Reverse Engineering

“ Reverse Engineering: Examining competitive or similar or prior products in great detail by dissecting them or literally taking them apart.” - Dym & Little “What does this do?” “How does it do that?” “Why would you want to do that?”

Investigation, Prediction, and Hypothesis Reverse Engineering Concrete experience: Function and Form

Design Models

Modelling and Analysis

Design Analysis

Parametric Redesign

Adaptive Redesign

Original Redesign


Phase One: “Identify product to be redesigned”
Identify at least 3 consumer products (preferably < R500; industrial sponsorship required) Examine product (‘black box’ model; use; interview users; compare with rivals) and predict how the product works (i.e. how it fulfills customer needs)

Required: 1/7th scale retractable undercarriage

Phase Two: “How will you improve the product?”
Disassemble products (plan, bill of materials, exploded view drawings)

Describe how product actually works (Function Structures; Energy Flows) Map customer needs with QFD matrix (House of Quality, i.e. matrix showing customer requirements versus functional requirements)

7 15 5 3 5 % 90 70 20 103 1 3 ‘g’ 3.5 4 64 3 50 50 100 81 2 After ranking.‘House of Quality’ Accurate reproduction of scale geometry and linkages Functional requirements Sierra Precision – Mark Frankel F4D-1 Skyray Retracts Rivals’ Ranking Spring-air 402 retract units 1 5 5 5 5 Customer requirements Scale Appearance Reliable Operation Durable Easy to Install and Maintain Lightweight Technical Difficulty Measurement Units Object Target Values Objective Sierra Precision Measures Spring-air Technical Absolute Importance Relative Key: ? = 9 (strong relation) ? = 3 (some relation) Δ = 1 (weak 9 7 6 4 1 ? ? ? ? Δ Maximum Allowable Weight Time to Install / Remove Cycles without failure Relative Importance Adequate Strength 3 4 Δ ? ? 3 4 Δ ? 4 n (consec utive) ? 2 min 15 15 12 36 4 2 kg 1.7 1. indicate where opportunities exist to improve the product Rating .05 0.5 3.

Functional Analysis Function of aircraft landing gear .

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION (contd.) Phase One: “Identify product to be redesigned” Phase Two: “How will you improve the product?” Phase Three: “Analysis of the redesign proposals Meet with outside experts/practitioners Research of applicable engineering theory for analysis Decide on how the proposed improvements will be achieved Develop alternative concepts for affected subsystems Concept selection using weighted scheme and applying the requirements as identified by QFD Perform rigorous engineering analysis .

Selection Criteria .

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION (contd.) Phase Four: Synthesis and Evaluation Manufacturing (if possible) Evaluation of improvements .

5GHz real-time CCTV transmitter Adjustable keyboard support for operation by wheelchair-bound disabled person Design approach: Adaptive redesign Design approach: Adaptive redesign . Design approach: Original redesign Radio controlled helicopter with mini-onboard video camera and 2.TYPICAL REDESIGN PROJECTS Computerized capsule counter for use in pharmacies.

TYPICAL REDESIGN PROJECTS Self-righting rugby tackle bag Design approach: Adaptive redesign Wheelchair with manually operated hydraulic ramp for negotiating road kerbs Design approach: Original redesign Clever kettle featuring electronic level sensor. and childproof on-off switch Design approach: Adaptive redesign Human-operated Jaws of Life Design approach: Original redesign .

When you do a thing. Be active. Stamp it with your own personality. Put your whole soul into it. Ralph Waldo Emerson . Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm. be enthusiastic and faithful and you will accomplish your object.DESIGN IS A PASSIONATE PROCESS Enthusiasm is one of the most powerful engines to success. do it with all your might. be energetic.

DESIGN IS A PASSIONATE PROCESS Use passion as a catalyst to make ideas become reality: Never stop asking: • Is this really the best I can do? • Can the design be made simpler? Create. 1969 . never stagnate Focus: You can’t always get what you want But if you try sometimes well you might find You get what you need Mick Jagger and Keith Richards.

Reverse Engineering Example Example Project Black and Decker Hedge Trimmer .

Reverse Engineering Methodology Investigation. Prediction and Hypothesis Concrete Experience: Function & Form Design Models Modeling & Analysis Reverse Engineering Design Analysis Parametric Redesign Adaptive Redesign Original Redesign Redesign Adapted from Otto and Wood’s “Reverse Engineering and Redesign Methodology” UT Austin .

noise. Prediction and Hypothesis Develop Black Box Model Reverse Engineering Example Project Assemble product and conduct a test What goes in? What comes out? (i. Investigation. heat .e. heat. power. vibration) Electric Power Finger Switch Safety Off Noise Hedge Trimmer Blade Movement Vibration.1.

500 rpm for the motor .Reverse Engineering Example Project Conduct a single test of the performance of the product: •Record product performance attributes –Shearing speed –3300 strokes/min –5:1 Gear reduction = 16.

Reverse Engineering Example Project What is the market for this product? for small shrubbery” – Black & Decker Product Catalogue Homeowners with small yards and limited budget For use only 3-4 times a year “Suitable What are the costs associated with this product? Design .Manufacturing .Assembly – Packaging – Resale: R1600) .

dirt) Availability of replacement parts and service shops What features does this product have that are important? Molded-in cord retainer Lock off switch prevents accidental start-up Lock on switch for continuous running Lightweight design for less fatigue (10 kg) .Reverse Engineering Example Project How long will this product last? Assumed durability of each component (outdoor use.

epinions. •The 13" seemed a little too small… The 18" seemed heavier •I also wanted electric rather than gas because being a busy woman. I had no time to learn about mixing .Additional Comments and Remarks -1 by: jennifer_021 (Fri Apr 7 '00) Pros: lightweight. very durable Cons: none •Trimming the bushes is my only contribution to our 2 acre yard. •I bought my first Black & Decker hedge trimmer at Hypermarket because it was very inexpensive compared to most other trimmers •Black & Decker has an excellent reputation.00 REF: http://www. Durability: Excellent Noise Level: Average Purchase Price: R1550.

•Over all this tool does a great job of trimming but the hazards to your personal safety far out weigh the pros of this tool. you run the risk of being electrocuted! Remember most people doing lawn work are also running sprinklers to water the lawn. Durability: Good Noise Level: Average Purchase Price: R1650 . •The second problem is that since it is electric and you use it outside. I have had good friends killed simply by using these trimmers on wet grass.Additional Comments and Remarks -2 by: mchristians (Fri Apr 7 '00) Pros: Easy to handle and light too! Cons: Electric and water never mix! •While it may be a good trimmer it also has it's downside! •The first problem with it being electric is that you need a drop cord.

•just about the cheapest thing you'll find on the market •as usual the fine people at B & D come through..well. Durability: Excellent Noise Level: Average Purchase Price: R1520. I have the power I need. requires an outlet. Really. release the trigger. the safety clicks on •One of the safety tips that really amused me was. Or the bathtub. on the other hand.Additional Comments and Remarks -3 by: lpvandermerwe (Tue Jun 27 '00) Pros: Cheap. don’t we? Folks. it is an electric trimmer. powerful. we all know someone. lightweight Cons: Weak manual. •safety lock located at the top of the trimmer.” On the one hand. Do Not Use In Rain..00 . •As long as the cord reaches. I’m just not that stupid. “Do not use in rain.

891 (1996) Hedge Trimmer with Combination Shearing and Sawing Blade Assembly .gov Patent # 5. Patent and Trademark website: http://www.581.778.S.uspto.Patent Search on Hedge Trimmers After completing a search on the U.649 (1998) Power Driven Hedge Trimmer Patent # 5.

Concrete Experience: Function and Form Carefully begin Disassembly Document steps and components with photographs. sketches or video .Function and Form 2.

Switch Motor Blade Case .Hedge Trimmer Sub-Systems and Interactions Group defined systems and subsystems together.

Motor 120 V .8 ampere Motor 350 rpm Why not batteries? How important is size. speed? Was weight a consideration? Photo of Motor .

Switch Safety lock allows trigger action. Is this a regulatory requirement? Ergonomic issues of size and lever force What type of spring mechanism is used? .

Switch MOTOR + V - Sketch of Switch .

Blades How fast do the blades need to move? Force? Are the blades sharp? What are the blades made of ? Can we replace the blades? .

Transmission Pin for upper blade Input gear from motor Output gear Pin for lower blade Slot for upper blade Blades Slot for lower blade .

Case How was the case made? Was the case designed to be aesthetically pleasing? Why isn’t the case made out of metal? What sort of costs are involved in the manufacturing of this case? .

Feature List Switch .Plastic Injection Molded Gear – Die Cast Steel Case – Plastic Injection Molded Handle – Plastic Injection Molded Guard – Plastic Injection Molded .

Reassemble Product .

Motor-Blade Kinematics Helical gears Number of teeth: input = 4 output = 60 Motor speed = 22800 rpm 4 1 ω in = (22800 rpm ) 15 Output speed = 60 = 1520 rpm = 159 rad/s Maximum blade speed = 1 m/s .Engineering Specifications Transforming to engineering specifications Example .

Engineering Specifications .

Engineering Specifications Transforming to engineering specifications T T in 1 Input gear from motor Tin − T1 = I 1ω1 T1 = Ft I 1ω1 d1 2 T2 = Ft d2 2 T2 Output gear to blades F1 T2 − F1 r1 − F2 r2 = I 2ω 2 r1 r2 F2 I 2ω 2 2 F1 = m1 r1ω 2 sin φ − r1ω 2 cos φ ( ) 2 F2 = m2 − r2ω 2 sin φ + r2ω 2 cos φ ( ) .

Design Models Identify actual physical principles Create engineering models and metric ranges Alternatively or concurrently build prototype to test parameters .Design Models 3.

Design Analysis Calibrate model Create engineering analysis.Design Analysis 4. simulation or optimization Create experiment and testing procedures .

Parametric Redesign Optimize design parameters Perform sensitivity analysis and tolerance design Build and test prototype .Parametric Redesign 5.

Adaptive Redesign 6. Adaptive Redesign Recommends new subsystems Searches for inventive solutions Analyzes force flows and component combinations Builds and tests prototype .

Environmental Impact To determine the environmental impact of the existing design evaluate each step of the Product Life Cycle Pre-production Manufacturing Process Product Life The After Life .

Pre-production Replaceability of natural resources Availability of an alternative resource Energy required to obtain Energy to process Amount of waste created during processing Waste disposal method .

solvents.Manufacturing Process Energy to produce Waste created during production Type of waste. emissions? Reuse of in-process material waste? Material yield .

Product Life Energy consumption Waste production Length of product life .

The After Life Reuse for disassembly? Neither.harmful pollutants? Discussion: Reuse vs. Recycle .

experimentation and analysis • Save time and gain insight on current design challenges and solutions .Summary Reverse engineering • Tool to understand current design solutions and technology • Use dissection.

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