School of History, Archaeology and Religion (SHARE

Department of Religious and Theological Studies

The Tibetan lama Trulshik Rinpoche (1923-2011) in 1971

Module Handbook 2011-12, Version 1.02 Module Code RT1347

Buddhism and Society: Southeast Asia, Tibet and the Himalayas
Prof. Geoffrey Samuel Lecturer contact details: E-mail: Office: Humanities Bldg. 5.29 Lecturer office hours: Tuesday 3.10-4 p.m. and Thursday 3.10-4 p.m. Semester Autumn and Summer Level 3

RT1347 Buddhism and Society Timetable AUTUMN SEMESTER 2011
Tuesday 2.10 – 3 p.m. Rm. 5.24 Lecture Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Oct 4 Oct 11 Oct 18 Oct 25 Nov 1 Nov 15 Nov 22 Nov 29 Dec 6 Wednesday 12.10-1 p.m. Rm. 5.26 Seminar Thursday 4.10-5 p.m. Rm. 5.26 Seminar Oct 6 Oct 13 Oct 20 Oct 27 No seminar Nov 17 Nov 24 Dec 1 Dec 8

Lecture Topic

Introduction to the Module Oct 5 Buddhist Societies: Values Oct 12 and Coherence 1 Buddhist Societies: Values Oct 19 and Coherence 2 Buddhist Societies: Oct 26 Monasticism and Gender Female Sex Roles No seminar Reading week – no classes The Origins of Buddhism and Nov 16 the Other Ascetic Orders Critical Interpretations of Nov 23 Theravāda Buddhism Buddhism, the Yakṣa Cult Nov 30 and the State Tantric Religion and Tantric Dec 7 Buddhism in South Asia No classes

Tuesday 2.10 – 3 p.m. Rm. 5.24 Lecture Jan 31 Feb 7 Feb 14 Feb 21 Feb 28 Wednesday 12.10-1 p.m. Rm. 5.26 Seminar Feb 1 Feb 8 Feb 15 Thursday 4.10-5 p.m. Rm. 5.26 Seminar Feb 2 Feb 9 Feb 16 Feb 23 Mar 1

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9

Mar 13 Mar 20 Mar 27

Week 10 Week 11 Week 12

Apr 24 May 1 May 8

Lecture Topic Religion in Newar Society 1 Religion in Newar Society 2 Buddhism in the “Traditional” Thai State Buddhism in the “Traditional” Feb 22 Thai Village Religion in Pre-Modern Tibet Feb 29 I Reading Week – no classes Religion in Pre-Modern Tibet Mar 14 2 Modern Transformations in Mar 21 Tibetan Buddhism Modernist movements in Mar 28 Thailand Easter Break Modernist movements and Apr 25 the civil war in Sri Lanka Religious responses to May 2 globalisation and postmodernity Revision lecture No seminar

Mar 15 Mar 22 Mar 29

Apr 26 May 3 No seminar

Film schedule to be announced later Films will be shown in Rm. 5.24, Tuesdays 3.10-4 p.m.


RT1347 Buddhism and Society: Southeast Asia, Tibet and the Himalayas Module Handbook
Welcome to ‘Buddhism and Society’. This double module introduces students to a range of issues about Buddhism and its social context, both historically and in the context of a variety of Asian societies. These include Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Tibet. The approach is mainly anthropological, also drawing on gender studies, textual interpretation and historical study.

Contents.......................................................................................................................................3   1.  Module  Description.............................................................................................................4   2.  How  the  module  will  be  delivered .................................................................................5   3.  How  the  module  will  be  assessed ...................................................................................6   4.  Reading....................................................................................................................................6   5.  Learning  Central  (Blackboard) .......................................................................................6   6.  Assessment  and  How  to  Approach  It .............................................................................7   Assessment  Structure .......................................................................................................................7   The  Essay...............................................................................................................................................7   The  Examination.................................................................................................................................9   7.  Essay  Questions ....................................................................................................................9   8.  Planning  Your  Essay............................................................................................................9   9.  Presentation  and  Referencing ...................................................................................... 11   10.  Lectures,  Seminars  and  Readings  –  Detailed  Listing .......................................... 15   AUTUMN  SEMESTER  2011 .................................................................................................... 15   Week  1  -­  beginning  Oct  3  –  Introduction  to  the  Module ..................................................... 15   Week  2  -­  beginning  Oct  10  –  Buddhist  Societies:  Values  and  Coherence  1 .................. 15   Week  3  -­  beginning  Oct  17  –  Buddhist  Societies:  Values  and  Coherence  2 .................. 17   Week  4,  beginning  Oct  24:  Buddhist  Societies:  Monasticism  and  Gender ................... 18   Week  5  -­  beginning  Oct  31:  Female  Sex  Roles........................................................................ 20   Week  6  -­  beginning  Nov  7  -­  Reading  Week.............................................................................. 20   Week  7  -­  beginning  Nov  14.  Origins  of  Buddhism  and  Other  Ascetic  Orders.............. 20   Week  8  -­  beginning  Nov  21.  Critical  Interpretations  of  Theravāda  Buddhism .......... 22   Week  9  -­  beginning  Nov  28:  Buddhism,  the  Yakṣa  Cult  and  the  State ............................ 23   Week  10  -­  beginning  Dec  5.  Tantric  Religion  and  Tantric  Buddhism  in  South  Asia . 24   Week  11  -­  beginning  Dec  11......................................................................................................... 25   SPRING  SEMESTER  2012....................................................................................................... 25   Case  Studies  in  Pre-­Modern  Buddhism .................................................................................... 25   Week  1  -­  beginning  Jan  30:  Newar  1.......................................................................................... 25  

4 Week  2  -­  beginning  Feb  6:  Newar  2 ........................................................................................... 26   Week  3  -­  beginning  Feb  13:  Thailand  1 .................................................................................... 27   Week  4  -­  beginning  Feb  20:  Thailand  2 .................................................................................... 28   Week  5  -­  beginning  Feb  27:  Tibet  1 ........................................................................................... 28   Week  6  -­  beginning  Mar  5  -­  Reading  Week ............................................................................. 29   Week  7  -­  beginning  Mar  12.  Tibet  2........................................................................................... 30   Case  Studies  in  Contemporary  Buddhism ............................................................................... 30   Week  8  -­  beginning  Mar  19.  Tibet .............................................................................................. 30   Week  9  -­  beginning  Mar  26.  Fundamentalistic  Movements .............................................. 32   Week  10  -­  beginning  Apr  23.  Sri  Lanka .................................................................................... 33   Week  11  -­  beginning  Apr  30  Buddhism  and  Postmodernity ............................................ 34   Week  12  (Revision  Week)  May  7 ................................................................................................ 36  

11.  Book  List............................................................................................................................ 36   12.  Personal  Development  Programme  (PDP):  Thinking  About  and  Planning   Your  Time  at  University ...................................................................................................... 39  

1. Module Description
The aim of this module is to look at Buddhism in its social context, as a religion practised by real people as well as a body of texts. We will do this both historically, and in the context of a variety of Asian societies, including Thailand, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Tibet. The first semester (Autumn Semester 2011) is mainly about ideas and history. After the first, introductory, week, Weeks 2 to 5 introduce various concepts and approaches for the study of Buddhism in relation to society. Weeks 7 to 10 deal with various historical issues to do with the development of Buddhism in India. The second semester (Spring Semester 2012) is more contemporary and ethnographic. The first six weeks (‘Case Studies in Pre-Modern Buddhism’) look at a number of Buddhist societies as they were investigated in the late 20th century by anthropologists and religious scholars. The following four weeks (‘Case Studies in Contemporary Buddhism’) look at issues that have emerged as these societies have become part of the globalised world system over the last couple of decades. Specific issues we will discuss include the relation between the transcendental and soteriological goals posited by the Buddhist tradition and the more pragmatic and thisworldly goals of everyday religious life, the role of spirits and deities, value systems in Buddhist societies, gender issues in Tibet and Southeast Asia, and the refiguring of Buddhism in colonial and post-colonial contexts. On completion of the module a student will be able to: • • • Identify and describe a range of current theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in the study of Buddhism as a living religion. Compare and contrast a variety of Buddhist societies in South, Southeast and central Asia. Give examples of religious practice within these societies, and explain various modes of analysis that might be applied to these forms of practice.

26 The handbook outlines the module lectures. and the contexts in which each might be useful and relevant. The Additional References for the Lectures provide a starting point if you want to follow up the issues in a particular lecture further. television documentaries.10-1 (Seminar 1) A+S Room 5. Tuesday 2. You should also be putting together your own notes. Seminars will provide an opportunity for detailed exploration of specific readings. I may be presenting views that I disagree with or feel are only partially correct). Instead. but they are not meant to be restrictive.10-3 A+S Room 5. How the module will be delivered The module will be delivered in lecture and seminar format. Lectures will be used to cover the basic data. but they will I hope serve as a useful additional resource. You will. theoretical perspectives on that data and the various methodological orientations to the gathering and processing of data.26 Thurs 4. It is intended as a guide to get you started.24 (films. We will decide the precise format for how the seminars will be run at the first seminar meetings.10-4 A+S Room 5. seminars and coursework details. Be aware that these readings are just a starting point. Be aware that lectures will not simply deliver information. Demonstrate critical awareness of the differences between textual and sociological/anthropological approaches to the understanding of Buddhism and of Buddhist societies. This is not intended as a substitute for your own note-taking. including those relating to gender. and to ‘Protestant’ Buddhism and Buddhist modernism. you are encouraged to use your initiative to find . There are set readings for each seminar.10-5 (Seminar 2) A+S Room 5. also find these lists useful when finding readings for the essays. I will aim to put the PowerPoint presentations for each week’s lectures up on Learning Central (formerly known as Blackboard) within a couple of days of the lectures. however. along with other useful readings. The questions under the set readings are intended to help you think and make notes on the readings. • 2. contemporary news or your own day-to-day experience.5 • Demonstrate awareness of key debates within the study of Buddhism as a lived religion. Some of these readings will be placed on Blackboard as the module proceeds. There will be 19 one-hour lectures (including the video and film material) and 18 onehour seminars for students on this module in 2011-12. Some film and video material will also be included in the lectures to illustrate selected themes.24 (lecture) Tuesday 3. to ‘spirit cults’ and popular religion. starting in week one. some weeks only) Weds 12. or from films. You are very welcome to bring into the discussion ideas and questions triggered by reading further afield. as well as for discussion and reflection on course content. they will often present an argument that may or may not reflect the opinions of the lecturer (in other words.

and may be helpful in relation to the essay topics. The exact arrangements for the seminars will be negotiated with students at the opening meeting. so look regularly to see if there is new material. 3. such as large print. You will come across new words and ideas throughout this module and every time you ask a question you will also be helping others to clarify points. You should attend all lectures. selected from a range of topics given in the module handbook. Further supplementary reading is available in pdf form on Blackboard. I will . so if you come across something interesting in the library. You are expected to attend all the seminars and to complete the readings for each seminar. The readings are given below in the detailed week-by-week listing. should contact the School Office. The essay will focus on a specific aspect of Buddhism and society. I will be adding to this in the course of the year.6 relevant books and articles for your essays.. However. audiotape. Students who wish to have teaching material provided in an alternative format. and will also present different theoretical approaches to the material. 4. 5. You will be encouraged to ask questions – please do not be shy about this. Lectures will be used to present the basic issues and topics. make a note of it. is given at the end of this handbook (Section 11). and counting for 50% of the marks. How the module will be assessed Summative assessment will be by (1) one essay of 2500 words. students who repeatedly miss seminars may be regarded as not completing the module requirements. along with a variety of other useful material. Braille. consisting of four essay questions selected from four sections covering the main areas of the module. (2) one exam of 2 hours. coloured paper (to aid dyslexic students). Formative assessment will be by a pre-submission essay consultation. A list of books in the University Library that provide useful supplementary reading. Reading The basic readings for the module are the weekly seminar readings. I will also make some use of film and video material. so as to present a different kind of input on the issues. You will get much more out of the module if you do this. These are available as a series of pdf files on Learning Central (Blackboard). Learning Central (Blackboard) There will be an up to date copy of the Module Handbook on the Learning Central site (formerly known as Blackboard). as you will find that relevant ideas and material for your essays (including references and handouts) are presented throughout the module. and will count for 50% of the marks. etc. Further details of the assessment are given below.

Assessment and How to Approach It Assessment Structure There are two components to the assessment of this module: 1. In addition. with appropriate references. send it to me as hard copy or by e-mail to may want to bookmark this address on your browser. film. Alternatively you can go straight to Announcements regarding the module will also be placed on Learning Central and circulated to students by e-mail. When you have completed a full draft version of your essay. ‘Guide to Study and Essay Writing Techniques. . The seminar readings are also available on the Learning Central Essay Consultation (Formative Assessment) Formative assessment will be by one pre-submission essay consultation. 11 May 2012. Please word-process your essays. The Learning Central site can be accessed from the main Cardiff University page by clicking on ‘Education’ and then going to ‘Learning Central (Virtual Learning environment)’ under ‘Reference and Resources’ on the right hand side. learn how to use it for initial marking and feedback. If you aren’t already familiar with Learning Central. Many additional readings are also on the site and you can download and use them for further reading and for your assignments. Please note that you will be expected to use at least five sources that are academic books or journal articles for the essay (more is fine. This will be provided by email or in person. your assignment must not duplicate work handed in for any other module that you have . Further details of presentation and referencing are given below. and to the sections of the guide “Planning Your Essay” and “Presentation and Referencing” below.’ included in the Course Documents on Blackboard. but I’m more interested in what you do with them than in how many they are).cf. However. focussing on a specific aspect of the module (50% of assessment) 2. Submission Date The submission deadline for the essay is Friday. you may use other sources (internet. an essay of 2500 words. newspapers). A two-hour exam consisting of four short essays (50% of assessment) The Essay You may choose any questions for your essay from the list of essay questions provided below. use double line spacing. Keep a copy of your essay (this is important).7 change the version number every time I make a significant update to the Handbook. Before writing your essay refer to the following notes. I suggest that you also look at the document. and reference properly (this includes full URL and date accessed for web references).

g. • Apart from clearly marked quotations. if you are uncertain about what constitutes plagiarism. Check the Course Documents on Blackboard for further resources. you should speak with a lecturer or personal tutor. In the case of assessed work (portfolios and dissertations that count towards an exam mark). or quote and mark the quotation properly. • URLs need dates of Referencing Students are required to use the Harvard (author-date) system in referencing the essays for this module. • All quotations need exact page numbers. copy or paraphrase from a book or article. structure and the overall argument can all be checked. • Never italicise book chapter or journal article titles. Always italicise book and journal titles. the Subject Librarian for Religious and Theological Studies. Either express the idea in your own words. Week Seven (March 12th) at the but you should aim at submitting the draft of your essay to the module tutor by the start of Spring Semester. date. page numbers for journal articles. ever. As stated in the Student Handbook.” Plagiarism includes using material from the internet and from essays by other students as well as books and journal articles. in the Arts and Social Studies Library: SwainE@cardiff. There is no formal deadline for the consultation. Doing so will adversely affect your grade and in some cases. • Always give journal you are encouraged to contact Ms Erica Swain. so that your style.mhra. it is completely unacceptable for you to plagiarise in your written work.1 and will also be explained in the lectures. Proper acknowledgement includes giving a correct reference for all material deriving from the work of others. volume issue. E.shtml 1 . you will also have committed an unfair examination practice and will be reported to the Academic Registry. never. in the MHRA Style Guide. As stated in the Handbook. and it includes summarising and paraphrasing as well as direct copying. will result in your work not being marked at all. not the edited book as a whole (unless you are deliberately referring to the book as a whole). Plagiarism Please refer to the RELIG Student Handbook and to the School’s and University’s guidelines on plagiarism if you are uncertain about what constitutes plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious offence and as such.8 The draft version of the essay should be written out in full. You should include all the references in the text and the full bibliography. which may be downloaded from the web at http://www. “Plagiarism refers to the use of the ideas or words of others without acknowledging them as such. In particular please note: • Edited books – always refer to individual articles by name and title. Details of how to use this system are below (Section 7) and in other sources. Library If you have problems getting hold of

There will be some choice. but you are advised as far as possible to revise all the material in the course. Essay Questions 1. and as you read and select the relevant material.g. 7. Considering one Buddhist society from Tibet. 5. 3. How has the work of anthropologists or other social scientists helped in understanding this relationship? Why are nuns less valued than monks in some Buddhist societies? Give examples from at least one society studied in the module (e. the Newars. discuss how successfully Buddhism has responded to the problems of globalisation. Tibet. Sri Lanka). Planning takes place from the very beginning as you make decisions about how to handle the essay topic. Northeast Thailand. In what ways is this also true for Tibetan Buddhism? Discuss the ways in which Tibetan Buddhism today differs from Tibetan Buddhism before 1950. 8. The Examination The examination is based on the lectures and on the seminar readings for both semesters. Discuss Michael Rhum’s contention that “how to socialize nature” is a central issue for Theravada Buddhism. 2. Thailand. Planning Your Essay It is useful to distinguish between ‘planning’ (a process) and an essay ‘plan’ (outline).9 Be careful when making notes from readings to distinguish between your notes and quotations from the original – good note-taking habits can save you time later. and make it much easier to reference your essays properly. Explain the relationship between the Buddhist and non-Buddhist elements of the religious system of one of the following societies: North Thailand. To what extent can modern Buddhist movements be considered “fundamentalist”? Discuss either one or two specific movements in some detail. Discuss the relationship between Buddhist values and the values of everyday life in one or more Buddhist societies. Further details of the examination structure and format will be given at the revision meeting in Spring semester. 7. . Week 12. the Himalayas or Southeast Asia (including Sri Lanka). 6. 4.

think about what the author is trying to do. and how are they defined? Content: This contains your reasoned argument. interpret. don’t use it. Doing this will dramatically improve your own essays. on the other hand. can be revised as you proceed. Here you detail the substance of your discussion. You should be finding material on your own. if necessary. See my advice on finding sources (on Blackboard). Always think about what you are reading. judge it. and stand as a coherent summary of your argument. evaluate it. articles) for arguments not just for facts – the point in reading books and articles is not just to raid them for isolated facts but to engage with their arguments. What is the writer trying to persuade you to think? The individual details are less important (in any case. Your job is NOT just to summarise but to think about the material and to develop your own understanding of it. etc. is a written outline of the way you propose to structure your ideas and information. This is particularly important with material on religion – but it’s important with all university work. Look for the central argument of whatever you are reading and think about whether you agree with it. Stay within your own understanding of the material.10 A plan. book chapters or journal articles presenting original research) for an essay of this kind at this level (more is fine. analyse. As a rule of thumb. • . This is meant however mainly as a starting point. • • • Do not expect to complete the essay in one fell swoop! Be prepared to write a few drafts if necessary. Some general points: • • Discuss. Use your sources (books. they have been selected to fit the overall argument). Learn to think through and assess an author’s arguments for yourself. It’s vital to develop a critical attitude towards what you read. Always look at more than one source for a given topic if at all possible. and your evaluation of it in relation to the topic under consideration. References: Ensure you adequately acknowledge all your source material. but as noted above I’m more interested in what you do with the sources than in how many they are). If you have prepared your material adequately you should be able to formulate a plan that. Choose your sources intelligently and critically. you should have at least four or five solid sources (books. • • • Finding and Using Sources for Your Essay: • The material on Blackboard is meant mainly as a starting point. citing relevant evidence. This is actually more important at this stage than whether your criticisms are right or wrong. The plan should include: • Introduction: What is the key theme/s or issue/s in the question? What general background do you have to take into account? What are the appropriate concepts. If you don’t understand a term or argument. Because ‘planning’ is a continuous process it often involves some degree of trial and error to check whether your ‘plan’ is producing the desired effect. Conclusion: this should pull together the various strands of your discussion.

There are a number of academic conventions that you should use when handling quotes. There are numerous religious texts around and often they represent eccentric or anomalous positions. you are probably quoting too much. if more than 10%-15% of your essay consists of directly quoted material. Avoid using survey and encyclopaedia articles. In this module. or on Hinduism or Christianity as a whole – rather than on a particular sub-field). which are only as good as the last person to edit them. There is no quality control on the internet. use them as a starting point or for illustration not as major sources for your argument. it’s better not to do this at all. Generally. and it’s often useful to read a mix of the two. Used correctly. however. A good Wikipedia page can be a useful starting point. Use quotations where you need to refer to the actual words an author is saying. Avoid extensive summarising and paraphrasing of material in your sources (with or without referencing). Research moves quite fast. A poor Wikipedia page can be actively misleading. Here are some of the most important rules: • Exact Quotation: you should always quote the passage exactly as it appears in the text. It provides a voice to people who wouldn’t otherwise have one. The same applies to Wikipedia. and find out as much as you can about who the author is and where the material comes from. Material of this kind is also often not very up to date. because the passage is in the past tense and your sentence is in the present tense). Much of what was written about e. However. You can also use quotes to emphasise a particularly significant point. you should approach the material as a scholar. quotes can help add a sense of depth to your essay.11 • • As far as possible. Your argument should be in your own words. don’t trust what they say.g. especially short ones meant for a popular readership. not pre-digested summaries. Be careful about out-of-date items. excessive quotation should be avoided. and general books (for example books on world religions. avoid quoting other people’s opinions of works you haven’t read yourself. but don’t trust it too much. If you use websites. to support key points and to give the person marking your essay a sense of what you have been reading. not as a believer. you can make changes or add words in square brackets. 9. • • • • • Some further notes on finding references can be found on Blackboard. Hinduism or Buddhism 50 years ago is seriously out of date or just plain wrong. You should be reading material by original researchers. If you are using material from the internet to represent a religious tradition. These sources can be useful as a starting point but they should not be your major sources. this will usually be marked down heavily. Insiders and outsiders both have valid viewpoints. . Presentation and Referencing Quotations Quoting the ideas and opinions of other writers in your chosen field is an important part of essay writing. Unless you know who is writing something and know that they are a legitimate authority on the topic. be careful. If the quote does not make grammatical sense (for example. As a rule of thumb. This is the nature of the internet.

you are required to use the Social Sciences Style. also known as ‘author-date’ referencing). and individual publishing houses and journals often have their own style. For the presentation of essays. These are either the Humanities Style (Modern Humanities Research Association style) or the Social Sciences Style (which is a modified Harvard style. You should spread your work out on a page by always using:    double line spacing 12 point type headings. “The cat [sat] on the mat”’).5 or double spaced. This leaves no room for tutorial correction and comment and makes your work difficult to read. the correct and consistent use of style forms a part of your essay/assignment grade. For this essay. where appropriate. either Arial or Times New Roman.12 • • • • Location: always specify where you took the quote from. Marks will be deducted for poor presentation or inadequate proof reading. Short Quotations: if a passage is less than two lines long it should be left within the main body of your paragraph Longer Quotations: quotes longer than two lines need to be in a separate indented paragraph. As a part of your skills training. (This does not apply in the case of students with dyslexia/dyspraxia. which do not need quotation marks). you are asked to use a 12-point font. Quotation Marks: use single quotation marks around quotations (except for indented quotations.  indent or separate by a double space the start of a new paragraph. indented quotations should be single spaced .5 or double line spacing. Only use double quotation marks (speech marks) when citing a quote within a quote (i. Moreover. which should be single spaced. You should also:  leave at least one inch margins around the text. the Department expects you to become familiar in the consistent use of such styles. except for quotations and footnotes. You should use either 1. There are many different styles of presentation and referencing. • • If you are unsure. which authors are required to follow when preparing material. . marks). with page number(s) included. You should use single quotation marks. Block quotations should be indented. Indented quotes do not need quotation marks at beginning and end. Footnotes may be size 10. ‘According to Frank. or speech. please ask the module tutor for further guidance. Grammatical Sense: your quote should always make grammatical sense within the wider sentence. Single Spacing: although the main body of your essay should be either 1. Please be aware of the importance of careful proof-reading and general presentation in relation to your assignments. except where citing a quote within a quote (in which case use double quotation. Presentation and line spacing Many people produce single spaced essays with narrow margins.) The Department of Religious Studies generally requires you to use one of two referencing systems consistently throughout a particular piece of work. to help to structure the argument. without quotation marks.e.

monash. to be writing at least in part from his own experience. however. which can be downloaded from the MHRA web site at http://www.2) Example 2: Social Sciences Style (Harvard. but there is no mention of yoga. there are a number of slightly different versions of author-date referencing. at least in ideal terms.lib.html A version of author-date referencing is also given in the MHRA Style Guide.13 The Social Sciences Style does not reference texts using footnotes. In particular. who claims in his great twelfth-century work on the Jain path.g.10). 2003: 134-8). 2009. the amount of variation is quite limited. This consists of These different ‘conventions’ may affect matters such as how page numbers are presented. There are special rules for referencing internet sources. Above all. dhyāna. but uses a reference in the main text. e. at http://www. show signs of the Tantric approaches of Abhinavagupta and of the Nāth Siddha tradition. In Cort’s description of the life of a contemporary Jaina fasting and study are referred and so on. The techniques he describes. Several guides to this system may be found on the internet. italicising article titles. As we saw earlier. and using non-standard formatting (for example. As with footnoting.mhra. Dundas comments that Jainism ‘never fully developed a culture of true meditative contemplation’ (Dundas 2002: 166) and that It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that later Jain writers discussed the subject only because participation in the pan-Indian socio-religious world made it necessary to do so. the Yogaśāstra. make sure that you are completely consistent in how you reference throughout any particular piece of work. 8. (Dundas 2002: 167) This is perhaps unfair to Hemacandra.209). However. which is why this system is also often known as the author-date system. whether titles of articles are in quote marks. meditation or samādhi except in the context of maintaining control over one’s faculties at the time of death (Cort 1987: 655) The list of references should be at the end of your essay and will include the following . A series of four meditational states (śukladhyāna) seems to have formed part of the path. austerities. This information is important because the website may change or disappear. p. or ‘author-date’) Little has been written on Jaina meditational practices in this period. year of publication and page number where applicable ( (see Section 11. rather than deriving from earlier Jaina practices (Qvarnström 2002: 12-13. from early times (Qvarnström 2003: 1312).5. above all that of the mind. make sure that you give the full URL of the page from which the material is taken (not just the address of the home page) and that you include the date on which you accessed or downloaded the information. the orientation of the Jaina traditions was towards the cessation of all activity. Qvarnström notes that the theoretical requirements for undertaking the śukladhyāna are such as to make their use virtually impossible (2003: 140 n. The rules may look arbitrary but they serve a purpose and you may be marked down for not following them. although the Jaina appear to have emphasised external ascetic practice as their primary technique. Ruether. or failing to italicise book or journal articles) can make it impossible for the reader to make sense of the reference.4 of the MHRA Style Guide). Always remember that a complete reference has to give the reader all the information needed to locate the item.

Cambridge. 1991. 2003. Such sites might also show a prejudiced view. ‘The Śvetāmbar Mūrtipūjak Jain Mendicant. though. As with the footnoting system. A named article may be good but needn’t be (do not be persuaded merely by the letters PhD after someone’s name).14 items: References: Cort. Ian Whicher and D.’ Man (N. In conclusion. page numbers must always be given for quotations. Olle. The Yogaśāstra of Hemacandra: A Twelfth Century Handbook on Śvetambara Jainism. there are few controls on the quality of this material. Olle. ignorant or just more ill-informed than most commentators. Carpenter. in order of appearance in the essay. 2002a. 2002b. you can leave out the name and just use the year and page. You need to develop the ability to use the Internet discerningly and you should always reference the source of any such information (including images. but it is not likely to give an accurate portrayal of Islam. In the Social Sciences (author-date) system. Page numbers are not essential elsewhere but it is good practice to use them where possible (as in the above examples).g. often in PDF format). if there could be any doubt about who you are referring to. unlike a library. are examples of this. Electronic & Internet References The Internet provides access to a vast range of information. For example. 2nd edn. Qvarnström.130-42. As a general rule of thumb. If there is more than one item from the same year by the same author (for example if there was another Dundas item from 2002 in the above excerpt) they would be labelled e. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.S. 2002. John E. It may be useful to know about these views. Check a standard reference guide or consult your course tutor if you are unsure what to do in any specific case. The Jains. However. MA: Harvard University Press. Qvarnström. whilst some is terrible. ‘Losing One’s Mind and Becoming Enlightened: Some Remarks on the Concept of Yoga in Śvetāmbara Jainism and Its Relation to the Nāth Siddha Tradition. the online text of a published and peer-reviewed journal will be of excellent academic quality (and may even be available to download. This list should only include the works you have referred to in the article. ideas or direct quotations) when you do so Be aware that not all sites will be balanced. London and New York: Routledge. pp. Dundas. where the same author occurs twice in succession.. Notice that the full (inclusive) page numbers for articles and book chapters appear in the list of references at the end. Be careful if it is a general site or discussion group. eds. even if you have read them while working on the essay. Some online content is excellent. Include the author’s name. but you need to use these sites (and all websites) with due care and attention. or an Anti-Pagan caricature of ‘Witchcraft’. Paul 2002. the author may be prejudiced. The above examples do not cover all possible eventualities. An ‘Islamophobic’ description of Islam. Do not include items you have not referred to. Translated by O. bigoted.’ in Yoga: The Indian Tradition.) 26: 651671. a pro-Hindu nationalist movement site may give an interesting insight into the views of BJP activists. Qvarnström. do .

] Losang.] Wikipedia. document type (i.] http://www. Seminars and Readings – Detailed Listing AUTUMN SEMESTER 2011 Week 1 . May the nature of the site [website or electronic journal] in square brackets). Later in the course we will look at some of this material in more detail.] http://intersections.] http://en. José Ignacio. 1999. 2007. ‘Reog Ponorogo: Spirituality.g. Seminars Wednesday Oct 5 and Thursday Oct 6: Organisational meeting..e.15 not assume what you read is a true or reliable guide. document title. Ames. unless it is from a reputable source.) and the date when you accessed the site in square brackets. ‘Sera Monastery. Examples of Internet References: Cabezón. beginning with the Theravada Buddhist societies of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.’ [!essay=/cabezon/sera/intro/ [Accessed 20 September 2011. 2008. http:// www. Brohm and Tambiah in the 1960’s and early 1970’s speculated about how the different components of the religious system fitted together. you should include the Author (if relevant). It discusses the need for a critical approach to Buddhism and the ways in which seeing Buddhism in its wider social context can help provide such an approach and lead to a deeper understanding of Buddhism as a religious tradition both in the contemporary and historical context. n. Early writers often saw these societies as “animist” rather than “Buddhist.d. full web address (e.beginning Oct 10 – Buddhist Societies: Values and Coherence 1 Lecture Tuesday Oct 11 How “Buddhist” are Buddhist societies? We approach this question through an examination of value systems in Buddhist [Accessed 20 September 2011.’ Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. Ian Douglas. [Website.’ [Blog.. . The aim of this meeting is to set up ground rules for the seminars and to agree how the students want to run them. In [Accessed 12 April 2009. Week 2 .” while anthropologists such as Spiro. evaluate it! When citing a source from the worldwide web.beginning Oct 3 – Introduction to the Module Lecture Tuesday Oct 4: The first lecture is an introduction to the module. Lectures. ‘Introduction to Sera Monastery.’ Part of the ‘Sera Monastery Project’ at the Tibetan and Himalayan Library.thlib. and Power in a Javanese Performance Tradition.] http://kekexili. ‘Sera Monastery.] [Accessed 18 September 2011. Issue 2. Sexuality. [Article in electronic journal.] 10.

“Continuities in Highland and Lowland Regions of Thailand. do the various spirit protectors of the household (phraphuum). do “goodness” (khuna) and “power” (decha) interpenetrate each other in civic religion? 8. How. Paul and Nicola Tannenbaum 1989. honour. according to Mulder. The Shan are Theravadin Buddhists who are closely related to the Thais. How. (N. pp.) Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: Mulder. What does Mulder mean by “nondomesticated power”? 6. 12.B. Neils 1992. Rather. blessing and shame in Lisu society according to Durrenberger and Tannenbaum. does “saksit power” relate to morality? 5. one can explain the aspects of Buddhist ideology which have been incorporated at various times and places in terms of the underlying world view which is. do Thais accommodate to the sphere of “saksit power” and access it for personal purposes? 3. Questions on Readings: 1. according to Mulder. 10. Bangkok. village (phiibaan). How. ask whether the value systems of the two societies they work with are really so different. Durrenberger and Tannenbaum. How and to what degree.88). What do D & T mean by saying that “[Lisu] spirits are mappings of productivity onto occult beings”? 13. working respectively with the Lisu highlanders and the valley-dwelling Shan lowlanders of northern Thailand. E. Explain the relationship between power. Give examples of people or beings who have each of these. Inside Thai Society: An Interpretation of Everyday Life (3rd rev. according to Mulder. Why does Mulder think that there has been “a strong revival of animistic expressions” in recent years? 11. How. In what ways do Mulder and D & T agree? In what ways do they disagree? Can you suggest any possible reasons for the disagreements? Additional References (for those who want to read further): . do “goodness” and the Buddha relate to morality? 7. Explain how Mulder sees Thai animism and Theravada Buddhism as being able to coexist because of their common relationship to basic human experience. Chapter 2.” (p.” Journal of the Siam Society 77:83-90. How do D & T regard the ethical dimension of Lisu ideas about power and wealth? 14. 2. Durrenberger. 18.) Duang Kamol. according to Mulder.”). How do D & T understand the relationship between upland and lowland concepts of power? 17. temple (phiiwad) and province (phiimyang) relate to “saksit power”? 4. not Buddhist.edn.15-41 (“The Ideas of Power and Goodness in the Thai Weltanschauung. itself. What does Mulder mean by calling the Thai Weltanschauung “non-centred”? 9. Explain what Mulder means by “goodness” (khuna) and “power” (decha).16 Seminars Wednesday Oct 12 and Thursday Oct 13: The Values of Thai Society: The chapter from Mulder’s book Inside Thai Society stresses what Mulder sees as the fundamental value orientations in the Weltanschauung (world-view) of modern urban Thai society. How according to D & T do the Shan regard power? How does Shan power relate to austerity and Buddhist practice? 15. Explain what D & T mean by their closing remarks: “[I]t is not plausible to explain lowland behaviour or ideology in terms of Buddhist ideology or doctrine. according to Mulder. How according to D & T does Shan power relate to morality and to Buddhist ideas about merit and karma? 16.

Delhi. Merit and Blessing in Mainland Southeast Asia in Comparative Perspective. Michael (1964. Association for Asian Studies. Change and Persistence in Thai Society. Bangkok. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. Invulnerability and Power in Shan Religion.P.B. Geoffrey (in press) Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. London and New York: Routledge. 1987. (1967. Southwold. Neils 1992. Mulder. Center for Southeast Asian Studies. 'Magical Animism and Buddhism: a Structural Analysis of the Sinhalese Religious System. according to Aziz. Mayer (ed). Cornelia Ann and Nicola Tannenbaum 1996. Penny 1982. (Remaining chapters.17 Ames. pp. Buddhism in Life. Susan D. “The Ideology of Merit and the Social Correlates of Buddhism in a Thai Village. pp. Nicola Beth 1995. There nevertheless seems an overall contrast between the roles of Buddhist ritual practitioners within this and the Theravādin context. University of Washington Press. they exchange information with a clear sense of responsibility and for a specific purpose” (p. Ann Arbor. The chapter from Samuel’s book looks at more general issues regarding value systems in Tibetan societies. Cambridge U. and it is perhaps summed up by the contrast between the lama and the bhikṣu.beginning Oct 17 – Buddhist Societies: Values and Coherence 2 Lecture Tuesday Oct 18: When we turn to the Tantric (Vajrayāna) Buddhist societies of Tibet and the Himalayas. Inside Thai Society: An Interpretation of Everyday Life (3rd rev. Seattle. G. 1978. 4.” In Adrian C. (ed) 1989) Ritual. Thomas Kirsch (ed) 1975. Cornell University Press. (1968. did her friend feel it was appropriate to criticise her? 2.41-12 Tambiah. Kammerer. New Haven. (Occasional Paper No. Tannenbaum. Northern Illinois University. What does Aziz mean when she says that “[g]a-nyä do not gossip. Cambridge University Press. according to Aziz. NJ. Stanley J. "Interpreting a Cosmology: Guardian Spirits in Thai Buddhism. Englewood Cliffs. Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: Aziz. Michigan.) Skinner. William and A. 1970.) Duang Kamol. Culture and Morality. Hans-Dieter (ed)(1969) Loosely Structured Social Systems: Thailand in Comparative Perspective. Nicola. Institute for the Study of Human Issues. Philadelphia. Prentice-Hall. Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in North-east Thailand.1-22 Samuel. rather. does the “ga-nyä jural system” bring about mediation in cases of dispute? What sanctions do ga-nyä have to make sure that people accept mediation? 3. Manchester UP Spiro.14. Barbara N.” American Ethnologist 14: 693-71 Tannenbaum. “Tattoos. Chapter 6 (‘Ethics and Tibetan Buddhism’).21-5 Evers. “Jural Friends and Buddhist Teachers.4). Stanley J. Why was Aziz surprised when her friend questioned her desire to offer her lamp to a monastery? Why. 1981. What does Aziz see as the difference between close friendship (trog) and near kinship on the one hand and ga-nyä friendship on the other? .. and Economy: Upland-Lowland Contrasts in Mainland Southeast Asia. [Expanded edition.) Religion in South Asia. Seminars Wednesday Oct 19 and Thursday Oct 20: The Values of Tibetan Society: Barbara Aziz’s article on the ga-nye networks which she encountered among Tibetan refugees from D’ingri living in northern Nepal in the early 1970’s explores the conflicts and compromises between Buddhist values and the pragmatic obligations of everyday life. Yale University.edn.” In Edmund Leach (ed) Dialectic in Practical Religion. How. Oxford University Press.] Tambiah. Melford E. Van Esterik. Burmese Supernaturalism: A Study in the Explanation and Reduction of Suffering. Power. pp. Martin 1983. Harper (ed. Who Can Compete Against the World?: Power-Protection and Buddhism in Shan Worldview. we find a similar complex co-existence of different value systems.) Russell." Anthropos 77: 1-15 Week 3 .' In E. Questions on Readings: 1.

pp. How according to Aziz do ga-nyä frienship ties relate to class and ethnic differences? 6. Bynum. Seminars Wednesday Oct 26 and Thursday Oct 27: Keyes and Gutschow look at the rituals of Buddhist initiation for men and for women in Thai and Tibetan (Zangskari) society respectively.” In Adrian C. New Delhi. Karma: An Anthropological Inquiry. Vikas.17) 11. . What according to Aziz is the importance of shame (gno-tsa or ngo-tsa) among the Tibetan migrants she knew? 7. Harrell and P. Civilized Shamans. and the wider context of these societies. Anthropological Soc. Kim 2001. Valentine Daniel (ed). Culture and Morality. North India.66-96. What according to Aziz is the relationship between karmic (Buddhist) judgements and ganyä mediation? 8. Richman (ed). Zürich: Völkerkundemuseum der Universität Zürich.” J. Marcia 1993. Gender and Religion: On the Complexity of Symbols.696-710 Week 4. How according to Aziz does divination relate to the ga-nyä system? 10.106-125.” (p. Keyes and E. Oxford University Press. Washington. Gutschow. Virtue (dge-ba).” J. Rebirth and Tibetan Values’) Samuel. “What Makes a Nun? Apprenticeship and Ritual Passage in Zanskar. What can these rituals.” In C. Geoffrey 1990.) Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. pp.) Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya. International Association of Buddhist Studies 24. Levine. pp. Oxford 21: 165194. Samuel. Barbara N. and [. How could persuading someone to delay a monastic career be seen as “totally in accord with Buddhist teaching”? 9.223-60. . In what ways. pp. Blessing (byin-rlabs) and Material Prosperity (rten-'brel) in Highland Nepal. 1981a) “Perspectives on Love: Morality and Affect in Nyinba Interpersonal Relationships. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture. Kvaerne (ed. S. . Why does Aziz find Phillips’ analysis of Thai peasant values “unsettling and inconclusive” (p. beginning Oct 24: Buddhist Societies: Monasticism and Gender Lecture Tuesday Oct 25: How do Buddhist value systems intersect with questions of gender? This lecture begins an exploration of this theme. Boston. 1978. 1986. Fagernes 1992. Delhi. Nancy E. 14. What does Aziz mean when she says that “a moral system is not simply built on a set of rewards and punishments.” In P. David and Lawrence Epstein 1983.18 5. Mayer (ed). Graham 1990. pp. “Ambiguous Gender: Male Initiation in a Northern Thai Buddhist Society.2: 187-215.30-38.199-222 (“The Karma Orientation. DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Charles F. Lichter. Tibetan Frontier Families: Reflections of Three Generations from D'ing-ri. Geoffrey 1994. “Irony in Tibetan Notions of the Good Life.W. How. Discuss the various meanings of bodhicitta. according to Samuel. “Ideas of Merit (bsod-nams). Clark. They have to be administered. Beacon Press.20)? 12. Calkowski. "Contesting Hierarchy: on Gambling as an Authoritative Resource in Tibetan Refugee Society. does the ethical dimension of Buddhism help to explain how Buddhism became part of Tibetan society? Additional References Aziz. University of California Press. “Tibet and the Southeast Asian Highlands: Rethinking the Intellectual Context of Tibetan Studies. according to Samuel.” In Charles F. pp. do Buddhist morality and everyday morality relate to each other in the life of ordinary lay Tibetans? 13." In Charles Ramble and Martin Brauen (eds. tell us about what it means to be a monk or a nun in Thai or Tibetan society? Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: Keyes. Chapter 11.] co-operation among neighbours cannot be conducted by general rules regarding vague possibilities of rebirth.

12. 47-­‐64.68)? 3.71)? 5. 7. Gutschow says that the “remarkable absence of nuns in the literature on Buddhism in Kashmir is due to what one might call a category failure” (p. . King (eds). Bartholomeusz. 2004.197)? 14. What does she mean? In what ways do ordained nuns fail to fit the expectations of scholars? 11.” In James P. How according to Keyes does initiation reformulate the relationship between boys and their mothers? 6. pp. MA: Harvard University Press. Being a Buddhist Nun: The Struggle for Enlightenment in the Himalayas. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Culture. London. Northwest India. Barnes. Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. What effect according to Keyes has the introduction of compulsory mass education had on the practice of temporary ordination? 8. June 1996. John P. Why does Keyes suggest that an interpretation of initiation rites that sees them as “functioning exclusively to transform an asexual and asocial child into a sexual adult with a gender-linked potential to assume particular social roles” (p. “Buddhist Women and the Nuns’ Order in Asia. Explain the significance of shaving one’s hair according to Gutschow.’ In Celibacy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.259294. Campbell. Anna. Pp. Explain the significance which lay people. In what ways according to Keyes do Northern Thai men have to “make a significant break with the world of their childhood. attach to the sexual purity of monks . Kim. Explain the difference between female renunciants and ordained nuns. Women Under the Bo Tree. Cambridge. Women of Wisdom.67) is incomplete and inadequate? What additional element does he want to include? 2. Albany: State University of New York Press. Gutschow. a break not required of their sisters” (p. What according to Gutschow are the principal stages by which a woman becomes an ordained nun in Zangskar? 13.. Gutschow. Preston (ed) Mother Worship. Traveller in Space: In Search of Female Identity in Tibetan Buddhism. Kim.8990)? 10. ‘The Women who Refuse to be Exchanged: Nuns in Zangskar. according to Keyes. 1992. Elisa Sobo and Sandra Bell. London: Athlone. Ohio: Pilgrim Press. eds. according to Gutschow. How do Thai Buddhists find their admiration for the nakleng personality type compatible with Buddhist ideas? 9. Why according to Keyes do Thais regard a period as a novice and/or monk as making a man “ripe” for marriage? 4. Servants of the Buddha: Winter in a Himalayan Convent. 1996. Cambridge University Press. Grimshaw. Why according to Gutschow does “monasticism still represent modernity for many Zangskari women” (p.” In Christopher S. Why does Keyes see men emerging from monastic initiation with “a sexual-social identity that is in tension with an ideal male religious identity” (p. Queen and Sallie B. 2001. Why does Keyes regard “[t]he morally tempered male householder” as a “satisfactory practical compromise” which nevertheless does not eliminate gender ambiguity (pp. Cleveland. Ferguson. Tessa 1995.207)? Additional References: Allione. Tsultrim (ed) 1984. “The Great Goddess Today in Burma and Thailand: An Exploration of her Symbolic Relevance to Monastic and Female Roles. Nancy J.190). and Society: The Anthropology of Sexual Abstinence.19 Questions on Readings: 1. Why does she say that apprentice nuns “are both girls and not girls” (p. 1982.

Cal. Kirsch. NY: Snow Lion. or was that yogi really an Elamite sitting bull? . edited by Jose Ignacio Cabezon. Janet 1987. NY: Snow Lion.” American Ethnologist 11:223-41. Michael R. 9(4):14-32. 1995. Pandora. Kawanami. Janice D. Tsomo. Northern Illinois University Center for Southeast Asian Studies. The Dynamics of Polyandry: Kinship. Janice D. Nancy 1988. Week 7 .beginning Nov 7 . Week 5 . Charles F. 17-39. Karma Lekshe 1995?) Buddhism through American Women’s Eyes. Meeting the Great Bliss Queen. “Down with the Demoness: Reflections on a Feminine Ground in Tibet. Potter." In Buddhism. Willis. (ed) Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet.20 Havnevik. Tsomo.” Tibet J. Routledge/JBE. Kabilsingh. Karma Lekshe 1989. Origins of Buddhism and Other Ascetic Orders Lecture Tuesday Nov 15: What do we really know about the origins of ‘Buddhism’ and the other ascetic orders? Was this a reaction against Hinduism? Was there even such a thing as Hinduism at that times? Was there yoga in the Indus Valley civilisation. Reprinted 1987 in Janice D. Hiroko 1990. Berkeley. Sulamith Heins 1977. of the International Assocn of Buddhist Studies 13. and Society.: Parallax Press. Week 6 . Willis (ed) Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet. Levine. Albany. looking at the wider context of ascetic traditions in Southeast and South Asia. Potter. “Text And Context: Buddhist Sex Roles/ Culture Of Gender Revisited. “Tibetan Ani-s: The Nun's Life in Tibet.. In the second part of the course (Weeks Six to Ten) we will examine the ongoing interplay between themes of gender inequality. The Ancestral Lords: Gender. University of Chicago Press. Chatsumarn 1991. Levine. Ithaca. “Mother or Mistress But Never A Monk: Buddhist Notions Of Female Gender In Rural Thailand. Sexuality. University of California Press. Sakyadhītā: Daughters of the Buddha. Family Life in a Northern Thai Village.” In J. Klein.beginning Oct 31: Female Sex Roles Lecture Tuesday November 1: The lecture continues to explore the relationship between gender roles and Buddhism. Willis. Wijeyewardene. 1984. 1984. 1990. Tibetan Buddhist Nuns: History. Thomas 1985. “The Religious Standing of Burmese Buddhist Nuns thilá-shin: the Ten Precepts and Religious Respect Words. Anne C. Gehan 1986. Place and Emotion in Northern Thai Ritual Behaviour.” American Ethnologist 12: 302-20.3-36. “Attitudes Towards Women and the Feminine in Early Buddhism. Berkeley. Additional References: Gyatso. Labor and the Economic Vulnerability of Women in Nyinba Society. 1994. Domesticity and Population on the Tibetan Border. Nancy 1981. Reprinted 1987 in Janice D. Hanna. Boston: Beacon Press. Sponberg. Seminar: There are no seminars this week. Ithaca. Snow Lion. Nalanda. 1976. and Spirits in a Northern Thai Village. Bangkok. Cultural Norms and Social Reality. NY: State University of New York Press. University of Chicago Press. Rhum.beginning Nov 14. Descent. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. pp. Alan 1992. Thai Peasant Social Structure. NY: Snow Lion. A. equality and complementarity in the development of Asian religious traditions. Jack M. Geoffrey (in press) Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Willis (ed) Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet. NY: Snow Lion Keyes. Samuel. Ithaca.” Kailash 8(3-4):123-154.”Tibet Journal 12(4):38-5. Thai Women in Buddhism. “Law.Reading Week No classes. Chapter 10.

Lüders. “Manjuśrī and the Cult of the Celestial Bodhisattvas” Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal 13: 157-193. Edited by Heinz History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas. Bechert.” (p. Available on web at http://sino-sv3. Available on web at http://www. . 2 edn. “It is easy to see Buddhism . (1951.41 of his article (“It is the contention of this paper” etc) with Schopen’s. Leiden: Brill. Johannes. How does Erdosy attempt to establish the dating of the historical Buddha’s nirvāṇa? What evidence does he see as relevant? Additional References (for those who want to read further): Basham. “The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article.” In Studies on Buddhism in Honour of Professor A.htm Samuel. may warrant closer attention. Do you agree with Schopen’s comparison of modern Buddhist scholars with early Protestant reformers (p. How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings. .html nd Dundas. Wagle and F. .44) 8. or is Erdosy just making the same point more diplomatically? 7. Die Datierung des Historischen Buddha.L. Warder. is that real Buddhism is textual Buddhism. pp. 6.3-4)? What point is he making? 4.K. of course. Why does Schopen cite the comments of Bühler. Geoffrey 2008.1-22. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. Gregory 1997. A. What is Erdosy suggesting here? Why does he suggest it? Do you agree? 9. Watanabe. The Dating of the Historical Buddha. What does Schopen mean by his opening comment that “the way in which the history of Indian Buddhism has been studied by modern scholars is decidedly peculiar”? 2. Richard 1997. Compare Erdosy’s position as stated on p. . and essentially independent of the Vedic ideology of more westerly regions. .de/FULLTEXT/JR-BJ001/93605. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 2007. George 1993.13) and his suggestion that “our picture of Indian Buddhism may reflect more of our own religious history and values than the history and values of Indian Buddhism” (p. The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century. Handbook of Oriental Studies Series. Paul 2002.21 Seminars Wednesday Nov 16 and Thursday Nov 17: The History of Buddhism: Textual and Archaeological Evidence Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Schopen. What other way does he suggest? 3. 3 Vols . and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India. . Series 3. Lance 1996. “The implicit judgement. Cambridge University Press. Cousins. • Erdosy. London: Routledge. as merely a revolt against the dominance of Vedic ideology … However . University of Toronto (Centre for South Asian Studies). “The Archaeology of Early Buddhism. Delhi: Munshiram manoharlal. p.9) What do you think is “real Buddhism” for Schopen? 5.14)? 6. Fussman. “Archeology and Protestant Presuppositions in the Study of Indian Buddhism. Why does Erdosy suggest that “it is a great mistake to derive classical Indian civilization from its Vedic antecedents” (p.46). Heinz 1991-7. London: Luzac.” (Schopen.ucl.the possibility of Buddhism being rooted in the cultural evolution of northeastern India. . Epigraphy. Harrison. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. Gombrich. Paul 2000.40-56. Stones and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archaeology. The Jains.K.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. edited by N. Bronkhorst. pp.” From Schopen. Marshall and Spink (pp.sino. Are there differences between them.1 1996): 57-63. Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India.

89)? 2. What does Hallisey mean by ‘intercultural mimesis’? Can you think of some examples of your own? 7. . most authentic record of the Buddha’s words? Should we really talk about ‘Hinayāna Buddhism. both in Buddhism and in Buddhist scholarship.31-61.beginning Nov 21. did Rhys Davids present early Buddhism as being ‘largely free of ritual’ (p. exclusive canon? At what time? What role did the Mahāvihārin monks play in this development? 4.B. reject the equation ‘the Pali Canon = Early Buddhism’” (p. always of course from the perspective of a Protestant representation of Catholicism as a degenerate form of N. • Hallisey. Pali Text Society 15: 89-126. did the Pali Canon come to be viewed as a closed. .90-91)? 3. How.’ What is Hallisey arguing here? 9. according to Collins. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. Why. Epigraphy. text-oriented self-definition” (p. Bones. Why does he suggest that elements of South and Southeast Asian Buddhism that are not described and prescribed in the Pali Canon should not be seen as ‘later developments’ or ‘Mahāyāna elements’ (p.102)? What is the alternative he suggests? 6. pp. Stones and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archaeology.22 Schopen. edited by Donald S.102). exclusive canon (pp. Explain the distinction Collins makes between the idea of a canon in general and the idea of closed. ‘This suggests that there was something like a productive ‘elective affinity’ between the positive historiography of European Orientalism and Buddhist styles of self2 representation. according to Hallisey.44)? 10. and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India.’ ‘Theravāda Buddhism.37) 8. by th th the modern ‘scripturalism’ specific to the 19 and 20 centuries. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles – upper handwritten numbers for Hallisey): 1.” (p. “One of the most salient characteristics of the Mahāvihārin lineage has always been its conservative and/or reformist. Why does Collins say “conservative and/or reformist”? What does he mean by suggesting that “this was significantly underlined and extended.’ ‘Mahāyāna Buddhism’? How much of what we think we know about ‘Theravāda Buddhism’ is just old misunderstandings repeated from generation to generation of scholars? Seminars Wednesday Nov 23 and Thursday Nov 24: Critical Interpretations of Theravada Buddhism Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Collins. Critical Interpretations of Theravāda Buddhism Lecture Tuesday Nov 22: What do we mean when we talk about the ‘Pali Canon’? Is this really the oldest. Week 8 . (Read note 51 on scripturalism. Why does Collins say “We must .” J. Steven 1990. Lopez. The term ‘elective affinity’ in this context derives from Max Weber’s famous argument that there was an ‘elective affinity’ between the Protestant ethic and capitalism 2 . Gregory 1997.” In Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism under Colonialism.) 5.102). Charles 1995. “Roads Taken and Not Taken in the Study of Theravāda Buddhism. “On the Very Idea of the Pali Canon. “The appearances of uncovering the rationalist core of Buddhism were strategically supported by comparisons to protestant and Catholic Christianity. How according to Hallisey could European scholars ‘lay claim to the life of’ the Buddha? (p.

Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in TheravĀda Buddhism. London: Routledge. Ray asks “To what extent do the Buddhist saints and their longevity reflect early Buddhism. Buddha: Local Deities and Local Buddhism at Ajanta.” (p. Richard 1999.143)? If not. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. “As we attempt to restructure our understandings of Buddhism in a manner that will enable us to overcome the distortions of our scholarly inheritance. why not? 3. "Discontented Categories: Hinayana & Mahayana in Indian Buddhist History. King. What point is Hallisey making here? What specifically does he think we might miss? Additional References Cohen.363)? What problems does he see with this? What is his alternative approach (see p. In Cohen’s opening pages he emphasises the terms local and place. Reginald A. Questions on Readings: (original page numbers – bottom of page for Ray) 1.” History of Religions 37: 360-400. What does Cohen mean when he says that Buddhism has been regarded as an “antisocial religion” (p. Why does Hallisey suggest that modern accounts of Buddhism emphasised the rational and ethical sides of Buddhism (pp.137)? What is his answer? 2. Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial theory. What according to Cohen was the relation between Ajanta and the Vākāṭaka court and society? 10. India and the Mystic East.129-159.46) What is Hallisey’s point here? What implications does he draw for the contemporary and historical study of Buddhism in relation to the wider Indian religious field? 11. Why does he feel that they need more attention in the study of Buddhism? 5. Why does he suggest that the Buddha at Ajanta was in a sense a “local deity”? ." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 63/1 (Spring 1995): 1-25. Richard 1995.23 Christianity. • Cohen.” In Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and South Asia.48-49)? What got left out in this process? 12. “Nāgārjuna’s Longevity. Steven 1982. do the Buddhist saints and their cults represent “popular (lay) Buddhism as opposed to elite (monastic) Buddhism” (see p. Seminars Wednesday Nov 30 and Thursday Dec 1: Buddhism.365)? 7. 1997. Collins. Week 9 .52). whose significance may be recovered exclusively through literary or doctrinal sources”? 6. edited by Juliane Schober and Mark Woodward. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. According to Ray. Collins. dramatic changes took place in Indian society and Indian religion. pp.” (p. we should perhaps keep in mind that our new representations also will keep us at a distance from what we hope to understand.362) that “it is a problematic conceit that the Buddha was a purely translocal religious figure. and to what extent do they represent a later development” (p. Why does he say (p. “Nāga. the Yakṣa Cult and the State Lecture Tuesday Nov 29: Over the centuries following the death of the Buddha. In the process. Yakṣinī.beginning Nov 28: Buddhism. Nirvana and other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali Imaginaire. the foundations of Hinduism and Mahāyāna Buddhism were created. Steven 1998. How does he set about recovering “local Buddhism” at Ajanta? 8. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. A village religion focussing on yakṣas. What are the implications of ray’s conclusion for understanding the life of Nāgārjuna? 4. Richard S 1998. What according to Cohen is the role of yakṣa deities such as Hārītī at Ajanta? Is she a “local deity”? 9. “Popular Religion” and Local Deities Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Ray. nāgas and other local spirits was replaced by state cults of all-powerful gods and goddesses.

2001. 2002. How does Wedemeyer’s approach relate to those of Schopen or Hallisey? 3. Cohen. It survives in numerous forms. including the protective masked dances of Nepal.224) that he will show “how the initial construction of a general schema of Buddhist history was decisively informed by the precritical choice of narrative archetype used to structure this history .) Questions on Readings: 1. • Chandra. The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century.24 Additional References Cohen.257)? Why does he suggest it? 7. New York: Oxford University Press.” In L. Christian K. Geoffrey 2008. . Tantric religion became part of the technology of all major states in South Asia. What does Wedemeyer mean by suggesting that “it is long past time that scholars reassessed their fundamental imagination of the history of Tantric Buddhism” (p. and how . What according to Lokesh Chandra was the relationship between T’ang dynasty translations of Buddhist Tantras and the defence of the realm? th . Samuel. As Tantra developed. . This lecture explores these interwoven processes. Seminars Wednesday Dec 7 and Thursday Dec 8: Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: Tantric Buddhism: Historical Issues • Wedemeyer. and was also exported to China. (Ṣata-Piṭaka." History of Religions. How does he do each of these? Do you find his arguments convincing? 2. Why does Wedemeyer criticise the assumptions on which Buddhist Tantras are regarded as a relatively late development in Buddhism? What was the implication of this assumption for the historical identity of figures such as Nāgārjuna or Āryadeva? 5. What according to Wedemeyer was the role played by the great Buddhist scholar Louis de la Vallée Poussin? 6. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press. Japan. its transgressive aspects were re-imagined as a going beyond the boundaries of ordinary. “Tantras and the Defence of T’ang China. .”. Korea. Ray. Geri 1993. Richard (2000. . . . Richard 2002. 366. "Why Study Indian Buddhism. pp. Malandra. “Tropes. Week 10 . Bali and South India. . Tibet. Lokesh 1992. . conditioned existence." In The Invention of Religion: Rethinking Belief and Politics in History.” History of Religions 40: 223-259. pp. how that schema was justified by the earliest interpretative models of Indian religion . Chandra. 40: 1-31. Edited by Derek Peterson and Darren Walhof. Reginald 1999.2.beginning Dec 5. mainland Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Tantric Religion and Tantric Buddhism in South Asia Lecture Tuesday Dec 6: From the 5 century CE onwards. Cultural Horizons of India. vol. Cambridge University Press.” Albany: State University of New York Press. ‘Unfolding a Maṇḍala: The Buddhist Cave Temples at Ellora. What “historical archetype” according to Wedemeyer underlay the writing of a history of Buddhism? 4. 19-36. Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations. Wedemeyer says (p.257-266. "Kinsmen of the Son: Śākyabhikṣus and the Institutionalization of the Bodhisattva Ideal. the resulting historiography (and its implications) was enshrined in Buddhological orthodoxy. Typologies and Turnarounds: A Brief Genealogy of the Historiography of Tantric Buddhism.

beginning Dec 11 There are no lectures or seminars this week. which determines whether one is a Buddhist or a Hindu” (p. 2002. Explain the relationship of Buddhism and Hinduism in the Nepal valley. doing puja. Why does Gellner suggest that Newar Buddhism “seems to go directly against every preconception we have about Buddhism” (p. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement.751) and that “most Newars are neither clearly Buddhist nor clearly Hindu” (p. Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo-Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art. . Week 11 . Hall. Seminars Wednesday Feb 1 and Thursday Feb 2: Religion in Newar Society I Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Gellner. The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century. Ronald M. pp. London and New York: Serindia.” (Gellner. David 1988. 2. and Priest: What the Three Yanas mean to Newar Buddhists. London: Routledge.751). 739-55. What does Gellner mean when he says that “it is ritual.” The Buddhist Forum II: 115-32. “Monk.) Comment in relation to Buddhism. p. • Gellner.' In S. Samuel. 5. Geoffrey 2008. David 1991. not belief.116)? 6. Newar Buddhism and the Newar caste system. Sutherland et al (eds) The World's Religions.742. Explain the relationship between the Newars .753)? 4. “Religion in the Kathmandu Valley is primarily a set of practices and these are all based on the idea of worship. “Do we have anything to learn from such a completely different attitude to the sacred and the ‘meaning of life’?” (Gellner p. SPRING SEMESTER 2012 Case Studies in Pre-Modern Buddhism Week 1 .25 Additional References: Davidson. Explain the relationship between the Three Yanas in Newar Buddhism. Cambridge University Press. the Nepal (= Kathmandu) Valley and the modern state of Nepal. Religion in the Kathmandu Valley states. Boston: G.beginning Jan 30: Newar 1 Lecture Tuesday Jan 31: Religion in Newar Society 1. to a superior. 3. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1.New York: Columbia University Press. Householder. 'Buddhism and Hinduism in the Nepal Valley. Linrothe.K. Rob 1999.

Tribalism and the Position of Women: The problem of Newar identity. God Families and Women Healers in Nepal. Hindu Studies vol.S." In J. Himalayan Anthropology: The Indo-Tibetan Interface.beginning Feb 6: Newar 2 Lecture Tuesday Feb 7: Religion in Newar Society 2. Explain the role of Vajrayogini in relation to the town of Sankhu." History of Religions 34." in South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. mediums and witches: the context of possession in the Kathmandu valley. Nepal.) 26: 105-125. "Buddhist Brahmans. “Hinduism.55-71 Owens. do goddesses link universal values with local places and ideas? 5. according to Iltis. Explain the role of Svasthani Vrata for Newars in the USA.routledge-ny. Place and Identity in Nepal.) Contested Hierarchies: A Collaborative Ethnography of Caste among the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley. healers. What do the Matrika goddesses do? What is the significance of their being embodied by male human dancers? 3.” Man (N. David. pp. The Hague and Paris: Mouton.’ Pacific Viewpoint 29: 119-43.1 no.J. David 1988. 'Human Agency and Divine Power: Transforming Images and Recreating Gods among the Newar. David 1991.” the dya: maju. Robert I. and Declan Quigley 1995. New York: Routledge.3 (February 1995). "The Power of Space in a Traditional Hindu City.S. "The Role of the Priest in Newar Society. Why does Iltis argue against Hariti being seen as a “wild goddess” and against the use of such terms as “peripheral” and “subaltern”? Do you agree? 7. David N. Linda 2002. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. “Knowing All the Gods: Grandmothers. Seminars Wednesday Feb 8 and Thursday Feb 9: Religion in Newar Society 2 Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Iltis. Priests. Levy. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. Princeton. Man N.483502 Levy.70-89. Robert I. 1997). Oxford: CLarendon Press. Princeton University Press. "Goddesses. pp. Gellner.257-260. and Tantric Priest: Newar Buddhism and its Hierarchy of Ritual. 1994. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2. Stephen 1978. do? 6.F. Cambridge: University Press. (ed. ‘Priesthood and Possession: Newar Religion in the Light of Some Weberian Concepts.” In The Daughters of Hāritī: Childbirth and Female Healers in South and Southeast Asia. . 1992. Fisher (ed). pp. pp. etc. Linda 2002. D. 29: 1-23. Who is Hariti? What do her “vessels. Available online (http://www.201-40 Slussor. Gellner. Week 2 . edited by Santi Rozario and Geoffrey Samuel.1 (Apr.html) • Iltis. Nepal. 1990. 4. Bruce McCoy 1995. Nepal Mandala: A Cultural Study of the Kathmandu Valley.26 Additional References: Gellner. Hong Kong. Levy. 1997. Monk. 1990. Gellner. Berkeley: University of California Press. Is the cult of Hariti Buddhist? Additional References : Gellner. How. N." Archives européennes de sociologie 15: 101-23 Greenwold." International J. Mary Shepherd 1982. London and New York: Routledge. Householder. The sacralisation of place in Nepal and the relationship between local deities and the more universal conceptions of Buddhism. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. pp. Robert I. Stephen 1974.

Jane 1973.beginning Feb 13: Thailand 1 Lecture Tuesday Feb 14: Buddhism in the “Traditional” Thai State. Do you agree? 2.6)? 3. Buddhist Monk.27 Levy. Vögelsanger. pp. 7.5-61 (“The Popular Tradition. Do you agree with his comment that “virtually all Theravada Buddhist rituals conducted in front of a Buddha image . Explain Swearer’s distinction between “reciprocal exchange” and “appropriation” (pp. Hindu Studies vol.52) Explain what Swearer means by this. Wild goddess and mother of us all: some preliminary remarks on the cult of the goddess Harati in Nepal. Chapter One. Why does Rhum compare the Lua (or Lawa) with the Vädda (or Vedda) of Sri Lanka? Additional References : Bunnag. 1995.1 (Apr. Holy Mountains. edited by A. “The goals of Buddhism. Duke University Press. Michael R. “Theravada ritual in Southeast Asia often seems calculated to gain access to a wide spectrum of beneficent and malevolent powers. How does Rhum understand the annual buffalo sacrifice to Ya Sae.”) Albany: State University of New York Press. a better social and economic status in this life. 6. Siam Society 75: 91-107. M. Sectarianism and Millennial Buddhism. • Rhum. How would you answer the question he then asks (“What is the relationship of the untamed forest and its untamed spirits to the Buddha and his disciples in the civilized world?)? 9. Tambiah. The Buddhist World of Southeast Asia. “The Cosmology of Power in Lanna.55-71 Lewis. 1987. pp.” (Swearer. are both ultimate (nibbana) and proximate: a better rebirth. Rhum describes “how to socialize nature?” as “one of the central problematics of the classical Pali literature” and of Northern Thai ritual in recent times (p. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Buddhist Layman. What is the role of Buddhist monks in (a) wedding ceremonies and (b) funeral rites in Southeast Asia? 8. Hagiography.92). Comment.35). Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. p. p.” (p.19-22). Rosalind C.1 no. Comment on the difference between Piyadassi Thera’s explanation of paritta and what Swearer refers to as “the widely held belief among lay people in the efficacy of paritta chant to bring about particular ends” (p. 1971.18) Give examples. . in short. Merz. p. C.6).” (Swearer. the possession of spirit-mediums from Chiangmai and the story of Vasudeva-rishi? 10.” (Swearer . Stanley J. In Wild goddesses in India and Nepal. Ecstatic religion: an anthropological study of spirit possession and shamanism. B. North Thai style. Cambridge University Press." International J. In the Place of Origins: Modernity and its Mediums in Northern Thailand. Wilke. Explain what he means. . I. Donald K. “The ordination ceremony provides an extraordinary opportunity to understand the richness of Theravada Buddhism as a cultural institution in its Southeast Asian context.” J. 1997). Michaels. Seminars Wednesday Feb 15 and Thursday Feb 16: Buddhism in the “Traditional” Thai State Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Swearer. Week 3 . Berlin: Peter Lang. one seasonal. Robert I. 1996. (2000. and A. Cambridge University Press. Lanna and the Galactic Polity. Durham NC and London. The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets: A Study in Charisma. the other Buddhist.31)? 4. Morris. "The Power of Space in a Traditional Hindu City. . What does Swearer mean by the “popular tradition” (see p. 5. “The festival cycle of Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia features two closely connected patterns. 1997. Comparisons with the Newars. are mechanisms of reciprocity and appropriation of power” (p.27). 1984.

Chapter 7 (“Monasteries and men”). .139) Do you agree with Rhum’s comments on Penny Van Esterik’s explanation? 6. 10. Monks and Magic: An Analysis of Religious Ceremonies in Central Thailand. Gehan 1986.43) in North Thailand.beginning Feb 20: Thailand 2 Lecture Feb 21: Buddhism in the “Traditional” Thai Village. Paul and Gehan Wijeyewardene (eds. Bangkok: Pandora Press. B.) 1984. Buddhism and the Spirits Cults in Stanley Tambiah’s Northeast Thai Village. (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series No.309)? How.159 and n. Muang Metaphysics. does their coexistence come to seem “necessary and inevitable”? 4.285-309. CA : University of California Press.24. Cambridge: University Press. “What is it about women that means that they cannot be ordained?” (p. 1994.J. annual ritual cycles and spirit protectors of the Buddhist village. Wijeyewardene. Explain how Tambiah analyses the Bunbangfai festival in Northeast Thai villages.162. and the taming of the local mountain gods. Who is Upagutta (Upagupta. Michael R. Richard 1984. Myths.) Comment. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. Place and Emotion in Northern Thai Ritual Behaviour. What is the relationship between Buddhism and “Brahmanism” (see p. Berkeley. Place and Emotion in Northern Thai Ritual Behaviour.” (p.137).J. 1970. ‘Spirit Cults and the Position of Women in Northern Thailand. Bangkok: Pandora. in his analysis. What is the role of Cao Pô Khattiya in relation to the men of the village Rhum studied? 7. 5. 249-360.beginning Feb 27: Tibet 1 Lecture Tuesday Feb 28: Religion in Pre-Modern Tibet I.’ Special issue of Mankind. Potter. What part. Uppakrut)? How according to Rhum does he convey a message about the relationship between asceticism and virility? 8. Descent. Why does Tambiah suggest that Buddhism and the spirit-cults express different propositions “concerning man’s orientation to the world” but that “[I]n the Thai context both appear as necessary and inevitable” (p. Tibetan environment and Society. Chapter 16 (“Myth and Rite: the ‘Naga’ Symbol and the Rocket Festival. Pp. Studentlitteratur. Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Week 5 . Seminars Wednesday Feb 22 and Thursday Feb 23: Buddhism in the “Traditional” Thai Village Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Tambiah. 9. Discuss Rhum’s comparison of Upagutta (son of the Buddha) with Skanda (son of Shiva). Bangkok: Pandora. 1975. Gehan 1986. Explain the relationship he sees between Bunbangfai and Bun Phraawes (the annual festival which incorporates the recitation of the Vessantara Jataka)? 3. Sulamith Heins 1977. Week 4 . 2. Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in North-East Thailand. The Ancestral Lords: Gender. Northern Illinois University. S. Davis.132-163. c1977. men in terms of autonomy.”) • Rhum.) Wijeyewardene.28 Terwiel. Lund. particularly maleness” (p. pp. “Women are defined in terms of relationships to others. according to Rhum. Additional References : Cohen. Buddhism. does “the wat [Buddhist monastery] and the spiritual beings associated with it play in the Yuan [Northern Thai] definition of gender. and Spirits in a Northern Thai Village. Family life in a Northern Thai village : a study in the structural significance of women.

“[T]he interesting thing about ’cham and gar is how the ordinary ground is actually transformed by dance movements into a space of pure higher-level existence. The Cult of Tara: Magic and Ritual in Tibet. Sherry B. Leiden: Brill.95-120. Northern Nepal). Mouton.” (p. 'The White-Black Ones: The Sherpa View of Human Nature. New Delhi. Smithsonian Institution Press Week 6 . or of its social purposes . p. . “Tibetan Ritual Dances and the Transformation of Space.” (p. pp. Tibetan Frontier Families: Reflections of Three Generations from D'ing-ri. What are the ‘four types of ritual purpose’ of the standard Tantric classification (p.187)? How according to Sihlé does this distinction relate to the shiwa/dakpo contrast in village ritual in Ch’ongkhor? 4.29 Seminars Wednesday Feb 29 and Thursday Mar 1: Religion in Pre-Modern Tibet I Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Sihlé. Cambridge University Press. Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Ortner. Lord of the Dance: The Mani Rimdu Festival in Tibet and Nepal. pp. J. 1978.” Tibet Journal vol.Reading Week No classes .197-8)? 5. Nicolas 2002. • Schrempf. But .107.263-85. Explain what Sihlé means by the “patronage relations which over generations have linked Ch’ongkhor tantrists and lay households” (p.) How would you answer her question? Additional References : Aziz. . according to Sihlé? 7. Geoffrey 1993.2 (Summer 1994). Vikas. Samuel.1978.109) What does Schrempf mean by this? 9. they simultaneously subjugate the ground physically. Mona 1994. What is the significance of the hrinän ritual for Ch’ongkhor households? 6. 3. Berkeley. Explain the term jindak as used in the village (p.” In Religion and Secular Culture in Tibet (Tibetan Studies II): PIATS 2000: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Richard. . 2001. Schrempf says “I do not want to deprive ’cham of its undoubted Buddhist Tantric meaning of releasing the mind of dancers and participants from inner obscurations. What is ’Cham.g. The Hague. 1978.) “Dance movements not only describe ritual space. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. How did the Sakyapa monks of Dzong Monastery come to perform a set of two monastic rituals in the households of Dzong and Puta villages in place of the Ch’ongkhor Tantrists? What difference does this change make.188).beginning Mar 5 . Fisher (ed) Himalayan Anthropology.19 no. .185-206. Kohn. ed. Barbara N. What according to Sihlé is a ngakpa or ‘tantrist’? 2. Sherpas through their Rituals. Henk Blezer. Beyer. What is the significance of Padmasambhava in relation to ’cham? 10. Stephan 1973.' in James F. Sherry B. At the end of her article. Leiden 2000.187). What is the significance of the lhachö ritual for Ch’ongkhor households? To which deities is it addressed? How does it relate to the physical structure of the house (e. University of California Press. Ortner. “Lhachö [Lha mchod] and Hrinän [Sri gnon]: The structure and Diachrony of a Pair of Rituals (Baragaon. pp. Albany : State University of New York Press.111. why is it annually necessary to violently tame or subdue the forces of the physical world?” (p. according to Schrempf? How does it relate to Tantric ritual in general? 8.

Janice D. Smithsonian Institution Press Willis. Comment. Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. “The Meaning of Liberation: Representations of Tibetan Women. pp. Lecture Tuesday Mar 13: Religion in Pre-Modern Tibet II. Gyatso asks “[W]ho is this demoness and why is she female?” (p. Grimshaw.46). London. nature and the landscape.” (p.12 no. Do you agree? 5.4 (Winter 1987). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Ithaca. Buddhism as a Global Religion. Women of Wisdom. Tsultrim (ed) 1984.38-53.” (p. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. Explain why Makley regards both Chinese nationalists. Visionary Buddhism in contemporary Tibet. Cleveland. Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet. Janet 1987. Seminar Wednesday Mar 21 and Thursday Mar 22: Modern Transformations in Tibetan Buddhism. Charlene 1997. Seminar Wednesday Mar 14 and Thursday Mar 15: Religion in Pre-Modern Tibet II Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Gyatso. Anna. Case Studies in Contemporary Buddhism Week 8 .22 no.beginning Mar 12. 1990. How would you reply? 2. Ohio: Pilgrim Press. Samuel.beginning Mar 19. Problematic deities. 1992. but gain instant history and sacred power thereby. What alternative approach does she suggest? 6. erweiterte Auflage. 3. Herrmann-Pfandt. Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: . Commenting on the well-known Tibetan story of the suppression of the Srin-mo (demoness) through the building of a series of thirteen Buddhist temples in the time of the Emperor Srong-btsan sgam-po (early C7). 2.” Tibet Journal vol.40). Campbell. Routledge and Kegan Paul. NY: Snow Lion. June 1996. Tibet 2. Additional References : Allione. women. “[W]omen’s religious experiences are not just parallel to or the inversion of men’s experiences. Servants of the Buddha: Winter in a Himalayan Convent.2 (Summer 1997).30 Week 7 . pp.44). and Western feminist Buddhists as in various ways “essentialising” Tibetan women and erasing the specificity of their experiences. (ed) 1989. “The new structures obliterate the old places of worship. Hanna. Geoffrey 1993. What does she mean? What is the transformation in Tibetan religious consciousness that she links to the suppression of the Srin-mo and the introduction of Buddhism? 4. Tibet Lecture Tuesday Mar 20: Modern Transformations in Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism. Dakinis : zur Stellung und Symbolik des Weiblichen im tantrischen Buddhismus. Traveller in Space: In Search of Female Identity in Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhist Nuns: History. • Makley. Tibetan nationalists.18) Comment. London: Athlone.4-29."Down with the Demoness: Reflections on a Feminine Ground in Tibet" Tibet Journal vol. Havnevik. Marburg: Indica et Tibetica Verlag. Adelheid 2001. Cultural Norms and Social Reality. Gyatso suggests that there is more to the Srin-mo story than “simple-minded misogyny” (p.

(ed.) 1997. Tibetan Culture in the Diaspora: Papers Presented at a Panel of the 7th Seminar of the International Associatiuon for Tibetan Studies. Was Pa-bong-ka (1878-1941) a traditionalist or an innovator? What was innovative about his teachings (cf. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Melvyn C. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. .” Tricycle 7. London: Pinter.62)? 4. 3. according to Dreyfus. What was the significance of the Great Perfection (Dzogchen.5394. and Matthew T. Melvyn C. “The Revival of Monastic Life in Drepung Monastery. What. David 1997. Kapstein (eds. St. Goldstein and Matthew T.” (Germano. “Deity or Demon: The Controversy over Tibet’s Dorje Shugden.) 1998.” In Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet : Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. • Dreyfus. “Khenpo Jikphun has created a significant countermovement re-establishing the centre of gravity within Tibet herself. Ronald D.- Schwartz. Jr. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. Kapstein (eds. Goldstein. p.” In Melvyn C. "Renewal and Resistance: Tibetan Buddhism in the Modern Era.57) Explain what Germano means by this. pp. “Re-Membering the Dismembered Body of Tibet: Contemporary Tibetan Visionary Movements in the People’s Republic of China.) Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth-Century Asia. “The New Kadampa Tradition and the Continuity of Tibetan Buddhism in Transition. “The Shuk-Den Affair: History and Nature of a Quarrel.246-8)? 9. Georges 1998. What is the significance of the term gar in the name of Khenpo Jikphun’s centre (cf. Goldstein and Matthew T. David 1998.p. Hyacinthe.264)? 7. accordintg to Dreyfus..233) What alternative interpretation does he suggest? 8. Explain the relevance of Padmasambhava (Guru Rin-bo-che) and Ne-chung to the position of the Dalai Lama (pp. Why does Dreyfus argue against reading the Shuk-den cult simply in terms of the Ge-luk hierarchy’s resentment of a strong Dalai Lama? (p. What. Contemporary Religion 12. does it mean to say that “Ne-chung resents Shukden” (pp. Stephen and Donald S. was Khenpo Jikphun attempting to purify and restore Tibetan Buddhism? 5.259-261).31 • Germano. Goldstein. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.3 (Spring): 58-69. 1998. pp. thereby stemming the flow of authority and value toward Chinese modernity. Kapstein. Kay.3: 277-293.” J. Lopez. International Association of Buddhist Studies 21: 227-270.15-52. (ed. pp. is a “dharma protector” (chos-skyong srung-ma)? What is the difference between mundane and supra-mundane protectors (see p.229-253. 1994. gter-ma)? What is ths significance of Padmasambhava in relation to the “Ter cult”? 2. What are Ter (also written gter. on the one hand. rDzogs-chen) tradition in Khenpo Jikphun’s teaching? 6. Frank J. Berkeley : University of California Press. Melvyn C.” In Ian Harris (ed. Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. Constructing Tibetan Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Graz 1995. 10. on the other.) Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity.” J. ed.264-8)? Additional References: Batchelor. Frank J. according to Germano. Korom.) 1998. p. Quebec: World Heritage Press. and refugee Tibetan communities. 1998. Korom. In what ways.

” Temenos 32: 93-111. and in what ways did people in Thailand and Sri Lanka respond to it? 2. London: Hurst & Co. 1994. do Dhammakaya and Santi Asoka represent different responses to modernity by Thai Buddhists? Additional References: Cook. 1991. (N.667-677) be regarded as “fundamentalistic” responses to modernity by Thai Buddhists? 8. can Dhammakaya (pp. Fundamentalistic Movements Lecture Tuesday Mar 27: Modernist movements in Theravada Buddhist societies.E.207-237. . "The Anti-Splittist Campaign and Tibetan Political Consciousness.” In Fundamentalisms Observed. worth fighting for or dying for” (p. What does Swearer mean when he talks about Anagarika Dharmapala initiating a process of “identity affirmation” (p. What does Swearer mean by the “one-dimensional or univocal nature of modern fundamentalistic Buddhist nationalism” (p. Harris.S. . Ronald D. “The modern period . 1994.648). You should also be careful about this term. How did Buddhism and nationalism become interrelated in Sri Lanka? 4.B. Seminar Wednesday Mar 28 and Thursday Mar 29: Buddhist “fundamentalism” in Thailand and Sri Lanka. (ed. Kamala Tiyavanich 1977.beginning Mar 26. Swearer. In what ways did the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) continue Dharmapala’s programme? 5. Heikkilä-Horn. M.). “Two Paths to Revivalism in Thai Buddhism: The Dhammakaya and Santi Asoke Movements. (On web at http://www. Schwartz. Marja-Leena Ronald D. ed. pp. Circle of Protest: Political Ritual in the Tibetan Uprising. “Fundamentalistic Movements in Theravada Buddhism.631) What did this challenge consist of. In what ways. Wandering Monks in Twentieth-Century Thailand. define it clearly. Donald K.Marty and R. mainly Thailand . 6.abo.649)? 7.628-690.Appleby. which has become even more problematic since Swearer wrote – if you use it." In Robert Barnett and Shirin Akiner (eds. used the term ‘fundamentalistic’ and was careful not to say ‘fundamentalist’. pp. Cambridge University Press. Joanna. according to Swearer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. How did Buddhism become “the only patriotism worthy of the name. I. presented a decisive challenge to the traditional Theravada worldview and its institutional forms. Forest Recollections. London: Pinter. . 2010. Peter A 1989) Buddhism: Legitimacy and Conflict: The Political Functions of Urban Thai Buddhism. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1.638)? 3.) Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Swearer.” (p. Meditation in Modern Buddhism: Renunciation and Change in Thai Monastic Life.) 1999) Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth-Century Asia. University of Hawaii Press.32 Schwartz. Week 9 . according to Swearer. In what ways. writing in 1991. London: Hurst & Co. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.656-667) and Santi Asoka (pp.htm) Jackson.

. Taylor.” Daedalus 120(3): 219-239.219-234)? 8. Scott. “Thus. 2008. What does Obeyesekere mean by the “Buddhist appropriation of the Western conception of Buddhism” (pp. Religion 36: 215-230.181)? 6.) Explain what Bartholomeusz means by this statement. What was the “uniquely Sri Lankan view of secularism” created in the second and third post-independence constitutions (p. did A.185)? 7. however. Rory. “The ethnic conflict between the Sinhala Buddhists and Tamil Hindus is a product of complex historical and socioeconomic forces that cannot be easily summarized or disaggregated into causes. was Dharmapala successful in creating a Buddhist politics in Sri Lanka around 1900? When did Buddhism begin to exert a decisive influence on politics? 3. “Buddhism and Conscience: An Exploratory Essay. How did Walpola Rahula advance a Buddhist theory of the “just war” (pp.173-4)? 2. Sanitsuda Ekkachai 2001. is the role of the Mahavamsa in relation to modernist views of Sinhala Buddhist identity (pp. Sri Lanka Lecture Tuesday Apr 24: Modernist movements and the civil war in Sri Lanka Seminar Wednesday Apr 25 and Thursday Apr 26: Modernist movements and the civil war in Sri Lanka Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: • Bartholomeusz. [Easter Break] Week 10 . Forest monks and the nation-state: an anthropological and historical study in northeastern Thailand. pp. Tessa 1999) “First Among equals: Buddhism and the Sri Lankan State. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. London: Pinter. . 1993.179-180)? 4. pp. Keeping the Faith: Thai Buddhism at the Crossroads. • Obeyesekere. Mackenzie.180. ‘A New Buddhist Sect: The Dhammakaaya Temple and the Politics of Religious Difference. according to Bartholomeusz.237).L. Ariyaratne’s vision of Buddhism in Sri Lanka differ from that of the writers of The Betrayal of Buddhism (p. The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Religion. according to Bartholomeusz. who were characterized as unsympathetic to religious issues. possible to describe the intellectual climate that made it possible for Sinhalas to see the total otherness of their Tamil neighbours . 5. Rachelle. in Jeff Haynes (ed. Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.33 McCargo. according to Bartholomeusz. ‘The politics of Buddhism in Southeast Asia’. J. It is.T. Duncan 1999. What.173-193. David L. coupled with charges against the Sinhala political elite .” (p. How does Obeyesekere describe and explain this intellectual climate? . Buddhist fundamentalist notions about the island and Buddhism. Basingstoke: Macmillan. globalization and the political culture in the Third World. Gananath 1991. New Buddhist Movements in Thailand: Towards an Understanding of Wat Phra Dhammakaya and Santi Asoke.beginning Apr 23. . London: Routledge. In what ways. 2006.” In Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth-Century Asia. .). Bangkok: Post Books. ed.” (p. 2006. Oxford: Oxford University Press. How far. 213-39 McMahan. Ian Harris. helped to narrow the range of issues which Sri Lankan politics would address in the post-independence period.

NY: State University of New York Press. Buddhism. Tessa J. (eds) Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The Dynamic Character of Movements.beginning Apr 30 Buddhism and Postmodernity Lecture Tuesday May 1: Religious responses to globalisation and postmodernity. Stephen 1995. Siri and I. de Silva (eds. Marty and R. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press. London and New York: Routledge. pp. “’Unity’ and ‘Sovereignty’: Key Concepts of a Militant Buddhist Organization in the Present Conflict in Sri Lanka. Prothero.231-256 . “Tigers and Temples: The Politics of Nationalist and Non-Modern Violence in Sri Lanka. Peter 1988. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press Schalk.B.) 1998. pp.36-52. Deegalle.238)? How far does he hold Dharmapala responsible for its emergence? Additional References: Bartholomeusz. “Buddhism. Buddhist Fundamentalism and Minority Identities in Sri Lanka. and Cultural Identity: A Question of Fundamentals.) 1997. Buddhist Fundamentalism and Minority Identities in Sri Lanka. Tambiah.770-784. George D. "Organizational Weakness and the Rise of Sinhalese Buddhist Extremism. Richard and Gananath Obeyesekere 1990.) P. 1997. "Buddhist Monks and Political Activism in Sri Lanka. 1993. Keown. (eds)Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities. Stanley J. Marty and R. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1998. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press Trawick. Journal of the American Academy of Religion.). Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka. and Militance.) 2006.” In Martin E. Watson (ed.” Temenos 24: 55-87. Marty and R.” South Asia 20: 153-180. Week 11 . Scott Appleby (eds)Fundamentalisms Comprehended. Gananath 1995.” South Asia 20: 201-14. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Special issue (vol. Nationhood. Seminar Wednesday May 2 and Thursday May 3: Religious responses to globalisation and postmodernity Required Readings for Seminar/Tutorial: . Obeyesekere. I." In Martin E. Culture and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka. Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka. 1992. Mahinda. Mahinda (ed. Scott Appleby. Bond. Albany." In Can Faiths Make Peace? (ed. Stanley J. Stanley J. Tambiah. Buddhism Transformed: Religious Change in Sri Lanka. Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka.” In Tessa Bartholomeusz and Chandra R. Summer 1995 v 63 n 2 Manor. Scott Appleby. James 1994. Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy. “Reasons for Violence: A Preliminary Ethnographic Account of the LTTE. Margaret 1997. "Buddhism. Buddhism Betrayed? Religion. Deegalle. pp.20) of the journal South Asia. and Chandra R.589-619. pp.B." In Martin E. Economies. Mark P. 2007. de Silva (eds. pp. “Conflicts of Identity and Interpretation in Buddhism: The Clash between the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement and the Government of President Premadasa. Gombrich. 1986.34 9. Tambiah. 134-148. Henry Steel Olcott and "Protestant Buddhism". Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gamage. Whitaker. Tauris. What does Obeyesekere mean by “the dark underside of Buddhism without the mitigating humanism of the Buddhist conscience” (p. Broadhead and D.

Oxford: Altamira Press.” in Globalization. Mary Beth 1995. 4.261-2)? 11. and Modernity in Northeast Thailand. see also p. Suniyam may be better seen as its contingency. Berkeley and LA: University of California Press. What does Kapferer mean by this? 12. . and to Northeast Thai gender attitudes in general? (p. Explain.255)? 9. • Kapferer.257). Chicago University Press. Kapferer. In what ways does Kapferer see Suniyam (in his modern urban form) as particularly relevant to the situation of contemporary Sri Lanka? 8.” (p. How does Kapferer relate the growth in importance of the bandara spirits to the weakness of the Sri Lankan state? Why did they become more important after the IMF/World Bank instigated infrastructure reforms (pp. even its conditionality . Kapferer regards many recent anthropologist approaches to the widespread concerns in many parts of today’s world with sorcery and witchcraft as attempting to “de-exoticise” the phenomena (p. 3. ed. The State.251. Death.250). Explain the way in which concerns about men working overseas fed into the widow ghost scare (pp. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Bruce 2003. Kapferer.244-73. Peletz. Jonathan Friedman. 5. ed.249-78. Suniyam manifests.265)? 6. The Feast of the Sorcerer: Practices of Consciousness and Power. In what was does he see his own approach as different? 7. and Violence. are sorcery and Suniyam “embedded within Sinhala Buddhist cosmology and its practices” (p. In what ways. “The problem for anthropology is to break through implicit and explicit relativisms and this it can do by ever broadening our horizons of understanding through an engagement with other modes of cultural practice. Additional References : Kapferer. Bruce 2000 “Sexuality and the Art of Seduction in Sinhalese Exorcism” in Ethnos 65: 532 .265). virtually causes. “Sorcery and the Shapes of Globalization Disjunctions and Continuities: The Case of Sri Lanka. Why were phalluses used to defend houses against widow ghosts? How do these phalluses relate to the rockets discussed in Week Four. . How does Mills explain the apparently “puzzling failure” of people in Baan Naa Sakae to “mobilize the authority and power of Buddhism against the threat of widow ghosts” (p. Questions on Readings (page numbers are original page numbers of individual articles): 1. “Attack of the Widow Ghosts: Gender.263).260-3).) In what ways can Kapferer’s article be seen as an attempt to pursue this programme? Essay/Exam Question Discuss one or more examples of how people in Buddhist societies today are reshaping religious resources of the past in response to globalising forces and the weakness of their societies in relation to those forces. “Widow ghosts thus provide an object lesson in the unnatural and dangerous consequences of allowing women to roam freely.35 • Mills.” (Kapferer in Smedal 2000-1. the Buddha. Bruce 1997. pp. Pious Men: Gender and Body Politics in Southeast Asia. Witchcraft and Sorcery. Beyond Rationalism: Rethinking Magic. pp. What is the relationship between Suniyam and the Suniyama anti-sorcery rite? 10. according to Kapferer. How does Mills relate the concerns in North East Thailand (Isan) about “widow ghost” attacks to wider changes in Thai society? Why does she see ideas of modernity and progress as a significant factor in generating the fear of attacks? 2.” (p. Bruce 2003. their bodies and sexual powers unconstrained by the controls of society or of men. “While the bandara augment or extend the state. Aihwa Ong and Michael G.” In Bewitching Women.

Ian. (eds.” Originally published in Antropolog Nytt 3/2000 and 1/2001. 1997.. Sallie B. Albany. Concise history of Buddhism. Belmont : Duxbury Press Skilton. and practices. Bruce 2000 “The Sorcery of Consciousness: A Sinhala Buddhist Discourse on the Dynamics of Consciousness” Jnl of Cognition and Communication 33: 97-120 Kapferer. James S. Buddhism and Postmodern Imaginings in Thailand: The Religiosity of Urban Space. Olaf H. and Johnson. Historical Dictionary of Buddhism. Willard J. 2008. (2000. Richard. Lopez. Richard H. Princeton. Robinson. Andrew. 1999) “God Mothers. James.” Journal of Asian Studies 58: 1033-1058 Scott. Buddhist religion: a historical introduction. (2000-2001. Peter. NJ and London: Scarecrow Press. Religions of India in Practice. Christopher S. NY: State University of New York Press. London and New York: Pinter. Harris. General Gombrich. 1999. N. 1990. Princeton University Press. Donald S. 1988. Culture and Globalisation” in The Australian Journal of Anthropology.J.) 1995. Rosalind C. I hope to have copies available later in the semester. Harvey. Bruce 2002b “Sorcery. Princeton. Jr. Bruce 2000 “Star Wars: About Anthropology. Bruce 2002 a “Outside All Reason: Magic. . Godmothers: Gender Images in Thailand. Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist liberation movements in Asia. Modernity and the Constitutive Imaginary: Hybridizing Continuities” Social Analysis 46: 103-128 Morris.) 1996. 1993.htm Taylor.) 1995. (ed.36 Kapferer. Metuchen. Introduction to Buddhism: teachings. Farnham: Ashgate. Ockey. “Bruce Kapferer: An Interview. Lopez. David 1994. Buddhism in Queen. Prebish. Durham NC and London. Theravada Buddhism: a Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. 11: 174-19 Kapferer. Donald S. Jr. Good Mothers. Encino . Formations of Ritual: Colonial and Anthropological Discourses on the Sinhala Yaktovil. and King. Duke University Press. N. Sorcery and Epistemology in Anthropology” Social Analysis 46: 1. London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Buddhism and politics in twentieth-century Asia. Birmingham: Windhorse. Week 12 (Revision Week) May 7 Lecture only: Tuesday May 8 11. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. history. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press. Princeton University Press.J. On web at http://www. In the Place of Origins: Modernity and its Mediums in Northern Thailand.30 Kapferer.anthrobase.. Book List *Items marked with an asterisk are not at present available in the Cardiff University Library. Charles S. Smedal. 1977. Good Lovers. (ed.

Albany. Spiro.J : Princeton University Press Gyatso. Folk elements in Burmese Buddhism. Melford E. Carrithers. Monk. Ronald M.). and texts of monastic Buddhism in India. Cambridge: University Press. 1992. Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka. Pandora Press. Richard. 2008. and Tantric Priest: Newar Buddhism and its Hierarchy of Ritual. Thailand. NJ. Columbia University Press. Tambiah. Burmese Supernaturalism: A Study in the Explanation and Reduction of Suffering. Michael 1983. Swearer. Bloomington. 1959. Tessa 1995. Muang Metaphysics. Women in Tibet. Snellgrove. Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Bartholomeusz. NY. Samuel. Richard 1984. 1992. Himalayan dialogue: Tibetan lamas and Gurung shamans in Nepal. Prentice-Hall. Oxford University Press. University of Chicago Press. . 1994. Bones. 1967. New Haven. Ray. CT: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. New York: Oxford University Press. London. Bruce 1997. Allen and Unwin. Southeast Asia General (Burma. Gombrich. New York. Stanley J. 1987. The Feast of the Sorcerer: Practices of Consciousness and Power. Melford E. Nepal *Gellner. David L. Hanna (eds. Richard and Gananath Obeyesekere 1998. Burma: U. Women Under the Bo Tree. N. Cambodia. 1971. Gregory. Buddhism and Society: A Great Tradition and its Burmese Vicissitudes. Myint Maung. Cornelia Ann and Nicola Tannenbaum 1996. Householder. 1990. Levy. Reginald A. 1989. Mumford. 1995. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Indian esoteric Buddhism: A social history of the Tantric Movement. Buddhism Betrayed? Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Origins of yoga and tantra: Indic religions to the thirteenth century. London . Buddhist saints in India: a study in Buddhist values and orientations. Geoffrey. *Kapferer. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Bruce 1983. HI: University of Hawai'i Press. London: Serindia. 1991. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Vietnam) *Kammerer. Stan Royal. Berkeley: University of California Press. Cambridge University Press. Kapferer. David. Honolulu.37 Burma (Myanmar) Aung. Delhi. Bangkok. New York : Kegan Paul International New York. State University of New York Press. India (Historical) Davidson. The Buddhist World of Southeast Asia. Thailand Davis. Englewood Cliffs. 1997. Schopen. Merit and Blessing in Mainland Southeast Asia in Comparative Perspective. epigraphy. 2002. A Celebration of Demons: Exorcism and the Aesthetics of Healing. The Forest Monks of Sri Lanka : an Anthropological and Historical Study. Buddhist precept and practice: traditional Buddhism in the rural highlands of Ceylon. Rangoon. stones. Robert I. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan successors. Spiro. and Buddhist monks: collected papers on the archaeology. Laos. Buddhism transformed: Religious change in Sri Lanka. Maung Htin. Janet and Havnevik. Indiana University Press. Donald K. Princeton. Gombrich.

Stanley J. CA: University of California Press. 1992. Jr. David L. Donald S. 1976. Washington. 2005. Gehan 1986. Giuseppe. Geoffrey. *Ortner. Wijeyewardene. Sectarianism and Millennial Buddhism. Kathmandu. David L. NY: Snow Lion. Toni. 1995. Tibet Beyer. Bangkok: Pandora.24. Cambridge University Press. 1998.. Sherry B. Cambridge Universit Press. Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. Sherry B. Terwiel. 1980.) Tiyavanich. 1989. Tucci.38 Tambiah. . Huber. DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Geoffrey. Princeton University Press *Ortner. High Religion. Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Stanley J. University of Chicago Press. Cambridge University Press. L.1978. Forest Recollections: Wandering Monks in Twentieth-Century Thailand. University of California Press. Kamala 1977. Sherpas through their Rituals. 1975. (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series No. London: Ashgate. B. Kapstein (ed) 1998. University of Hawaii Press. Berkeley. Cambridge University Press. 1987. Goldstein. Janice D. Tambiah. (ed) Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet. Lopez. Tantric revisionings: new understandings of Tibetan Buddhism and Indian religion. 1993. and Matthew T. Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in Northeast Thailand. Willis. 1970. Melvyn C. 1984. The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets: A Study in Charisma. 1999. Place and Emotion in Northern Thai Ritual Behaviour. Monks and Magic: An Analysis of Religious Ceremonies in Central Thailand. 1993. Ithaca. New York: Oxford University Press. Snellgrove. Stephan 1973. Samuel. J. The Cult of Tara: Magic and Ritual in Tibet. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. The cult of Pure Crystal Mountain: popular pilgrimage and visionary landscape in southeast Tibet. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Hagiography. Singapore. Stanley J. Snellgrove.J. Four lamas of Dolpo: Tibetan biographies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. World Conqueror and World Renouncer: A Study of Buddhism and Polity in Thailand against a Historical Background. London: Serindia. Forest Monks and the Nation-State: An Anthropological and Historical Study in Northeastern Thailand. Religions of Tibet. Samuel. *Taylor. Studentlitteratur. *Tambiah. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan successors. Berkeley. Civilized shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan societies. Lund. Nepal: Himalayan Book Seller.

educational and career development’. • The Bottom Line: What Will The Personal Development Process Do For Me? The PDP process will help you to: 1. The objectives of PDP are to: • • improve the capacity of individuals to understand what and how they are learning. This will allow you to build up a PDP record and can also be used to keep a record of . how they have obtained them and how they can evidence and apply them within new situations. PDP will encourage you to use your time at University to develop the skills and experience that are essential in an increasingly competitive graduate job market. Give You More Than Just A Degree Employers are not only concerned about the academic subject that candidates study but are looking for evidence of the development of a wide variety of transferable skills and competencies. helping you to reflect upon your own achievements and encouraging you to plan for your future academic and personal development. PDP helps make the transition to new levels of study easier by prompting you to think about how you learn. build and reflect upon their personal development. membership of clubs and societies. and to review. how and when they are learning and to review. plan and take responsibility for their future learning.g. PDP is defined as ‘a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning. record achievement and the acquisition of skills and qualities at the subject and extra-curricular level and help make explicit the link between academic skills and their application to the wider world. Adjust To. University Life Some students find it difficult to adapt to the new ways of teaching and learning expected by University level education or find it hard to adapt to the new demands of university study. And For Continuing Students Get The Most Out Of. they are increasingly looking for graduates who can demonstrate an “added extra” and this usually translates as the ability to articulate and demonstrate the skills you have acquired. reflections and achievements will be invaluable when completing CVs or application forms for employment and throughout the PDP process you will be prompted to participate in a number of activities. Participation in the PDP process will help you to prove and document your personal and professional development and develop the confidence and ability to articulate your skills and qualities. part-time employment. Ensure That You Stand Out From The Crowd With more students than ever starting university each year.39 12. provide students with the ability and confidence to understand the competencies they have developed. voluntary work. plan and take responsibility for their own learning. 2. Many of the skills that employers look for can be developed through your degree programme but there are also opportunities to develop transferable skills and qualities via participation in extra curricular activities e. The primary objective of PDP is to improve the capacity of students to understand what. 3. performance and achievement and to plan for their personal. Whilst a degree from Cardiff University will impress employers. Personal Development Programme (PDP): Thinking About and Planning Your Time at University A Basic Definition: The Centre for Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice in Education (EPPE) define PDP as follows: Personal Development Planning (PDP) is a process by which students can monitor. Maintaining Your Personal Development Record Evidence of your learning. a degree qualification alone is no longer a guarantee of securing employment or guaranteeing a place or funding for further study.

European Computer Driving License) which you may achieve during your time at Cardiff. extracurricular activities .40 any externally accredited qualifications (e. careers information etc. The module will help you in three main areas: • To document your educational experiences and your reflections on them. Graduate skills. support and signposts to development courses. • Year two – Thinking about career planning. the university has provided a range of computer based resources to help you via the BLACKBOARD learning support system. To this end. Graduate Skills Additional Records Self Reflection Employability Extracurricular Activities My PDP Records Navigating the module The PDP menu bar on the left hand side will allow you to navigate the module.These sections provide general advice. additional records. discussing module choice. Blackboard can be reached by going to the University’s Home Page. One of them will be marked Personal Development Planning. • Year three – Job applications. self reflection. • To develop a range of records which will be invaluable when applying for jobs/further study.This final section duplicates the forms and activities that you will be asked to complete while working through the individual sections of this module and aims to help you to navigate through the module. the University is committed to supporting you in the PDP process. The school also offers a dedicated PDP module entitled NOW AND NEXT: SUBJECT METHODS AND LIFE SKILLS IN RELIGIOUS AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES. The information contained in these sections is relevant to all years of study Completing the exercises When working through the module you will find a number of forms that have been designed to prompt you to think about your progress and help you to maintain a record of your development.g. Have a go with them and see what you think! Please take particular note of the following sections: My PDP Records . activities and resources that are appropriate for each year of undergraduate study. The sections explained The sections contain a range of activities. Click on it! Introduction to Personal Development Planning via Blackboard E-Learning This Blackboard module is an on-line resource designed to guide you through the Personal Development Planning Process. You will have to put in your university user name and password. clicking on Learning and Teaching. employability. CV writing.These sections provide information. two. This is a second level course and is designed to help you to develop and refine core subject specific and transferable skills whilst having the opportunity to think about both your university studies and your plans for the future. exercises and information. Final Year .Skills audits. You will then see a list of the modules you are registered on. information and exercises to help you in the PDP process. Full details of downloading and saving the forms can be found under the “what’s involved and what support will I receive” link of the “Introduction to PDP” section. final year. Two. How Will I be Supported in the PDP Process? While the responsibility for participation rests with you. • To provide advice. postgraduate study. and then clicking on Blackboard E-Learning on the right hand side of the page. PDP Year One. . For example: • Year one . The module contains several sections: • • • • • • • • • What is PDP? PDP Year one.

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