transportation engineer will find it helpful to have available a copy of the “Pocket List of Railroad Officials. such as boom trucks or backhoes. 19. equipment on board is able to locate internal defects in the railhead. Depending on the condition of the rail. tampers. Congress in 1970 requiring the Federal Railroad Administration of the Department of Transportation to establish track safety standards and to see that the railroads Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. may be performed on an as-needed basis or as specified by the railroad’s policy. tie installers. It contains an alphabetical listing of all railroad equipment supplies with the names and addresses of companies that manufacture or sell these products. 19. Structures with deficiencies should be rated with respect to safe load-carrying capacity.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. All rights reserved. rail cranes. inside road crossings and other paved areas.14. Special investigations.14. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.7 Track Safety Standards Legislation was passed by the U.S. Ultrasonic equipment is used to detect defects in rail webs.14. tie removers. 50 Millsbury Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. railroad buildings should be inspected to determine if maintenance and repair requirements are being met.6). Structures susceptible to scour at the footings should be inspected more frequently. a detailed inspection should be made of all bridges. remove and install ties and maintain track surface. Most rail in main-line track in the United States is tested once a year or more often with detector cars. such as cleaning and painting. should be scheduled. on-track equipment such as spike pullers. trestles. Some tie renewals may be tied to track surfacing cycles as the combined cost is usually less than if the work is done separately.

spikes. Freight railroads should provide.) be long enough to hold the longest train without doubling (splitting) it into two tracks. Another requirement is that the decline from the hump be steep enough and long enough to separate the cars sufficiently to permit operation of switches and to clear the switches ahead of the following car. and track inspection. one or more yard facilities are required. cross level. A spacing of 18 ft should be provided between parallel ladder tracks. A hump yard utilizes gravity to expedite switching of cars. (Superintendent of Documents. Part 213 (49 CFR 213). These standards are revised as the FRA considers necessary or desirable and are issued as Title 49 Transportation. Thus. through tracks for trains that require minimal handling or do not require separating. called body tracks. shims. Such a facility should have a receiving yard. and to allow trains to proceed with a minimum of delay. track scale.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. and surface). Washington. and ladder track usually at each end.37 complied with them. Also. Government Printing Office. the car’s rolling resistance is measured by determining change in speed over a given length of track. if desired. the hump height is from 16 to 20 ft. The most recent revisions occurred in 1998. hold and repair tracks. joints. 19.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association). Code of Federal Regulations. on which cars are placed. switches. deviations and variability in track geometry (runoff of elevation.15 Freight Terminals On most railways. Usually. equivalent to a 0. Thus. When the car is uncoupled. 15 ft between a ladder track and any parallel track. ballast. A yard consists of a series of parallel tracks. frogs. This information goes to a control computer. engine servicing house. A volume including these and other railroad safety regulations is published annually. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Additional clearance may be required. on an electronic. The train of cars is pushed up an incline to a hump. Humping speed is about 1 mi/h. the ladder track is a means of placing cars on or removing them from each body track. A gradient of not more than 0. and departure yard (“Manual for Railway Engineering. alignment.50% grade.digitalengineeringlibrary. classification yard. or so-called push-button. The number of receiving tracks required depends on the spacing of train arrivals and time required for classification. to accommodate change-train crews. if the distance from the hump to the farthest point is 3000 ft and the rolling resistance of the slowest-rolling car under adverse weather conditions is 10 lb/ton. A gravity or hump yard should be used otherwise. such tracks have permitted a reduction in the number of yard tracks required for handling of trains. uncoupled-inmotion. All rights reserved. DC 20402. maximum unbalance on curves. in addition to the normal yard tracks. The receiving yard should be conveniently accessible from the main line. A turnout connects each body track to a ladder track. at which point one or more cars are successively uncoupled while moving and allowed to roll down the incline from the hump into the classification yard. Two or three sets of retarders are provided for controlling the speed of the cars into the classification tracks. it rolls down the hump and is weighed. tie plates. classification being determined by a range of permitted operating Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The classification yard may be a flat yard if the number of trains and amount of switching are relatively small. . and not less than 14 ft between body tracks. In some cases. These standards established by the FRA prescribe minimum standards for the safe operation of trains with regard to drainage. such as car cleaning or repair operations. track appliances. maximum elevation on curves.15% is desirable to prevent the cars from rolling without setting the brakes. depending on car-inspection needs and other requirements. then a minimum hump height of 15 ft would be required. The standards have been established for different classes of track. and its tracks should Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. welds. The retarders are set so that each car will roll the desired distance and couple to a standing car without undesirable impact (up to 4 mi/h). yard. The height of the hump must be sufficient to impart enough velocity to overcome the rolling resistance of each car to the farthest point in the yard. In a fully automated. vegetation. rail defects (including end mismatch and end batter). the operator pushes a button numbered to correspond to the track number into which a car is to go. The through tracks should be located to meet requirements for American Association of Railroad inspection.

Mobile cranes for loading and unloading piggyback (truck trailers on flatcars) or containers on flatcars.38 n Section Nineteen The approximate wheel load is measured by a track scale device. If the grade is adverse to the direction of starting. When the operator pushed the button for the track number. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. and this information goes to the computer. Provision of overhead cranes. water and lubricants. All rights reserved.16. House tracks at the freight-station building for lessthan-carload shipments. These central engine houses or shops have platforms at cab floor height and provide access to the top of the locomotive. Usually. baggage check room. Other terminal facilities that may be required are: Team tracks having an adjoining paved area for loading from trucks into the cars. Elevating-type inclines for end loading of automobiles on auto-rack cars. ticket windows. This reading goes to the computer. wheel grinders. to limit the amount of retardation so that the wheels will not rise out of the retarder. industrial-waste facilities.1 Intercity Terminals These comprise facilities for handling passengers and baggage and for servicing passenger cars and locomotives. It is desirable to have a car-repair building. sand. The body tracks of a hump yard typically have a slight downgrade on the incoming end and a slight upgrade on the leaving end. They also have below rail pits for access to the underside of locomotives.digitalengineeringlibrary. The car speed is measured as it approaches each retarder. with electric power outlets. if possible. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. . loading and unloading areas for taxis and buses. through which cars can be moved by cables and “rabbits. A paved driveway of rail height should be provided between tracks. Some repair facilities employ a large truckmounted vehicle as a car mover or a rubber-tired vehicle with rail wheels to move cars in and out of the shop.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. should be placed between the tracks for loading and unloading piggybacks. A wheel trip on each track corrects this value for the distance taken up by the number of cars that have already been placed in that track. From all these data. with the required number of tracks.” This provides more efficient working conditions and mechanical equipment for repair work at minimum cost and delay. Retarders are pneumatically powered but electrically controlled. These tracks can be alternately spaced 18 ft and a width sufficient to accommodate mechanical equipment. Docks for loading cars or contents on boats. This profile assists in slowing and stopping the cars within the yard. All facilities should provide means to collect and treat any spills of fuel or lubricants. wheel drop pits. Most railroads do major service and repair of locomotives at facilities that are centrally located on their system. Storage bins and elevators for grain. Narrow. Engine servicing at most yards is limited to minor repairs. wash houses. locomotives. concessions. Stockpiling facilities for coal and Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. carfloor-height platforms. Car-repair tracks should be provided to accommodate the number of cars to be repaired and the repair time. sanitary-waste facilities for passengers. and other accessories depends on the extent to which repairs will be made at the particular facility. paint shops. and cabooses. a radar device is used to measure car speed. it should be at least 20% less than the ruling grade over which the train will operate. Stub tracks with a ramp at the ends. cab cleaning and resupplying of fuel. The passenger facilities should include parking for automobiles. The departure yard should be long enough to accommodate the longest train and should be level. giving them a bowl shaped profile. 19. waiting rooms. 19. the control computer determines the speed the car should have as it leaves the last retarder to roll to the desired point and retards the car to that speed. Track spacing should be the same as for the receiving yard. Switches are electrically set by the computer for the track number punched for the car.16 Passenger Terminals Passenger terminal and station requirements vary with the type of passenger service provided. the computer was fed the total rolling resistance to the farthest point in that track. Car dumpers that turn upside down and empty hopper-type cars.

pneumatic. land availability. with paved platforms between.16. Storage and shop areas should be surrounded by a suitable fence to prevent trespassers from entering. 8201 Corporate Drive. public telephones. except for a baggage checkroom and food services which would probably not be needed. Handling of baggage. The incline of ramps should not exceed the maximum slope required for access by handicapped persons or as restricted by local building codes. Tracks in this yard should be level and on 20-ft centers. hot water. commissary facilities for dining cars. and express requires separate platforms or wide platforms so that trucks may pass without interfering with passengers. Detailed recommendations related to the number of passengers handled are in “Manual for Railway Engineering. The extent to which all these facilities should be provided depends on the number of trains and passengers to be handled during peak periods. 19. Suite 1125 Landover Maryland 20785 (www. be located under cover. They should have concrete platforms between them. Terminal facilities should be provided at the end of each line for car storage. and brake shoes available. rest rooms. except the car washer. A guard or automatically operated gates should guard the entrance tracks and driveway to the storage and shop area. storehouse. control. Public Health Service requirements. service building providing offices. for safety and to avoid pilferage.2 Commuter Terminals These should provide most of the facilities listed for passenger terminals. Storage tracks should be level. and a shop should be available for emergency repairs. bottling plant for refilling gas cylinders. Rapid-Transit Terminals n Requirements for stations are given in Art.39 food services. and undercar equipment (including drop pits).6. Tracks should be on 20-ft centers. For storage tracks. and for painting and seat repair.digitalengineeringlibrary. A shop for overall and scheduled maintenance of cars should be provided at the location most suitable from the standpoint of accessibility in operation. An inspection pit 36 in wide and 38 in below top of rail is desirable for some of the trackage.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA). Servicing of locomotives and cars requires a coach yard.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. electronic. One or more shops should be provided at the chosen shop location for repair of electrical. and adequate space for sorting and transferring to other trains or trucks. Jacking pads and wheel drop pits should be provided. car pullers. locker. . with an allowance for train delays. 19. and ramps. refuse disposal. It is desirable that all the above work areas. ramps or conveyor belts. high-pressure connections for air brakes. electrical service outlets. work should be scheduled on an assembly line basis. for mechanical repairs. Curves should not be less than 200-ft radius but should be flatter if the car units are designed to require a longer radius. hydraulic. preferably with a mechanical washer to wash all equipment as it enters the yard. the length required may be determined by calculating the length of the number of cars required for peak movements plus 10% for spare units to replace cars out of service for repairs. and walkways. Preferably.17 Station Location and Characteristics Station locations have already been established in the United States for passenger trains and existing Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill ( Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. An automatic car washer should be provided. all work should be automated. toilet. including 220-V alternating current for air conditioning equipment. stairs or escalators and elevators to train concourses. A 7-ft-high chain link fence with barbedwire outriggers inside the right-of-way is wellsuited for this purpose. this area should be covered over to facilitate work in bad weather. and fuel oil and sand supply for locomotives. steam connections. The platforms should be covered with a suitable type of and lunch rooms. steam supply lines. All rights reserved. and grade for lead and other tracks should not exceed 0. 19. fire protection. for wheel grinding. mail. a convenient supply of brake shoes and mounted car wheels. repair shops.arema. low-pressure air connections for cleaning. adequate lighting for night operation. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Platforms at service points for trains passing through should have water hydrants. Vending machines may provide some food service. Other facilities needed are water hydrants meeting U. and so forth. wash. A minimum width of passage for passengers of 6 ft should be allowed on platforms. and all workers should be provided with power tools to the extent such tools are available.S. stairways. environmental factors. electrical outlets.

and so on should be provided at a suitable location for the concessions. platforms along or between tracks should meet the height required by the rolling stock selected and meet the requirements for access by handicapped persons. Accessibility: convenient location within network of freeways and arterial and feeder bus routes. and major industrial and commercial concentrations located within 700 ft of each station.40 n Section Nineteen commuter and rapid-transit service. not only to give better service but to avoid undue congestion within and outside the station. automobiles and feeder bus lines will expand the service area of a station. Platform height may range from rail level to as much as 42 in above the rails. Projected ridership: number of riders coming to and from each station. in the free area and necessary facilities. if any. low-density areas.2 Station Platforms 19. 19. In outlying. consistently available information.3 Provisions for Circulation in Stations Important criteria. From the above. Stations should be placed closer together in areas expecting the greatest number of riders. a platform between tracks about 30 ft wide is provided. several factors should be considered in deciding station locations: Physical constraints: available space for the station. Automatic coin-operated dispensers should be located in the free area.17. . In one subway system. Provision should be made for concessions. depending on the type of car. 19. are being remodeled or replaced to satisfy Federal laws requiring access for handicapped persons and for other safety measures. Stations should include a free area and a service area. not all commuter trains stop at all the stations but a schedule will be established to provide reasonably frequent service. Service potential: number of persons. depending on transportation planning requirements. However. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. and 3000 ft of each station. space for bus and automobile Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Commuter stations are located in suburbs or city areas a few miles apart. with the particular station clearly designated thereon. Adequate space should be provided at ticket Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. and where local or bus street transportation generates a large enough volume of passengers to justify a train stop. it will be possible to determine for each station the location (tentative) that will attract the maximum number of riders and give the These should be as long as the longest train that will be operated. Maps of the system showing all lines and station stops should be placed conspicuously. particularly in morning and evening rush hours. in new construction for commuter service and rapidtransit service. students. A minimum clearance of at least 8 ft should be provided throughout the station and platform to meet the requirements of the equipment used. however. at stations with relatively low traffic volume. such as electric outlets. households. an existing sidewalk or ramp that meets building-code requirements may be utilized to provide access to the trains.17. 1500 ft. Also.1 Stations for Rail Transit When a new system is being planned. best service. Convenience to major institutions and centers: schools. are traffic-handling capability. in addition to all appropriate safety measures. Passenger-seat-mile (1 passenger moving 1 mi) provides a useful measure for cost comparisons between the different modes of travel. projected for 15 to 25 years ahead. most existing platforms are at top-ofrail level and 6 ft or more wide. recreational areas (including sports facilities). the platforms or paving for loading and unloading are generally outside the track or two tracks. In subways. Many existing stations. Usually. platform width should in no case be less than 10 ft and should provide 8 ft2 of occupancy space per person for maximum assembly crowds. but both these and concessions should be located so as not to interfere with circulation of passengers to and from the trains.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. Most people living or working within 1500 ft of a station will walk to or from it. and conformance with local development plans. Development opportunities: joint development potential of vacant or deteriorated structures within 700 ft of each station. space for parking. and jobs of various types located within 700 ft. For atgrade systems. water supply. hospitals. and orientation. All rights reserved. Impact on neighborhood: localized traffic congestion.17. reinforcement of community centers and boundaries. For passenger and commuter trains.digitalengineeringlibrary.

or stop is located. Lighting is of great importance for safety and the security of passengers. foot-candles 20 15 5 20 30 20 25 100 30 20 30 10 30 15 20 19. station.digitalengineeringlibrary. For emergency evacuation of a train. Subway Ventilation n Objectives are to: Provide a comfortable environment for patrons and staff. Suitable lighting. and handholds meeting building-code requirements should be provided on both sides. and clear circulation (by appropriate directional signs if needed) should be provided. surface and aerial Uncovered platform ends. surface Mezzanine Ticketing area.5 Recommended Minimum Illumination Levels in Passenger Stations* Locations Platform.4 Environmental Considerations in Station Design 5 Station construction should comply with the applicable building codes. a ramp. toilets. or both. Steps up or down to the station should also be illuminated when required for safety.5 is a guide for minimum illumination levels at different locations. comfortable air conditioning. 20 passengers per minute per foot width of stairways. satisfac- * From “Guidelines for Design of Rapid Transit Facilities. Wherever steps are utilized for access. and areas for handicapped persons should be located to provide balanced train loading and unloading—usually at each end of the platform. lift.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. mechanical.17. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. ramps. and 100 passengers per minute for each 48-in escalator. and toilets for station personnel should be provided at stations as warranted. should indicate clearly where the rapid-transit entrance. An island-type platform between two tracks is preferable to a platform on each side of the two tracks. Access should be illuminated when required for safety. stairs. and train-control equipment rooms Storage areas Illumination. or at the platform midlength. illuminated at night. All walking surfaces on stairs and in passageways should be kept dry and covered with a suitable nonskid material. under canopy.41 facilities to allow for a line of ticket purchasers without interference with the normal flow of passengers. the designer may assume a crush capacity of 25 passengers per minute per foot width of passageways. Steps and ramps should be kept clear or sanded where exposed to the weather. which should open out or revolve. or elevator must also be provided for access for persons with disabilities. To determine the space required for exit and entrance doors. subway Platform. the maximum number of passengers that will pass in any 15-min peak period should be estimated. service rooms. All rights reserved.” American Public Transportation Association. Passageways. Telephones. . Table 19. Table 19. Escalators should be provided to carry passengers up whenever the stair height exceeds 12 ft and to carry them down when it exceeds 24 ft. turnstile Passageways Stairs and escalators Fare-collection kiosk Concessions and vending machine areas Elevator (interior) Above-ground entry to subway (day) (night) Washrooms Service and utility rooms Electrical. pleasant appearance from the standpoint of both decor and cleanliness. storage lockers. Signs at street Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. provision should be made to clear the platform in 4 min. Enough supplemental stairway width should be provided to permit evacuation if the escalator should become inoperable. To do this. Small sidewall depression “trenches” parallel to the side walls and suitably drained should be provided to accomplish this. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Enough space should then be allowed to clear the platform under normal conditions within the headway time between trains. tory noise level. control of wind and odors.

Walkways with a minimum width of 2 ft should be provided on one side of all line sections of tunnels and subways. Fans for emergency ventilation should be connected to power feeders from two separate sources and should be operable through remote controls located at a control station. Federal Transit Administration. DC 20590. so its provision to train attendants will depend on how much of the line is open or aerial structure. Fan shafts must be located relative to the vent shafts and stations in such a way as to ensure that all sections of the subway and stations can be purged under emergency conditions. in the event of fire.) Portable radios or mobile telephones should be considered for use between security personnel and station agents and the central control office. An alternative for trains would be to have the monitors for the cars where the train attendant can see them and provide the attendant with a means of communicating with the nearest agent and the central control office. Provide control of condensate and haze and removal of objectionable or hazardous odors and gases.7 Tracks between Subway Stations 19. Washington. A minimum air velocity of 4 ft/s is recommended for determining the sizes of fans and appurtenances. If necessary. coin (or currency or coin) vending machines are used for selling coded tickets. All rights reserved. passageways.apta. (“Subway Environmental Design Handbook. 20006. For this purpose. One system has experienced about 150 failures a month with 43 changemakers and well under the one-failure-per-machine-per-month guarantee for its computerized turnstiles. Telephone communication between each station and the central control office should be provided. and for high-speed train operation.” vol. 1666 K Street NW. . The ventilation rate should satisfy the purge rate.6 Fare Collection This is generally accomplished on the trains in commuter service but at the stations in rapid transit. supplemental mechanical ventilation must be provided.17. Several transit systems allow customers to purchase tickets and do not use turnstiles or collection systems. Crossways should be placed not more than 1000 ft apart for workers and emergency evacuation of passengers. 19. Walkways should be placed on adjacent sides of the wall to permit cross connection between the walkways. and platforms. In some commuter and rapid-transit service. Some systems establish a central zone with free travel but exact graduated fares with distance away from that zone. Maximum piston-type ventilation can be obtained by having the tunnel or subway section as near the size of the train cross section as clearance requirements will permit and having a separate tunnel or subway for each track. Between subway stations. (“Guidelines for Design of Rapid Transit Facilities. The success of such methods depends on patrolling and customer honesty.” American Public Transportation Association.17.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. (www. 19. Or a special antenna line can be placed through the subway and tunnel sections to enable portable communication.digitalengineeringlibrary. Acoustic treatment of the shafts should be provided if Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. Provide for the removal of heat generated by normal train operation. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. The piston action of trains will provide a considerable amount of ventilation if suitable vent shafts are provided.17. This type of communication is not effective in subways or tunnels. a hand rail should be placed on the wall 3 ft above the walkway floor. and computer-controlled turnstiles are used for collecting and monitoring them. control and removal of smoke and a supply of fresh air for evacuation of passengers and for fire-fighting personnel. Suite 1000 station personnel can be augmented by turnstiles. either coin-operated or using coded tickets or some other suitable method.42 n Section Nineteen Provide. Vent and other shaft openings on the surface should be located to draw in unpolluted air and protected by gratings or screens. 1. DC. tracks usually are separated by the tunnel walls or a concrete wall.5 Security and Communications Security can best be provided by closed-circuit television cameras suitably located at strategic locations in the station. These instruments should be monitored at each station at which there is an agent and at a central control station.

the running surface for the tires must be heated in cold weather. partly because they provide traction for grades as steep as 10%.1 Method of Traction Trains for rail passenger and freight intercity systems are primarily moved by diesel-electric locomotives. 19. and a type of vehicle is used that best serves that purpose. Mostly.digitalengineeringlibrary. Some PRT systems. these systems are used for transferring passengers at airports or in recreation centers. A few rapid-transit systems utilize vehicles with rubber tires that run on concrete beams or “rails” and are self-guided. In one system (Fig. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. 19. PRT systems are designed for a specific purpose. and each car has its own motor drive so that a separate locomotive is not required. Most commuter systems are powered by diesel-electric locomotives with push-pull controls in some of the cars so that the train does not have to be turned around at each terminal of the run. however. 19. electric locomotives are used with an overhead catenary or a third rail. All rail-transit systems are electrified. vehicles predominantly use steel wheels on steel rails because of the low rolling resistance and heavy weight that can be supported on a single wheel.18 Cross section of guideway and vehicle for Paris Metro rubber-tired rapid-transit vehicles. . Several commuter systems are electrified.43 19. but some operate in five. Magnetic levitation support is also being considered. after which the concrete rails are ramped up to support the vehicle again. As the vehicle approaches the eight-car trains. The vehicle has two steel wheels and an axle at each end. Passenger capacity per vehicle varies from 4 to 20 seated. Where traffic density warrants.18). Research sponsored by FTA on PRT systems includes the following guided minivehicle Fig. the concrete rails are ramped downward so that the vehicle is supported on the steel wheels through the turnout. and lower weight-supporting Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Steel rails and wheels are required for guidance through turnouts. the rubber tires are spaced far enough apart to permit a regular rail track structure with switch points and frog to be placed at the turnout location.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. If the guideway is exposed to snow or ice. Disadvantages of such vehicles are the higher rolling resistance. Vehicles must be operated at slow speed through the turnouts in this type of rubber-tired system. All rights reserved. Propulsion is achieved with reaction plates on the bottom of the vehicles. Another disadvantage of the rubber-tired system occurs in operation through turnouts. Personal rapid-transit systems are also electrified. Mostly vehicles are operated as single or double units.18. and each car has a driving motor for each axle to give sufficient adhesion for the rapid acceleration and deceleration required. are propelled by linear induction motors set at intervals along the guideway. Rubber tires are preferred.18 Vehicles for Rail Transportation Except PRT cars. greater operating cost.

Fig.21). The guide wheels may be computercontrolled to make the vehicle follow either the left or right guiding surface. rubber tires on an aluminum guideway. at a station. The personal-rapid-transit car in Fig.19 is supported on rubber-tired wheels and guided by another set of rubber-tired wheels bearing on a steel guide beam. Since switching is such an important part of a personal rapid-transit system.44 n Section Nineteen systems: suspended monorail. Supports for any type of system can be wheels (steel. For switching. 19. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. air levitation on a concrete guideway. 19. or magnetic levitation (Fig. air-cushion levitation (Fig. Thus.22).or rubber-tired). All rights reserved. one end of the guide beam can be moved back and forth to line up with the desired track. 19. 19. the car may be made to pass by directing the guide wheels to follow one guiding surface. 19. the conventional dual-rail wheel system has an important advantage that will be difficult but not impossible to overcome. . No doubt other systems will be developed. or the car may be made to turn into the station track for a stop by directing the guide wheels to follow the other guiding surface. For example.digitalengineeringlibrary. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.20 is supported on four rubber-tired wheels and guided in the guideway by another set of four rubber-tired Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and rubber tires on a concrete guideway. Since either type of levitation is costly and complicated. No moving parts are needed in the guideway to make a car bypass or stop at a station.19 Cross section of guideway and vehicle for Westinghouse people-mover system. the people-mover vehicle shown in Fig.

19.21 and 19. Tire running surfaces are heated to melt snow or ice.V. gasturbine Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.45 Fig. there has been some experience with the gas-turbine electric motor and gas-turbine hydraulic drive. During peak hours. otherwise. there must be overriding advantages to justify this expense if such a system is to be used. gas-turbine electric. electric.digitalengineeringlibrary. So far. For speeds over 100 mi/h. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. 19. . on a passenger-demand self-service basis. The costs and characteristics of each must be taken into account in selection of the type of propulsion for any given transportation system. Speed ranges up to 30 mi/h. This experience shows that it is difficult to compete with the diesel-electric or the electric motor drive. Power for a transportation system can be diesel-electric. it can draw a great deal of power from the catenary. W. this system operates on a scheduled basis. also.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. All rights reserved.20 Outline diagram of Boeing personal-rapid-transit system with single. jet propulsion. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. or pneumatic. for short periods of time. whereas the dieselelectric has a fixed maximum power. Morgantown. the electric motor drive has an advantage over the diesel-electric because the electric drive does not have to pull the weight of the electric generating plant. Vehicles accommodate 8 seated and 13 standing. A speed of over 200 mi/h has been attained in trial runs with an electric-motor-powered vehicle supported on steel wheels on conventional track. the efficiency of the turbo-electric or turbohydraulic drive has not been brought up to that of the other two. linear induction motor (Figs.22). There has been much experience with the diesel-electric and electric motor drives. elevated guideway at the University of West Virginia.

19. high reliability. may be objectionable because of the noise level. 19. Germany. Two concepts have been studied: the tracked air-cushion vehicle (Fig. Great Fig.21) and the magnetic levitation vehicle (Fig. or propulsion friction. compatibility with other transit systems. and speed is controlled by changing the frequency of the three-phase winding. a PRT vehicle with magnetic suspension and linear propulsion that is used for slow speed and frequent Fig. The air-cushion support system is not favored by many engineers working in the levitation field because of its high noise level.22 Schematic illustrating the principle of the magnetic levitation vehicle with horizontal reaction rail for linear induction motor. competitive fares. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Figure 19. This system offers many advantages: no direct electrical or mechanical contact with the vehicle. To these factors should be added the condition of being operable in all weather conditions. however. . 19. All rights reserved. no moving parts to wear. The most promising type of magnetic levitation system requires no electric-current pick-up system between guideway and vehicle. and obstruction warning devices. comfort. At such speeds.2 Levitation Systems Since 1965. and lack of a suitable design for track switches. and testing have been conducted in the United States. no guiding. Levitation is controlled by changing the voltage of the magnets. safety.46 n Section Nineteen Britain. threephase alternating current is fed into coils located in the guideway and propels the vehicle. with an energy consumption per passenger-mile somewhat less than that of an airplane traveling 500 mi/h and somewhat more than an automobile at 60 mi/h.18. One specialist states that a high-speed levitation system should offer these advantages: reduced travel time. Speeds in the range of 250 to 300 mi/h appear practical of attainment.21 Schematic illustrating the principle of tracked air-cushion vehicle with vertical reaction rail for linear induction motor. the power required to overcome air drag is considerable. support. The guideway may be elevated for practical reasons. weight of the air-cushion fans and motors. the maintenance of the guideway alignment and surface. power requirements. snow. to attain speeds of 200 to 300 mi/h regularly. Although levitation of the vehicle is generally associated with use in high-speed Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. development. low noise level.digitalengineeringlibrary. However. and Canada on levitated transportation systems.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. France.22). Of particular interest to civil engineers in this system are the construction of the guideway and supporting piers (or tunnels). punctuality. The latter. Indications are that its first cost as well as operating and maintenance costs can be competitive. and the former poses the difficulty of keeping the track reactor in accurate line and surface for such high speeds.23 shows a schematic of such a magnetic levitation system. For this purpose. Magnetic levitation supports the vehicle. vehicles may have to be powered by a linear induction motor or turbine jet. and a minimum chance of failure. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. good passenger safety. exceptional passenger ride comfort. sand. minimum disruption of the environment. 19. much research. 19. and ice. and no atmospheric pollution. as well as maintaining it free from windblown debris. Japan. although it could be placed underground.

G. bolsters. “Flying Low with Maglev.” Machine Design. D. vol. (R. Khordok. The objective of special cars is improved service. 47th St. stock. (a) The vehicle levitation and propulsion system. as given in AAR Mechanical Division Specifica- 19. NY 10017.000 177. VT-2. 6. in 5Â9 51⁄2 Â 10 6 Â 11 61⁄2 Â 12 7 Â 12 Weight.24) for unrestricted interchange and Plate C for interchange on most roads. and side bearings. no.” Transactions on Vehicular Technology. snubbers. These components include couplers. center sill. covered hopper.000 263. 1973.000 220. February 1980. Heumann.” IEEE Spectrum. The total rail load that is permitted is determined by the journal size. The coupled length of freight cars ranges from 24 ft for ore hopper cars to 94 ft for Hy-Cube boxcars. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.23 Schematic of high-speed. wheels.6 lists maximum loads for several journal sizes for a car having four axles.000 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. tank. April 1973. container on flat. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. The auto train combines auto-rack cars to transport the automobiles of passengers and conventional passenger cars of different types to transport Table 19. New York. steel coil. steel sheet. auto-pack cars completely enclose the automobile and prevent the damage and pilferage that frequently occur with open auto-rack cars. Table 19. and Mexico. Thornton. 19. Klaus-Glatzel.digitalengineeringlibrary. auto rack. Some special types of freight cars include trailer on flat. magnetic levitated system developed for the Federal Republic of Germany by Transrapid EMS. and Hy-Cube. refrigerator. Width and height of freight cars must come within Plate B (Fig. truck side frames. “The Development of the Magnetically Supported Transportation System in the Federal Republic of Germany. hopper. axles. Gerhart W. Boeing Aerospace Company. air-brake system.6 Maximum Permissible Freight-Car Weight per Rail Journal size.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. . and caboose. 345 E.000 315. draft gear. double-stack container cars. Piers are spaced 25 m center to center. (b) the guideway and support pier. springs. box. auto pack. and D. lb Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.18.47 Fig.3 Freight Cars General types of freight cars include flat. Rogg. Sept. many components must have Association of American Railroads approval.) the passengers. All rights reserved. 1. 19. “German High-Speed Railroads. stops has been developed by Automated Transportation Systems. gondola. Schnable cars are used to carry specially heavy and wide loads.. Canada. for example. bearings. For freight cars to be freely interchanged in the United States.

diner (cafe.digitalengineeringlibrary. Neb. 10 ft.24 Plate B clearance diagram for freight cars for unrestricted interchange service. Omaha. (“Car and Locomotive Builders’ Cyclopedia. height. dinette).” Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation. contains photographs and floor plans of the latest passenger cars built. and wheel base is 8 ft 6 in. Freight cars of 45-ft coupled length can be operated around 458 curves coupled together. the car width should be reduced to compensate for the increased swingout at the center or ends of the car on a 138 curve. width. so that the extreme width of the car does not project beyond the center of the track more than the base car. and 12 ft 8 in high above top of rail.) 19. parlor).” Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation. Association of American Railroads. and combinations..18. The vehicle is 85 ft long. Types of passenger cars include baggage (baggagedorm). a slumbercoach has 24 single roomettes and 8 double roomettes.000 to 160. Passenger cars are designed to negotiate a curve of 250-ft minimum radius when coupled together. (Mechanical Division. Curve negotiability depends on clearance of the car corners and the free angling of the couplers in the draft gear pockets. lounge (club. cross stabilizers (lateral bumper). Passenger-type air-brake equipment and air signal lines are provided. Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Neb. helical or air-coil springs. a sleeping car has various combinations. 10 ft 6 in wide. When truck centers exceed 41 ft 3 in.) Passenger cars must be constructed to meet AAR requirements for safety and interchange. and truck centers. Omaha. (The “Car and Locomotive Builders’ Cyclopedia. . Seating capacity ranges from 44 to 89 in coaches and 23 to 48 in food service cars. roller bearings. mostly 10 roomettes and 6 bedrooms. It is of semimonocoque design of aluminum with high-strength steel underframe. Cars may be constructed to an extreme width of 10 ft 8 in and to the other limits of this diagram when truck centers do not exceed 41 ft 3 in. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. heavy loads that exceed weight restrictions are also cleared but restricted to designated routes and speeds. 85 ft. The 21⁄2 -in clearance above top of rail is an absolute minimum. All rights reserved. With truck centers of 41 ft 3 in. 59 ft 6 in. 13 ft 6 in (bi-level cars. and load equalizers. A car to these dimensions is defined as the base car. One type is designed for push-pull operation by a separate locomotive. 19.) tions for Design.4 Passenger Cars Fig. The dimensions of Plate B for width must be reduced for cars having truck centers in excess of 41 ft 3 in. In addition.5 Commuter Cars Several types of commuter cars are in use.000 lb. and Construction of Freight Cars. heating. Most railroads have a clearance bureau for verifying load clearances and routes for cars carrying freight that exceed Plate B and Plate C limits. Electric air conditioning. and lighting for the cars are powered through train lines from the head end.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19.48 n Section Nineteen Boxcars of 94-ft coupled length coupled to a short car can be operated around a curve of about 208. snubbers or shock absorbers. Weight of these cars empty ranges from 100. 19. According to information provided by AMTRAK. the swingouts of end of car should not exceed the swingout at center of car on a 138 curve. Trucks are inboard Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. especially when travel over structures is necessary. Truck centers are 59 ft 6 in. Fourwheel trucks are generally used with 36-indiameter wrought-steel wheels. coach. sleeper.18. 16 ft 6 in). Dimensions of passenger cars adopted as recommended practice by the Association of American Railroads (AAR) Mechanical Division are: coupled length.

000 lb. the diesel-electric unit at the other end of the train. quick entrance and exit. Double or triple doors at midlength of the cars expedite loading and unloading at low platform level. As many trailer cars as needed are coupled between them. A self-propelled rail diesel car is used to some extent in commuter service. 10 ft 53⁄4 in wide. The rectified output is transmitted to a dc-dc chopper circuit that controls separately excited traction motors. 10 ft wide. It operates from a 1500-V dc catenary system. but each has its own catenary trolley and is powered by four 156-hp motors. measuring 1 ft 10 in deep and 10 ft 49⁄16 in long. mounted directly under the roof for easy maintenance. are air conditioned. air conditioning.49 bearing.000 lb. The weight is 112. The pantograph that collects the current for each car is located in a roof offset at the cab end. Another type is the bilevel or gallery-type pushpull car. Each car is 85 ft long. These cars have four-wheel trucks 59 ft 6 in on centers. and padded upholstered seats.18. It also has a single door on one side at the cab end. Type A cars have one Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. It has 59-ft 6-in truck centers. and safety. respectively. jerkless acceleration for passenger comfort. and 12 ft 6 in high. Seating capacity is 156. This type is used only for high traffic density. Loading is from floor level. Power is supplied by two 550-hp gas turbineelectric generator units. with 32-in-diameter wheels. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) cars are a good example of car design that offers excellent service. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.800 lb and seating capacity 89. This type is 85 ft long. with storage batteries. Weight is 134. A sixth type of commuter car is constructed to operate off the third rail in electrified territory and from its own power supply in nonelectrified trackage. These cars are pulled or pushed in the train by a diesel-electric locomotive.500 lb. These cars are built as pairs with one power source. It has two fourwheel trucks 59 ft 6 in on centers. A fifth type is a double-deck MU car with cab controls at opposite ends of adjoining cars. equally divided between the double doors on each side near car midlength. Loading is from low platform level.6 Rail-Transit Cars Essential characteristics of rapid-transit cars are rapid acceleration and deceleration. seats and arrangement designed for best space utilization.400 lb. Seats provided range from 56 to 83. and passenger service on lines having light traffic. Loading is from either floor or ground level. good lighting. several units are used in one train. 277 to 480 V. It seats 161 passengers in a trailer car. A 550-hp diesel engine with electric drive powers the car. air suspension.25 illustrates the type of cars used on the Denver Light Rail System. Generally. Loading is from low platform level. A typical car of this type is 85 ft long. and passenger comfort. efficient. 19. to move cars in and out of yard and shop tracks and thus eliminate the need to electrify this trackage (resulting in less cost and greater safety). Table 19. Cars can carry up to 350 passengers. a combination of dynamic and air brakes. eight composition brake shoes. The two gas turbines drive alternators providing three-phase power at 420 Hz. and attractive decor. maximum seating capacity. 10 ft wide. comfort. Seating capacity is 104.7 gives comparable car data for several rapid-transit systems. Figure 19. and toilets. These cars are also used for mail. Electrically self-propelled commuter and rapidtransit cars may store energy developed by regenerative braking in storage batteries or in a high-speed flywheel for later use in train acceleration. 10 ft wide. The choppers (solid-state electronic switching devices) are advanced means of controlling dc traction-motor input power to provide smooth. by highhorsepower motors. A cab car with controls for the engineer is located at one end. weighs 140. A typical car is 85 ft long. express. 155 in a cab car. All rights reserved. All the types of commuter cars described previously have tinted glass windows. There are two 33-in-wide doors on each side near the car ends. and 15 ft 10 in above top of rail. . racks for luggage or apparel. trucks have two axles spaced 8 ft 6 in on centers. The fourth type of commuter car is the electric multiple-unit (MU) coach.600 lb and seats 122 Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Loading is from floor level. These are provided. and lightweight construction. and have comfortable seats.digitalengineeringlibrary.000 lb. The cab car weighs 128. Weight is 74. and 14 ft 7 in high. loading and unloading at floor level. several doors per car. 123. and seats 240 in a “married pair” of cars. attractive decor. One design of MU car is 85 ft long. This reserve energy supply could be used to operate the cars to the next station in the event of a power failure and.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. the trailer car. and 15 ft 10 in high. The car weighs 105. and electropneumatic braking. good lighting.

50 n Section Nineteen Table 19. maximum Weight. C cars ¼ 62. c For A cars. total less passengers Trucks: Truck center distance Wheel diameter Track gage Wheelbase Minimum radius horizontal curve Minimum radius vertical curve Number of motors Horsepower per motor Performance: Balancing speed. C cars ¼ 79. mi/h.2 70– 15 4 6 ft 3 in 4 ft 2 in 4 8 56 202 55 ft 4 in 12 ft 10 in 7 ft 4 in 3 ft 10 in 9 ft 1 in 48. f Minimum desirable for main-line box structure and circular tunnels ¼ 1000 ft. C cars ¼ 235.700 lb.0 50–10 4 6 ft 51⁄4 in 3 ft 9 in 2 6 80 240 75 ft 0 in 10 ft 101⁄2 in 6 ft 10 in 3 ft 4 in 10 ft 13⁄4 in 72.5r 70 –3 3 6 ft 7 in 4 ft 2 in 1 8 4 160 75j 3.9.000 lb.000 lb.0 3.s Service braking rate.0k 3.000 lbo 52 ft 6 in 34 in 4 ft 81⁄2 in 7 ft 3 in 350 ft 1.5 3.5g 2. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. mi/h. l For A and B cars. C cars ¼ 75 ft 4 in.500 lb 54 ft 0 in 28 in 4 ft 107⁄8 in 6 ft 10 in 250 ftf 2000 ft 4 116 55 2.000 lbe 54 ft 0 in 34 in 4 ft 81⁄2 in 6 ft 10 in 145 ft 2000 ft 4 115 80 2. B cars ¼ 70 ft.8 3.3 80– 4 2 6 ft 4 in 4 ft 6 in 2 10 72c 350 75 ft 0 in 12 ft 11⁄2 in 6 ft 83⁄8 ind 3 ft 103⁄8 in 10 ft 0 in 87.7 Characteristics of Some Rapid Transit Cars Southeastern Washington Metropolitan Bay Area Atlanta Metropolitan Rapid New York Pennsylvania Area Transit Rapid Transit Toronto Transit City Transit Authority Transit Authority Authority Transit District (MARTA) Commission (WMATA) (BART) Authority (SEPTA) Capacity: Seats per car Maximum passenger design Length over coupler faces Height: Overall Headroom Floor to top of rail Width.760 lb 38 ft 0 in 28 in 5 ft 21⁄4 in 6 ft 8 in 140 ft 3000 ft 4 100 55 3. 7 ft 23⁄8 in for high ceiling. B cars ¼ 84. low rate ¼ 1. j On 1% grade.2k 15 fade out 3 6 ft 4 in 4 ft 2 in 2 8 For A cars.0 2.0r 3.0 3. i Parabolic. main line ¼ 500 ft. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. m For A and B cars. For A cars. o For A and B cars.0 3. k Below 50 mi/h. B cars ¼ 76 d Low ceiling. mi/h.75 3.500 lbb 50 ft 0 in 30 in 5 ft 6 in 7 ft 0 in 500 ft 1670 ft 4 150 80 3. mi/h Initial acceleration rate. B cars ¼ 55.s Emergency braking rate.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. h For yard track.000 lb 52 ft 0 in 28 in 4 ft 81⁄2 in 7 ft 3 in 250 fth i 68l 250m 75 ft 0 inn 11 ft 10 in 6 ft 10 in 3 ft 8 in 10 ft 6 in 76. e For A Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .0 3. p Parabolic. g High rate.s Dynamic brake range Doors: Number per side Height Width Minimum number of cars per train Maximum number of cars per train a b 72 216 75 fta 10 ft 6 in 6 ft 9 in 3 ft 3 in 10 ft 6 in 56. length ¼ (G1 2 G2) 100 ft. but not less than 200 ft. n For A and B cars. All rights reserved. min.digitalengineeringlibrary.0 3.0 55–1 3 6 ft 3 in 4 ft 1 in 2 10 83 300 74 ft 91 in 8 11 ft 111⁄2 in 6 ft 11 in 3 ft 71⁄2 in 10 ft 4 in 55.5%/100 ftp 4 160 75q 3. q Maximum overspeed.

and fire-resistant construction and designed for ease of cleaning. No painting is required. A cars are placed with the slanted end at the front and rear of the Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 30-W heating. but the attendant can override the train control in an emergency. and advertising signs are not used. As many B cars as needed. This also facilitates observation of two cars by the attendant during night hours.51 Fig. smoking is not permitted. Either the attendant or the central office can make announcements to passengers from speakers in each car. which provides draft-free. CO. Communication between trains and central control is by radio. and a communications system. Automatic couplers complete 24 electrical circuits throughout the train. using a line antenna through subway sections. They have AAR wrought-steel. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. An automatic car identification system is used. Vinyl-padded double seats are placed on each side of a middle aisle. rubber “doughnuts” around the journal roller bearings. with color-coded labels on each car. At two locations in each car. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. heattreated rims and aluminum hubs. 19.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. up to 8. All rights reserved. 12-ton refrigeration. A large enclosed passageway between cars with biparting doors and large panes of glass allows passengers to see seats in adjoining cars.25 Typical light rail vehicle in service for the Regional Transportation District (RTD) in Denver. are placed between the two A cars. A dc chopper is used to control the 450-V direct current to each motor to give smooth starting and stopping. Lighting fixtures use focusing lenses and provide 30 to 35 fc at reading height. 20 fc at floor level. durable. automatic train operation sensors. an arrangement that gives a pleasing. . and hydraulic shock absorbers. slanted end with a cab for a single attendant for train control (when needed). The floors are carpeted.digitalengineeringlibrary. Automatic train control and cab signals are provided. The car interior is made of simple. streamlined appearance. Each car has its own air conditioning system. a small push-to-talk intercom set permits passengers to report emergencies or seek information from the attendant. Wheels are designed for light weight and noise reduction. uniform air distribution with fresh air infusion. and humidity control to below 60% relative humidity. The car support and trucks include level-controlled air bellows. Scanners are located on yard leads to record miles run for maintenance purposes and to determine the location of each car.

8 Locomotives In the United Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. equals 20 times the percent grade per ton of train.18. track geometry cars for measuring the quality of the track under loaded conditions. Electric locomotives. 10 lb/ton. such as dieselhydraulic and gas turbine-electric. It requires relatively few stops for fuel and water. Early diesel-electric locomotives used Direct Current (DC) electrical systems. A. New diesels use either DC or Alternating Current (AC). For personal rapid transit.19. Instead of using wrecking cars. which must be controlled by braking. For commuter and rapidtransit service. the power to pull the trains up grades and make the scheduled time is of paramount importance. Requirements for running time. track material and cars and locomotive cranes of up to 250 ton capacity. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. and on a 0. On a descending grade. R. Maintenance-of-way cars include air dump cars for carrying rip rap and embankment material. These locomotives have the advantages of being able to develop a high horsepower at high speed and requiring less maintenance than diesel-electric. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Curve resistance is the added resistance required to guide and slip the wheels in negotiating a curve.18. . including trackmounted machinery. 19. The contractors use construction equipment. offered by an ascending grade. there is some power loss in the line transmission. but power must be adequate to accelerate quickly to the desired speed. curve. tractive effort. are economical only on lines having fast and frequent train schedules.7 Railway Service Cars These are non-revenue and maintenance-of-way material and equipment cars and other special purpose cars. and it has excellent starting characteristics because all the weight is on the driving wheels. The contractors generally move their equipment by truck and trailer and use additional trailers for cooking and sleeping facilities. ballast cars. Diesel-electric locomotives use on-board diesel engines to power electrical generators that feed current to electric motors that drive the axles. power must be adequate to overcome grade. Society of Automotive Engineers. and flangers.19 Propulsion Power Requirements for Trains 19.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. tie cars.1 Resistances to Train Movement Grade resistance. and rail adhesion characteristics of the locomotive. Irvin and J. in general. Asmus. Thus. some major railroads employ contract services. car sets with racks for carrying welded rail strings. clearance measuring cars.52 n Section Nineteen A more detailed description of the BART system is in “Modern Railroads Rapid Transit.04% grade per degree of curvature. the grade resistance is 30 lb/ ton. the same forces accelerate the train.” L. modified to handle cars and locomotives. In long unit trains. most of the remainder are diesel-electric. Other specialty equipment includes scale test cars. But since the electric power required is usually generated in a separate.5% grade. dynamometer cars for testing locomotives and wreck trains that contain tool cars. on a 1.digitalengineeringlibrary. on a 1.0% grade. For intercity passenger and freight trains. paper 680544. Less than 1. Curve resistance is generally considered equivalent to 0. an important factor in the power requirement is the need to accelerate quickly. to removed derailed equipment and restore trackage. Diesel-electric can be operated in multiple units by one engine-man to afford the horsepower and These vary with the type of service.” February 1972. 19. 20 lb/ton. dieselelectric locomotives are used mid train and/or at the end of the train as helpers. frequency of service. and “The Bay Area Rapid Transit Vehicle System. 19. An electric locomotive has good efficiency. For all types of service. immobile plant. All rights reserved. and operating costs must all be considered.5% of locomotives are electric. and the catenary system represents a considerable investment and maintenance expense.5% grade. and rolling resistance. These determine the drawbar pull available for hauling cars. tractive effort required. There are a few locomotives of other types in use. Locomotive capacity is based on the rated horsepower. the speed is relatively slow. spreaders and rotary snow plows. almost all freight and passenger trains are moved and switching operations done with diesel-electric locomotives.

aerodynamic properties of the car design. the air-drag coefficient was found to be as much as 1. Thus. represents the air drag due to train speed. The Association of American Railroads continues to test new equipment and update values.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. All rights reserved. At high speeds.” Rail Engineering International. the curve resistance on a 48 curve would be 0. the increased dimensions and heavier loading of freight cars. With some car designs where little consideration was given to aerodynamic properties. The Davis formulas (W. . Jr. tons N ¼ number of axles per car Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. but after a train Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. April-May 1973. “The Tractive Resistance of Electric Locomotives and Cars. km/h and the effective locomotive and coach frontal area is taken to be 10 m2. but train resistance becomes 5 lb/ton as soon as the car is in motion. According to the AREA “Manual for Railway Engineering.07 for conventional equipment freight-train ¼ 0. On the other hand. the train resistance is about the same for roller and solid bearings. mi/h K ¼ air resistance coefficient ¼ 0. V ¼ speed.53 Thus. L.04 Â 20 Â 4 ¼ 3.” General Electric Review.digitalengineeringlibrary. the much higher operating speed of freight trains.19. Starting resistance is less with roller bearings. Koffman. weight on the axle. Rolling or train resistance is the resistance to train movement on level tangent track. Equation (19. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. no consideration need be given to curve resistance in calculating power requirements because it is already included in the grade. 10-coach Tokaido train. For example.6 based on experimental data on a locomotive at speeds up to 100 mi/h. Curve resistance tends to retard the train on descending grades.20) assumes an air drag coefficient of 0. compensated for curvature. J. 5 lb/ton. this becomes a major factor in train resistance. and changes in types of cars since the formulas were developed have made it desirable to modify the constants in the Davis equation.85 for an eight-car train. Train resistance is affected by speed.16 for trailer on flatcar (piggyback) ¼ 0. However. and wind velocity and direction..5-m-long.2 lb/ton of train. metric tons n ¼ number of coaches in train V ¼ train speed. The same car on roller bearings would have the same starting resistance as when moving at slow speed. “Tractive Resistance of Multi-Unit and Locomotive-Hauled Passenger Trains. In design of vehicles to be operated at speeds over 100 mi/h. For a detailed treatment of this subject for highspeed passenger service. Recent tests have shown improved results with the following modified Davis formula: R ¼ 0:6 þ 20 KV 2 þ 0:01V þ WN W (19:19) where R ¼ resistance.0935 for containers on flatcars The last term in this equation. This last factor is usually neglected because it is relatively small. for which extensive model tests were made in a wind tunnel to obtain good aerodynamic performance. Davis. it is highly important that aerodynamic performance be considered because air drag causes most of the rolling resistance at these 19. The author suggests the following formula as representative of modern passenger-train equipment on British and Continental railways:  2 V (19:20) R ¼ 1:5W þ (5:5 þ n À 2) 10 where R ¼ total tractive resistance of conventional passenger train. air density. kg W ¼ total weight of train. the starting resistance for a car with solid bearings might be as much as 20 lb/ton. and it is necessary to take into account the cross-sectional area of the car. Use of rail lubricators reduces curve resistance by about one-half. it was found to be as little as 0.5%.” the Davis formulas have given satisfactory results for speeds between 5 and 40 mi/h. and characteristics of the track. It is customary on ruling grades to compensate for curvature by reducing the grade for the length of the curve. October 1926) are representative of results found by several investigators. KV2/WN.97 for a 249. if the ruling grade on a line is 0. lb/ton W ¼ weight per axle.2 Formulas for Train Resistance There are several formulas for calculating train resistance. see J.

) After the velocity profile has been completed for the line. figure the total work done. However. Occasionally. A simpler method that will be sufficiently accurate for most purposes is as follows: Approximate a condensed profile of the line with a series of long grades. Obtain the time over each grade by dividing the distance by the speed and total these.” American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association. lb/ton.19.1). (Detailed instructions for train performance calculations are in “Manual for Railway Engineering. the running time is found by summing the time required to travel each increment of distance at the average speed for the increment.4 Train Tonnage where V ¼ speed. The actual profile of the line is plotted on a graph showing elevations versus distance. If a train is made very long.000 lb. depending on the length of the train. the locomotive may not be able to handle this much tonnage at a high enough sustained speed to meet competitive traffic requirements or to avoid train-crew overtime. ft. for each increment of speed. plus the resistance due to curvature. The series of lines representing equivalent grades is the velocity profile. The time that a locomotive will be working at full capacity. or drifting can be determined from the velocity profile. Since grade resistance is 20 lb/ton (see Art. The velocity head. practicality of operation. 19. and meeting Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. mi/h. or from air-brake operation in very cold weather. for any speed is VH ¼ 0:035V 2 (19:21) 19. Diesel-electric locomotives are sometimes added near midlength of a train and as pushers at the end on steep grades. trouble with broken couplers may be encountered if drawbar pull exceeds 200.54 n Section Nineteen high speeds and increases as the square of the speed. accelerating force. Add an arbitrary 5 to 10 min for each stop and start. difficulty may be experienced from slack run-in. is computed by subtracting from the drawbar-pull characteristics of the locomotive the train resistance on level track. from excessive delays for replacement of broken couplers or setting out cars that have developed hot boxes. but if the locomotives are placed at the head end of the train. This consists of the work done in overcoming rolling resistance. Calculate the speed at which the locomotive can handle the train over each grade. ft-lb. All rights reserved. On the same graph.19. . Generally. The total work done. Another method that may be used to calculate fuel consumption is to first The maximum tonnage that can be hauled over a line with a given locomotive is determined by the ruling gradient. railroads operate trains with as many as 250 cars. train tonnage is a matter of economy. A computer may be used to facilitate and expedite the calculations required. 19. plus the resistance of gravity on ascending grades. 200 cars. the more tonnage in a train. A train of 100 cars is quite common in the United States. but the loss of energy (velocity head) due to application of brakes should be added to give total work. part capacity. may be converted to gallons of diesel fuel by multiplying by 4 (efficiency of 25%) and dividing by 90 million (ft-lb of energy per gallon of diesel fuel). This formula expresses the kinetic energy of a train due to its velocity and the rotating energy in its wheels as equivalent potential energy due to height. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.3 Calculating Running Time and Fuel Consumption Running time and fuel consumption are useful data in comparing the relative desirability of various lines in new construction or in revisions of existing lines. the lower the operating cost. This will give the approximate running time. From this sum should be subtracted the energy of gravity on descending grades. The same procedure is applied for braking to reduce speed or Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. for example. Thus. Running time may be calculated by the velocity-profile method. The computation is repeated for 5-mi/h increments from starting to maximum permitted operating speed. In this method. Multiplying each period of time by the corresponding rate at which fuel is used by a particular locomotive yields the fuel consumption. the equivalent grade is plotted between points for which the vertical difference between the actual and equivalent grades equals the velocity head. any number of units can be coupled together.19. The fuel consumption can be determined as in the velocity-profile method or from total work done. With diesel-electric locomotives.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. the accelerating force may be converted into an equivalent grade by dividing by 20.

this sum is called the adjusted tonnage A rating. and a red light to show that the next block ahead is occupied. The automatic-block signal system provides for successive blocks of tracks to be separated electrically by insulated rail joints at both ends. A three-position signal aspect is connected into the electric circuit for each block and for adjoining blocks. Unless the rail is continuously welded. The adjusted tonnage rating may be considered as the sum of the weight of cars and contents. below 0 8F 57 66 72 76 79 84 87 91 93 94 95 Ruling grade. A common signal aspect is a green light to show an approaching train that two blocks ahead are clear.0 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. tons per car 29 20 15 12 10 8 5 4 3 2 2 % of A rating B. The objective is to move the trains to conform to desired Table 19.20 Train Control and Signal Systems There are many methods for controlling the movement of trains on tracks.4 0.8 Data for Calculating Adjusted Tonnage Ratings Adjustment factor.digitalengineeringlibrary. schedules between departure and destination points. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.2 0. % 0.1 0. Although safe. this method gives low track capacity. For temperatures above 35 8F. a locomotive cannot handle as much tonnage in a train of empty cars as in one of loaded cars. 20– 35 8F 84 89 91 93 94 95 97 98 98 99 99 Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and high cost for block operators. rail bonds are used at each bolted rail joint to ensure continuity of the electric circuit between rail ends. For temperatures below 35 8F.8.5 0.8. with safety the paramount consideration. Many different types of signal aspects are used. Also. tons. . 0 – 20 8F 70 78 82 85 87 90 93 95 96 97 97 D.8 for a specific ruling grade by the number of cars in a train. tons. as indicated in Table 19.5 3. use may be made of the data in Table 19. speeds up to 79 mi/h are permitted by FRA order.7 1. The adjusted tonnage rating is independent of the number of cars in a train.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. a yellow light to show that the second block ahead is occupied. a percentage of the A rating is used. The manual-block system provides a safer operation. Operators stationed between blocks of track do not permit a train to enter the next block until notified by the operator at the other end of block that it is clear. Passenger train speeds are limited to 59 mi/h and freight train speeds to 49 mi/h by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) where this method of train control is used.55 competitive traffic requirements for speed and frequency of service. and an adjustment.0 1. slow schedules. depending on the number of tracks and the characteristics of the traffic. As a convenient means of compensating for these two factors. a locomotive cannot handle as much tonnage in cold weather as in warm weather. All rights reserved.0 2. Since train resistance varies with car weight and number of cars. With the manual-block system.3 0. Train orders and time schedules are used where only a few trains move over a line per day. The adjustment for computing the adjusted tonnage A rating is obtained by multiplying the adjustment factor given in Table 19. The block length should not be less than the service braking 19.5 2.

and no code. Automatic train control is provided by a wayside inductor located in advance of each block circuit over which the locomotive receiver passes. train speed is not limited by FRA order to 79 mi/h. This situation can be prevented by overlapping the advance blocks so that the stop aspect is displayed more than one block in advance of a train. as are derails on each track. All rights reserved. rather than below the dropout value. the “restrictive. Therefore. 75.” Additional signals may be transmitted by combinations of reversed polarity.” It is defined as “a block system under which train movements are authorized by block signals whose indications supersede the superiority of trains for both opposing and following movements on the same track. derails. Speeds up to 79 mi/h are permissible. and for given ballast resistance conditions. 120. the train brakes are automatically applied. Electric interlocking permits the operator to actuate signal aspects and derails electrically. A block length of 1 mi is frequently used. For very complicated crossings involving many tracks and train movements. otherwise. one operator directs the movement of all trains and usually of all switches and derails Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. With this system. Continuous cab signals are provided by using alternating current for the track circuits instead of direct current and placing inductive receivers in front of the leading wheels on the locomotive. the signal passing through the rails is transmitted by the receivers to give signals in the locomotive cab. Safety features are provided to prevent an operator from lining up signals. 180 interruptions per minute operates the “proceed” signal. With continuous cab signals. the train shunt need only be enough to reduce the track current at the relay below the pickup value. the “approach-medium”. opposing trains could pass a clear signal simultaneously and find the next signal at stop but be unable to do so in time. The operator can also unlock and throw switches by electric control for crossovers or connecting tracks. Overlap and absolute permissive block signaling is required to avoid collision of trains moving in opposing directions on the same track. It is necessary for the operator to just push a button for the point where a train will enter the interlocking and another button for the point where the train is to leave. . each train must first stop at the crossing and then proceed if the crossing is clear. Thus. relays can be used to extend the blocks in advance but provide the normal block indications for following trains. With the absolute permissive block system. Mechanical interlocking operated by a towerman permits giving the right-of-way to one train. Interlocking is usually provided at railroad grade crossings and at some turnouts. the “approach”. on track with one-direction movement. train speed may exceed 79 mi/h. Coded control can be used with this system by interrupting the ac voltage in the same manner as for dc voltage. the block control is extended far enough in advance to include a passing track or crossover so that the trains can pass. For example. This permits higher track voltage to be used.digitalengineeringlibrary. wayside signals are not actually required. On simple crossings.56 n Section Nineteen distance required for the train speed. Coded control has the advantage of using one pair of line wires to transmit the signals from blocks ahead instead of requiring many line wires for this purpose. the engineman must acknowledge awareness by actuating a contactor. With automatic-block signals giving indications for only two blocks ahead. An electric circuit is provided so that when a locomotive passes a restrictive signal. With this system. Switches are thrown by electropneumatic or electric motor switch machines. Signal aspects are operated by levers and long pipe connectors. Centralized traffic control (CTC) is officially designated by the FRA as the “traffic-control system. Another advantage of coded control is that the code-following track relay must pick up with each pulse. Any change in signal aspect is immediately visible. An interruption of the dc voltage is used for different signal indications. whether or not the wayside signal is in sight of the engineman.” With Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and switches unless the track is clear for such movements.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. track circuits can be made twice as long. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. The best available route will then be automatically selected and lined up for the train. train movements through an interlocking can be controlled automatically by an electric signal system. At crossings without interlocking. route interlocking is used. This receiver is mounted on the locomotive journal box to have 11⁄2 -in clearance with the wayside inductor. Where opposing trains are operated on the same track with absolute permissive block. thus expediting their movement. holding any on the track being crossed.

For manual override. Theoretically. Slide fences are frequently used at locations where falling rocks obstruct the track. Many of these detectors are now equipped with radio warning messages that are transmitted to the dispatcher and the train engineer. The pressure of a rock at any point on the fence will cause end movement. dragging equipment and overheated bearings (“hot box”). it is usually considered desirable if passenger traffic is involved to have an attendant on each train who can take over in an emergency and override the automatic operation with manual operation. 19. High-wide load detectors use wires or radar type units to pick up any shifted or extra dimensional loads that may exceed the allowable clearance of a tunnel or through truss bridge. Automatic train operation is the capability for complete scheduling and operation of trains. and so on. Experience has shown that automatic train operation will get trains over a route in less time and with more comfort to passengers than can be obtained with manual operation. Hot box detectors use heat sensitive equipment to compare the heat of passing cars and locomotives’ bearings to predetermined limits. by computer command. one or more computers control the operation of each train according to schedule but have the capability to change the operation automatically as required by any delays that may occur. and sets the block signal to a stop position. Automatic-block signaling controls movement between passing tracks. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Block-signal track circuits may be used to actuate flasher lights or crossing gates automatically to warn vehicles of approaching trains at highway grade crossings. Audiofrequency overlay circuits have been developed to actuate grade-crossing protection without the need for insulated rail joints. One or more “dispatchers” are provided to observe the control board showing the position of all trains and to take over manual operation in an emergency. with all turnouts identified and signal aspects at turnouts shown.17. and electronic direct circuit or inductance. Specialists in the communications field should be consulted on selection and design of the most Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. automatic-block signals or continuous cab signals are required. Many of these have been discussed in Arts.digitalengineeringlibrary. which breaks an electric circuit. Additional types of wayside detectors include those to find broken wheels. sometimes the switches are manually thrown by the trainman in accordance with a signal aspect at the switch. presence of a train attendant may give the passengers a sense of security. The actual operation is performed on a small control board in front of the operator. radio. microwave. Dragging equipment detectors use boards placed both outside and inside the rails that rely on physical contact with anything that may be hanging below the normal equipment clearances. it is possible for one operator to control train movement over several hundred miles of trackage. With only two line wires along the track and different frequencies for transmitting coded data. All rights reserved. The systems and procedures for train control to secure maximum performance have become so sophisticated that specialists in the field should be consulted for selection and design of a system for any given conditions. Acknowledgment is indicated on the panelboard by a signal automatically sent back when the action has been completed. These include simple communication by means of a train whistle or warning bell. telephone. causes a control relay to become deenergized.57 on the trackage under his or her control. and 19. who merely pushes buttons or turns small switches to send out the directing signal. Crossing gates are advantageous at crossings of two or more tracks because of the danger that a motorist will drive on the crossing after a train has cleared without waiting to see if a train may be approaching on another track. a train attendant is not Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. A panelboard shows the operator a diagrammatic layout of the trackage.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* Rail-Transportation Engineering n 19. Also. For lowtraffic-density lines.21 Communication in Train Operation Many types of communication are available to enhance the safety and performance of train operation and give passengers a feeling of security. including starting and stopping. Grade-crossing warning is an important signal function in train operation. opening and closing doors. These fences are drawn tight by spring tension at one end. wayside or cab signals. Lights identify the location of all trains. high-wide loads. At the control center. .20. Signals and switches at the ends of passing tracks are arranged as route-type interlocking. Actually. 19.

58 n Section Nineteen suitable communication system for a given railway operation. satellite systems utilizing the global positioning system (GPS) are under development to monitor train movements. In the late Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. One current form of car identification consists of short range transponders to pick up signals from tags attached to the cars. some railroads tried an automatic car-identification system in which bar codes were placed on the sides of cars and read by optical scanners.RAIL-TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING* 19. . All rights reserved. the scanners were not always successful in reading the codes. and the system was abandoned. In addition. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Because of difficulties in keeping the codes clean. The railroads also tried various systems in which personnel located in yard facilities used television cameras to verify car numbers as the cars entered or exited major yards. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

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