Preserved fruit and vegetables


Compiled for CBI by: Ceres Company
in collaboration with Ir. A.F. Eshuis

August 2005

DISCLAIMER CBI MARKET INFORMATION TOOLS Although the content of its market information tools has been compiled with the greatest care, the Centre for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries (CBI) is not able to guarantee that the information provided is accurate and/or exhaustive, and cannot be held liable for claims pertaining to use of the information. In the case of the market publications, neither CBI nor the authors of the publications accept responsibility for the use which might be made of the information. Furthermore, the information shall not be construed as legal advice. Original documents should, therefore, always be consulted where appropriate. The information does not release the reader from the responsibility of complying with any relevant legislation, regulations, jurisdiction or changes/updates of same. In the case of the Internet tools, CBI aims at minimising disruption caused by technical errors. However, CBI cannot guarantee that its service will not be interrupted or otherwise affected by technical problems. CBI accepts no responsibility with regard to problems incurred as a result of using this site or any linked external sites. The information provided is aimed at assisting the CBI target group, i.e. exporters and business support organisations (BSOs) in developing countries. It may, therefore, not be used for re-sale, the provision of consultancy services, redistribution or the building of databases, on a commercial basis. For utilization of the CBI market information tools by the CBI target group on a non-commercial basis, the condition applies that CBI is referred to as the source of the information. All other use is prohibited, unless explicitly approved in writing by CBI. Photo courtesy: Joost van Velsen for Ceres Company




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PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS 1.1 Product groups 1.2 Customs/Statistical product classification INTRODUCTION TO THE EU MARKET INDUSTRIAL DEMAND 3.1 Overview of EU food market 3.2 Market segmentation 3.3 Patterns and trends in industrial demand PRODUCTION IMPORTS 5.1 Total EU imports 5.2 Imports by product groups 5.3 The role of developing countries EXPORTS TRADE STRUCTURE 7.1 EU trade channels 7.2 Distribution channels for developing country exporters PRICES 8.1 Price developments 8.2 Sources of price information EU MARKET ACCESS REQUIREMENTS 9.1 Non-tariff trade barriers 9.2 Tariffs and quotas EXPORT MARKETING GUIDELINES: ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY

10 10 12 13 16 16 21 22 27 32 32 43 55 58 63 63 67 68 68 68 69 69 81

PART B: 10


EXTERNAL ANALYSIS: MARKET AUDIT 10.1 Market developments and opportunities 10.2 Competitive analysis 10.3 Sales channel assessment 10.4 Logistics 10.5 Value chain / price structure 10.6 Product profiles INTERNAL ANALYSIS: COMPANY AUDIT 11.1 Product standards, quality, USP and production capacity 11.2 Logistics 11.3 Marketing and sales 11.4 Financing 11.5 Capabilities

87 88 88 89 90 91 93 97 97 98 98 99 100


3 Drawing up an offer 13.2 Strategic options & objectives 13 EXPORT MARKETING 13.4 Trade fair organizers 3.6 Other useful addresses 4 LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 5 USEFUL INTERNET SITES 101 101 101 103 103 103 106 107 108 100 100 114 121 122 122 122 124 125 126 128 129 Update of EU Market Survey Preserved Fruit and Vegetables (July 2004) 3 .12 DECISION MAKING 12.2 Sources of price information 3.3 Trade associations 3.1 Matching products and the product range 13.1 Standards organizations 3.5 Sales promotion APPENDICES 1 DETAILED HS CODES 2 DETAILED IMPORT/EXPORT STATISTICS 3 USEFUL ADDRESSES 3.5 Trade press 3.1 SWOT and situation analysis 12.4 Handling the contract 13.2 Building up a relationship with a suitable trade partner 13.

e. consequently. increasing interest in organic products. Italy and Spain. Czech Republic and Hungary are highlighted. United Kingdom. increased fruit and vegetable consumption (they contain vitamins and natural antioxidants). soup industry (dried vegetables). eating more snacks in between the usual meals). The following EU markets are highlighted: Germany. interest in exotic and ethnic food and ‘grazing’ (i. These countries are major importers of preserved fruit and vegetables. Further. or both. Another change is that ingredients stocks held by manufacturers are increasingly minimised and. on the demand for preserved fruit and vegetables include: increasing preference for safe and healthy food. The main industrial end-users are the beverage industry (fruit juice/concentrate). The Netherlands. but also his expertise and experience. ready-meals industry (dried/frozen vegetables). An indication of the main application is given for each group: Fruit juices/concentrates Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Frozen fruit Dried fruit Dried vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables Industrial Consumer Consumer Industrial Industrial Consumer and industrial Industrial Industrial Market demand It is difficult to give figures on the industrial demand for preserved fruit and vegetables. After import. as a consequence. as this segment offers the best market opportunities for suppliers in developing countries. the new EU countries Poland. 4 . Trends which have an impact on the demand for food products and. The emphasis of the survey lies on preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use. more convenience meals (ready meals). Another trend is that the relationship between ingredients suppliers and industrial users has changed: the industrial user buys not only additives and ingredients from the supplier. Belgium. jam industry (frozen fruit). both as an ingredient for industrial use and as consumer products. France. breakfast cereal and bakery industry and packers (dried fruit). these ingredients are processed to become consumer products (fruit juice) or used as an ingredient to prepare consumer products (dried vegetables). The larger part of preserved fruit and vegetables is imported as ingredients for the food processing industry. just-in-time delivery has become an important aspect in the European food market.REPORT SUMMARY This survey profiles the EU market for selected preserved fruit and vegetables. The product groups discussed in this survey are used as industrial or consumer products.

especially for apple juice (Poland and Hungary). dried vegetables (3%) and provisionally preserved fruit & vegetables (2%). Other important categories were. canned vegetables. EU production of frozen vegetables is estimated at 2 million tonnes. Italian and Spanish orange juice concentrate is shipped solely to the soft drink industry. The share of developing countries in imports by EU-25 member countries of selected preserved fruit and vegetables amounted to 25 percent in 2003. frozen vegetables (12%) and canned fruit (10%). Spain (orange juice concentrate) and Germany (apple juice concentrate) are the only countries in the EU that supply considerable amounts of fruit juice concentrate. frozen fruit and vegetables (Poland). It is important to mention that preserved fruit and vegetables are often imported as a raw material from countries outside the EU. Between 2001 and 2003. accounting for 32 percent of imports (in value) by EU-25 member countries. due to large supplies. Poland was the eight largest supplier and Hungary the fifteenth supplier of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU market. as these products are not suitable (different production process) to reconstitute into fruit juice. Turkey (canned vegetables. processed and packed in EU countries and reexported to other EU countries. dried fruit and vegetables). representing a value of € 13. in terms of value (31%). In 2003. accounting for 23 percent of total imports by EU member countries (in terms of value) in 2003. Less important categories were frozen fruit (8%). Leading developing country suppliers are Brazil (fruit juice/concentrate). The only two countries in the EU supplying notable volumes of dried fruit are Greece (currants) and France (prunes). Poland was the largest importer of the new EU countries. 17 million tonnes of selected preserved fruit and vegetables were imported into the EU-25. Italy (orange and apple juice concentrate). Fruit juices and concentrates were the leading imported product category. The new EU countries imported € 607 million of selected preserved fruit and vegetables during 2003 representing 713 thousand tonnes. dried vegetables. 32 percent in value was imported from developing countries and 33 percent in volume. Dried vegetables are mainly produced outside the EU. One part is supplied as fresh products directly to consumers. frozen sweet corn. canned vegetables (26%). Therefore extreme care should be given in interpretation of the figures used in this survey. Imports In 2003. China (frozen vegetables. import prices were under pressure. which grow in temperate zones. This implies that in most product groups. the values of all imported products increased by 9 percent and the import volume increased by 14 percent. Germany is the major import market for preserved fruit and vegetables. dried fruit (6%). provisionally preserved fruit & vegetables) and Thailand (fruit juice/concentrate and canned fruit). 5 . in descending order.Production EU countries are large suppliers of fruit and vegetables. the United Kingdom (14%) and The Netherlands (11%). followed by Czech Republic (20%) and Hungary (13%). followed by France (14%). Poland and Hungary are becoming major suppliers to the EU market. of which around one quarter is supplied by Belgium.9 billion of which 25 percent came from developing countries. while the other part is supplied as ingredient to the food processing industry.

are produced according to the standards on Good Agricultural Practice. instructions on how to store and to process. Another positive argument in the export business is that the raw materials. Moreover. information on quality assurance (e.9 billion. For information on current CBI Programmes and training & seminars. Opportunities for exporters Market opportunities in the EU for developing country exporters lie in the production of tropical and subtropical products (exotics). please refer to http://www. A large part of intra-EU exports consists of re-exports to other EU 6 . of total exports in terms of value in 2003.Exports In 2003. used by processors and/or exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables. An exporter capable of meeting these requirements will have an improved competitive position in the EU market for preserved fruit and vegetables. The leading exported product group were canned vegetables. the EU exported 13 million tonnes of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. and for downloading market information and CBI News Bulletins. a general trend in the food ingredients sector is that importers and food processors in the EU require increasing documentation in order to guarantee food safety. representing a value of € 11. followed by fruit juice/concentrate (29%). a tracking and tracing administration. and in the production of organically grown products. HACCP) or even ISO certification. frozen vegetables (14%).cbi. Intra-EU exports accounted for 80 percent of total exports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Leading export destinations were Germany (22% in value). accounting for 36 percent. Russia (2% in value) and Switzerland (1% in value). which are hardly or not at all grown in the EU. Export destinations outside the EU were USA (4% in value). This means that a product should be accompanied by complete product specifications according to EU and customer requirements. canned fruit (9%) and frozen fruit (6%).g. France (14% in value) and the United Kingdom (12% in value).

and Export Marketing Guidelines (Part B).Tariffs and quotas Part B Export Marketing Guidelines: Analysis and Strategy External Analysis (market audit) (Chapter 10) Opportunities & Threats Decision Making (Chapter 12) SWOT and situation analysis: Target markets and segments Positioning and improving competitiveness Suitable trade channels and business partners Critical conditions and success factors (others than those mentioned) Strategic options & objectives Export Marketing (Chapter 13) Matching products and product range Building up a trade relationship Drawing up an offer Handling the contract Sales promotion Internal Analysis (company audit) (Chapter 11) Strengths & Weaknesses 7 . Market Survey Part A EU Market Information and Market Access Requirements EU Market Information (Chapters 1-8) Product characteristics Introduction to the EU market Consumption and production Imports and exports Trade structure Prices EU Market Access Requirements (Chapter 9) . marking and labelling .Non-tariff trade barriers: Product legislation Market requirements: Occupational health and safety Environmentally sound production Packaging.INTRODUCTION This CBI survey consists of two parts: EU Market Information and EU Market Access Requirements (Part A).

market segments and target product(s) within these countries. Part B therefore aims to assist (potential) exporters in developing countries in their export-decision making process. packaging. which can be of assistance in successfully achieving the identified export objectives. The survey is interesting for both starting exporters as well as exporters already engaged in exporting (to the EU market). as well as possible trade channels to export the selected products (Chapter 12). and information on trade structure and opportunities for exporters is provided. which are of importance to developing country suppliers. Part B is especially interesting for more experienced exporters starting to export to the EU and exporters looking for new EU markets. health & safety and environmental standards. labelling and social. sales channels and potential customers in order to formulate export marketing and product strategies. The emphasis of the survey lies on those products. After having assessed the external (Chapter 10) and internal environment (Chapter 11). It is furthermore of vital importance that exporters comply with the requirements of the EU market in terms of product quality. Starting exporters are advised to read this publication together with the CBI’s Export Planner. by matching external opportunities and internal capabilities. production and trade. 8 .Chapters 1 to 8 of Part A profile the market for selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Furthermore. In fact. a guide that shows systematically how to set up export activities and the interactive tool on the CBI website ‘Export marketing plan’. The major national markets within the EU for those products are highlighted. the (potential) exporter should be able to determine whether there are interesting export markets for his company. sales channels or customers. the exporter should be able to identify suitable target countries. After having read Part A. Chapter 13 subsequently describes marketing tools. which have to be fulfilled in order to gain market access for the product sector concerned. it is important for an exporter to analyse target markets. Chapter 9 subsequently describes the requirements. statistical market information on industrial demand.


pineapple and grapefruit are other fruit species. The residue is fruit juice concentrate. or in acting as subcontractors by supplying consumer and food service products.1 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS 1. This means that the figures include preserved fruit and vegetables as ingredients for the food processing industry as well as for consumer and food service packing. The directive also states that fruit nectar consists partly of fruit juice and partly of added water and sugar. the dairy industry also accounts for considerable volumes of fruit juices and concentrates. water is evaporated from fruit juice. The directive has been incorporated in the legislation of all European countries. like canned fruit and vegetables. further to be referred to as ‘selected preserved fruit and vegetables’. The market survey distinguishes the following product groups: Fruit juices and concentrates In the country of origin. The minimum share of fruit juice in the nectar depends on the kind of fruit and varies between 25 percent and 50 percent. In this survey. The best opportunities for exporters in developing countries lie in supplying preserved fruit and vegetable products in the form of ingredients to the food processing industry in EU countries. and diminish the transport and storage costs. which can be subdivided in an extensive range of individual products. According to European fruit juice legislation. In the country of destination.1 Product groups This market survey deals with selected preserved fruit and vegetables for both industrial use and for the consumer and food service market. which form the basis for popular fruit juices. Citrus fruit nectars usually have more than 50 percent fruit juice content 10 . in order to maintain quality. Besides the beverage industry (juices and soft drinks). to prolong shelf life. Preserved fruit and vegetables consist of a range of product groups. The Eurostat statistics used in this survey do not make a distinction according to application. to food processing companies or multiple retail chains under their label. drinks made from fruit juice can be divided into three segments: • Pure juice: 100 percent fruit with the same strength and consistency as fresh squeezed juice and no preservatives added • Nectars: Base of concentrated juice or a pasteurised purée of fruit pulp to with sugar and water are added. fruit juice consists of juice without the addition of water. According to EU Directive 2001/112/EC. the juice is restored to its original properties by adding water up to the original juice strength. Apple. a selection has been made of product groups and individual products that are important for EU markets and that offer opportunities for exporters in developing countries. The best-known and most-consumed fruit juice is orange juice. The fruit juice industry in particular uses (frozen) fruit juice concentrate.

To inactivate bacteria. tomatoes. The main canned fruit varieties are pineapples. figs. bananas. sterilisation (heating to at least 121º C) is required. dairy products and desserts. carrots. thus ending the multiplication. only yeast and moulds will develop. pears and prunes are the most important tree fruits. this product group will be referred to as fruit juice/concentrate. peaches. dates. the water is removed from the food and from the bacterial cell. The main dehydrated vegetables are onions. consisting of more than 80 percent of water. most vegetables are dehydrated industrially. mandarins and other citrus fruits Dried fruit and vegetables Fruit and vegetables. in the remaining part of the survey. Therefore. whereas apples. sultanas and currants. resulting in the exclusion of dried leguminous vegetables (for example. The most popular pickles are based on gherkins. sweetened with artificial sweeteners. are dried in order to stop the multiplication of micro-organisms. The best-known vine fruit species are raisins. muesli. bacteria (including dangerous pathogenic bacteria) can also develop. peaches. etc. garlic. apricots and fruit mixes. soup and ready meal industries are the main users of dried vegetables. Dried fruit is mainly used as a snack or a constituent for breakfast cereals. Other interesting canned fruit species are lychees. carrots and olives. 11 . apricots. moulds and bacteria) have to be inactivated. By drying or dehydrating fruit or vegetables. form a growing sector in this market (lower costs. Canned vegetables mainly consist of tomatoes and of different kinds of beans. The Netherlands Horticulture Commodity Board’s definition of dried vegetables is used in this survey. cut. due to their natural acidity. cocktail onions. In fruit products. sweet peppers and celery. trade figures cannot be split up between fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate. The dried fruit and vegetables described in this survey are whole. where there is a lack of natural acidity. lower calorie content) Although the majority of imports by EU member countries consist of fruit juice concentrates. creating nonfavourable conditions for the growth of bacteria by means of the addition of vinegar or acetic acid.• Juice drinks: Fruit juice ranging from 6 to approx 50 percent with sugar and water added and often with added flavour and/or artificial sweeteners. peas. Simple pasteurisation (heating to approx. Canned fruit and vegetables To ensure sufficient storage life for fruit and vegetable preserves. bakery products. Vegetable products can also be preserved as 'pickles'. In vegetables. micro-organisms (yeast. Please note that in trade statistics for canned vegetables (vegetables preserves sterilised in a closed recipient) vegetables preserved in glass jars are also usually included. through acidification. Dried fruit can be divided into vine fruit and tree fruit. dried peas and beans). These organisms obtain the water and nutrients they need for growth from the fruit or vegetable in which they grow. 90º C) is sufficient for preservation of fruit products. carrots. Fruit juice drinks with low or no sugar content. but not further prepared. The sauce. Although some vegetables are sun-dried or field-dried. papayas. sliced. broken or powdered.

2 Customs/statistical product specification On January 1. Of course higher transport and storage costs have to be taken into account. sugars and vitamins is removed by leaching. Provisionally preserved fruit is mainly used as an ingredient in the jam industry.Frozen fruit and vegetables Freezing and deep-freezing is based on the same idea: turning water into ice so that bacteria cannot live and reproduce on the raw food product. resulting in smaller ice crystals and consequently causing less damage to the food cells. bakery products and dairy products. Vegetables such as gherkins and mushrooms can be temporarily preserved in the country of origin. Fruit preserved in this manner generally contains substantial amounts of sulphite. in a sulphite solution as a preserving agent) is outdated and has for a large part been replaced by freezing. Freezing achieves low temperatures slowly. In the case of deep-freezing. Fruit and vegetables can be blanched before freezing (to inactivate enzymes that might remain active even at very low temperatures. Frozen vegetables are mainly processed for ready meals. cover preserved fruit and vegetables products discussed in this survey. Chapter 20 of the Harmonised System. When defrosted. Provisional preservation of fruit still takes place in some East European countries (mainly Bulgaria). This system. which damage the food cells. 12 . cleaned and repacked in smaller volumes in the country of destination. Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables In the case of fruit. is based on a ten-digit product classification. Temporarily preserved vegetables are packed in drums (200 litres). The products are then washed. Product groups covering fresh fruit and vegetables are not included in this survey. vegetable preserves and salads. Frozen fruit is processed into jam. Generally. Section II. Not all product groups covered by these chapters deal with preserved fruit and vegetables. the Harmonised System (HS). HS codes/product groups printed in bold are specifically discussed in this survey. imports by EU member countries of provisionally preserved fruit are small. The World Customs Organisation (WCO) is introducing alterations to the HS and these were included in the combined nomenclature (CN) as of January 1. low temperatures are quickly achieved. 1988 a unified coding system was introduced to harmonise the trading classification systems used worldwide and to allow for improved international comparability of foreign trade statistics. Chapters 7 and 8 and Section IV. and affect the structure and colour of the product). 2002. As EU regulations are strict with respect to sulphite content. Appendix 1 provides a detailed list of HS codes (and corresponding product names) of the product groups covered by this survey. The freezing of fruit and vegetables is increasing in popularity. The two processes are different. The quality of this type of fruit is low. but in this state they are unsuitable for immediate consumption. resulting in relatively large ice crystals. but so is the price. 1. a part of the proteins. this method of preservation (packing in wooden casks or plastic drums. the quality of the frozen product is nearly the same as the original fruit.

2 10. Liechtenstein.5 24. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) accounted for the lion’s share. Ten new countries joined the European Union in May 2004. Slovakia.291 23.1 40.877 13.9 69. Estonia.6 67.263 €.4 3.8 0.1: Population and GDP of selected and new EU countries.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE EU MARKET The European Union (EU) is the current name for the former European Community.699 19. 2003 Countries Population million Age 15 – 64 % GDP (€) estimation 2003 Selected EU Countries Germany France UK Belgium The Netherlands Italy Spain New EU countries Poland Estonia Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Slovenia Cyprus Malta 82. Norway and Switzerland – more than 20 million enterprises are active. the average turnover per enterprise of SMEs and large enterprises amounted to € 600.0 5.0 65.6 1.0 67.183 14. Czech Republic.8 66.904 8.318 24.3 2.761 9.5 70.000 25.727 10. SKr € 1 = US$ 1.4 Currencies Exchange (2003) Source: The World Factbook 2003 Within Western Europe – covering 15 EU member countries.455 9. Since 1 January 1995. Slovenia.149 6. Malta and Cyprus.931 16.0 16.4 60.3 10.9 68. In 2000. In this survey.000 and € 255 million respectively. They are Poland. UK ₤.6 2.292 11.407 24.0 70.4 60.495 25.0 70. DKr.3 66. 13 . Lithuania.2 70.3 58.4 68.0 67.3 67. Latvia.0 0.8 68. the EU has consisted of 15 member states. unless otherwise stated.3 12. Hungary. Table 2.13 38. Iceland. Negotiations are in progress with a number of other candidate member states.4 69.1 66.884 12. the EU will be referred to as the EU-25.

United Kingdom and Sweden have decided not to participate in the Euro. Although the European Union is already a fact. as also in comparison between different EU countries with regard to market approach. although figures for trade between the EU and the rest of the world are accurately represented. As a consequence. please refer to the CBI’s manual ‘Exporting to the European Union’. services and people. quality and education. Finland. The Netherlands. not all the regulations have yet been harmonised. As the unification allows free movement of capital. The threshold varies considerably from country to country. trade was registered by means of compulsory customs procedures at border crossings. Denmark. The most recent Eurostat trade statistics quoted in this survey are from the year 2003. 14 . Greece. Italy. which affects trade. but it is typically about € 100.EU Harmonisation The most important aspect of the process of unification (of former EC countries). trade within the EU is generally underestimated. Belgium. the internal borders have been removed. Luxembourg. distribution structure. Statistical bodies like Eurostat cannot depend on the automatic generation of trade figures. Therefore. statistical reporting is only compulsory for exporting and importing firms whose trade exceeds a certain annual value. both in the summary and throughout the text. For more information on the EU market. Germany. the € is the basic currency unit used to indicate value. this is no longer the case. the euro (€) became the legal currency within twelve EU member states: Austria. Until that date. In the case of intra-EU trade.000. but since the removal of the intra-EU borders. CBI’s database on European non-tariff trade barriers at http://www. In 2002 circulation of euro coins and banknotes replaced national currency in these countries. health. A precondition for this free movement is uniformity in the rules and regulations concerning locally produced or imported products. For more information about harmonisation of the regulations visit AccessGuide. the information used in this market survey is obtained from a variety of different sources. Work is in process in the fields of environmental pollution. is the harmonisation of rules in the EU countries. extreme care must be taken in the qualitative use and interpretation of quantitative data. France. Goods produced or imported into one member state can generally be moved around between the other member states without restrictions. goods. The collection of data regarding trade flows has become more difficult since the establishment of the single market on 1 January Monetary unit: Euro On 1 January 1999.cbi. etc. Furthermore. safety. Ireland. Spain and Portugal. In this market survey. Trade figures quoted in this survey must be interpreted and used with extreme caution.

072 0. Belgium.035 0. 2002-2005 Country EU Denmark Sweden UK Poland Estonia Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Slovenia Cyprus Malta Source: OECD Selected Countries This survey covers Germany.13 0.004 0.044 0. attention is paid to the new EU countries Poland.326 2003 1.125 0.907 0. These countries have a sizeable food processing industry and are thus important for exporters in developing countries. while Belgium and The Netherlands are important processing and transit trade countries for preserved fruit and vegetables.022 0.833 0.923 2. Czech Republic and Hungary.2 Exchange rates of EU currencies in US$.50 0. Besides the seven selected countries.128 2.005 2.15 0.167 0.328 1.732 1.329 0.039 0.63 0.084 0.263 3.005 1.005 0.005 0.257 0.275 0.245 0.896 0. Italy.031 0.145 1.079 0.004 1.136 1.946 0.058 15 .178 0.031 0. These countries are the largest importers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.32 0.006 2.632 2004 1.06 0.Table 2.004 0.12 1. Spain and The Netherlands. the United Kingdom.036 0.10 1.639 0. France.24 0. The first four countries are also the largest consumer markets in the EU.639 2. Currency € Dkr Skr GB₤ PLN EEK CZK HUF SKK LTL LVL SIT CYP MTL 2002 0.360 1.941 April 2005 1.754 0.382 1.887 0.027 0.

Bonduelle (canned vegetables). Tesco. Tropicana and Minute Maid (juices).3 INDUSTRIAL DEMAND Most of the product groups mentioned in this survey are used as ingredients for food processing. indicating that the food market in the EU-15 countries is stabilizing.1 Consumer expenditure on food and non-alcoholic beverages in the EU.460 5. This segment is the most important for exporters in developing countries. 2003 and estimated % change 2003/2006 Value 139.950 17. Trends in consumer products influence demand in the ingredients sector.470 10.2 11. however. There are.1 Overview of the EU food market Canned fruit and vegetables. are rather scarce. it is the information given in this chapter. € million.4 11. Sainsbury and Rewe sell these products under their own (private) label.270 17.0 8.4 2.550 124. fruit juice concentrates and provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables are mainly used as ingredients for the food processing industry.800 8.920 64.3 0.7 Country Germany France Italy United Kingdom Spain The Netherlands Greece Belgium Austria Sweden Portugal Denmark Finland Ireland 16 .640 14. The growth in value is estimated to be only 4 percent. while the food markets in France and Italy are estimated to grow by 3% and 7% respectively.0 3. forecast to grow to € 690 billion in 2006.7 6. Data on industrial demand for preserved fruit and vegetables.2 . however. differences because the food market in Germany is estimated to decline by 4% during this period.9 11. multiple retail chains like Carrefour.840 24. Iglo and Birds Eye Wall’s (frozen vegetables).4 7. due to increasing spending power. As information on consumer products is more readily available. as preserved fruit and vegetables for the consumer market require extensive investments in marketing and distribution. 3. especially in the United Kingdom and France. Private label products are usually less expensive than producer’s brands and have established strong market positions. markets like Czech Republic and Slovakia are estimated to grow by 20% and 10% respectively per annum. The remaining markets show a stabilizing trend.600 % change .5 12. For example. dried vegetables. Next to producers’ brands like Del Monte and Dole (canned fruit). Dried and frozen fruit. Table 3. The total EU food and drink market is estimated at € 666 billion in 2003.940 14.420 15.760 110.2 6. Ahold. fruit juice and frozen vegetables in consumer packing are sold as branded products.300 96.1 7.2. It is further estimated that the food markets in the ten new EU countries will grow.4.

0 22.2 + 3.1 24.5 22.864 597 % change Frozen food .3 24.0 Fruit juice/concentrate After a strong growth during the last decade.330 2.1 1.4 + 2.3 Per capita consumption of fruit juices and fruit nectars in the EU-15.1 2.7 25.5 23. the main food sectors relevant to preserved fruit and vegetables are outlined as follows: Table 3.9 Source: Euromonitor 2003 3.6 35.canned fruit + 5.1 11. the fruit juice and nectar consumption is characterised by a high per capita consumption in northern European 17 .0 31.5 + 5.7 25.7 10.0 2.frozen vegetables Canned food .1 Country Germany Austria Finland Denmark The Netherlands Sweden Spain France United Kingdom Belgium/Luxembourg Ireland Greece Italy Portugal Source: AIJN Price fluctuations. Nevertheless.0 21.7 22.canned vegetables .954 + 3.3 20.3 0 6.1 2003 42.5 14.Poland Hungary Czech Republic Source: Euromonitor.9 .149 1.4 22.0 19.5 19.002 1.0 12.7 17.9 15.839 8. litres 2001 40.0 21.4 + 5.0 1. thousand tonnes.100 12.2 16.2 32. 2001-2003.3 11. € billion.1 % change Estimated volume in 2006 4.0 32.2 6.8 20.571 566 Estimated value in 2006 21.0.0 31.0 Volume in 2003 4.3 3.1 Dried food 7.8 24.8 20.4 + 3.6 16.2 + 3.8 3.2 Food sector Food sectors relevant to preserved fruit & vegetables in the EU-15 countries.9 11. 2003 and estimate 2006 Value in 2003 20.8 3.2 In the following table.0 25. 2003 26.1 16.9 11.8 2002 40.770 534 15.4 23.0 + 6.821 530 + 2.0 21.5 35.7 21.3 4.8 23. overall consumption in the EU-15 tends to stabilize as the following table shows: Table 3.5 15.280 7. competition from other non-alcoholic drinks and warm/cold weather affect the juice and nectar consumption.

but rising. canned green beans. followed by Spain in fourth place.countries (in particular Germany) and a low.2 kilograms. Canned vegetables There are large differences in consumption and market prospects between the EU countries as the following table shows: Table 3. Bonduelle is a French brand. the packaging in glass jars instead of metal cans is still gaining popularity in the EU. accounting for 37 percent of the overall volume.3 3. consumption growth in southern European countries.5 5. canned vegetables are more popular among younger consumers.4 Country France Belgium Germany Sweden The Netherlands Spain United Kingdom Czech Republic Hungary Poland Source: Euromonitor.1 billion. peas with carrots and peas are very popular in almost every single EU member country.8 5.9 6. Although the image of canned food is sometimes considered old-fashioned.2 2. kilograms.1 4. which is not surprising since Germany has the highest per capita consumption of fruit juice and nectar in Europe.4 3. The canned vegetable sector is very fragmented.8 5.9 billion and the canned fruit market was € 1.0 5.4 Descending size of per capita consumption of canned vegetables in major EU countries .7 – 2. consumption and market prospects for canned fruit show large differences between the EU countries 18 .5 4. Nevertheless.2 6.4 5. and is. accounting for 20 percent and 7 percent respectively of the total canned food market in value in 2003.8 1.8 billion and 6 million tonnes in 2003. The remaining countries have per capita consumptions ranging between 0.9 5.6 kilograms. Canned fruit As is the case with canned vegetables. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 10. as such. Canned fruit and vegetables The total canned food market in the EU-15 countries was estimated at € 14. HAK and Bonduelle are the leading A brands in The Netherlands.5 5.2 2007 11. Nevertheless. Belgium and in Germany. Several fruit juice producers are also located in the United Kingdom and these supply substantial amounts of fruit juices. 2003 Per capita consumption is the lowest in Ireland with only 0.8 7.4 6. partly because fruit and vegetables in glass are totally visible and stand for a quality product. The production of fruit juices is concentrated mainly in Germany.9 1. The canned vegetable market was estimated at € 2. mainly imported from France. France and the United Kingdom are the only other two countries where fruit juices have a share of over 10 percent of total EU fruit juice sales.

prunes. sultanas are the most popular (mainly for industrial use) dried fruit in the EU. which are led by Del Monte and Dole.6 0. Considering the imports of canned fruit.9 1.0 2.3 billion and a volume of 26. other raisins.2 3. Sultanas.0 1.8 million tonnes in 2003.7 0. The market for bakery products in the EU-15 had a value of € 70.7 0.9 1. there are no data about the consumer markets for dried fruit and vegetables as these products are mainly used as ingredients for food processing. Dried fruit Dried fruit is used in consumer or food service packing. kilograms.5 0.5 Descending size of per capita consumption of canned fruit in major EU countries.000 tonnes.4 2007 4. The canned fruit market in the EU-15 is stable to declining. both in value and volume. The volume in the EU-15 is estimated at 530. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 4.5 1. Unfortunately.8 million tonnes in 2003.5 0. dates. 19 .1 3. Considering the imports of dried fruit. peaches and mixtures are popular varieties of canned fruit in the EU. healthy ready-to-eat snacks and desserts.4 Country Denmark Sweden Belgium The Netherlands Germany United Kingdom Finland Slovakia Czech Republic Poland Source: Euromonitor. mainly consumed as a snack and as an ingredient for breakfast cereals. 2004 Market value in € million 707 317 Private label share 50% 70% 60% 50% 20% Developments Consumption under pressure Declining market Mature market Mature market Stabilizing market Germany United Kingdom France 233 Italy 113 Spain 90 Source: Leatherhead Dried fruit and vegetables The dried food consumer market in the EU-15 countries has a value of € 7. Bakeries and breakfast cereal mixes are one of the largest end users of dried fruit. 2003 The EU market for canned fruit is largely dominated by private label brands.Table 3. accounting for more than a quarter of the total imports by EU member countries of dried fruit.4 2.8 0. Table 3.3 3.6 Country Market developments canned fruit in major EU markets.9 billion and a volume of 3. canned pineapples. apricots and figs are the major imported dried fruit species.9 1.9 2.3 2. followed by producers’ brands.

reflecting the growing popularity of ready-to-eat healthy snacks.3 14.8 15.9 1. onions.0 2. In most markets.5 1.7 2.7 Country Italy Portugal Hungary Czech Republic Sweden Slovakia Denmark Source: Euromonitor. It uses most types of dried vegetables.6 11.9 billion and a volume of 566 thousand tonnes in 2003. kilograms. 2003 However.1 10. carrots and peas. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 15. These are Unilever (Knorr. 2003 The lowest consumption is measured in United Kingdom with 4. and processed foods using more healthy ingredients like dried fruit. and Nestlé (Maggi). The market for frozen ready meals is boosted largely through the increasing sales of ethnic ready meals and through a strong growth in frozen pizzas. Frozen fruit and vegetables The consumer market for frozen food in the EU-15 countries had a value of € 20 billion and a volume of 4.Table 3.9 2.6 13.6 million tons in 2003. since the main buyer of frozen vegetables is the industry for ready meals and the overall consumption of ready meals has increased. Table 3. Frozen vegetables The consumer market for frozen processed vegetables had a value of € 1.7 Descending size of per capita consumption of dried food in major EU countries.5 2007 15. 20 . Private labels take an important share of the market for frozen food.7 Country Denmark Austria Finland United Kingdom Sweden Germany Belgium Source: Euromonitor. the market for frozen vegetables is expected to grow.8 2007 24. Market leaders in ready meals in the EU are Nestlé and Unilever. muesli.2 3.4 16. Unox).6 13.9 1.7 11.3 12.5 3. kilograms.5 kilograms per capita. the ratio is moving towards higher relative usage by the industrial sector.7 3. A few large multinational companies dominate the soup industry in the EU.4 11.6 11.4 2. accounting for 9. especially potatoes. Frozen vegetables in consumer packing also grew at the expense of vegetables in canned and glass packing.6 3. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 24.8 Descending size of per capita consumption of frozen processed vegetables in major EU countries.5 percent and 12 percent respectively of the total consumer market for frozen food.6 1. leek. tomatoes.7 14. Dried vegetables Dried vegetables are mainly used as ingredients by the dried soup industry.

2003). frozen vegetables are the most frequently used type of frozen product. into fruit juice or nectar. • soup industry. operate in the following sectors: • beverage industry. muesli and cereals bars. baby and infant food. Preserved mushrooms are also used by this industry. The soup industry is the largest end-user of dried vegetables. followed by pineapple juice and grapefruit juice. using preserved fruit and vegetables. bakeries. The consumer sector of preserved fruit and vegetables consists mainly of branded products and private labels. Fruit juice concentrate is reprocessed. • other food sectors. Meals-on-wheels is a growing segment in food service. there is very little information available on market sizes and trends. Out-of-home consumption increased as consumers saw their incomes rising.2 Consumer segment Preserved fruit and vegetables like canned fruit and vegetables. prisons. The most important fruit juices in the EU are orange juice and apple juice.1 Ingredients segment The food processing industry is the largest segment for preserved fruit and vegetables. • jam industry. which represented an average per capita consumption of 1. The major food processors.3 Food service sector The food service sector has been growing during recent years. convalescent homes. butcheries and deli shops. but in Spain. The share of private label is increasing. frozen soups.2. The market is stable in the leading countries (the United Kingdom and Germany). the consumption of jam and preserves in the EU amounted to 505 thousand tonnes. The ready-meals industry is a significant end-user of frozen vegetables.2 Market segmentation The market for preserved fruit and vegetables can be divided into three segments 3. 3. like pet food (dried vegetables). 3. Supermarkets in the EU dominate retail sales at the expense of specialised shops. The beverage industry is the largest end-user of fruit juice concentrate. fruit juice and jam are processed and packed in consumer units and sold through retail outlets to consumers. frozen vegetables. to some extent. instant soups (dried).However. In this sector. schools and universities. • ready-meals industry. catering for an increasing greying population in EU–15 countries. 3. Fast food outlets showed an increasing expansion in most EU countries.2. confectionery. Food processors use these ingredients to produce end products in consumer packing for the retail sector and in catering packing for the food service sector.3 kg per year (Euromonitor. by blenders and mixers. canned soups and. preserved fruit and vegetables (primarily frozen and dried fruits and vegetables and concentrated juice) are used as ingredients in a wide range of food products. the frozen food market is among the more dynamic sectors. The breakfast cereal industry uses substantial amounts of dried fruit in its production of cereals. preserved mushrooms and dried vegetables (mainly for pizzas and pasta dishes). In 2003. As the trade in these products takes place on a business-to-business basis. • breakfast cereal industry. such as greengrocers. This industry hardly uses fresh fruit anymore. The food service sector also includes company canteens and institutional outlets like hospitals. The main products are packet soups (dried) including soup bases. Frozen fruit Frozen fruit is mainly used by the jam industry for further processing into jam.2. mainly at the expense of B and C brands. The jam industry uses considerable amounts of frozen fruit to produce jam products and marmalade. 21 . especially two-person households where both partners are working.

organic products account for about 10 percent of the total food market. thereafter. switch to other products.3. probiotic yoghurts and alternatives for sugar.The market for preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use can also be segmented according to whether the products are grown by organic farming or by conventional farming. increase the popularity of healthy products like reduced fat products. making these people a highly significant consumer group for food suppliers.2 France The French packaged food market grew by only 2% in 2004. Due to the recession in Germany and low consumer confidence. This leads towards an increase in sales for breakfast cereals and sweet biscuits. Despite this increase in prosperity. and eating behaviour is related to income and life style. Prosperity in the EU has increased over recent years. Although growth of organic foods reached double digit figures in 2000 and 2001. which may not be suitable for large-scale food production.3. there is an oversupply. the French increasingly prefer a cereals breakfast rather than a continental type breakfast. 3. family households are getting smaller because people are having fewer children. since 2002 the markets have tended to grow much more slowly (3-4 percent). Due to changing eating habits. We also see a family ‘dilution’. organic production is highly suitable for small and medium-sized farmers working in areas. being challenged by the success of other types of ready meal. easy to prepare meals. For more information on organic products. at the very most. Dried fruits like apricots. causing prices to drop. In Denmark and Austria. while in countries like Spain and France the share is between 0. the EU will start to show a declining population size. in particular obesity.1 Germany One of the key trends in Germany is towards ready. This is particularly important since the demand for organic food is growing in several EU member countries and can offer interesting market opportunities for developing countries’ exporters. As the demography of Germany changes increasingly towards single households. 3. but will only. It shows a rapidly growing number of elderly people combined with a decreasing number of young people. 22 . Snacks are a growing segment in Germany. bananas and pineapple are important organic products within the segment preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use. The main trends for packaged food in the seven identified countries are the following: 3. since consumers are not going to eat more.5 and 1 percent.3 Patterns and trends in consumer demand The population in the EU is still growing and will continue to grow until about 20 years from now. the food market in the EU is highly competitive. already now the composition of the population is changing. However. In some sectors like organic coffee. please check CBI’s Market Survey ‘Organic Food Products’. Organic products still account for a small share of the total food consumption in most of the EU markets. Dried ready meals are also expected to decline. the market for single-portion products is increasing. as consumers use this increasingly as a replacement for breakfast and lunch. It is estimated that. Concerns about health. Because of its nature. although the differences are quite large. discounter retailers are growing to the detriment of more traditional and expensive outlets. Moreover. the number of single households in Western Europe is substantial and still increasing. mainly due to disappointing results of bakery products and confectionery.

Most shopping is now done at weekends. This lead to impressive growth in value terms of chilled processed food.3. It is expected that less developed sectors.7 Belgium Belgian consumers traded up to products with more added value during the period under review.4 Spain Snack bars. The number of products and varieties will continue to grow. Belgian consumers appreciate frozen food. Private labels continue to gain ground over mid-priced brands and even some prestigious A brands. 23 .shift towards out-of-home channels with adopted packaging formats . focussed on values looked for by consumers such as quality. in line with their increasingly hectic lifestyles. 3. looking for cheaper distribution channels. will be the most dynamic product groups for the coming years. due to lack of time or energy to dedicate to food preparation. taste and for variation . however. Low calorie products boomed in the wake of a predominant diet culture.3. Awareness of obesity leads to a growth for low calorie and fat-free products. especially chilled ready meals and prepared salads.3. Sectors such as frozen foods and ready meals are expected to show the highest growth. Consumers have less time to spend in the kitchen. due to the doubts about the quality of the products available. An exception to this.increased price-consciousness . This product group is seen as being more authentic than frozen or dried products. the reduction of spare time leads to changing shopping habits. 3.6 The Netherlands The packaged food market registered a growth of 4 percent during 2004. which have continued to grow. However. Nonetheless. like snack bars and ready meals. The trends and developments that impacted demand for packaged food during this period were: . ready meals and confectionery saw strong growth in 2004. overall growth in packaged food was held back by poorer performances by bakery products and baby food.3. Sales of frozen pizza are expected to continue to fall. especially obesity. meal replacement products. the ongoing success of pizzas and ready meals reflects the continuing importance of convenience and taste.5 Italy Although convenience is becoming more important to Italian consumers. chilled processed food. Public health has become a major issue. The Italian packaged food market is extremely fragmented. Consumers became more price sensitive. 3. health and taste variation. 3. is chilled ready meals. As in many EU countries.3. as the United Kingdom continues to go down the road of the 24-hours society. Sales of convenience foods. Private label products were the best performers in 2003. the firstmentioned is emerging as the most influential. have continued to grow. Pressure of time has also impacted on snack and confectionery sales. Another key factor in the increase in sales of these products is a growing demand for fresh preservative-free products.3. ready meals are still perceived as a makeshift solution.3 United Kingdom Convenience appears to be at the forefront of everybody’s mind. The Dutch packaged food market is expected to continue registering healthy growth.development of well-being concepts in most sectors. Within the famous success triangle of health benefits.

This is caused by the fact that fruit and vegetables contain vitamins and natural antioxidants. see above). frozen pastry. Environment-consciousness Food production. in short: without artificial fertilizers and pesticide. For more information on organic food. These factors. producers are encouraged to adopt an approved HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system. which have specific health promoting properties and food products with added vitamins and minerals or bacteria. Therefore. many people are concerned about the safety of food and the effects of intensive farming on the countryside as well as on the environment in general. canned soup. For example. which help to prevent heart diseases and cancer. 24 . combined with the increasing awareness of the importance of diet and nutrition. less time is left for the preparation of a full meal. which are grown according to principles laid down in Regulation (EC) 2092/91. to show their commitment to the quality and safety requirements of the EU food industry. especially primary growing. prefried fries. Please also refer to Chapter 9 of this survey for more information on HACCP. including packaging waste. sustainable use of natural resources and more environment-friendly production. chilled or shelf-stable).Recent research into consumer behaviour shows that today’s consumer has the following preferences concerning food and nutrition: Safe food Food products should be safe and eating them should not result in any danger or risk to health. A CIAA European Food Safety Survey conducted in 2002 showed that consumers find food safety the 4th largest health concern. Moreover. West European consumers have a growing need for convenience Convenience European people (including women) are working more and more in jobs outside their home and have busy social lives. the number of single households increases.” Fruit and vegetables There is a growing interest in the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the EU food market. In the scope of the increasing environment-consciousness in the EU. please refer to the separate CBI EU Market Survey “Organic Food Products. The objective of EurepGap (EuroRetailer Produce Working Group for Good Agricultural Practice) is to raise standards for the production of fresh fruit and vegetables by promoting food safety. Organic food Since European consumers have recently experienced several food scares. Waste. please refer to http://www. which are supposed to have properties. this includes functional foods.eurep. As a result. ready meals (frozen. The catering sector now also uses semi-processed fruit and vegetables. fish sticks. a group of leading European food retailers launched the EurepGap Protocol in 1999. Health food Health food refers to food products. should be avoided or at least reduced. According to health authorities and scientists the consumption of fruit and vegetables is still too low in most EU countries. which are low in fat and have limited sugar and salt content. spurring the demand for peeled potatoes. For more information on the Eurep Group and EurepGap Protocol. should be environment-friendly (organic. pizza. which support the intestinal function. have intensified interest in organic foods. preserved vegetables.

the relationship between the ingredients supplier and the food manufacturer has been changing. For more information on this Directive. Moreover. growth. In the past. muesli bars. Sales of meals packed in bags. growing and processing) of organic products. This has resulted in a discussion in the fruit and vegetable processing industry about “tracking and tracing”. The food processing industry responds to the demands of consumers for safe. cheese sticks and fruit yoghurts. This development is also stimulated by the steady population growth of ethnic minority groups. which is now required by the EU General Food Law (Directive (EC) 178/2002). harvest. storage. candy bars. culinary traditions from other continents tend to be more widely accepted by European consumers. but is eating smaller bites at more frequent intervals: readyto-eat products or products requiring very little ultimate preparation: take-out foods. please see chapter 9. the contents of which can be split up into individual portions. 'Grazing' The modern consumer does not confine himself to the traditional three meals a day (breakfast.e. and informative labelling. Internationalisation As the world is increasingly turning into a global village. Over the years. filled croissants. such as plant material. ice cream) are manufactured by European food industries from ingredients that are imported as semi-manufactured products (fruit juice concentrate). one trend in the food industry is very important. This scene has changed in so far that the 25 . to ensure the organic character of the product.Market developments are closely linked to innovation and many new products have entered the market in recent years. mini-pizzas. Advertising for frozen food is increasing in most of the selected European markets. Tracking and tracing As a result of several food scares (BSE. instant soups. healthy and tasteful food by tightening their requirements and by placing increasing responsibility for the quality of the food in the hands of their suppliers (importers/exporters). so it is easier to separate. This technology prevents the product from freezing into one large block. dioxine) consumers increasingly pose questions on the production process and demand open. the food manufacturer simply ordered ingredients and additives from his suppliers. Unilever announced recently that it is going to require that suppliers of agricultural raw materials grow their products according to the principles of sustainable agriculture. distribution and processing. where fully documented tractability is required from the raw material to the final product. Tracking and tracing is becoming even more important in production (i. through which products can be traced back to the producer. Many products containing exotic fruits (like fruit juice drinks. The fruit and vegetable processing industry is increasingly paying attention to chain management and labelling systems. end-product processors are able to supervise all kinds of aspects of fresh fruit and vegetables and products derived from them. hamburgers. jams. honest.1 of this survey. lunch and dinner). have increased considerably as a result of Individually Quick Frozen technology (IQF). carrying out his own programmes of evaluation and formulation to manufacture his end products. for exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables. With the help of good chain management and control within the chain. increasing the demand for ethnic and exotic ingredients. which have significantly increased their purchasing power over recent years.

then shipped to the distribution centre of the retailer in the United Kingdom and from there directly to the retail outlets. The food manufacturer not only buys additives and ingredients. processed and packed in consumer packing under the label of a UK retailer. For example. sorted and washed immediately after harvest. the opportunities for exporters in developing countries lie in the following positions in the supply chain: • • • Suppliers of preserved fruit and vegetables ingredients to the food processing industry in the EU countries Suppliers of preserved fruit and vegetables in bulk to packers in the EU. thus requiring short-term call-off from their suppliers. beans and peas are harvested in African countries. Coupled to the need for safe and traceable food ingredients. These subcontractors process fruit and vegetables and pack them in consumer and food service units according to strict specifications and under their customers’ labels in the EU. it is recommendable to contact traders and the food ingredients industry in Europe (already maintaining their relation to the food industry) rather than going directly to the food manufacturers. increasing demand for convenience products spurs demand for ingredients used in ready-to-eat meals. this provides exporters in developing countries with opportunities to catch on to these trends. who pack in consumer and food service units Subcontractors for the food processing industry and retail organisations. Internationalisation of taste increases demand for exotic ingredients. The influence of those ingredients suppliers who can offer experience will increase. 26 . A further change has been the minimisation of ingredient stocks held by manufacturers. but also expertise and experience.3. Based on the trends as mentioned under 3. Opportunities for exporters from developing countries Due to the characteristics of the preserved fruit and vegetable sector. For starting exporters. Just-in-time delivery is becoming increasingly important in the European food manufacturer is increasingly calling on and depending on the ingredients suppliers to carry out this development on his behalf.

com Cadbury Schweppes Ferrero Barilla United Kingdom Italy Italy 9. confectionery Danone France 13. accounting for 60 percent of total food and drinks production. biscuits.8 billion in 2003.000 companies are active in this sector employing Numico The Netherlands 1. frozen food. This share is relatively low.2 percent compared to 2002 and accounted for 5. confectionery Confectionery.barilla. baby and infant food Websites http://www. 26.4 PRODUCTION Preserved fruit and vegetables are part of the EU food and drink most of the foods processing companies in the EU are small to medium sized (SMEs).9 CHF Product groups http://www.danonegroup. representing 6 percent of total employees in the food and drinks industry (Source: CIAA).nestle.7 http://www. The top EU food processors.5 Unilever 42. This was an increase of 1. beverages.6 million employees.cadburyschweppes.1 Unknown http://www.8 percent of total production value of the food and drinks industry. were: Company Nestlé Country Switzerland (no EU) The Netherlands/ UK Turnover in € billion 87. Apart from the above-mentioned multinational companies with strong pan-European brands.6 http://www. Germany and the United Kingdom were the largest food processors in the EU. In 2003 the total production value of the food and drink industry was over € 600 billion.000 people. because of the fact that the preserved fruit and vegetable sector is a mature industry with a low added value. Italian products Dietetic food.numico. cereals Beverages. ranked on turnover in 2003 and relevant to the preserved fruit and vegetable sector. cooking products Dairy. 27 . The sector employs 168. The processed fruit and vegetable sector in the EU had a production turnover of € 36. spreads Fruit and vegetables. beverages. dairy. beverages. dressings.1 4.

Due to the high wage levels in the EU, coupled to a high degree of concentration in the retail sector and fierce competition, processing facilities are highly automated and efficient. Economies-of-scale, resulting in lower production costs and an efficient logistical system are necessary to be able to operate profitably. The major developments in the processed fruit and vegetable industry in the EU can be described as follows: - a maturing industry - private label is still gaining momentum - consolidation at the processing side - specialisation: concentration on limited set of activities and outsourcing - alliances: partnerships in the value chain and co-packing for private label suppliers Fruit juice/concentrate In the EU, only Spain and Italy produce notable amounts of orange juice concentrate. Compared to Brazil and the USA, which together account for 90 percent of global production, the production in Europe is small. Moreover, the fruit juice concentrate from Spain and Italy has a different kind of quality, which makes it more suitable for the soft beverages industry and less for the processing of fruit juice and nectar. Germany and Italy are the major EU producers of apple juice concentrate, producing some 70 thousand and 50 thousand tonnes respectively. The production of apple juice concentrate depends to a large extent on the apple harvest, which fluctuates considerably. Table 4.1 Production of unconcentrated orange juice (excl.frozen) in selected EU countries, 2002 – 2003, 1000 tonnes 2002 962,212 563,050 418,321 302,922 153,442 79,609 2003 Not available 554,210 396,466 371,273 Not available 96,043

Country Germany United Kingdom France Spain Poland Belgium Source: Eurostat 2003

Canned vegetables France is by far the largest producer of canned vegetables, accounting for more than 50 percent of total EU production. The Netherlands, Italy and Spain are other important producers of canned vegetables. The French company Bonduelle is a leading EU supplier of canned vegetables and has established a strong branded position on major EU markets. Please note that the figure 4.2 not only refers to canned vegetables, but also to other forms of preservation, like frozen vegetables. Figure 4.1 Production of preserved vegetables (excluding preserved mushrooms and tomatoes) in selected EU countries, 2001-2003, million litres


1200 2001 1000 800 600 400 200 0
nd s et he rla Ki ng do m n Fr an ce It al y Sp Be lg iu m ai

2002 2003

Source:OEITFL/VIGEF Figure 4.2 Production of canned and bottled vegetables (excluding baked beans) in major EU countries, 2001-2003, million litres

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
s Ki ng do m n iu m Fr an ce It al y d et he rla Po la n Sp Be lg er m an y nd ai

Th e

U ni te d


2001 2002 2003

Source:OEITFL/VIGEF Frozen vegetables Frozen vegetables have become a fierce competitor of canned vegetables. Production of finished products in the EU has been growing steadily from 2001 – 2003, but declined in 2003 according to following figures provide by OEITFL: Figure 4.3 Production of frozen vegetables (excluding mixtures and corn) in selected EU countries, 2001-2003, 1000 tonnes

Th e

U ni te d




900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
Ki ng do m iu m Fr an ce It al y Sp an y et he rla Be lg er m nd s ai n

2001 2002 2003

U ni te d


Source:OEITFL/VIGEF Production technology and quality are constantly improving within the frozen food industry. Research by Unilever has shown that nowadays frozen vegetables are qualitatively comparable to fresh vegetables. The improvements and research development and strong marketing efforts contribute to a positive consumer attitude towards frozen food consumption. Canned fruit Southern European countries are the leading producers of canned fruit in the EU. In descending order, Greece, Spain, France and Italy were the leading producers in 2003. Please note figure 4.4 details the production of preserved fruit. Canned fruit is a segment of preserved fruit production. Figure 4.4
300 2001 250 200 150 100 50 0
s et he rla Ki ng do m n Fr an ce It al y Sp er m Be lg iu m an y nd ai

Production of preserved fruit in selected EU countries, 2001-2003, million litres

Th e


2002 2003



Th e

U ni te d



has a relatively high degree of concentration. as year round supply is increasingly demanded. pineapples and star fruit.000 tonnes (FAO 2003). Greece is a major producer of currants and raisins. The canning industry suffered heavily from the collapse of the Soviet Union. with 40 companies. The processing plants are often outdated and there is insufficient cold storage capacity. particularly apples. a large share of dried vegetables originates outside the EU. it is expected that substantial investments will be made in the processing industry. peaches. supply is still fragmented and quality is fluctuating. Spain is the only date producing EU member country.585 2. This is because the quantities are fairly small compared to those of other processed vegetables. oranges.000 tonnes. It should be noted that about two thirds of the companies are in foreign hands. pears and melons. Although the share of Western Europe has increased. leading to improved quality and infrastructure. Further. counter seasonal products are of interest to EU trade partners. the prospects for the fruit processing industry are positive. Production of dried vegetables and mixtures of dried vegetables. However. are used to a large extent. Dried vegetables It is not possible to give an overall view of EU production of dried vegetables. onions and mushrooms. accounting for about half of the imports by EU member countries (in terms of volume) of dried vegetables in 2003. Opportunities for exporters in developing countries Products which grow in tropical or subtropical countries and cannot be grown in the EU offer good opportunities for exporters in developing countries. including 25 percent sweet corn. In view of this. production decreased from 1 million tonnes to 600. Hungary The processing industry is a major outlet for fruit and vegetables grown in Hungary. mangos. 31 . after the United States.818 New EU countries Hungary and Poland are the most important of the new EU countries in the trade of preserved fruit and vegetables. Poland Poland is a large producer of apples and soft fruit for processing into preserved fruit. with an annual production fluctuating around 7. other than potatoes. Moreover. e. apricots and tomatoes. e. Total production is about 200. grapes.000 tonnes. as only a few countries publish production figures on this product group. 1000 tonnes: Spain Germany France Hungary 53. mangosteen.Dried fruit There are only a few countries in the EU supplying significant amounts of dried fruit. French prune production is estimated at about 41.g. France is the second largest producer of dried prunes in the world.g.782 9. Therefore these countries are highlighted. which also means that much investment took place after privatisation and efficiency was improved. exports to the eastern direction are still more important. However.000 tonnes of finished products.781 12. in selected EU countries in 2002. The deep-freezing industry exports the majority of the products to EU markets. apples. Domestic raw material. The juice industry produces more than 500 million litres/annum and. lychees.



As was already mentioned in Section 1.2, Chapters 7, 8 and 20 of the Harmonised System, cover preserved fruit and vegetables product groups discussed in this survey. The following HS codes are covered in the Eurostat tables and figures of this chapter and in appendix 2: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Frozen fruit Dried vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables HS code 2009 2001, 2002 and 2005 2008 0710 0803, 0804, 0806 and 0813 0811 0712 0812 and 0711

The tables and figures give the total value and volume of the product groups as mentioned above. Selected products within the product groups are highlighted in this chapter under 5.2 The seven EU countries dealt with in this chapter and the three new EU countries are leading importing countries for preserved fruit and vegetables. As already mentioned in the summary, the opportunities to export consumer products to the EU are limited for exporters in developing countries, as this requires substantial investments in marketing and distribution and detailed knowledge of EU food legislation (labelling requirements). Preserved fruit and vegetables as ingredients for the processing industry in the EU offer better opportunities for exporters in non-EU countries. Where applicable, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary, being the new EU countries most important trading partners for preserved fruit and vegetables, will be mentioned separately. 5.1 Total imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables

In 2003, imports by EU member countries of selected preserved fruit and vegetables amounted to € 14 billion or 17 million tonnes, representing an increase by 2.2 percent in value and 10 percent in volume, compared to the preceding year. Developing countries supplied 25 percent of the total import value in 2003. This was 2 percent less compared to 2002 in value; volume increased by almost 11 percent in 2003 compared to 2002 (see appendix 2). Germany was the leading EU importer, accounting for 23 percent of total imports by EU member countries (in terms of value) in 2003, followed by France (14%) and the United Kingdom (14%) and The Netherlands (11%). Together, these countries imported 62 percent of the total imported value in 2003. The Netherlands was by far the major supplier of preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU, accounting for 12 percent of the total supplied value in 2003, followed by Germany and Belgium (9%) and Italy (8%). Of the total imported value by EU member countries, 37 percent was supplied extra-EU.


Figure 5.1

Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU, 2001-2003, € 1,000

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
nd s n d Fr an ce et he rla er m Be lg Tu rk ey Po la n Ch in a iu m It al y an y Sp Br az ai il

2001 2002 2003

Source: Eurostat, 2003 It should be noted that above mentioned EU countries partly import preserved fruit and vegetables from outside the EU, process these and supply the end product to other EU countries. Table 5.1 Leading new EU suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU, 2001-2003, € 1,000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume Poland 511,002 693,680 Hungary 223,633 315,515 Source: Eurostat 2003 5.1.1 Germany Germany was the leading EU importer of preserved fruit and vegetables, with imports amounting to € 3.2 billion or 3.8 million tonnes in 2003. Compared to 2002, this represented a decrease by 0.2 percent in value, while imports in terms of volume decreased by 0.1 percent. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Import value in € 1,000 934 792 411 368 Import share in % 29 25 13 11 2002 value € volume 532,209 672,601 239,882 318,139 2003 value € volume 613,146 742,938 239,158 297,521

The above-mentioned product groups accounted for 78 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.

Th e




Figure 5.2

Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Germany, 2001-2003, € 1,000

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
nd s d Ch in a It al y iu m n Fr an ce Tu rk ey Po la n re ec e ai et he rla Be lg Sp ga ry

2001 2002 2003


The Netherlands supplied a relatively large share of German imports (18%), mainly by transit trade through the port of Rotterdam. Poland increased its importance as a trading partner of Germany and accounted for 12 percent of import value in 2003. Developing countries supplied 20 percent of the imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003, which remained the same as in 2002. Germany continues to suffer from a bad depressed economy, high unemployment (11.5% in 2004) and a low consumer confidence. Due to this situation, consumers do not spend their money leading to enormous price pressure and competition in the retail trade. Poland and China continue their increase as suppliers of preserved fruit and vegetables to the German market, as these countries can supply at lower costs than traditional supplying countries like The Netherlands, Italy and Belgium. 5.1.2 France France was the second leading EU importer of preserved fruit and vegetables, accounting for € 2 billion or 2.3 million tonnes in 2003. French imports increased in 2003 by almost 6 percent in terms of value and by 10 percent in terms of volume. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Frozen vegetables Canned fruit Import value in € 1,000 623 513 283 237 Import share in % 31 26 14 12

These product groups accounted for 83 percent of total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.

Th e

Source: Eurostat, 2003





1.Figure 5. it is not surprising that the imports showed a healthy growth. As selected preserved fruit and vegetables are mainly used as ingredients for a wide variety of packaged food. while the imported volume increased by a hefty 28 percent.9 billion or 3. Se rb ia M on t G 35 . the imported value increased by 3. 5. accounting for € 1.4 million tonnes in 2003. € 1.3 United Kingdom The United Kingdom was the third leading EU importer of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Packaged food sales are therefore expected to grow. 2003 Belgium. 19 and 14 percent of total value imports. Between 2002 and 2003. Increasingly busy lifestyles are the reasons that French consumers spend less time in the kitchen to prepare food.000 599 519 250 221 Import share in % 31 27 13 11 These product groups accounted for 82 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. Spain and The Netherlands were the leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to France accounting for respectively 20.3 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to France. Developing countries supplied 19 percent of the total imports to France in 2003.000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 nd s n Ch in a iu m It al y an y Tu rk ey gr o or oc co ai et he rla Be lg er m en e Is ra Sp el 2001 2002 2003 M N Th e Source: Eurostat.1 percent in value. as the French adopt a more Anglo-Saxon way of eating. 2001-2003. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product groups Canned vegetables Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Import value in € 1.

imports decreased by 0. as many consumers do not have the time to cook in a traditional sense. Sales of convenience foods. Th e N G G 36 . developing countries supplied the United Kingdom with 18 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. followed by The Netherlands and Belgium.8 million tonnes in 2003. Grazing has become a growing trend.9 percent in value and increased by 6. 2001-2003. 2003 The leading supplier to the United Kingdom in 2003 was Italy.6 billion or 1. € 1.9 percent in volume.000 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 nd s It al y iu m Fr an ce an y n Tu rk ey re ec e U SA ai et he rla er m Sp Be lg Ir el an d 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. Many products in these sectors use preserved fruit and vegetables.1. spurring growth in the snack and confectionery sectors. Between 2002 and 2003. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Import value in € 1. The Netherlands is an important transit country. In 2003. as the port of Rotterdam plays a major role in the import of preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU. Especially the bulk imports of fruit concentrates play an important role.000 852 284 99 Import share in % 54 18 6 These product groups accounted for 78 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.4 The Netherlands The Netherlands was the fourth largest importer of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. especially chilled ready meals and prepared salads. have continued to grow. accounting for € 1.4 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the United Kingdom.Figure 5. which accounts for the good performance in terms of imports. 5.

1. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Belgium amounted to € 1.Figure 5. this represented a decrease by 2. This was mainly caused by the high fruit juice/concentrate imports (orange juice concentrate in bulk vessels to tank farms in the Amsterdam and Rotterdam ports).1 billion or 1.2 percent in value and a decrease of 1. 5. Prices were negatively influenced by exports to Germany. 2001-2003. which increasingly sources selected preserved fruit and vegetables in low cost countries like Poland and China. Compared to 2002. a large share of which is further re-exported to the other EU member countries.000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Th ai la nd Ch in a iu m n It al y il Tu rk ey er m Be lg Fr an ce an y Br az U SA Sp ai 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat.5 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to The Netherlands. The increase in volume was most likely caused by positive developments in the fruit juice/concentrates sector. where it had a far more dominant position than in the other major EU markets.3 percent in volume. € 1. Developing countries supplied 50 percent of the total imported value during 2003. Thailand and China were among The Netherlands’ leading suppliers in developing countries and took a relatively more important position in Netherlands imports than in EU overall imports.5 Belgium In 2003.000 456 197 242 Import share in % 41 18 22 G 37 . 2003 Brazil was by far the leading supplier of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to The Netherlands. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Canned vegetables Import value in € 1. The Netherlands is a major importer of this product group and reexports consumer products after processing and packing.4 million tonnes.

probably due to sourcing in other exporting countries. but dropped during 2003 to 21 percent. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Italy amounted to € 1 billion or 1million tonnes. followed by France. Brazil was the leading supplier to Belgium of selected preserved fruit and vegetables (terminal for concentrates in the port of Gent).6 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Belgium.1.000 324 184 149 76 71 Import share in % 32 18 15 8 7 These product groups accounted for 80 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. especially in canned vegetables.These product groups accounted for 81 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. The import share of Brazil in 2002 (value) was 23 percent. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Canned vegetables Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Canned fruit Import value in € 1.000 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 s n Fr an ce It al y an y Tu rk ey U SA d Po la n il Br az et he rla er m Sp re ec e nd ai 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. Figure 5. Compared to 2002. 5. 2001-2003. € 1. as Belgian consumers continue to place great value on taste and convenience. 2003 In 2003. Much of the citrus concentrates are re-exported to other EU countries. Belgium has a large bulk terminal for citrus concentrates in the port of Gent. The imports of juices/concentrated from Brazil decreased. hence the large share of fruit concentrate. this represented an increase of 5.6 Italy In 2003. Th e N G G 38 . The gloomy economic outlook until 2004 had a negative impact on the confidence of Belgian households and therefore on the consumption of packaged food.7 percent in value and an increase by 11 percent in volume. Imports from France increase.

2001-2003. € 1.2 percent in value but an increase of 3. followed by France and China. 5. The increase in imports was further stimulated by lower than expected Italian harvest of tomatoes.7 Spain In 2003. 2003 Spain overtook France as the leading supplier of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Italy during 2003. In terms of convenience.Figure 5. Compared to 2002. packaged food products perceived as being convenient as well as healthy spurred the growth in imports of canned and frozen vegetables. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Spain amounted to € 628 million or 669 million tonnes. this represented a decrease of 1.7 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Italy. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Canned vegetables Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Import value in € 1.000 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Ch in a nd s n st ria Fr an ce Tu rk ey iu m an y Sp et he rla er m re ec e Be lg U SA ai 2001 2002 2003 G Source: Eurostat. Developing countries supplied 28 percent of total value imports to Italy during 2003.9 percent in volume.1.000 217 150 103 Import share in % 35 24 16 These product groups accounted for 75 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. Th e N Au G 39 . affecting the production of tomato paste.

1. followed by The Netherlands and Peru.4 percent in value.Figure 5. but an increase of 2. Compared to 2002. New EU countries 5. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Dried fruit Import value in € 1. chilled processed food.000 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Th ai la nd nd s iu m a Po rt ug al Fr an ce It al y Pe ru an y et he rla er m Be lg or oc co Ch in 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. Th e N G M 40 .4 percent in volume.000 56 38 30 21 Import share in % 30 20 16 11 These product groups accounted for 77 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. Sales of meal replacement products. Although the majority of these outlets are pizzerias. ready meals and confectionery saw a strong growth in 2003. takeaway and fast food outlets continue to prosper. These product groups are important for preserved fruit and vegetables.8 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Spain. this represented a decrease of 3. Due to hectic lifestyles of many Spanish consumers. € 1. 2001-2003. developing countries supplied Spain with 37 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Poland amounted to € 188 million or 209 million tonnes. outlets that offer healthy food are opening up in increasing numbers. 2003 The leading supplier to Spain in 2003 was France. In 2003.8 Poland In 2003.

5.9 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Poland. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Import value in € 1. developing countries supplied Poland with 40 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. In 2003.Figure 5.1. followed by Hungary and Greece.000 32 28 24 14 Import share in % 26 23 20 12 These product groups accounted for 81 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. this represented an increase in both value and volume by 3 and 15 percent respectively. 2003 The leading supplier to Poland in 2003 was Brazil.9 Czech Republic In 2003. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into the Czech Republic amounted to € 122 million or 171 million tonnes. G 41 .000 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Th ai la nd a ry n Br az il It al y an y re ec e Is ra ga Ch Sp er m Ir an in ai el 2001 2002 2003 un H G Source: Eurostat. 2001-2003. Compared to 2002. € 1.

consumers spend more on food items.000 29 19 13 Import share in % 37 24 16 These product groups accounted for 77 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. by 30 and 31 percent respectively. 2001-2003. the Czech Republic increases its imports of selected fruit and vegetables.Figure 5. developing countries supplied the Czech Republic with 31 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. proximity to the market coupled to low costs are the main reasons. In 2003.10 Hungary In 2003. G Sl 42 .1. followed by China and Austria. compared to 2002. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned fruit Canned vegetables Import value in € 1.10 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to The Czech Republic. Due to a strong economy. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Hungary amounted to € 79 million or 87 million tonnes. As disposable income rises. 5.000 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Th ai la nd d a st ria It al y n an y Po la n ov ak Br az in ai Ch er m Sp ga H un ry ia il 2001 2002 2003 Au Source: Eurostat. 2003 The leading supplier to the Czech Republic in 2003 was Poland. € 1. Import in terms of value and volume increased substantially. Poland strengthens its position as leading supplier.

2003 The leading supplier to Hungary in 2003 was Brazil. China (1%). th e N et h G Ro m G 43 . frozen vegetables (12%).11 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Hungary.2.000 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Th ai la nd s ia d It al y an y re ec e Br az Po la n U SA nd an er m er la Sp ai n il 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat.1 Fruit juice/concentrate Fruit juice/concentrate was the largest product group (of selected preserved fruit and vegetables) imported by EU countries. 2001-2003. The import share of fruit juice/concentrate from developing countries shows the following picture: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 27% 27% 2002 27% 25% 2003 25% 23% The leading suppliers of fruit juice/concentrate to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Brazil (16%). frozen fruit (8%) and dried fruit (6%). both in value (32%) and in volume (36%) in 2003. by far. Hungary continues to strengthen its position as an important supplying country to the EU. canned fruit (10%). Less important groups were dried vegetables (3%) and provisionally preserved fruit & vegetables (2%). 5.Figure 5. followed by Italy and Poland. the leading imported product group. Thailand (1%). accounting for 32 percent of the imports by EU member countries. Hungary imports increasing quantities of preserved fruit and vegetables to cater for growing consumer demands. developing countries supplied Hungary with 33 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Imports in volume increased constantly during 2001 – 2003 till 6 million tonnes in 2003. Other leading product groups were canned vegetables (26%). Apart from growing a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.2 Imports by product group Fruit juice and concentrate was. 5. In 2003. € 1.

346.493 1.438 328.498 238.Figure 5.432.000 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 s Ki ng do m Fr an ce It al y st ria iu m n an y nd Sp et he rla er m Be lg m ar k ai 2001 2002 2003 Au G Source: Eurostat 2003 In 2003.902 906.603.967 224.545 250.578 304.806 699.542 5.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume Total Extra-EU Developing countries 4.368 181.380.407 2. accounting for 35 percent of total (value) imports.922 2.782 760.321 726.945 372. 44 . € 1.12 Imports of fruit juice/concentrate into the main importing EU countries.601 5.341 340.102 732.140 316.027 Leading suppliers The Netherlands Brazil Germany Belgium Spain Italy Poland Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e 747.866 500. accounting for 21 percent of value imports by EU member countries.979 1.606 226.871 265.047 U ni te d N 701.874 305.349 2.682.625 1.140.674 558.112 932.925 264.000 233.785 6.120 808.088.556 317.065 485.142.349 2002 value € volume 4. Table 5.448 1.781 673.823 D en 785.727 357. followed by juice of any other single fruit or vegetable (29%).403 1.178. € 1.3 Imports of fruit juice/concentrate into the EU by leading suppliers.584 837.285 280.900 926.027. Germany was the leading importer of this product group.368. explaining the country’s high share in total imports by EU member states.933 1.254 863.974 688.091.854 283.642 2003 value € volume 4.507. 2001 –2003.157.336.368 1. The Dutch port of Rotterdam is an important turnover point for fruit juice concentrate.135 Frozen orange juice was the largest product within this product group in 2003.908 1. mixtures of juices (20%) and pineapple juice (16%).110 169.109.654 1.527 206.695 1. 2001-2003.235 246.360.132 216.104.716.185 302.

Germany (11%). both in value (26%) and in volume (24%) in 2003. Germany (17%). India (1%) Figure 5. Italy (11%). 5. United kingdom (6%) Although The Netherlands and Belgium are leading suppliers of frozen orange juice. United Kingdom (10%). France (9%). The import share of canned vegetables from developing countries shows the following picture: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 18% 15% 2002 19% 18% 2003 18% 19% The leading suppliers of canned vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (6%). Morocco (2%). this product originates mainly in Brazil from where it is shipped to The Netherlands and Belgium and often re-exported to other EU destinations. Total imports increased by 1.2 Canned vegetables Canned vegetables were the second largest product imported into the EU. Belgium (20%). Spain (10%). The Netherlands (17%). Italy (13%). Turkey (4%).000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Ki ng do m s Fr an ce It al y iu m an y n nd Sw ed Sp et he rla er m Be lg m D en ar k ai en 2001 2002 2003 G U ni te d Th e N 45 .The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: frozen orange → The Netherlands (43%).9 Imports of canned vegetables into the main importing EU countries. Peru (3%).2. Italy (9%) pineapple juice → The Netherlands (39%). Poland (9%) single fruit or vegetable mixtures of → France (21%). Germany (12%). Belgium juices (10%).5 percent in value and by 2 percent in volume in 2003 compared to 2002. € 1. 2001 –2003. Thailand (1%). Brazil (5%) juice juice of any other → The Netherlands (17%).

592 2002 value € volume 3.906 204.019 1.577 84.588 875. Spain (11%).891 368.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 3. accounting for 22 percent of the imported value by EU member countries. Spain (5%) 46 .628 284. Greece (22%).516 166.455 764. 20012003.874 103.487 365.124 413.542 151.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 794. China (8%) olives → Spain (45%).038 469.590.877.058 111.388 1.555.912 603.373 253.526 686.636 862.039 126.979 93.222 2003 value € volume 3.5 Imports of tomatoes.140 554. These countries accounted for 70 percent of imports into the EU during 2003. Morocco (15%).844 166.768 1.534 69.458 457.955 180.167 4.556 286.280 375.778 70. Turkey (8%) (HS2005) asparagus → China (38%).662 102. 2001-2003. prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid (HS code 2002) accounted for 27 percent of selected canned vegetables in 2003 by value.056.519 96.496 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Italy The Netherlands France Spain Germany Belgium China Source: Eurostat.938 205.116 124.814 481.424 596. prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid into the EU by leading suppliers.958 93.212 91.405 337.217 181.863 57.064 406.234 190.558 221.557 519.408 717.512.135 104.460 52.030 1.721 84.009 499.031 877.187.666 236.433 140.958 51. France (14%). Peru (34%).666 59.873 4.234 272.564 202.520 214.226 55.959 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Italy Spain China Portugal Greece Source: Eurostat 2003 873.503. The Netherlands (13%).879 157.197 153.416 672.177 50.206 874.4 Imports of canned vegetables into the EU by leading suppliers.726 383. € 1.753 381. Germany (7%).479 348.766 812.445 99.238 228.440 469.178 83. Italy (9%) and the Netherlands (8%).116 79.Source: Eurostat 2003 In 2003. 2003 Tomatoes Within canned vegetables.955 568.690 946.384 225. canned tomatoes is the largest product group Tomatoes.247 198.977 324.180 137.266 3.835 1.069.003 227. as the following table shows: Table 5.369 647.412.140.827 1.008 351.236 230.247 64. Table 5.138 629.184 2003 value € volume 961. Germany was the leading importer of canned vegetables.537 227.151.292 180.037 2002 value € volume 875.624 280.734 The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: tomatoes → Italy (54%). € 1. followed the United Kingdom (17%).601 80.870 776.944 295.294 350.400 257.595 239.

Belgium (9%). 2001 –2003. Germany (20%). Vietnam (5%) → Turkey (23%). Turkey (2%).10 Imports of frozen vegetables into the main EU countries. Ecuador (1%). UK (11%). € 1.3 Frozen vegetables Frozen vegetables was the third largest product imported into the EU. accounting for 12 percent in value and 19 percent in volume.000 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ki ng do m iu m Fr an ce It al y an y nd s n ai en et he r la Sw ed er m Sp Be lg Ir el an d 2001 2002 2003 G U ni te d Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e N 47 .2. Hungary (8%) Poland supplied 1 percent of total value imports in 2003 and is the only sizeable supplier of the new EU countries to the EU for canned vegetables. Germany (18%). Thailand (13%) → India (23%). South Africa (5%). Hungary (19%). Figure 5. The import share of frozen vegetables from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 11% 6% 2002 11% 6% 2003 10% 5% The leading suppliers of frozen vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (4%). Pakistan (18%). The imports in terms of value decreased by 3 percent while imports in volume increased by 16 percent. The Netherlands (20%).sweet corn tropical fruits & nuts cucumbers & gherkins → France (48%). 5.

The leading importer of frozen vegetables in 2003 was Germany.2.000 Source: Eurostat 2003 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ki ng do m s n Fr an ce It al y st ria iu m an y nd et he rla er m Be lg Po la n Sp ai d 2001 2002 2003 G U ni te d Germany was the largest importer of canned fruit in 2003. The Netherlands (7%) and Belgium (6%). Th e N Au 48 . both in value (10%) and in volume (9%). Belgium (11%) and Italy (9%). The import share of canned fruit from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 32% 36% 2002 32% 38% 2003 33% 42% The leading suppliers of canned fruit to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Thailand (8%). both imports in value and volume increased with 5 percent compared to 2002. accounting for 28 percent of the total imports in value. followed by the United Kingdom (13%). France was the second country with 16 percent of import value.10 Imports of canned fruit into the main EU countries. € 1. accounting for 21 percent of imports by EU member countries. South Africa (5%). the United Kingdom (14%). China (5%). 2001 –2003. Philippines (1%) Figure 5. Together. followed by France (16%). Kenya (3%). Turkey (2%). Indonesia (3%). these countries accounted for 71 percent of total value imports into the EU in 2003. During 2003.4 Canned fruit Canned fruit was the fourth largest product imported into the EU in 2003. 5.

6 Imports of canned fruit into the EU by leading suppliers.269 154.Together these countries accounted for 70 percent of the total import in value of canned fruit into the EU in 2004. USA (4%) fruit → Italy (25%). accounting for 8 percent in value and 5 percent in volume in 2003.444 62.432 112.597 148.832 144. Turkey (11%). The Netherlands (9%).717 166.278 Canned pineapple accounted for 21 percent of total value imports in 2003.192 152.776 40.264 116.362 107.578.925 501. Germany (7%) peaches → Greece (32%). Germany (7%) apricots → Spain (21%). Germany (22%).744 1. Indonesia (12%). the Netherlands (7%). Spain (23%).477 572. Spain (22%).043 1.325 54. The import share of frozen fruit from developing countries showed the following picture: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 26% 26% 2002 27% 27% 2003 28% 32% 49 .448. South Africa mixtures (7%) citrus fruit → China (27%).743 148.133 76.379. while volume imports increased by 7. followed by peaches (18%). 5.808 427.558 205. citrus fruit (9%) and apricots (9%).893 546. Kenya (13%). Italy (9%) The new EU countries are not sizeable suppliers of canned fruit to the EU. The Netherlands (9%).396 572.740 648.008 447. The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: pineapples → Thailand (36%).7 percent in 2003.385 65.950 753. € 1.487 119.954 149.570 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Germany Spain Italy Greece Thailand The Netherlands South Africa China Source: Eurostat 2003 153.690 185.789 172. 2001-2003.207 2003 value € volume 1.790 43.732 664.140 149. Italy (8%).847 30. fruit mixtures (17%).328 182.785 86.781 475. Austria (9%).395 112.387 167.145 187.4 Frozen fruit Frozen fruit was the fifth largest product imported into the EU.599 168.383 112.2.424 123.901 73. Morocco (12%).766 244.840 77. Germany (8%).749 143.124 171. Table 5.465 1.7 percent compared to 2002.502.336 86.706 159. Value imports increased by 15.334.148 167.523.617 82.850 78.377 67.194 69.837 83.742 2002 value € volume 1.437 120.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 1. South Africa (14%).414 522.388 78.442 207.883 159. Greece (15%). South Africa (7%).771 616.

Together these countries accounted for 74 percent of total value imports into the EU Table 5.686 49.438 217.300 832.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 2002 value € volume 931.7 Imports of frozen fruit into the EU by leading suppliers.890 102.064 43.431 597. The Netherlands (9%).734 U ni e te d N D 50 .371 72.450 36.395 117.183 306.423 87. Morocco (4%). 2001 –2003.540 582.985 517.649 225. China (4%).906 58. € 1.857 681.069 2003 value € volume 1.050 72.268 193.915 196.125 766.123 533.798 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Poland Serbia Montenegro Germany The Netherlands 833.281 202. followed by France (15%).202 60.The leading suppliers of frozen fruit to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Serbia Montenegro (11%).973 219.894 76.381 100.493 58.114 284.526 53. Chile (3%).907 251.497 40. € 1.000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ki ng do m Be lg iu m Fr an ce st ria ds y y k G er m an al er la n ar Sw ed It en m en 2001 2002 2003 et h Au Th Source: Eurostat 2003 Germany remained by far the largest importer of frozen fruit into the EU with 37 percent of total value imports.268 233. 2001-2003.465 192. United Kingdom (7%) and Italy (6%). Turkey (3%) Figure 5.836 119.077.940 896.804 547.923 207.470 54.987 96.11 Imports of frozen fruit into the main EU countries.

506 50.655 38.375 32.995 11.682 38.777 29.5 Dried fruit Dried fruit was the sixth largest product imported into the EU in 2003.680 43. The import share of dried fruit from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 50% 62% 2002 53% 64% 2003 54% 65% The leading suppliers of dried fruit to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Turkey (31%).603 34. Tunisia (6%). Chile (4%).272 16.599 55. Iran (4%).465 5. both in value (6%) and in volume (4%).054 23.211 36.619 32.2.Belgium China Spain Morocco Chile Source: Eurostat 2003 39.234 18.12 Imports of dried fruit into the main EU countries.233 24.293 22.546 43.345 36.456 24.289 12.769 39.510 31. South Africa (3%) Figure 5. The value of imports decreased by 1 percent while the volume increased by 1 percent in 2003 compared to 2002.773 26.000 250 200 2001 2002 2003 150 100 50 0 om ds Fr an ce iu m an y n d y Po la n an It gd Sp er m Be lg m D en ar k al ai U ni te d Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e N et he rl Ki n G 51 .224 32.086 29.880 29.593 9. 2001 –2003 € 1.781 22.300 42.

Greece (10%).706 474.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 2002 2003 value € volume value € volume 889. figs Algeria (6%) dried bananas → France (23%).531 26. USA (17%). Turkey (4%).2. France (7%).125 17.865 138.787 30.733 23.391 82.680 395.952 86.709 587.831 49.090 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Turkey USA France Tunisia Greece Germany Iran Chile The Netherlands Source: Eurostat 2003 840.437 30. by 8.382 22. and bananas (1%) Together these products accounted for nearly 80 percent of total value imports in 2003.644 30.068 239.279 43. The Netherlands (7%).8 Imports of dried fruit into the EU by leading suppliers. Brazil (4%) dried tamarind → Thailand (45%).370 42.840 Dried grapes accounted for 39 percent of total value imports in 2003. Costa Rica (6%) dried cashew. The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: dried grapes → Turkey (42%).6 Dried vegetables Dried vegetables were the seventh largest product imported into the EU in 2003.5 percent respectively.Table 5. Philippines (11%). € 1. Egypt (3%). → Germany (61%). The Netherlands (14%). India (29%).166 61.890 129.598 55. 2001-2003. Serbia Montenegro(2%) 52 .977 36.028 366.203 423. Philippines (3%) fruit 5.371 244. Israel (12%).155 40.462 26. dried papayas → Thailand (73%).919 49.652 33.949 30. dates (15%). compared to 2002. Germany (8%).325 30. Tunisia (26%).358 29.815 270.616 17.2 and 4. South Africa (6%) dates and dried → Turkey (27%).869 36. India (3%).784 229.398 58. Vietnam (12%) lychees.211 18. Both import value and volume decreased in 2003.293 478.720 160.787 14.555 646.722 77. They accounted for 3 percent of total import value and 1 percent of total import volume into the EU.323 387.013 30. Iran (8%).374 13. followed by dates and dried figs (23%).307 879.071 36.774 464.271 494.605 40. The import share of dried vegetables from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 33% 28% 2002 34% 31% 2003 32% 34% The leading suppliers of dried vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (14%).266 281.598 51.755 12.284 259. Germany (13%).752 23.207 470.277 25.632 611.852 16.490 32.792 53. etc.988 60.823 614.355 18.612 35.122 53. Ecuador (22%).550 646.067 605.250 28.608 40.

679 51.631 2002 value € volume 507.503 14.352 Italy 19.993 267.000 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 ds om d Fr an ce Po la n st ri a iu m an y al an It er m gd Be lg Sp ai n y 2001 2002 2003 et he rl G Source: Eurostat 2003 Germany was the leading importer of dried vegetables.213 23.832 The 32.442 Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e U ni te d N Ki n 28.955 200.328 17.121 2003 value € volume 466.915 Dried onions accounted for 21 percent of the total value imports of dried vegetables into the EU.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 475.704 Netherlands Spain 17. 2001 – 2003.326 10.364 24. Table 5.13 Imports of dried vegetables into the main EU countries.815 Germany 49.568 78.387 5.880 14. € 1.314 28.905 France 56.358 147. the United Kingdom (12%) France (12%) and Italy (11%). 2001 –2003.965 68. Other leading EU importers were The Netherlands (15%).143 48.279 43.834 170.991 34.829 8.283 7.409 32.269 USA 44.900 61.334 Au 64.Figure 5.940 85.086 36. € 1.558 13. followed by dried mushrooms (19%).732 57. 53 .384 23.9 Imports of dried vegetables into the EU by leading suppliers.325 36.538 23.116 22.230 7.045 17.648 97.708 219.276 154.290 12.031 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers China 69.204 71. accounting for 24 percent of value imports by EU member countries in 2003.765 20.631 8.278 16.724 55.032 36.209 19.494 98.921 229.061 209.277 253.047 20.

Figure 5.2. accounting for 2 percent of value imports and 1 percent in volume imports. USA (16%). € 1. Germany (8%). The import share of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 2002 42% 41% 2003 42% 45% 43% 39% The leading suppliers of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (12%). India (10%).7 Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables was the seventh largest product imported into the EU in 2003. Germany (8%) dried → China (34%).2 percent over 2003 while the import in terms of volume did not change.The leading suppliers of dried vegetables (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value): dried onions → France (22%). Morocco (7%).000 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 om ds n iu m y Po rt ug al Fr an ce an y er m gd Sp Be lg re ec e G al ai an It 2001 2002 2003 U ni te d Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e N et he rl G Ki n 54 .14 Imports of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables into the main EU countries. 2001 –2003. Turkey (6%). mushrooms Romania (8%) 5. Egypt (13%). India (9%). Value imports decreased with 6. Serbia Montenegro (2%). Serbia Montenegro (11%).

359 Poland 11. Volume.885 11.965 7.245 33.940 Source: Eurostat 2003 26.5 billion in 2002 to € 3.591 88.606 232.584 Leading suppliers China 37. (9%).595 Netherlands India 23.134 9.246 97.417 24.814 218.The leading EU importer of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003 was Italy.576 8.722 7.197 140. United Kingdom (11%) and France (11%).4 billion in 2003.307 26.941 2003 value € volume 231.324 119.924 124.610 27. € 1.983 98.230 20. however.380 8. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries decreased on a value basis from € 3.540 34.479 91.016 In 2003. The import share of developing countries in total EU imports remained rather stable as the following picture shows: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 25% 23% 2002 26% 23% 2003 25% 23% 55 .395 132.205 32.876 25.688 Spain 36.328 15.225 29.314 26.095 25.027 25. the leading supplier of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables was China. Table 5.444 115. accounting for 12 percent of imports by EU member countries.640 10.269 13.947 5.710 19.3 The role of the developing countries Between 2002 and 2003. followed by Germany (14%).003 10.837 217.361 11.130 103. 5. India (9%) and Morocco (6%). 2001-2003.670 2002 value € volume 247.078 9.397 8.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume Total Extra-EU Developing countries 270.388 11.9 million tonnes in 2003.324 142.871 27.837 12. accounting for 26 percent of imports by EU member countries.10 Imports of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU by leading suppliers. followed by Spain (11%).665 9.650 31.397 Morocco 18.359 14. increased from 3.597 29.742 30.424 19.6 million tonnes in 2002 to 3.962 The 27.179 Turkey 13.498 Italy 9.784 156.018 30.350 8.571 21.

Belgium (31%). China (1%) 24% 18% 33% Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables → China (7%). Together these seven EU countries accounted for 94 percent of value imports from developing countries in 2003. 2001-2003 60% 50% 2001 2002 2003 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% ds iu m Fr an ce an Sp It an y Be lg er m gd Ki n om n ai al G y et he rl Th e Source: Eurostat 2003 The Netherlands remained the leading importer of selected preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries during 2003 with an import value share of 50 percent. Germany (20%). Turkey (2%). South Africa (3%). Product groups Main developing country suppliers (share in Share DCs of % of import value supplied by developing total import countries. Chile (4%). China (4%). Thailand (2%) Canned fruit → Thailand (8%). China (4%). 2003 → Brazil (16%). Ecuador (1%). Tunisia (6%). Argentina (1%). Italy (28%). Morocco Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Frozen fruit U ni te d N 10% 54% 28% 56 . Thailand (1%). followed by Spain (37%). Turkey (2%). Indonesia (3%). France (19%) and the United Kingdom (18%). Kenya (3%).15 Share of developing countries in selected preserved fruit and vegetables imported into main EU countries as a percentage of total value imports. Peru (3%). → Serbia Montenegro (11%).Figure 5. → Turkey (31%). 2003) value. Iran (4%). Turkey (4%). South Africa (5%). Philippines (1%). Ecuador (1%) → China (4%). Morocco (2%).

57 . 2003 Developing countries are already major exporters of tropical and subtropical products to the new EU countries as can be seen from the figures in this chapter. → China (12%).(4%). Chile (3%). DCs = Developing countries 32% 42% Source: Eurostat. Egypt (3%). The latter are effectively penetrating the new markets. Serbia Montenegro (2%). Apart from direct dealings with the new EU countries. exports can also be realized through trading partners based in the EU-15 countries.India (3%). Morocco (6%). Turkey (4%). Turkey (6%). Serbia Montenegro (2%). India (9%). especially when many trade barriers are no longer there. Turkey (3%) Dried vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables → China (14%).

595 1.834 2.336.711 894.626.574.046 1. € 1.906. Russia (2%).208 13. an increase of 1 percent compared to 2002.678. accounting for 15 percent each of total value exports. frozen vegetables (15%) and canned fruit (9%) in value in 2003.408 1.016 1.578.235 1.673 2.147 1. The trade in these products. Germany (11%) and France (8%).971. The values exported by EU countries increased steadily between 2001 and 2003. followed by fruit juice/concentrate (26% in value).015 1.319 Source: Eurostat.400.430 13. These countries together accounted for 77 percent of total EU exports.053 2002 value € volume 11.654 1. followed by The Netherlands (13%). value exports by EU member countries of selected preserved fruit and vegetables amounted to € 12 billion.538 885.320.777 2003 value € volume 11. The EU member countries exported relatively small amounts of dried fruit and vegetables.835.469.969 2.804.965 Netherlands Germany 1.620 Spain 1. receiving 54 percent of total exports by EU member countries.812 2.1 Exports of preserved fruit and vegetables by the major EU exporting countries.712.700 2. These four product groups accounted for 82 percent of the total export value.6 EXPORTS In 2003. 58 .427 2.454.550.863 2. Italy and Spain were the leading EU exporters.192 13.729 The 1.694 Italy 1.231 1.171.498 1. Table 6.315 Total Extra-EU Belgium 1.540. Switzerland and Japan.559. the leading destinations for preserved fruit and vegetables were Germany.986 1.637.572. France.881 2.330 2.251 1.062. Belgium.105.673 975. 78 percent of the export value was intra-EU oriented.462 1.761.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 11.999.765.012. 2003 In 2003.761.509.294.218 1. mainly consisted of re-exports to the other EU member states.337. however.992 1. Canned vegetables were the leading exported product group (36% in value).997 2.241 962.272.548.505. Leading extra-EU destinations were the USA (4%).452 1.558.850 1. 2001-2003.717. As mentioned in chapter 5.766.565.508.124.471.547 2.477 1.886 1.482. the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. The Netherlands and Belgium are major transit countries for preserved fruit and vegetables.861.471 1.797 France 990.526.243 1. The volume in 2003 was 13 billion tonnes and remained the same as in 2002.

1 Exports of preserved fruit and vegetables by EU member countries per product group.2003. Both export value and volume increased compared to 2002 by 2 and 5 percent respectively.2 million tonnes in 2003. This was due to the increasing fruit juice consumption in most EU countries. accounting for 28 percent of value exports.1. % of total export value 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Ca nn ed Fr ui t ve ge ta bl e ju ic ve e/ ge co ta nc bl en es tr s at es Fr oz en Ca nn e Fr o d fr ui t ze n D rie fr ui t d fr ui t D rie d ve ge ta bl es 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. intra-EU exports are relatively small at 68 percent. especially tomato processing. Exports amounted to € 1. Compared to other leading EU exporters of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. 59 . as about 420 thousands tonnes was exported in 2003. 2001 . As the second largest exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. 2003 6.1 Belgium The large imports and processing of fruit juice/concentrates are responsible for the leading position of Belgium as exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. 96 percent of value exports was intra-EU. followed by Germany (24%).3 million tonnes. Italy’s exports amounted to € 1. France was the largest export market. The volume exported was 2. 6.1.Figure 6.8 billion in 2003. A substantial part of this is processed and exported to other EU countries.8 billion or 2. United Kingdom (15%) and The Netherlands (11%).2 Italy Italy is one of the leading producers of fruit and vegetables in the EU. showing that processed fruit juices/concentrates are mainly re-exported to other EU countries.

3 Spain Spain shares the second position with Italy as the largest exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. accounting for 38 percent in value of total exports from The Netherlands.Germany was the largest export market. United Kingdom (16%) and Italy (10%). The USA is the largest non-EU export market. with exports amounting to € 1.6 million tonnes in 2003. 6.1. France accounted for 14 percent of export value. fresh and preserved fruit and vegetables are imported as raw material.4 The Netherlands The Netherlands was the fourth EU exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.5 billion or 1. 14 and 8 percent respectively. 6.1. followed by United Kingdom (13%) and Belgium (8%).9 million tonnes in 2003. This represented an increase in value of 5 percent and 9 percent in volume compared to 2002. These countries accounted for 60 percent of total value exports. Germany is traditionally the largest trading partner of The Netherlands. Exports amounted to € 1. followed by Germany and Italy with 22.5 Germany Germany was the fifth EU exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. 67 percent of Spain’s exports are intra-EU. accounting for 23 percent of total value exports. As the home market of The Netherlands is small. this represented a decrease of 1 percent in value.3 billion or 1. United Kingdom (11%) and Belgium (9%).5 million tonnes in 2003. while exports in terms of volume increased by 4 percent. Compared to 2002. Tomato paste and tomato sauce form the largest product groups. 6. Volume was 1. followed by Belgium (19%). 86 percent was intra-EU exports with Germany as the largest export market (20% in value).1.1. 87 percent in value of Germany’s export was intra-EU. accounting for 16 percent of total exports. with exports amounting to € 1. an increase of 8 percent compared to 2002. 6. Processed tomatoes account for 24 percent of total exports. United Kingdom was the second largest export market with 16 percent in value exports.8 billion in 2003. 91 percent in value was intra-EU exports. Germany was the largest export market.6 France France was the sixth largest exporter with exports amounting to € 1 billion or 975 thousand tonnes in 2003. followed by France (12%) and USA (4%). (further) processed in The Netherlands and re-exported as ingredient or consumer products to other EU countries. These countries accounted for 65 percent of France’s total exports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Compared to 2002. followed by The Netherlands (18%). while exports in terms of volume decreased by 3 percent. accounting for 21 percent of export value. 60 . France was the largest export market. this represented a decrease of 2 percent in value. France is the largest export market in the EU.

Compared to 2002. followed by The Netherlands (11%) and Spain (11%). USA. Canned vegetables In 2003. Japan and Russia were the leading destinations outside the EU. value increased by 11 percent. 66 percent of exports were intra-EU oriented. Spain was the largest exporter of canned fruit with a value share of 22 percent in 2003. Russia and Canada. Compared to 2002. Frozen vegetables Total exports of frozen vegetables in 2003 amounted to € 1. The value exports decreased with 6 percent in 2003 compared to 2002.9 million tonnes. The Netherlands was the largest exporter of fruit juice/concentrate with a value share of 20 percent. This was an increase in value by 1.1. USA. Poland.3 percent and 4 percent in volume compared to 2002.5 billion or 4. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (23% in value). while volume decreased with 3 percent. Exports amounted to € 0.7 United Kingdom The United Kingdom is a small exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Italy was the largest exporter of canned vegetables with a value share of 27 percent. 78 percent of exports was intra-EU. Leading destinations outside the EU were USA. while the volume decreased with 1. United Kingdom (12% in value) and France (10% in value). Product groups Fruit juice/concentrate In 2003. while volume exports declined by 13 percent compared to 2002. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (25% in value). Intra-EU exports represented 88 percent of total exports. 61 . Belgium was the largest exporter in 2003 with a value share of 41 percent. total exports of canned vegetables amounted to € 4. Canned fruit Total exports of canned fruit in 2003 amounted to € 1 billion or 1 million tonnes. Russia and Japan were the leading export destinations outside the EU. followed by Belgium (17%) and Germany (16%). USA.3 billion or 4. followed by Spain (19%). 83 percent of exports were intra-EU oriented.4 million tonnes. France (16% in value) and the United Kingdom (12% in value). this represented an increase of 3 percent in value and 33 percent in volume. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (17 % in value). France (10%) and The Netherlands (9%).2 billion in 2003 or a volume of 236 thousands tonnes.2 million tonnes. France (17 % in value) and the United Kingdom (11% in value). Switzerland and Australia were the leading destination outside the EU. accounting for 42 percent of total value exports in 2003. The value remained stable compared to 2002. 87 percent of exports were intra-EU oriented. Ireland was the largest export market. total exports of fruit juice/concentrate amounted to € 3. Frozen fruit Total exports of frozen fruit amounted to € 730 million or 570 thousand tonnes in 2003. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (25% in value).6 billion or 2. followed by Germany (17%) and Greece (15%). France (19% in value) and the United Kingdom (12% in value).2 percent compared to 2002.6. Russia.

France (15% in value) and The Netherlands (8%). Leading destinations in the EU were Germany (23% in value). New EU countries Poland and Hungary were the largest exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. 54 percent of Poland’s export was apple juice of which 80 percent was exported to Germany.Poland was the leading exporter with a value share of 35 percent in 2003. Intra-EU exports accounted for 86 percent of total exports. exporting a value of € 750 million and € 382 million respectively. Norway. China and Russia were the leading destinations outside the EU. followed by Belgium (11%) and The Netherlands (11%). Apple juice was the second largest product exported by Hungary (18 percent) of which 63 percent was exported to Germany. 62 . Japan. Hungary was a large exporter of sweet corn (33 % of total value exports). of which 50 percent was exported to the Russian Federation and 22 percent to Germany.

The selection of the trade channel and the trade partner depends on the requirements of the final customer. The former represents the buyers. Another example is the jam industry. The agents never actually take possession of a shipment. which buys substantial amounts of fruit pulp and frozen fruit directly from producers abroad. Agents Agents are intermediaries executing the buying and selling orders of a customer against a commission (between 2 and 5 percent of the purchasing price). End-product manufacturers Some end-product manufacturers who need large quantities (on a regular basis) of ingredients purchase their ingredients directly from producers abroad. grade. The following major business partners can be distinguished for exporters of most preserved fruit and vegetables. Importers Importers buy and sell preserved fruit and vegetables on their own account. which he does not yet possess. compound houses or reexporters. other trade partners are often automatically included. By selecting one specific channel and trade partner. such as the food processing industry. The compound houses supply their compounds in the first place to the beverage industry. mainly to the food processing industry and for re-export. often as ingredient from other EU countries and from outside the EU. The trade of preserved fruit and vegetables is pan-European and the trade channels in the different EU countries do not differ greatly. Preserved fruit and vegetables can reach their final destination by passing through different trade channels. such as the beverage industry in the case of fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate. Two types of agents can be distinguished: buying agents and selling agents. usually the food processing industry. dairy and ice-cream industry. Cargill and the compound houses (see below) are examples of leading processing importers in The Netherlands. 63 . Importers take ‘long’ or ‘short’ positions in the market depending on their expectations of future price trends. The latter represents the sellers. mainly exporters. the products do not pass physically through the agents’ hands and often not even through their countries of operation. If an importer sells ‘short’.7 7. Processing industry (processing importer) Processing manufacturers/processing importers buy raw materials and semi-finished products to process them further. with the goal of selling these to the end-product manufacturers. Agents are usually well informed about the current market trends. These products are then repacked or processed for re-export. in the case of dried vegetables the processing importers clean. prices and users. he is contracting to sell products. Most exporters will sell by means of independent traders (importers) or sales agents based in EU countries. the dairy industry and the ice cream industry. For example. The processing manufacturers purchase preserved fruit and vegetables either directly or from importers or through the services of an agent. Specialised fruit processing industries supply semi-manufactured products to the bakery. It is important that the exporter is aware of the different channels in the market. Moreover.1 TRADE STRUCTURE EU trade channels A large part of the preserved fruit and vegetables used in the EU food industry is imported. while taking a ‘long’ position means that he has unsold products in his trading account. reduce the humidity content and bacteria count before selling to the food industry.

retailers have a strong negotiating position due to the many sourcing possibilities between products and suppliers. but buy from wholesalers or importers. most importers trade in preserved fruit and vegetables in consumer packs and catering packs. In the case of jam and canned vegetables. Cargill and Hiwa) and the beverage industry are mostly supplied directly from the source or from tank farms. These intermediaries have long established links with their customers and are in a better position (than foreign processors) to know the requirements of the local market and of individual end users. especially foreign owned and large companies . although they are involved in the juice trade throughout Europe (Amsterdam and Rotterdam serve as the gateways to Europe for Brazilian orange juice concentrate). New EU countries The food processing industry imports through the following channels: . is specialised in dried fruit and frozen fruit and vegetables. Retail and food service organisations Retailers carry out the final stage of selling preserved fruit and vegetables to consumers. agents and packers in the EU. the concentrate is often processed by compound houses. They supply the food processing industry and supermarkets chains and are financially able to support exclusive contracts and advertising campaigns. Moreover. There are few agents for juice. accounting for a very large share of the total sales. The (re) packers keep the goods on stock in their warehouse. The activities of agents/importers are generally limited to responding to spot purchases from stock and searching for products of a different nature or of a special quality. For example. as well as to service special requirements. or repackers are specialised in more than one product group. In the EU. Because of their much smaller size. These packers sometimes function as importers as well. which mix. Cadbury Schweppes and Danone. as these offer a reference point situated within their own country. as well as the practice of private labelling. The four biggest compound houses or importers (Döhler-Eurocitrus. Carrefour (France). and sometimes under their own brand or the private label of a customer. Potential exporters in developing countries should contact importers. agents. the food service sectors do not usually import directly from source. More or less the same trade structure applies to all the products discussed in this survey. but also in preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use. SVZ. Many end-product manufacturers use processing importers or agents.through importers in the present 15 EU countries . at their own risk. Catz Int. Before a large share of the imports is re-exported. Many importers. The retail sectors hardly ever import directly. 64 . Some importers also act as an agent.Leading importing manufacturers in EU countries are Unilever. Tesco (United Kingdom) and Aldi (Germany). pack and/or standardize the product into the basis for the manufacturing of a wide range of products. Packers These organisations pack goods in standard packs for the European market. large supermarket buying groups are Ahold (The Netherlands). Metro (Germany).direct from foreign suppliers.through local agents.

Figure 7. are served by intermediaries. Some importers also act as an agent. wholesaler and exporter at the same time. can differ. however. 65 . grading. Many importers. mostly smaller food manufacturers. or repackers trade in more than one product group. The soup industry (dried vegetables). the sauce industry (sterilised vegetables). and reducing the humidity content and bacteria count for dried products) the products. the frozen food industry and other large food manufacturers mostly import directly from source.1 Distribution channels for fruit juice concentrate producer/exporter agent/broker compound house other food industries beverage industry re-exports retailers wholesalers food service consumers More or less the same trade structure applies to the other product groups discussed in this survey. Often they pack the fruit and vegetables under their manufacturer’s brand or a private label. the pickles industry (semi-worked pickles). Some. who may or may not repack or reprocess (cleaning. they function as importer. agents. The type of food industry and the importance of the different channels. Mostly.

Alimentaire Eurobroker SA Type Importer/producer Importer/producer Importer` Trader Importer Importer/producer Products juices/ concentrates juices/concentrates canned fruit/veg.1 Germany Company Bayernwald GmbH Dohler group Henry Lamotte Schroeder juice concentrates Website Agent/broker Importer Importer/packer Trader juices/concentrates http://www.J.1. preserved fruit/ http://www.4 Spain Export Trading S.uren. http://www. dried fruit preserved fruit/ canned fruit dried fruit http://www.gerber.wild.3 United Kingdom Gerber Foods importer/producer H.2 France Bureau Couecou La Pulpe http://www. juices/concentrates canned fruit/veg.2 Distribution channels for other preserved fruit and vegetables producer/exporter importer/agent repacker/processor wholesaler retail and food service sector consumers Selected intermediaries of preserved fruit and vegetables in major EU countries 7.bayernwald. Ernst Rickertsen Rudolf Wild GmbH 7. frozen fruit/veg. dried fruit/ preserved fruit/veg.Figure 7. Agent/broker/ Importer 66 .com dried fruit juices/concentrates http://www. tomato products frozen fruit/veg. Uren & Sons Importer/producer European Food Ingredients Netra Agro UK Importer/producer Importer 7. tomato products frozen fruit/veg.1.lapulpe.efiltd.

2 Distribution channels for developing country exporters Importers represent an interesting distribution channel for developing country exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables. multinational companies (Delmonte. http://www. dried fruit/ http://www.svz.riedel. juices/concentrates preserved fruit/ http://www.specialised importers for the food service segment.require large volumes Frozen fruit and vegetables . juices/concentrates preserved fruit dried fruit/veg. 67 . Dole) .moellhausen.specialised .alanheri. juices/concentrates dried fruit/veg.smaller importers . Trade partners in the different product groups can be described as follows: Fruit juices/concentrates .importing retailers . Please refer to Appendix 3.large.1. they also have strong relationships with suppliers and buyers all over the http://www.repackers Canned fruit and vegetables . international operating importers . Trader SVZ International Importer/producer 7.1.5 for contact details of trade juices/concentrates http://www. Some of the importers have an Internet site.large importers Dried fruit and vegetables .6 The Netherlands Catz International Importer Riedel Drinks Importer/producer Alanheri Trader Dohler-Euro Citrus Importer/producer Van Eeghen http://www.vaneeghen.7. Importers not only have experience and knowledge of the international market. Trade fairs are also important meeting points for developing countries’ exporters and EU importers. where interested parties can find more information on the field in which these importers are active.catz. A trade fair is a good opportunity for making personal contact between business partners.5 Italy Italconserve SpA Moellhausen SpA Producer Broker/producer canned fruit/veg.

When quality is not up to standard the products will be diverted to the industry for processing.8 PRICES 8.the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables aimed at the consumer markets.harvest output in the supplying countries in relationship to demand.2 Sources of price information Importers and agents in EU countries are the best sources for price information. while Agra Europe publishes prices in the Public Ledger and Fruit and Vegetable Markets. Contact details and publication titles can be found in appendix 3. They are in constant touch with their customers and suppliers and have up-to-date information regarding the current process and pricing trends. 8. ITC and FAO publish prices for some products. thus putting pressure on prices.1 Price developments Price developments are strongly dependent on a number of factors: . . prices for preserved fruit and vegetables are scarcely available in trade magazines and on the Internet.negotiations between the different chain partners .2 68 . Contrary to fresh fruit and vegetables.

It has.1 Food legislation Step-by-step food legislation in the EU is being fully harmonised: the same legislation will apply to all EU member states. but importers will because they want to be sure that they (including their products) meet all relevant legislation. The main topics covered for EU processors and importers are: • General principles and requirements of food legislation • The establishment of the European Food Safety Authority • Procedures in matters of food safety The regulation is commonly known as the General Food Law. Apart from import tariffs and quotas these so-called non-tariff trade barriers play an important role. beverages. the protection of animal health and welfare.cbi. tobacco…… You will find information on EU requirements for product safety. as well as requirements dealing with environmental issues and social standards. it is primarily horizontal legislation. then go to ‘quick search’ and select what you need under ‘product group’: prepared foodstuffs. The main purpose of the General Food Law is to guarantee a high level of protection of human life and health and. EU food legislation will not impose direct conditions on the manufacturing processes of exporters in developing countries. Originally. Two forms of EU food legislation can be distinguished: Directives Directives have to be implemented by the member states into their national legislation within a certain period of time. At present. as there are food legislation requirements as well as requirements set by the market itself. applying to all categories of food products In recent First you can register. plant health and the environment. It applies to all stages of the production. fed to food-producing animals. The following articles of the General Food Law are important for exporters in developing countries: 69 . EU food legislation was primarily product-related. an umbrella function over all existing EU food legislation. following new EU policy.1. so to say. EU legislation also applies to the new countries which became members of the EU as per May 2004. Exporters in developing countries can check relevant non-tariff barriers for preserved fruit and vegetables by going to http://www. also of feed products. spirits. 9.9 9. In 2002. etc.1 EU MARKET ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Non-tariff trade barriers Exporters in developing countries wishing to penetrate the European Union markets will have to comply with several access requirements. where appropriate. the regulation (EC) 178/2002 was adopted. consumer health. processing and distribution of food. legislation on food products has become more complex and stringent. Regulations Regulations come into force as law directly. CBI’s database on European non-tariff trade barriers is called AccessGuide.

but now there is an EU-wide explicit regulation. Fruit juice drinks (soft drinks based on fruit juice) are not covered in the EU fruit juice directives. no additions of water or other ingredients. If specific agreements exist between the EU and your country. consult AccessGuide in the first place. It states that. as to the origin of all ingredients (including batch of production) and the chain of supply. The following EU product legislation is relevant for preserved fruit & vegetables: Fruit juice/concentrate EU Directive 2001/112/EC specifies a definition of fruit juice and nectar. The proportion of fruit juice depends on the kind of fruit and varies between 25 percent and 50 percent. Fruit nectar consists partly of fruit juice and partly of water and sugar. although a product complies with all specific requirements of food legislation. and legislation may vary from country to country. it is not an option for producers in developing countries to export this product to EU countries. Strictly spoken. The core aspects of the General Food Law came into force in January 2005. flavourings. Article 18 This article relates to the traceability of food: a producer or importer putting a product on the market in any EU country should be able to inform a food inspector within a few hours. all food should comply with those requirements. it is not allowed on the market if a new hazard is found for which no requirements yet exist. already regulated through national food laws. at least implicitly.Article 11 It states that: food and feed imported into the EU for marketing shall comply with the relevant requirements of food law or conditions recognised by the Community. 10 percent of comminuted/crushed/squeezed fruit and they may contain sweeteners. Although the requirements do not apply to countries outside the EU. has become common practice in many EU countries. with connected health claims. These definitions apply in all European countries. For detailed information. This was. the requirements apply to food business located in the EU (including importers). Fruit juice is comprised of 100 percent juice i. European importers will most likely require from suppliers in third countries that they have an accurate tracing system in place. The differences are apparent in regulations about: • Which vitamins are allowed or not 70 . Usually they are required to contain a minimum of approx. colouring and sometimes added vitamins. Addition of vitamins to fruit juices and fruit nectars.e. Due to the high content of water (90%) in fruit juice drinks. the addition of vitamins is still not harmonised within the EU. The following sources can also be contacted: • Your trading partner in the EU • The relevant food inspection authority in the EU country concerned • The embassy of the EU member country in your country. Product regulations differ per species of preserved fruit & vegetables. Hygiene is defined as all measures to ensure safety and wholesomeness of foodstuffs. Explicit rules for food hygiene have already been laid down in the Directive 93/43/EEC. The new regulation states explicitly that foodstuffs cannot be placed on the EU market if they are unsafe. Article 14 This article relates to safety requirements for food. However.

as in most fruit. which are allowed to be added to some or to all food products. and up to which concentration. This harmonisation is expected to be completed in the near future. The legislation on application of food additives is harmonised in the EU and approved additives bear identification numbers. In Germany. It is therefore always wise to consult experts about the precise conditions. The EU is currently working also to harmonise the composition of substances that may be used in flavourings. before starting to export to these countries. Acidity can be natural. in The Netherlands.e. Food additives and flavourings Food additives are non-nutritive substances. it is important to completely control the elimination of bacteria. Refer to the information in AccessGuide on EU legislation on additives and flavourings in food.6) canned food contains too little acidity to prevent the growth of the botulinum bacteria. Even a taste of food containing this toxin can be fatal to the consumer.1. but it is too extensive to list here.1 Permitted additives and the maximum concentration thereof Additives Maximum concentration Preserved fruit and vegetables Fruit juice and nectar Fruit juice and nectar Fruit juice Pineapple juice Grape juice E300 E330 E296 E170 ascorbic acid citric acid malic acid calcium carbonate quantum satis1 3 g/l 3 g/l quantum satis1 71 . however. These additives are specified in Table 9.6) contains enough acid to block their growth or destroy them more rapidly when heated. containing the complete list of additives (Annex II). sterilisation > 1230 C) or boiling water canner (i. the more general list of additives applies. Food additives and flavourings are subject to EU legislation. This is laid down in EU Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners (separate directives exist for colours and sweeteners): which additive may be used in which food product. all preceded by the letter E. while acid food (pH<4. the addition of vitamins is regulated more strictly while in France it is not allowed. which can cause diseases or produce poisonous toxins or deteriorate the product. However. Table 9. by compiling a list of flavourings used in member states. Canned food Apart from hygiene and food safety requirements there is no EU legislation concerning canned foods. Low-acid (pH>4. pasteurisation at approximately 950 C) depends on the acidity of the food.e. the UK and Belgium vitaminisation is allowed under certain conditions. The most virulent species is the botulinum bacteria. Whether food should be processed in a pressure canner or autoclave (i. in certain groups of prepared fruit and vegetables.• • • In which products they are allowed or not In which quantity Under what conditions the addition of vitamins should be labelled In general. Regarding the product groups not quoted in the list below. When canning food. or added. which includes a direct link to the consolidated version of the Directives. to produce a certain effect. only specific additives with a maximum concentration may be applied.

such as bleaching agents. 72 . which is not larger than necessary for the goal aimed at. There are Enumbers for different kinds of food additives. plums.Fruit nectar Frozen or deep-frozen raw fruit and vegetables E336 potassium tartrate E270 lactic acid E330 citric acid E300 E301 E302 E330 E331 E332 E333 ascorbic acid sodium ascorbate calcium ascorbate citric acid sodium citrate potassium citrate calcium citrate quantum satis1 5 g/l 5 g/l quantum satis1 Dried fruit Apricots. Source: EU Directive 95/2/EC on food additives The food additives should be mentioned in the list of ingredients on the label of food products in consumer packs either by their full name or by their E-number. etc. added to food and drink wares consistent with good production methods. figs Bananas Others White dried vegetables Canned fruit and vegetables Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide 2000 mg/kg 1000 mg/kg 500 mg/kg 400 mg/kg E260 acetic acid E261 potassium acetate E262 sodium acetate E263 calcium acetate E270 lactic acid E296 malic acid E300 ascorbic acid E301 sodium ascorbate E302 calcium ascorbate E325 sodium lactate E326 potassium lactate quantum satis1 E327 calcium lactate E330 citric acid E331 sodium citrate E332 potassium citrates E333 calcium citrates E334 tartaric acid E335 sodium tartrate E336 potassium tartrate E337 sodium potassium tartrate E509 calcium chloride E575 glucono-deltalactone 1) The quantity of an additive. peaches. grapes. under the condition that the consumer is not deceived. anti-oxidants. jellifying agents. preservatives. colouring agents. brighteners.

organic farming is defined as: a system of managing agricultural holdings that uses a variety of more environmentally friendly crop farming practices and involves major restrictions on the use of fertilisers and pesticides. Bear in mind that legislation concerning food is continuously changing. but first of all: refer to AccessGuide. Examples of contaminants currently addressed are nitrates. Soil Association or other EU inspection organisations. including natural substances that are classified as dangerous. sale and import of organic products were established by the passing of Council Regulation EEC 2092/91 and its supplement EC 1804/99. The only category within preserved fruit and vegetables that might be considered for registration is essential oils. The burden rests with the importer. for exporters to be aware that agricultural units. The regulation is rather complicated and difficult. please contact Control Union Certification (formerly known as SKAL). Ecocert. This point is still under discussion and no final decision has yet been taken. must be certified by EU recognised control bodies to confirm that they meet the required EU or specific national standards. in a costly procedure based on thorough and complete dossiers. Organic preserved fruit and vegetables The main principles for organic production at farm level and the rules that must be followed for the processing. they can be unhealthy for people who suffer from certain diseases or allergies. before their products can be offered for sale in EU markets. however. This especially concerns preservatives and some colouring agents. For more information on certification. 3-MCPD. which makes it necessary for an exporter to the EU to consult experts on this matter. to be carried out by EU manufacturers or EU importers. dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and inorganic tin. processors as well as their products. Use of the term ‘organic’ is limited in the European Union to products farmed according to the principles of production and the rules of processing defined in the regulation. Another EU legislation that will become important to producers and processors of flavourings is REACH. For further details. therefore. NovelfFoods and genetically modified food products 73 . cadmium and mercury). a regulation on chemical substances. You are. but he may however request extensive information and tests from the producer. a three years’ period will be required for registration of new substances! Naturally occurring substances that are not classified as dangerous are exempted from registration. Contaminants Regulation (EC) No. At minimum. heavy metals (lead. mycotoxins.Even when food additives are allowed. REACH is an EU Commission proposal (SEC(2003)1172) for a regulation aiming to improve knowledge and information regarding chemical substances. according to the volumes of the chemicals that are manufactured or imported. particularly with regard to protecting human health and the environment. 466/2001 and its amendments lay down threshold limits for contaminants in specific food products. also the exporting company itself. Under EU Community rules. The basis of REACH is registration. and therefore can be used only in limited concentrations. Please note that requirements and types of contaminants occurring may change by time. The proposal is expected to come for the EU parliament no earlier than the end of 2005. advised to check the up-to-date situation by consulting importers or the relevant national Food Inspection Authority. Please refer to AccessGuide for the complete text of the regulation and pictures of labels and logos used by various certifying bodies. please refer to CBI’s Market Survey ‘Organic Food Products’. It is important.

bacteria.Regulation (EC)258/97 on Novel foods and novel food ingredients has set out rules for authorisation and labelling of genetically modified food products. like other EU legislation. The HACCP system is applicable to companies which process. stipulates that: “foodstuff companies shall identify each aspect of their activities which has a bearing on the safety of foodstuffs and ensure that suitable safety procedures are established. EU legislative authorities cannot impose requirements on producers in foreign countries. applied. in which it should be demonstrated that they are safe. 74 . the market for soya consists almost fully of soya that is no longer GMO-free. This regulation indicates that new food products are not allowed to be introduced on the EU market before going through an (expensive and) time-consuming procedure. until the point of consumption. Subsequently. In fact. Importers of food products in the EU will be legally held responsible for the imported products. processing. maintained and revised on the basis of the HACCP system”. and other categories of novel foods (foods that have not been legally on the market in any EU country before). Hygiene and food safety One of the most important issues in food legislation concerns food processing. metal. For more information on HACCP. distribute or trade foodstuffs. toxicological (chemical contamination by pesticides or environmental contaminants like heavy metals or dioxin). The EU Directive on Hygiene for Foodstuffs (93/43/EC). which became effective in January 1996. in regulation (EC)641/2004. Processors applying GMO in Europe are still limited to only a few products. Although exporters to the EU are not obliged yet to have an HACCP system and their system will not be subject to control by the food inspection service in the importing country. will be a very positive argument in export business. or physical (wood. pack. hygiene and food safety. All food processors in the EU member countries are legally bound to have an HACCP system or they must be working on implementing an HACCP system. the genetically modified food products were separated from the novel food regulation and arranged in separate legislation on traceability and labelling of genetically modified foods. All companies involved in food industry and trade in all EU member states are obliged to have an approved HACCP system. moulds). treat. Not EU food inspectors but probably your buyer will ask for confirmation of your HACCP system. Importers sometimes even require exporters to have HACCP implemented. having an approved HACCP system. However. glass. or operating following a similar principle of quality control. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) The HACCP regulation is also of importance for exporters in developing countries. labelling to mention this is compulsory. This includes macro-biological (vermin). applies only within the external EU boundaries. food legislation with regard to HACCP (EU Directive 93/43/EEC). and EU food inspectors will not come to your country to inspect your HACCP system. microbiological (viruses. manufacture and distribution. The most important aspect is that when more than 0. from growing. transport. These companies are forced to understand (and act against) the possible hazards associated with food production at all stages. and will require proof from their ingredients suppliers to guarantee food safety for their raw materials. importers in the EU all are obliged to have their HACCP system approved by authorities. plastic or fabric) risk. please refer to CBI’s AccessGuide. with the exception of certified organic soya. because responsibility is passed along the processing and supply chain.9% of a GMO ingredient is present in food. The most important products in this category are soya and maize. In fact.

Compliance with the quality standards demanded by the importer is essential. freedom of labour organisation and basic labour • Occupational health and safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) is related to the risks for employees during their work. to labelling. correct and constant quality.ilo. Environmental market requirements Environmental aspects of products have become a major issue in Europe in recent periods. minimum age of workers. Legislation on food labelling will be discussed in chapter 9. Environmental management systems are process-related.and process-related. For more information. see the AccessGuide database.2 Market requirements Besides requirements. 9. packaging. OHS goes together with cleaner production options. Depending on the product in question. Both systems are structured along the same approach as ISO.1. Issues can be both product(product legislation and labels) and process-related (process labels and management systems). There are management systems to ensure a certain level of attention for social issues. there is no EU legislation at all. in order to regulate HACCP. 75 . as from 2006. This results in standards on the presence of pollutants. as well as its member states.1. which are initiated by EU or national authorities. On the level of the EU. environmental market requirements can go further. maximum working hours. environmental aspects may play a vital role in preparing for exports to the EU market. Member states may have their own legislation. a strong consumer movement is noticeable in many EU member countries. Exporters’ products should therefore continue to comply with the legislation of the separate EU member states. for some categories of food products. non-discrimination. EU will require from exporting countries that they develop their own HACCP legislation. Exporters should realize that differences will still exist. These specifications may vary from demands concerning colour. product legislation has been developed in order to reduce the negative environmental impact of products. Remark: Despite harmonisation efforts.It is expected that. disability and survivor benefits. product labels such as ecolables can be product. The most accepted management system is SA8000 on social accountability and OHSAS 18000 on occupational health and safety. pressure from NGOs and media coverage make social issues increasingly important when doing business in the EU. marking and labelling’. please check the website of the International Labour Organisation (ILO): www. such as hazardous substances in products. the end-users may have their own specifications. Besides governmental actions (legislation). Social issues focus mainly on: • General labour conditions Important elements are minimum wages. which should be met by the suppliers.5 ‘ Packaging. For more information. As environmental legislation is mainly product-based. sickness. Occupational and work-related injuries and diseases cause large economic costs through absences from work. at least for exporting companies. Social market requirements Increasing consumer awareness. etc. food legislation in the EU is still not completely uniform: member states are free in the implementation of EU directives and. and failure to do so results in goods being refused or only accepted at considerably lower prices for further processing.

and Italy) and the Soil Association (United Kingdom) and KRAV (Sweden). This hallmark indicates that the product (including its full manufacturing process) has a reduced impact on the environment when compared to similar products. Similarly. Other important EU certifying organisations operating internationally include BCS and Naturland (Germany). organic labelling indicates that the product has been certified as being organic. not only with regard to quality control but to the entire organization: from purchasing to processing. In the case of preserved fruit and vegetables. Ecocert (Germany. can be an important aspect in environmentally aware production.1. SKAL is a member of IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements). One of the main quality aspects is the food safety of the product. acting as an independent third party. Internationally. The organisation SKAL (now part of Control Union Certification) is the holder of the officially registered EKO quality symbol. it relates also to: • Constant and on-time delivery of products • Traceability of products • Compliance with EU. both nationally and internationally. member states and customer standards • Adequate labelling and packaging • Use of materials and production methods • Consumer health and safety HACCP The need for good quality management takes on increasing importance. Although voluntary. Participation in such an Ecolabel scheme is on a voluntary basis. If a manufacturer wants to indicate to external parties that he is manufacturing in an environmentally sound way. please refer to CBI’s Market Survey ‘Organic Food products’. For more information. the ISO 14001 environmental management standard may become a de facto requirement for being able to compete in many regions of the global marketplace. applicable throughout Europe. Belgium. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) procedure typically applies to the food-processing industry. Quality related market requirements Quality is not only product-related. Ecolabels have been developed at various levels. 76 . which will be discussed below. the German Blue Angel and the Scandinavian White Swan. including organic labelling. France. It provides services in the field of inspection and certification. EU "organic" labels have been introduced.1. Organic growing and processing. The EKO quality label is the label in The Netherlands that guarantees the organic origin and quality of agricultural products. Organic labelling In order to make agricultural products from organic sources easily recognisable to consumers. It has been discussed in 9. The relevance of the ISO 14001 standard for the future can be clearly seen by following the development and adoption of the ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 quality standard.Environmental labels and management systems The hallmarks for environmentally sound products are normally referred to as Ecolabels. ISO 9000 The ISO 9000 standards for quality management (most recent version ISO 9001:2000) provide a framework for standardizing procedures and working methods. customer pressure is resulting in the ISO 9001 and IS0 9002 quality standard becoming increasingly necessary for doing business around the world. he can comply voluntarily with the following standard: • ISO 14001 This is based on the ISO 9000 series of standards for quality management. and national labels such as the Netherlands Milieukeur.

The certification may be a vital factor in the selection process applied by trade partners in Europe. a decision to become ISO 9000 certified means a firm commitment. However. This means that quality. and then follow these procedures exactly. 9. absence from work. In order to maintain the certificate.1. Please check CBI’s AccessGuide for more information on OHS matters 9. Your ISO 9000 system has to be certified and regularly audited by an authorized certifying body (like Lloyd's. regular audits. but it is a guarantee that you always do things the same way. Therefore.3 Occupational health and safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) is related to the risks for employees in specific processes. health. Attention paid to health and safety prevents costs for work-related injuries and diseases. Contrary to product legislation environmental measures in the production process focusing on environmentally sound production (ESP) are not legally compulsory for exporters to the EU. and quality management consultants need to be hired for external audits. during storage and transport and during methods of processing food. you might be confronted with requirements on food processing that are demanded by European buyers. SGS.quality control. Nevertheless. Several measures can be taken to reduce the environmental impact of food Management systems like BRC and several others are gaining increasing interest and growing importance in the food sector. ISO 9000 requires that you exactly describe your processes. monitoring and documentation thereof. OHS is more a matter of good housekeeping than high-tech solutions. implementation. 77 .iso. procedures. safety and environmental management programmes becomes strongly interwoven with the overall ISO management plan. sales and administration. which will draw on the company’s human and financial resources and will add procedures and paper work. see CBI AccessGuide. one has to bear in mind that being certified is not a one-time exercise. Benefits of ISO 9000 certification Improves image Inspires confidence Increases credibility Generates recognition Enhances acceptability Reduces liability disputes Creates transparency and awareness Enables identification of weaknesses Systematises efforts to increase quality Enables identification of opportunities to increase efficiency Provides an important source for reference and monitoring Enables identification of opportunities to increase customer satisfaction For further information. the company should have a quality manager inhouse who is responsible for the quality management policy. please check AccessGuide and the website of ISO: http://www. Consequently. manufacturers who have obtained an ISO 9000 series certificate possess an important asset. the use of pesticides and fertilisers during the cultivation of crops. both internal (1-2 per year) and external (2 times per year). A certificate is only valid for three years. sickness treatment and disability benefits. Veritas. It does not essentially address product safety and quality.4 Environmentally sound production Environmentally sound production for food products is important and starts with the growing of crops. are needed.1. present in many countries). Also.

mercury and chromium (VI) in packaging is 100 ppm. The EU has a regulation (EU)1935/2004 for materials and articles coming into contact with food products. only the national legislation in the country of production is legally binding. packaging policy does not affect ‘foreign’ manufacturers because importers will be held responsible for the packaging. This directive has been transposed into the national legislation of the member states. Most requirements for packaging and packaging materials can be found in the legislation of individual member states. The European legislation which is laid down by means of amendments to Directive 2000/29/EC. The Directives require heat treatment or fumigation and marking of wooden packaging materials (including for example packing cases. Otherwise. pallets. the directive sets maximum levels of concentration of heavy metals in packaging and describes requirements specific to manufacturing and composition of packaging. box pallets and other loader boards. the EU has issued a directive for packaging and packaging materials (Directive 94/62/EC) in which minimum requirements are regulated. The maximum concentration of lead. but this is still far from complete. such as levies and taxes. entered into force as of March 1. See AccessGuide 78 . Exporters in developing countries targeting the European market have to be aware of these legislative requirements and take appropriate measures. glass jars. 2005. 9. such as hazardous substances in products. standards are being developed for process legislation. Germany and the United Kingdom. or in additional buyers requirements. The requirements refer to the international standard ISPM 15. for each package.e. surrounding packaging and sales packaging) materials should be limited and re-usable or recyclable. cartons and plastic bottles) is taken back and collected by retailers and producers. National governments in Europe are setting legislation in order to protect the local environment. Various programmes are in operation in the different member states. The EU has set new phytosanitary measures for all wooden packaging material that is used for the import of goods into the EU from third countries. If that is not possible (i. drums and similar packing. Besides product legislation. cadmium. Please note that. This results in standards on the use of pollutants. namely amending Directive 2004/102/EC and 2005/15/EC. including legislation in The Netherlands. to a central co-ordinating organisation that has taken over the responsibility of collecting and re-processing. boxes. crates. However. Among other measures. Most of the time.5 Packaging. The background for this legislation is to protect the EU from the introduction of organisms harmful to plants and plant products via wood packaging material. for one-way packaging) a contribution has to be paid. However. thus reducing the competitiveness of the exporter. regarding process legislation.1. and through mandatory or voluntary restraints. That means that packaging (transport packaging.On both EU and national levels product legislation has been developed in order to reduce the negative environmental impact of products. in order to become or remain wellmatched trading partners for European businesses. In AccessGuide you find an analysis of EU environmental product legislation. pallet collars). the importer will be confronted with additional costs. sensible marketing requires taking the obligations of the importer into consideration. marking and labelling The general trend in Europe is towards facilitating re-use and recycling of packaging through incentives and disincentives. Many EU countries (but not all) now have legislation requiring that packaging for consumer products (such as cans. In order to harmonise the different forms of legislation. the implementation may take differing forms.

Fruit juice/concentrate Orange juice concentrate. It is generally used in the form of a closed bag inside paperboard cartons. Polyethylene liners may be heat-sealed to give an airtight closure. partly because fruit and vegetables in glass stand for a quality product. bag-in-box systems and flexi tanks. New bulk-packaging technologies are being developed for liquid foodstuffs that are appropriate for the distribution of these product groups. Some of the larger firms. • electronically controlled capping and seaming. which is by far the leading import product. containing two or four 5 kg boxes. Dried fruit and vegetables Bulk-packaged. nowadays require approved security seals. such as banana purée and mango pulp. which used to accept simple capping of drums. The share of glass as a packaging material is particularly high in The Netherlands (60 percent in 1999). packed and sealed into sterile packaging under sterile conditions. 425 g and 825 g net weight (product weight. Dried vegetables are nowadays mostly packed in polyethylene. Products can also be packed deep-frozen in cartons of 20-25 kg or in drums of up to 200 litres. The packaging in glass jars instead of metal cans is still gaining popularity in the EU. In the catering sector. Other concentrates are mainly packed in double polyethylene bags in 200 litre (or 266 kg) drums. Examples are pallet-size. The objective of the new technologies is to achieve economic handling. including brine). but most buyers prefer aseptic bulk packaging. although some air permeates gradually through the polyethylene itself. Canned fruit and vegetables for the retail market are mainly sold in cans of 225 g.There are more demands concerning packaging depending on the product group: see below. • the can structure and seaming should enable a two-year shelf life. Tropical fruit pulp and purée is still in many cases hot-packed in metal cans of 3-5 kg. without causing positive pressure due to hydrogen production. Canned fruit and vegetables Canned fruit and vegetables for catering use are often hot-packed in metal cans of 3-5 kg. is almost exclusively imported from Brazil. while maintaining product sterility. The can and glass jar industries have reduced the weight of the packaging (both glass and metal) considerably. so that no subsequent heat treatment or refrigeration is needed to preserve them until the pack is opened. Importers generally expect the following features of cans: • well-coated inside (especially the seam). although in Germany and Belgium the use of glass jars is gaining popularity. the metal cans are lighter and stronger than glass jars. dried tropical fruit is usually packaged in export carton boxes lined with polyethylene. Vacuum packaging is also used. Still. Aseptically packed products are sterile items. Other forms of aseptic pack are used for certain tropical products. while one third is packed in glass. but on a small scale. fibreboard corrugated boxes (bag-in-box system) or multi-wall sacks. two thirds of the sterilized vegetables purchased consist of cans. 79 . Aseptic drums of 200 litres are also used for fruit juice concentrate. shipped in bulk vessels at –200 C under nitrogen (to exclude it from oxygen so as to avoid oxidation).

in the case the products cannot be consumed or prepared properly without these instructions. soya and products made thereof g. Packages normally vary between 5 kg and 25 kg. cereals containing gluten (wheat. which are large paperboard corrugated cartons. not all manufacturers possess the equipment to handle this kind of packaging. there are some exceptions. Rectangular boxes are more suitable for palletisation than paper sacks or drums. root or leaf. Nevertheless. The labelling requirements listed below generally apply to all preserved fruit and vegetables specified in this survey. spelt. oat. which are in line with the EU Directive 2000/13/EC which harmonized labeling requirements throughout the Community. including food additives. • Usage instructions. pecan nuts. pistachio nuts. Substances that may cause food allergy and have to be labelled explicitly a. crustaceans and products made thereof c. For specified information. The labels on food products for industrial use in the EU should include the following information (in English or in the language of the importing country): • Product name • Batch code/lot identification • Name address of manufacturer/exporter • Net weight • Recommended storage conditions. packaging in octobins. celery. and products made thereof 80 . since they reduce handling costs and damage to the product. rye. • An indication of the batch of production. listed in a specific annex III in the food labelling directive mentioned above. lactose h. • Name.Packages suitable for palletisation are gaining in popularity. However. depending on the kind of product or type of fruit or vegetable. The labels on food products in consumer and food service packing in the EU should be in the language(s) of the country where the product is put on the market and should include the following information: • Product name. In the case of frozen vegetables. milk and products made thereof. peanuts and products made thereof f. • A list of ingredients. fish and products made thereof e. although packaging in polyethylene also takes place. 20 and 25 kg. address of the packer/exporter/importer located in the EU. variety and type. nuts (almonds. have to be mentioned explicitly on the label (see information below). eggs and products made thereof d. kamut) and products made thereof b. macadamia nuts) and products made thereof i. • Net weight (and leak weight when applicable). and might by consequence be dangerous to health. which may be specified in code. contact The Netherlands Horticulture Commodity Board or relevant trade associations. hazelnuts. The Netherlands Food and Drug Act contains special regulations concerning the labelling of food products. walnuts. cashew nuts. • ‘Best before’ date and storage conditions where necessary. Brazil nuts. Frozen fruit and vegetables Frozen fruit and vegetables are mostly packed in paperboard-corrugated cartons of 10. incl. barley. is gaining popularity. quantitative labelling (in %) is required for those ingredients mentioned in the name of the product or pictured on the label. • Country of origin • Substances that can cause food allergy. 15.

mustard and products made thereof k. sulphur dioxide and sulphite Moreover. Imports of preserved fruit and vegetables from a number of developing countries (see Annex 4 of Regulation 2820/98/EC) are subject to reductions on import duties under the GSP scheme. The regulation is designed to simplify the GSP regime for sensitive products (products grown and processed within the EU). the higher the tariff. sesame seed and products made thereof l. all details of labelling should be agreed and specified in consultation with the importer or endproduct supplier ( http://www.). except arms and ammunition. in case of product recall). The level of tariffs depends on: • country of origin. the accompanying documentation must provide details of any treatment the product has undergone and any further information specified in the contract with the importer. please refer to CBI’s AccessGuide. all goods entering the EU are subject to import http://www. but the more highly processed the product. Because consumers need to make informed choices about which products to buy. wholesaler.maxhavelaar. the European Commission adopted a proposal for revision of the Generalised Scheme of Tariff Preferences (GSP) for the period till the 31st December 2004. quota and import tariffs have been abolished for all product groups.cbi.2 Tariffs and quotas http://www. exporters have to provide a ‘Form A’ certificate. with assessment being executed by qualified experts. Under a proposed plan propagated mainly in the UK.fairtrade. Medical claims are forbidden altogether. A similar system is already in operation in The Netherlands and Belgium. a list of permitted health claims (backed by scientific evidence) should be drawn up. the EU has http://www.j.cbi. which forbids health claims that cannot be upheld scientifically. The new Regulation complements and fully incorporates the recent "Everything But Arms" (EBA) initiative in favour of the Least Developed Countries. Under the EBA initiative. In order to benefit from GSP treatment. etc. companies have to ensure that products conform to acceptable safety standards. Furthermore. who has the correct information regarding the legal requirements. In June 2001. Useful Internet sites Max Havelaar Foundation Fairtrade Labelling Organisation CBI AccessGuide 9. Information For detailed information about environmental aspects relevant to trade. It also intends to improve the effectiveness of special incentives to promote labour and environmental standards. The information would then be collected and managed centrally so that it could be accessed easily (for In general. The trading environment for preserved fruit and vegetables for some products is liberal. Regarding the exports of preserved fruit and vegetables in consumer and catering packs. • product. The Netherlands and Belgium. which is issued by the appropriate authorities in the respective country. 81 . Manufacturers should take into account that consumer protection is a vital issue in this field and that illegal claims will be heavily penalised.

3 summarises the VAT rates applied in the different EU-15 member states for foodstuffs in general. The import tariffs change frequently and depend on trade agreements between the EU and developing countries and the sensitivity of the product for EU producers.5 21 Italy 10 20 Luxembourg 6 15 Portugal 5/12 19 Spain 7 16 Sweden 6/12 25 The Netherlands 6 19 United Kingdom 5 17. Value Added Tax (VAT) Although fiscal borders between EU countries were. October 2004 Reduced Rate Standard Rate Austria 10 20 Belgium 6 21 Denmark 25 Finland 8/17 22 France 5. In order to establish the import tariffs for a particular product. please check with your trade partner in the EU. from the exporters’ country to the port in the EU.5 19. however these will be lifted during the period leading up to 2007.4 summarizes the VAT rates in the new EU countries. 4) Check the transport conditions. Table 9.for the Least Developed Countries. rice and bananas. in theory. as direct shipment is a prerequisite for qualification.cec. The EU commission established a special helpdesk for exporters from developing countries: http://export-help. Table 9. European (2004) 82 . Restrictions still apply to sugar. In most countries the reduced rate applies to food products. harmonisation of VAT (tax levied at consumer sales’ level) rates has not yet been achieved. eliminated as from 1 January 1993 onwards.5 Commission Source: DGXXI.6 Germany 7 16 Greece 8 18 Ireland 13. Table 9. These criteria are productdependent (Form A or EUR 1).int/ This website gives the most up-to-date information regarding import tariffs based on the CN product Exporters in Least Developed Countries wishing to benefit from the ‘EBA’ agreement should take the following 5 steps: 1) Establish product classification (CN) 2) Establish product eligibility 3) Check the origin criteria applicable to the product. 5) Prepare documentary evidence for proof of origin. in practice. the EU representative office in your country or your embassy in the EU country concerned.3 VAT rates (in %) applied to foodstuffs and fruit juices in the EU-15.

int/comm/taxation_customs/taxation/vat/how_vat_works/rates/index _en.htm information on VAT rates in EU countries EU rules of http://europe. An exporter capable of meeting these requirements will have an improved competitive position in the EU market for preserved fruit and vegetables. Organic production is particularly attractive for growers in developing countries. October 2004 Reduced Rate Standard Rate Czech Republic 5 Estonia 5 Cyprus 5 Latvia 5 Lithuania 5/9 Hungary 5/15 Malta 5 Poland 7 Slovenia 8. for less known products. natural and organic products are occupying an increasingly stronger position in the EU. information on quality assurance (e. Organic products Healthy. instructions on how to store and to process. clear suggestions for application.htm GSP Market access database http://mkaccdb. European Commission (2004) 19 18 15 18 18 25 18 22 20 19 Useful Internet sites Current http://europe. HACCP HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) certification is expected to become a requirement for processed products from non-EU countries under the General Food Law. including. or even ISO certification.g.Table 9.5 Slovak Republic Source: 83 . This means that a product should be accompanied by complete product specifications. since much of their food production is already organic or can easily be changed to organic (see Part B).int/ Opportunities for exporters in developing countries are the following: Extensive product documentation A general trend in the food ingredients sector is that importers and food processors in the EU require extensive product documentation in order to guarantee food safety.4 VAT rates (in %) applied to foodstuffs in the new EU countries. documentation on tracking and origin for the ndex_en. HACCP)

In Part B you are able to use all information gathered to prepare your strategy to enter the EU market and to draw up an Export Marketing Plan to make your strategy work. All information given in this part and additional information you can get from the different Internet sites mentioned form the basis to work on Part B. 84 . This concludes Part A of the survey.Exporters whose processing is certified have a better competitive position to export to EU customers.


operational plan to execute strategy 86 . the following steps should be taken: EXTERNAL ANALYSIS (Chapter 10) . Schematically.turnover and volumes .profitability .time schedule MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY (Chapter 12) .strategy to realise objectives EXPORT MARKETING PLAN (Chapter 13) .analyses factors within control of the company . to formulate your Market Entry Strategy (MES) and finally to prepare an operational Export Marketing Plan (EMP) for the introduction of your products on EU markets. you will be guided through the different steps to prepare your Market Entry Strategy and the Export Marketing Plan.EU markets and segments .Opportunities STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES (Chapter 12) FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES (Chapter 12) .analyses factors outside the control of the company . The MES spells out your strategy for a period of 3 – 5 years on how you intend to build up a successful export position on EU markets. The EMP shows how this strategy will be executed and the actions you should take.focuses on internal capabilities to export to EU markets OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS (Chapter 12 SWOT analysis (Chapter 12) .focusses on potential export markets in the EU INTERNAL ANALYSIS (Chapter 11) .The Export Marketing Guidelines form a roadmap to conduct market channels .Weaknesses . In Part B.Strengths .

• Trade magazines Trade magazines are valuable sources of current information. packing and processing. these studies often refer to preserved fruit and vegetables in general and less to product groups. trends and developments in the preserved fruit and vegetable sector. websites are mentioned. Please check with embassies and consulates of EU countries in your country. Please check CBI’s ‘Your guide to market research’ for information on this subject. However. for more detailed and specific information fees must often be paid. The following sources are available to conduct desk research for preserved fruit and vegetables: • Internet By far the most important source of information. Moreover. like pineapple purée. Field research is more expensive than desk research. and individual products. as travelling to EU countries is involved. This information is abundantly and freely available. both for organic and traditional products. it is much harder to obtain sector-specific information. For non-tariff trade barriers (an important part of the external analysis). To obtain relevant information about preserved fruit and vegetables in EU markets. you can look for information specifically tailored to your requirements. 87 . distribution facilities. the following fields should be explored: • Country information General data about EU countries like population. websites of importers of preserved fruit and vegetables give information about product specifications. Much information is freely obtainable. • Trade fair catalogues Trade fair catalogues of for example Biofach. main Economic activities. however. much information can be found on the website of the EU and on CBI’s AccessGuide http://www. • Information on the market for preserved fruit and vegetables Market studies are available. extensive market research is necessary. etc. Please check appendix 3.10 EXTERNAL ANALYSIS: MARKET AUDIT Market research In order to prepare an external analysis. so you can easily check the sites of exhibitors. • Tariff and non-tariff barriers at EU and national level This information is widely available in a large variety of public documents. others have already assembled and compiled the information. Food Ingredients Europe and Anuga provide a wealth of information about competitors.cbi. gross national product (GNP). importers and products. Market research consists of two parts: Desk research Desk research is the gathering of secondary information. In some cases. like fruit purées. please check CBI’s AccessGuide. Field research Field research is the gathering of primary information. • Market studies Organisations like CBI and ITC have market studies for preserved fruit and vegetables available. as trade partners in the EU do not usually publicise information about their • Trading conditions General information on trading with EU countries is widely available.6 for contact details of trade magazines. Further.

indicates the product and packaging requirements with which you should comply in order to enter EU markets successfully. Although price will always remain a major competitive tool. this trend also applies to the food processors. it is certainly not the only instrument for outranking competitors. as a potential exporter. a favourable exchange rate. Analysing the import statistics. Factors enabling countries to be successful exporters to the EU can be a high productivity. Nestlé. The EU Market Access Requirements. more important.2 Competitive analysis The food ingredients sector is increasingly becoming a global business. In both examples. logistics and service. it would be a challenge to surpass the requirements customers in the EU require as minimum standards. Not only is food retailing characterised by concentration and consolidation. complemented by national brands. can match or even surpass product quality. It is important for the potential exporter to evaluate why these countries are major suppliers to the EU and. whether or not you. Together with information assembled from sources as mentioned in market research. gives a good indication of the major supplying countries for a product group or individual products.Desk research can be complemented by field research. 5 and 6. frequent shipping departures to EU ports. companies like Unilever. For example. you should be able to get a picture of how the market develops and which opportunities might be available. form the main source in this survey for obtaining a clear picture of the market for preserved fruit and vegetables in six EU countries. as described in Part A of this survey.1 Market development and opportunities The market developments described in chapters 3. During field research. proximity to EU markets. are equally important: • • • • • • • • Consistent and high product quality according to specifications of importers and food processors Steady supply of products HACCP certified Reliability in supply and honouring agreements with EU trade partners Complete product specifications Good packaging Open communication Certification in the case of organic preserved fruit and vegetables 88 . as given in chapter 5 and in appendix 1. The following instruments. your products might be well positioned to capture these trends. Danone have strong positions and brands in the EU markets. In the EU. the following tools are available to the potential exporter: • Trade fairs • Seminars • Visits to importers and agents • Visits to branch organizations • Visits to commercial sections of embassies 10. Healthy food is on the rise in the EU. enabling them to choose from a wide variety of ingredient suppliers worldwide. the right growing conditions. as mentioned by leading importers of preserved fruit and vegetables in The Netherlands. while retailers look increasingly for year-round instead of seasonal products. In terms of quality. Please refer to Chapter 4 on ‘production’. Their buying power is huge. 10. together with the opportunities as described in chapter 8. 4. opposite seasons or combinations of these factors. your products might have certain properties relevant to health aspects in food or you might be a supplier of year-round products.

This should be coupled to a good understanding of the above-mentioned problems with which importers are confronted. By providing solutions to these problems. Based on the characteristics of different types of trading partners. exporters have another tool to outrank competitors. as mentioned below. supply and demand situations. This option is suitable for larger size companies which can supply full container loads (FCL) and which have the resources to set up an export department.The major problems faced by importers in The Netherlands in importing preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries are the following: • Quality of shipment is not in line with samples sent • Delayed delivery • Exporters want to change agreed payment and delivery terms • Pesticide residues exceed permissible limits • Paperwork and bad communication Exporters who are able to offer their products at a competitive price and who can successfully apply competitive tools as described above are in a good position to outrank competitors.3 Sales channel assessment Based on the trade structure for preserved fruit and vegetables as described in chapter 7. it then should decide on the type of trade partner in the EU. which takes care of all the export documentation and formalities. The first step is to determine your mode of market entry into the EU: • Direct exports to the EU This way the exporter chooses to export directly to an EU trade partner or partners. This way. price levels. resulting in better information about market requirements and trends. This option is suitable for small companies which cannot fill a full container load and which do not have the financial resources to set up an export department and to invest in EU market visits. 10. are: No need to invest in an export organization Possibilities to supply less container loads (LCL) to local export intermediaries. When a company has decided that direct exports are the best option. the exporter should evaluate the different trade channels for his products and his company. samples and brochures. the following should be considered: • Directly to food processing companies Although exporting directly to food processing companies in the EU might seem a 89 . The disadvantage is that the company has no direct contact with trade partners in the EU and is therefore less informed about market developments. Shortening of the supply chain and better able to be part of an integrated chain Better control over the products to final destinations The disadvantage is that the company has to invest in an export organization and reserve budgets for traveling to trade partners in the EU and to promote its products. • Indirect exports to the EU In this way. especially for small companies. participation in trade fairs. shipment costs can be reduced. In evaluating the different options. and the capabilities of your company the best option should be considered. who usually consolidate smaller shipments from several exporters in order to fill a full container load (FCL). The advantages. The advantages of this approach are: Direct contact with EU trade partners. etc. the company sells its products to a locally based export house or trading company.

a partner in the EU country who speaks the language and understands the business culture is necessary to communicate with the right persons within the food processing organisations. the exporter should consider his internal capabilities to handle exports to EU countries. The type of product. The importer’s role expands from purely importing and delivery to a logistic service provider. In case of payment problems.cost effective option. the importer performs a vital role in matching the requirements of food processors (a wide variety of ingredients in smaller quantities) to those of exporters (a limited range of ingredients in larger quantities). The hiring of an independent quality surveyor is necessary to evaluate the damage. • Through agents The use of agents can provide a good alternative for supplying directly to the food processing industry. usually on FOB or CIF terms. Direct exports to food-processing companies require a rather sophisticated export department. because middlemen are bypassed. as they have no EU distribution structure to handle imports.4. he can easily follow the performances of his products and obtains first-hand information about possible improvements. delivery terms). This means they do not concern themselves with import procedures. they leave the stock holding to their suppliers. pay clearing and transportation charges and pay VAT duties. a locally based export house will be a good option for small companies with limited finances and only one or two products to sell. know the buyers of food processing companies and generally have easy access to them to settle problems and promote the exporter’s products. but are represented by knowledgeable partners in EU countries. As food-processing companies increasingly work with Just-In-Time (JIT) deliveries. Food processors increasingly focus on their core task to produce and market food products. a minimum volume to ship and a strong financial position. are familiar with business practices. The advantage of working with agents is that they know their market well. Exporters in developing countries can still export directly to end customers. packing. In assessing the use of trade partners in the EU. As the exporter ships and invoices directly to EU customers. 10. in order to settle the problem • Through importers As importers buy the products. For exporters in developing countries this is almost impossible to organise. the following pitfalls should be taken into account: Food processors often require DDP (Delivered.4 Logistics The logistical requirements depend on the following factors: The requirements of your trade partner in the EU. but require from suppliers that they deliver the goods anywhere in the EU at their warehouses. their handling stretches from unloading and clearing in the port to final delivery to their customers. Quality complaints are difficult to deal with. Duty Paid) delivery terms (Please refer to 10. He will adjust his assortment to the requirements of his customers and provides services like cleaning. stock keeping and order picking. For sea 90 . In this respect. who can cater to the requirements of food processors in EU countries. On the other end of the spectrum. Many preserved fruit and vegetables have a limited shelf life and should be transported either in chilled or frozen condition. as the exporter usually does not have the means to check the shipment on the spot and to evaluate the complaints.

harvests.arranging shipping documents. increasing supply and global sourcing of preserved fruit and vegetables all place pressure on process and margins throughout the value chain. supply and demand and speculation determine prices on a daily basis. Retailers and governments alike respond to these concerns by demanding HACCP certification from importers.combined containers in case of less container loads (LCLs). it is not possible to focus on prices for individual products. Weather conditions. 91 . working with one contract partner is not only more efficient. the following trends are visible in prices and margins of preserved fruit and vegetables: • Cost prices for growers. but the forwarder is likely to give rebates on the freight rates .arranging and contracting vessel space .therefore lower insurance premiums when you ship on CIF terms . tracking and tracing systems from growers and exporters.forwarders are paid (partially) by shipping companies .warehousing . exporters. When the exporter does not have his own shipping department. Often the container can be loaded at the exporter’s warehouse and unloaded at the customer in the transporter to deal with . The main reasons are the increasing rules and regulations both at EU and national level. pesticide reduction (Minimum Residue Levels) from growers and strict product specifications from exporters and importers alike. In dealing with freight forwarders. A freight forwarder performs the following functions: .negotiation of freight rates . the use of a freight forwarder is recommended. Container shipments are becoming increasingly popular as they provide the following benefits: . inspection. 10. • Oversupply situation for some product groups as the markets in the EU are stabilizing. insurance.arranging for licenses. the following tips might be useful: . Customs formalities. This puts pressure on price levels.5 Price structure Although price is not the only marketing tool for exporting preserved fruit and vegetables to EU markets.arranging carriage to and from the port .less handling. The volume to supply. importers and the processing industry are constantly rising.nominate one forwarder from door to door. damage and pilferage . However. as less handling is involved.ask for their general forwarders who belong to associations . Food safety is one of the prime concerns for consumers. it is certainly a very important one. Logistics form an integral part of the delivery terms on which an exporter agrees with his trading partner in the EU.lower packing costs . Due to the diversity in products and packaging in the preserved fruit and vegetables sector.transport this means the use of containers that can be chilled or frozen during sea transport. packing and marking .give clear and precise shipping instructions . Concentration of buying power. Full container loads (FCLs) are usually more efficient and cheaper.

negotiate lower purchase prices for raw materials and packing materials.foodnews. € 1.fixed cost allocation Net contribution local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency € 100. Prices are determined by market conditions. at best. Part of his costs depends on the payment and delivery conditions.handling and loading charges .06 ____________ € 98. Insurance and Freight (CIF) delivery. Sources to check for price information (dried fruit) are: o The Public Ledger (http://www.584. Export calculation structure In order to prepare an export calculation for a shipment to an importer in The Netherlands.00 per kg. the following structure is given.public-ledger.00 200. for example reduction of stocks.Faced with increasing costs and. Although this could be acceptable for individual orders in order to prevent larger losses (stock losses).00 500.00 92 .00 (110%of selling price) . which the exporter agrees with his trading partner in the EU.intracen. more efficient production runs.shipping costs (total costs divided by kilograms of product) FOB Port of loading Exchange FOB amount in local currency: €1 = Lc 100 Less: . At least all variable costs and part of the fixed costs should be covered by the selling price. individual exporters cannot influence the price levels.inland transport Ex works Less: .200. a loss situation occurs. based on a Cost.00 100.00 ____________ 884. stabilizing selling prices causes margins to decrease. exporters should: • Have a clear insight into their cost prices for exports to EU markets in order to set a minimum selling o Market News Service (http://www.00 _____________ 2. according to the Incoterms 2000 (see below): Selling price CIF Rotterdam Less: .com o Foodnews (http://www. in the longer term this situation will undermine the financial stability of the company.interest charges Gross contribution Less: .variable costs .84 Lc 9.10 € 0.000. When the market price is lower than the minimum selling price.00 7.00 ____________ 9. • Try to obtain efficiencies in operations in order to decrease cost prices. Margins for the exporter depend on his price setting at one side and his cost price on the other

For full details on the Incoterms. Shipping costs are usually quoted in US$. Usually. Both currencies should be converted into local currency at the rate of exchange applicable at the time of quoting. The interest he loses should be calculated into his cost price. Payment terms Payment terms form an important negotiation tool for the exporter. Although he can claim retention of title of the goods as long as the shipment has not been paid. Product name: apricot (Prunus armaniaca L. Delivery terms Delivery terms should be based on the INCOTERMS 2000 issued by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). the exporter can easily face a period of 6-12 weeks after production of the goods before he receives payment of the invoice. There is a large difference in DDP on one hand and FOB and CIF deliveries on the other.iccwbo. trade partners will wait with payment until they have inspected the goods upon arrival in their warehouse against the (approved) samples they received. trade partners in the EU usually pay by ‘open account’. By granting credit terms to his trade partner in the EU and by accepting less secure forms of payment. This means less paperwork. Insurance.asp Delivery terms in preserved fruit and vegetables depend largely on the type of trade partners in the EU: food-processing companies often demand Delivered Duty paid (DDP) delivery. dried. the exporter has no guarantee that his invoice will be settled. The different payment methods and risks attached to them are extensively described in CBI’s Export Planner. which charge high interest rates. This is especially important for countries. Royal 93 . bulk pack Main varieties: Bebekou. in practice he has very little control over his products when they are in the warehouse of his trade Although payment by letter of credit (L/C) could be negotiated for first-time shipments. only an invoice is sufficient.). Depending on the shipping period. FOB and CIF are departure contracts: responsibility for the goods transfers from exporter to importer at the moment the goods cross over the ship’s rail at the port of departure. The local bank of the exporter can advise the possibilities and the premiums. Hamidi Other varieties: Peeka. DDP deliveries are arrival contracts: the exporter is fully responsible for the goods until they arrive at the warehouse of the trade partner anywhere in the EU. Open account payments provide the following advantages for both parties: • No documents are required. Exporters who aim to supply EU markets will invariably be faced with longer payment terms. who will pay the invoice by bank transfer. he can try to induce trade partners to accept his offer. It is therefore strongly advised to take out credit insurance for commercial risks.Usually prices quoted to EU trade partners are in euros (€). • Low cost • Quick execution • Simple However. Freight (CIF) deliveries. please check CBI’s Export Planner or visit the ICC’s website: http://www.6 Product profiles PRODUCT PROFILE DRIED APRICOTS 1. 10. The exporter sends his invoice to the importer. while importers usually require Free on Board (FOB) or Cost.

The product should be prepared from cleaned.500 tonne (FOB) Market trends: Dried apricots are mostly consumed by direct eating (often in mixtures with other dried fruits and nuts). Italy. Spain.2. soft. No EU quality standards exist. Greece) exclusively for fresh consumption. 4. Germany. packer or vendor) • net quantity kg Packaging: Cardboard boxes. Iran. Minimum labelling: • product name • identification (name and address) of supplier (producer. aflatoxin) should be absent. without brown discoloration Flavour/taste: aromatic. preferable with polyethylene liner. Local EU production in Mediterranean area (Italy. Consumer demand is stable.g. Main suppliers: Main supplying country for dried apricots: Turkey (80% of supply to EU). characteristic apricot.5 kg (no wooden crates because of risk of splinters in product) 3. Sensory characteristics: Colour: dark-yellow to deep-orange. UK. because damage will rapidly cause 94 . usually 10-12. Whole apricots are usually graded in large (or jumbo). 5. demand throughout the year. but there is a growing demand in bakery industry. Chemical/physical characteristics: No food additives exceeding permitted levels. Permitted food additives: Potassium sorbate (as sorbic acid) max .1000 mg/kg Sulphite (as sulphur dioxide) max. but some member states have limited national quality standards for preserved fruit. easy-bite. stalked. not leathery. Application in jam industry has turned negligible. Market requirements: Quality standards: Apricots are distinguished as being sweet/sour and whole/diced. small. texture as mentioned above. How to improve the quality: Harvesting: careful picking without damaging the fruits. France. Average prices: US$ 1. Other supply: France. no off-taste Texture: smooth. medium. The Netherlands. destoned apricots of commercial varieties. and South Africa. 2000 mg/kg Ascorbic acid QS Toxic substances originating from mould growth (e. Market structure: Harvest and processing according to growing area. dried by appropriate methods (sun drying or air drying) to the required dry solids content.

These dark colored apricots are not very popular in the EU. Any substances in quantities that could be harmful to health should be absent.0. 50:1 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) min. Totapuri Other varieties: Haden. slightly spicy. Market requirements: Quality standards: No EU quality standards exist. 50 ppm Ash 0. no oxidation.20 ppm Formol number 15 +/.03 ppm Lead max.). except in the health food sector. 10/g Salmonella absent/25 g Any components and substances originating from micro-organisms in quantities that could be harmful to health must be absent. completely free from contamination (including so-called black specks).enzymatic browning. Product should be preserved by appropriate heat treatment. Microbiological quality: General aerobic count max. puree. caramellisation or other off-taste Consistency: thick-fluid at ambient temperature Appearance: homogeneous puree with small pulp particles.5 Cadmium max. pure mango. only mechanical and physical processes are permitted during production. 95 . 16 Bx PH 3. 25 ppm Beta-carotene min. Without added sugar. no signs of enzymatic or non-enzymatic browning or oxidation Taste/flavour: pleasant. even and homogeneous. preserved by heat Main varieties: Alphonso.01 ppm Pulp passed through 1/32" mesh sieve. 0. to eliminate heat resistant spore forming micro-organisms]. and no flavouring substances. Tommy Atkins. neither artificial nor natural. presence of added citric acid is only allowed when declared quantitatively on the label.4 +/. typical for the fresh fruit (sweet.3 Total acidity (as citric acid anhydrous) min.7 +/. keeping the final sulphur dioxide content within permitted levels. 1000/g Yeast and mould count max. slightly reminiscent of peach). Product should be prepared from sound ripe fruits. 5. Product name: mango (Mangifera indica L. 0.3 ppm Mercury max.200 ppm Phosphorus (as P2O5) 130 +/. may have been added. 110 0 C during 15 seconds.0. Apricots that have not had sulphur dioxide treatment will turn dark. Post-harvest treatment: sulphur dioxide treatment in closed room (to maintain the bright orange-yellow color and protect against insects). Carabao 2.5g/kg Ratio citric/iso-citric approx. Chemical/physical characteristics: Total sugar content (refractometer)min. 100/g Coliform count max. [Product must have been subject during processing to heat treatment of min. 0. No colouring and preserving agents. Sensory characteristics: Colour: golden-yellow to orange-yellow.07 % Potassium 1800 +/. PRODUCT PROFILE MANGO PURĖE 1. Benett.

The main EU market is still the UK. Brazil. or hot-pack in hermetically sealed tinplate cans. depending on growing area. Demand throughout the year. variety • date of production • identification (name and address) of supplier (producer. Leading supplying country is India. 4. new producing countries: Mali.Minimum labeling (on smallest unit of packaging): • product name. ice-cream and softdrinks industry. cool and dry conditions. Main suppliers: No local EU production. How to improve the quality: Primarily important in achieving a good product quality is to follow the above-mentioned requirements. Unnecessary high and prolonged heat treatment should be avoided.. interest for mango processed in food products is also growing: primary application in dairy.. Transport and storage conditions: Ambient. Application in jam industry still negligible. Sufficiently strong packaging. having traditionally a substantial population of EastAsian US$ 800. Average prices: US$ 700. hermetically sealed. other suppliers are Pakistan. 3. Market trends: As the EU consumer is becoming more familiar with the fresh mango. without exposure to excessive sun and/or high temperature.per tonne (CIF NL) (fluctuating according to harvest situation). inner material of food grade quality. incl. Importers have strong preference for aseptic product rather than canned puree: because of its better quality (reduced heat damage) and because of trouble in opening cans involving considerable product loss and waste disposal costs. 96 . packer or vendor) • net quantity kg • added citric acid Packaging: Either aseptically packed in bag-in-box or bag-in-drum (bags further to be specified). Kenya. The Philippines. Market structure: Growing and production throughout the year. 5.

national governments and trade partners • Assesses the investments you should make relevant to the above-mentioned subjects 11. the second step is to prepare an internal analysis. Trade partners in EU countries generally have a wide choice of suppliers from all parts of the world: they receive up to twenty offers per day from new suppliers looking for their business! In order to stand out from the crowd. but are a mix of different subjects which set the exporter apart from his competitors. the exporter should endeavour to look for ways that distinguishes him from his competitors.11 INTERNAL ANALYSIS: COMPANY AUDIT After the external analysis. logistics. USPs’ usually do not refer to one single subject. the exporter should try to draw attention to his company and get noticed by the potential trade partner. Examples of USPs’ for the preserved fruit and vegetables sector could be the following: • Product specifications exceeding the requirements of trade partners • Consistent and high quality of products guaranteed by the exporter • Excellent service. in other words to present these USPs’ to potential trade partners in the EU. packaging and shipping requirements by the EU. marketing and sales. Product specifications. finance and human resources) to: Compete effectively with international competitors in supplying EU markets Take advantage of the opportunities that are identified in EU markets Deal with threats that are identified in EU markets Comply with product. Based on this external analysis.1 Product standards. the exporter should have a clear insight into the opportunities and threats of exporting his products to selected EU markets. Unique Selling Points (USPs’) Although one of the most difficult subjects to achieve. packaging and processing and the amount of investments necessary to do so. USP and production capacity As already mentioned in the chapters 3 and 9. The internal analysis: • Assesses the capabilities of your company in different fields (production. quality. might include following subjects: • Process description • Legal requirements (EU and German food laws) • Chain control • Packing • Samples • Transport and storage conditions • Sensorial characteristics • Micro biological characteristics • Chemical characteristics • Residues Based on these requirements. as required by EU importers. food safety requirements are the leading impetus behind a whole range of product and packaging requirements. the exporter can determine the extent to which he has to adapt his products. for example Replying within 24 hours to any question or request Open communication On-time delivery Honouring agreements to the letter. even when they have financial implications 97 .

It is important that the exporter ensures that this type is available from his supplier. assessment of the following subjects should be made: • Planning of production Trade partners usually work with tight arrival schedules in order to deliver the products to their customers on an agreed date and time. a certain type of export carton might be required. to production planning. inspection and obtaining of export documentation. Working backwards from these requirements. especially when dealing with government agencies. Exporters should therefore assess in advance the volumes they could sell to trade partners in the EU and the periods of requirements. When a company decides on direct exports. some export documentation like inspection and insurance certificates must be obtained from external organizations. etc. it will be necessary to set up a commercial department to handle export activities to EU countries.3 discusses the market entry modes. the responsibilities of both functions are given below: 98 . • Purchasing of ingredients and packing material As part of the planning of production. • Export documentation (certificates. direct or indirect exports. Sufficient time should be allowed to procure the necessary documents. 11. • Agreements with transport providers to the port of shipment. This will give the trade partner the opportunity to make alternative arrangements. Supplying the volumes required during the required periods can be an important competitive tool. Whether to employ different persons for marketing and sales depends entirely on the size of the company and the possibilities to invest in the commercial department. • Handling of export orders The handling of export orders entails the internal logistics. In order to meet the required shipping date. insurance certificates. It is therefore important to plan production well in advance to ensure the products are available in time for shipment. which meet their needs throughout the year. an exporter should assure himself that containers and shipping space are available on the required shipping date.3 Marketing and sales Chapter 10. ranging from ordering ingredients and packing material. • Communication with trade partner in the EU It is of the utmost importance that exporters communicate immediately with their EU trade partners when certain requirements cannot be met. EU trade partners might have special requirements for ingredients and packing material.) Depending on the requirements of the EU trade partner. For example. Based on the requirements of EU trade partners. invoices. 11. • Availability of containers and shipping space During peak season. shipping and Customs agents • Pre-shipment inspection (when required) Please refer to remarks under ‘export documentation’. Open and accurate information from the exporter is an important tool in order to be a reliable trade partner for his EU counterpart.Production capacity Trade partners in the EU require a continuous flow of products. In order to assess marketing and sales functions as part of the internal analysis. the exporter should adjust his production capacity to the said requirements. Marketing and sales form the commercial department responsible for all export activities to EU countries. packing lists.2 Logistics Logistics deal with all matters to ensure a smooth flow of products from production to the final destination in the country of destination. availability of containers and shipping space might be a problem.

late delivery. the capabilities of the staff members concerned. the number of export destinations and the selected trade partners in the EU. but also its credit facilities should be large enough to cover extended payment terms. non-payment. shipping agents. prepare annual budgets Sales • • • • • • • • Selection of potential trade partners in the EU Contacts with trade partners Familiarity with all export documentation to ship products to EU markets Familiarity with sales contracts.Marketing • Familiarity with all non-tariff and tariff barriers relevant to the export of the company’s products to the EU • In cooperation with production and finance departments.) 99 . Much depends on the complexity of the work.4 Financing One of the most important subjects to assess in the internal analysis is the company’s financial capability to commence exporting to EU countries. where the different modes of market entry are described. Moreover. adjust products and packaging to comply with EU requirements • Preparation of promotion material. packaging and possibly production equipment. travel to EU countries. Customs agents) inspection bodies Although it appears from the above-mentioned description that different employees should occupy these functions.) that are often inherent when commencing exports to new destinations. like brochures and product specifications • Installation of communication tools like websites and e-mail • Organisation of participating in EU trade fairs • Carry out market research • Preparation of Market Entry Strategy (MES) and Export Marketing Plan (EMP) • In cooperation with sales and finance departments. brochures.3: sales channel assessment. a combination of both functions in one position is quite possible. The company should not only have access to sufficient funds to invest in adaptation of products. etc. information) • Human resources (qualified export staff) • Production equipment • Certification (HACCP) • Promotion (participation in EU trade fairs. together with the functions of different trade partners in the EU. payment and delivery terms Negotiations with trade partners in the EU Responsibility for the margins made on exports to EU destinations Negotiations with logistic service suppliers (transporters. etc. The following financial aspects should be assessed in the internal analysis: Investments • Product development (adjustment of products to EU standards) • Packaging Adjustment of content Adjustment of packing material Packaging for long-distance shipments Labelling requirements (barcodes. 11. Please refer to section 10. the company should have sufficient financial funds to bear commercial risks (quality problems.

This culture refers to items like dress codes. it is far less widely spoken in France. prices and margins. addressing of your counterpart and business conversations. quality problems • Consignment shipping. for example with ‘open account’ payment Commercial risks • Claims. for example because of late delivery.2 of this survey for further information on this subject Human resources Knowledge of exporting preserved fruit and vegetables to EU countries is a basic requirement for a company. Italy.) but also to knowledge about EU requirements and market developments relevant to preserved fruit and vegetables in the EU. This knowledge does not only apply to technical matters regarding exports (documentation. 100 . Ignorance on the part of the exporter is often (mis) used by trade partners to extract more favourable trading conditions at the expense of the exporter. Spain.Payment terms • Credit terms. Business culture Business culture can differ tremendously from one EU country to the other. You should familiarize yourself with the prevailing business culture in your targeted EU country. for example credit insurance Miscellaneous costs • Export documentation • Inspection certificates • Stationery for export purposes • Communication expenses Further reference is made to section 10. Portugal and Greece. etc. for example payment 60 days after receipt of goods • Local interest rates • Bank charges. making appointments. handling of documents • Non-payment risks. invitation to lunches or dinners. Please check section 13. Not only will this prevent miscommunication.4. The knowledge is necessary in order to be able to negotiate with your trade partners in the EU at the same level. shipping possibilities. Exporters who target these countries are advised to communicate in the local language. export calculations. This can be an important USP and competitive tool compared to competitors who are less conversant in local languages. where the different payment and delivery terms are discussed. 11. the following capabilities should be assessed as part of the internal analysis: Languages Although English is widely used in EU countries as the official business language.5 Capabilities Apart from the subjects mentioned above. for example confirmation of Letter of Credit. the use of business cards. for example selling price is below cost price • Insurance premiums. but also show respect and commitment to local trade partners.

To be successful. After gaining experience and establishing regular exports. 101 . the exporter can use the results to prepare a SWOT analysis.1 SWOT and situation analysis Based on the outcome of the external and internal analyses. • Market segments (for example fruit puree for baby and infant food) It is impossible to be everything to everybody. he might consider a positive decision to continue preparations to commence exporting to EU markets. In this way. France and Sweden • Year round shipments • Increasing consumption of exotic fruit WEAKNESSES • Relatively high labour costs • Inefficient production • Substandard packing material • Weak language capabilities • No government assistance in promoting exports • Limited production capacity THREATS • Ever stricter EU rules and regulations • Concentration of buying power • Increasing costs of inspection at port of discharge Based on the SWOT analysis. the exporter should carefully select the segment in which he can excel and outrank his competitors. When his strengths and the opportunities. the exporter should formulate the following objectives: • Selected EU markets for exports It is advisable to select only one or two EU markets. In this analysis he identifies Strengths and Weaknesses of his company compared to competitors and the Opportunities and Threats that he identifies in selected EU markets. the exporter can focus his efforts and concentrate his (often limited) resources. a solid base will have been formed to roll out to other EU countries. where he will be one of the crowd of suppliers who usually compete on price. An example of a SWOT analysis is given below: STRENGTHS • Consistent and high product quality • Strong financial position • Export experience to EU markets • Low interest rates • Excellent infrastructure for shipping • Short distance to EU markets OPPORTUNITIES • Growing demand in The Netherlands. The market segments for preserved fruit and vegetables are very diverse: each segment requires different product standards and a different approach. In this way he can fully concentrate his resources to this particular segment: specialisation in niche markets is a far better strategy than going after bulk markets. outweigh his weaknesses and the threats.2 Strategic options & objectives Formulation of objectives After a positive decision to prepare for exporting to the EU. the exporter should evaluate the consequences of improving on his weaknesses and decide whether or not the threats pose manageable obstacles to start exports to the EU. 12. Selection of too many markets leads to diffusion of resources and often leaves only half-baked efforts to establish a durable position.12 DECISION MAKING 12. which he sees in the market.

• Type of trade partner to appoint Depending on the countries selected and the market segments chosen. A realistic objective will fall within this range. Annual turnover and volumes per market/per trade partner It is important to set realistic targets for volume and turnover per market and per trade partner. As with volumes and turnover. In this way. actual profits realised can be compared to budgeted profits. they provide a basis for export budgets and for the level of investments needed to achieve these objectives. In order to create a durable position. profitability is essential. you should think twice before entering EU markets. A good way to solve this problem is to work with different scenarios: o an optimistic scenario. it is possible to calculate your profitability in both scenarios. 102 . where you estimate turnover in the most favourable market conditions o a pessimistic scenario. the exporter decides whether direct exports to food processors or working with importers and agents provide the best option. the company can determine the viability of exports to the EU and can compare the actual results per period compared to the budgeted results. Although the setting of these targets is a difficult exercise when the exporter does not have experience in the selected markets. where you estimate turnover in poor market conditions The optimistic and pessimistic scenarios give the lower and upper borders of your turnover objectives. When in the optimistic scenario your profitability is still marginal. By working this way. • • Profitability Building up export positions in EU markets requires a long-term approach. It is extremely difficult to set objectives for annual turnover.

13. the exporter is able to determine the extent to which the specifications of his products match the requirements. purée. his company and his products 103 . Different production processes (dried. the product range in depth applies. as the initial impression a trading partners gets during this encounter is usually decisive for future cooperation. each fruit in different varieties and in different packing sizes. In order to assist the exporter in the preparations for his first meeting with a EU trading partner. In order to be attractive to potential trade partners in the box of 15 kg . Wait till your counterpart assigns you a seat Extremely task-oriented – ‘hello. who think the trading partner is relationship-building. in different forms and in an extensive range of packaging. In spite of all modern communication tools. the personal relationship with a trading partner often decides a durable cooperation. questions are purely ritual and over very quickly A British trading partner will give the exporter the opportunity to sell himself. nice to meet you’ and then straight to the point – this may confuse exporters. but also to have a product range available matching the import requirements from EU partners. direct with an understated use of language Treats counterpart as equal but expects respect for achieved status/position.13 EXPORT MARKETING 13. the business culture of the six EU countries mentioned in this survey is described below: • United Kingdom Polite. When the company concentrates on one product (strawberries). this is the case when the company exports different types of fruit. The first meeting with a trading partner in the EU is the most crucial. frozen) might also be drum of 100 kg Apricots Varieties: bebekon hamidi Product: dried Packing: carboard box with p/e liner 10 – 12. An example of a product range can be seen in the following table: Product range (width) Strawberries Varieties: senga sengana gorella ostana Product: frozen (IQF) Packing: paper bag with p/e liner of 10 kg carboard box with coating of 15 kg Mango Varieties: alphonso totapuri Product: purée Packing: aseptically filled bag . but exports this product in many varieties.2 Building up a relationship with a suitable trading partner A profound knowledge of the prevailing business culture in the country of the trading partner is one of the main keys to a durable relationship. In the above-mentioned example. the exporter should consider not only to sell one product variety in one type of packing. However.5 kg A company can export a wide product range.1 Matching products and the product range Based on the product specifications as required by his trade partner in the EU.

expensive car. when the relationship is established they are rather loyal customers Dress correctly and conservatively. responsibilities are delegated to purchasers They are very task-oriented and do not like extensive social talk. even when they do not agree to it They expect counterparts to take initiative and expect assertive communication • The Netherlands They are rather informal and are quick to use first names They treat their counterparts as equal and are friendly in their communication Direct in their approach and they do not like to beat around the bush Often they do not have a secretary to bring coffee. first names are not used • 104 .). they like to come straight to the point. so they can report back to their superiors French are rather chauvinistic. religion and private/family matters They expect that their counterparts have their own opinion and voice it. polite and not very direct They like shaking hands. etc. instead they ask you to accompany them to the coffee machine somewhere in the corridor. it takes a rather long time to commence business. your counterpart is probably not empowered to make any decisions Instead they want to gather as much information as possible about your company and your products. Dutch people do not like a display of wealth (Rolex watch. the building of a relationship between you and your French counterpart is essential before any business can be done Patience is an important virtue in dealing with the French. Dutch importers will be quick to ask the price Showing off is frowned upon. they prefer you to conduct the conversation in French and that you are familiar with French culture French buyers can be rather arrogant and can treat you as though they regard you as having a much lower in status than themselves Do not expect to come to business during the first meeting. he will be prepared to give it a try on the basis of a trial shipment They get slightly irritated by small talk and formalities and like to get down to business. tailor made Saville Row suits. ‘Act normal’ is their way of doing business. no flashy and contrasting colours French remain formal to their business partners. however. coffee is offered throughout the day Dutch trading partners expect you to take the initiative in the conversation: what do you have to show or tell me? They like to ask questions and take a pro-active attitude Dutch counterparts are empowered by their organisation to make decisions there is no need to refer to their bosses. being very price conscious. both at the beginning and the end of a meeting French companies are very hierarchical.He will be interested in the track record/achievements of your company and your products When convinced. do not talk about politics. Therefore expensive and colourful brochures are often counterproductive: Dutch purchasers think that eventually they pay for all this Dutch purchasers like to work with strict deadlines: ‘when can you get your proposal to me?’ and they expect you to stick to the agreed date France French are formal.

it is not as widespread as in Northern EU countries • • Although there are large cultural differences in dealing with trade partners in different EU countries. never address them by their first names Belgium Be aware of the bi-lingual and bi-cultural situation in Belgium. In the Flemish part of Belgium. Spain is the only EU country where businesses close between 14.00 – 17. They are quite formal. For example. when building up a good relationship trade partners in all the EU countries place particular value on the following aspects: • • Open and prompt communication. Walloon trade partners are similar to the French in their business dealings.• Germany Germans are formal and never use first names They like to be addressed by Herr (Mr. English is widely spoken in the Flemish part of Belgium. Spain Keep the ‘siesta’ in mind. bracelets. When asked questions or in case of enquiries. references to check you and your company out. In the Walloon part.). if shipments are going to be delayed. avoid flashy and contrasting colours and expensive watches. prepare yourself in detail for this meeting: mistakes or inability to reply to questions will not be tolerated and will mean the end of a possible business relationship Try to get friendly with the secretaries. it is also important to check beforehand whether your counterpart has a title: in this case titles should be used also: Herr Doktor Schmidt or Frau Ingenieurin Albrecht German purchasers like to come quickly to the point and are well prepared for the meeting. Brussels is bi-lingual. etc. rings. expertise and track record are very important elements for Germans in his search for certainties Dress correctly and formally. company background. Come strictly on time. please inform your trade partner in time. German purchasers usually have very tight schedules and many meetings on one day. first names are never used. The Flemish are polite and easy to communicate with. advise your trade partner 105 .00 hrs. Even when you only expect possible problems. Flemish (similar to the Dutch language) is spoken. they usually inform you how long the meeting will last and the points they want to cover They require detailed planning and concrete arrangements and expect you to adhere to them. an answer within 24 hours is highly appreciated Timely information in case of problems. He will be able to take the necessary measures on his side. Relationship building is important when doing business in Spain. guarantees. as they want to eliminate uncertainties as much as possible they will ask a lot of details Particularly offer your German counterpart ‘certainties’: assurances. Although English is increasingly spoken. Frau (Mrs) or Fraulein (Ms) and their last names. they have a lot of influence in scheduling the appointments for their bosses. French is spoken. It is important to speak Spanish. here again. Business lunches usually take place during this time. The use of the French language is very much appreciated and often necessary.

However. Direct criticism should be avoided as this is often taken personally. English and German are the most used foreign languages.3 Drawing up an offer After establishing contacts with potential trade partners in the EU. A formal tone of communication is advisable.• Reliability is a key issue for building up a durable relationship. so reports from these organisations can be quite expensive. Sources to check are: Branch organisations in the EU and accession countries (see appendix 3. the form. the exporter might be requested to make an offer to an importer or directly to a food processor. trading partners in Central and Eastern Europe are more tuned to personal contact. • Rules. In most countries hierarchy plays an important role. choice of words and the way one speaks is important. An offer. Written communication is complicated. Building up a relationship with a trading partner in the new EU countries Due to the different cultural. like Dun & Bradstreet. It is important to create an atmosphere in which your trade partner feels comfortable to indicate when he has not understood a subject. This forms the basis of any business relationship. The information provided is generally extensive. 13. the exporter should verify the following items: • Reputation of trade partner Important to check whether the trade partner requesting an offer is well established and has a good reputation. The preparation of an offer should be carried out with caution. Before making an offer. please observe the following points when contacting trading partners: Communication is generally less direct and subtler. ‘Top-down’ communication is very common. Although telephone and e-mail are important communication tools. Apart from the content. as many less relevant sentences are used. It is important to discuss matters with the boss. regulations and quality standards 106 . which can supply company profiles. government departments and smaller (family) firms. which has been accepted by an EU trading partner and does not contain any escape clauses for the exporter is a legally binding document requiring the exporter to deliver. As the supply chains are becoming more integrated and chain partners are becoming more interdependent. reliability forms an important pillar under the integrated chain. Cofaz and Graydon. even when the trading conditions are unfavourable to him.4) Trade registers in the country of the trade partner. Western managed companies and multinationals and with older state companies. The essence of a message is often hidden between the lines and can easily lead to miscommunication. social and economic background of the new EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe. for example the Chamber of Commerce Commercial organisations. as his subordinates have no authority to make decisions. There is a difference in dealing with new. the level of proficiency is sometimes low. Much time should be allowed for explanations.

General sales conditions apply to all offers and contracts and stipulate items like: Retention of title of the goods (in case of non-payment) Product liability Force majeur (when an exporter cannot supply due to circumstances beyond his control like strikes. in practice. However. even when accepted by the EU trade partner. the following elements should be included: • Date of quotation and reference number. late/non delivery Inspection procedures Exclusion of Value Added Taxes (VAT) in price quotations Please remember that the general sales conditions of an exporter might conflict with the general purchasing conditions of an importer. A very important element of the quotation. an offer signed by both parties automatically converts into a sales contract. This number can at a later stage be used on contracts. perils of the sea) Resolution of disputes Delayed payment. • Full names and addresses of both parties • Product and product specifications • Packaging specifications • Quantity in kgs.4 Handling the contract Once the offer has been accepted by the buyer and reconfirmed by the exporter. litres • Price per kg/litre. currency and total amount • Delivery terms (Incoterms 2000) • Delivery period • Payment terms • Validity of the quotation. When making an offer. payment and shipping documents as easy reference to the consignment in question. 107 . political unrest. A waiver in the offer is quite customary and can be worded as follows: This quote is subject to our confirmation This offer is without any obligations This offer is subject to confirmation by means of a sales contract An offer made without waiver and accepted by the buyer obliges the exporter to deliver the goods according to the quotation • Referral to the general sales conditions of the exporter. The ICC sales contracts contain all the necessary elements and can be used as a sound basis. The period of validity depends very much on the volatility of market prices. Reference is made to the sales contracts of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). a sales contract will be prepared. The waiver gives the exporter an escape clause not to honour the quotation. 13. the validity of the quotation might only be 24 hours. In very volatile markets.It is important to verify whether the exporter can comply with EU and national regulations on products and packaging and the specifications requested by the trade partner. fires. • Waiver.

Havenweg 211 2039 JK Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel. 03/10799 Buyer Dried Fruit Wholesalers 2345 Regent Street Cambridge. Dried fruit importers BV.000 kg Price/kg € 1. 25th July 2004 Incoterms 2000: DDP Cambridge Payment: 40 days after date of invoice Documents: Invoice Certificate of analysis CMR freight note Our general sales conditions apply. a copy is attached to this contract Please return a countersigned copy of this contract to us before the 30th July 2003 We thank you for this order Yours truly. agents and food processors from all EU countries.: 03/10799 Confirmation of sale No.V. 1234 Origin: Italy Currency: € Quantity 100 boxes Total (kg) 1. 108 . an exporter in the preserved fruit and vegetable sector can apply the following tools: • Participation in trade fairs in the EU This is by far the most effective promotion tool. as the exporter has the opportunity to present his products to importers. NA 3 4YU United Kingdom Amsterdam. The most important trade fairs in the EU are Food Ingredients Europe.5 Sales promotion To promote the exports of his products to markets in the EU. Seller Dried fruit Wholesalers Buyer Reg Leenes John Curley 13.00 Delivery date 10th August 2003 Sales Contract No.95 Total price € 1. 03/10799 Product: Dried prunes in 10 kg boxes Quality: According to our specifications no.950.An example of an offer/sales contract is given below: Dried Fruit Importers B.: Fax: E-mail: VAT no: Chamber of Commerce Amsterdam Bank: ING Amsterdam Swiftcode:ING BNL 45 Our ref.

good packing ensures that your sample reaches your contact in the EU in top condition. The first thing interested trade partners in the EU will ask for is samples of your products. Be careful not to exaggerate and to ‘walk your talk’ (deliver what you promise). certification. Visits to potential trade partners in the EU As personal contacts always work best in any sector. a potential trade partner will be able to form an image of your company. invoices. as these are of little interest to trade partners in the EU. colors and texts of your letterheads. Time is at a premium for trade partners in the preserved fruit and vegetable business and they do not want to spend any of it in reading information not relevant to their business. and resulting damage. Company brochures and product specifications A company brochure should be factual. during transport is common.• • • • • Health Ingredients Europe. Rough handling. Often. and Biofach (organic food ingredients). in order to inform potential trade partners on relevant information of the company. E-promotion This applies to the use of e-mail and website. A website forms an easy reference for any EU partner to obtain information about your company. attention should be given to the packaging. the same rules apply as for company brochures: factual and to-thepoint information is all a trade partner wants to see. In designing a website for your company. make sure that the layout. Lengthy stories about the founding family and historic reviews should be omitted. Instead information should be given about production capacities. Further reference is made to CBI’s Your image Builder. Company stationery In order to build the right image for your company. organization.5 of this survey. turnover and personnel. In sending samples (often by airmail). tracking and tracing systems. the exporter should invest time and money to visit EU trade partners. business cards and envelopes is consistent and that good quality paper is used. 109 . Company stationery is an important ambassador for your company as it is sent/given to EU trade partners. markets (both domestic and export). Please check contact details in appendix 3. they will inform you about their product specifications and request you to send samples according to these specifications. Samples Samples are a very important tool for promoting your products. It is advisable to allow additional weeks after a trade fair to follow up on contacts and to make appointments with the most promising trade partners. This way. processing equipment.

nuts and other edible parts of plants. unfermented and not containing added spirit. fruit. prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid tomatoes.APPENDICES 1 DETAILED HS CODES The detailed HS codes are given in sequence of the product groups as mentioned under chapter 5 of this survey. prepared or preserved by vinegar or acetic acid: cucumbers and gherkins onions mango chutney fruit of the genus Capsicum other than sweet peppers or pimentos sweet corn (Zea mays var. HS codes printed in bold type indicate that information is given in chapter 5 of this survey. whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter orange juice. conditiva) red cabbages tropical fruits and tropical nuts Tomatoes. CONCENTRATE HS code 200 9 11 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Description Fruit juices (incl. saccharata) yams. frozen unfrozen orange juice grapefruit juice juice of any other single citrus fruit pineapple juice tomato juice grape juice (including grape must) apple juice juice of any single fruit or vegetable mixtures of juices CANNED VEGETABLES HS code 2001 10 20 00 90 10 90 20 90 30 90 40 90 60 90 65 90 70 90 75 90 85 90 91 2002 10 90 2005 10 20 Description Vegetables. other than products of heading 2006 homogenised vegetables potatoes 110 . not frozen. FRUIT JUICE. grape must) and vegetable juices. whole or in pieces other Other vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid. sweet potatoes and similar edible parts of plants containing 5% or more by weight of starch palm hearts olives sweet peppers salad beetroot (beta vulgaris var.

papaya.. frozen potatoes peas (pisum sativum) beans (vigna spp. mangisstans.) other leguminous vegetables spinach. nuts and other edible parts of plants. whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or spirit. including nectarines strawberries palm hearts mixtures passion fruit and guaves manga’s. phaseolus spp. saccharata) other vegetables and mixtures of vegetables Description Fruit.. not elsewhere specified or included pineapples citrus fruit pears apricots cherries peaches. etc. otherwise prepared or preserved. FROZEN VEGETABLES HS code 0710 10 21 22 29 30 40 80 10 80 51 80 59 80 61/69 80 70 80 80 80 85 8095 90 Description Vegetables (uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water).s.) asparagus olives sweet corn (Zea mays var. New Zealand spinach and orache spinach sweet corn olives sweet peppers capsicum or pimenta mushrooms tomatoes artichokes asparagus other frozen vegetables mixtures of vegetables 111 .40 51/59 60 70 80 00 90 CANNED FRUIT HS code 2008 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 91 92 99 25 99 26 peas (pisum sativum) beans (vigna spp. phaseolus spp.

passion fruit.) and truffles potatoes sweet corn tomatoes carrots other vegetables and mixtures of vegetables 112 . avocados. dried Dates. loganberries. cut. including plantains. black. whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter strawberries raspberries. broken or in powder. figs. wood ears (auricularia spp. sapodillo plums. fresh or dried dates (fresh and dried) figs pineapples avocados guavas. fresh or dried currants sultanas other dried grapes Fruit. other than that of headings 0801 to 0806.DRIED FRUIT HS code 0803 00 90 0804 10 00 20 90 30 00 40 00 50 00 2011/91 2012/92 2018/98 0813 10 00 20 00 30 00 40 10 40 30 40 50 40 60 40 70 50 FROZEN FRUIT HS code 0811 10 20 90 Description Fruit and nuts. white or red currants and gooseberries other fruit Description Bananas. mulberries. jelly fungi (Tremella spp. dried. mangoes and mango steens Grapes. jackfruit. blackberries. pineapples. whole. carambola and pitahaya mixtures of nuts or dried fruit of this Chapter 0806 DRIED VEGETABLES HS code 0712 2000 3000 90 90 90 90 90 05 11/19 30 50 90 Description Dried vegetables. guavas. but not further prepared onions mushrooms. including nectarines pears papaws (papayas) tamarinds cashew apples. sliced. uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling water. frozen. mangoes and mangosteens. mixtures of nuts or dried fruits of this Chapter apricots prunes apples peaches. lychees.).

lychees. passion fruit. in sulphur water or in other preservative solutions). carambola. mango’s. in brine. tamarinds. by sulphur dioxide gas. jackfruit. cashew apples.PROVISIONALLY PRESERVED FRUIT AND VEGETABLES HS code 0812 Description FRUIT Fruit and nuts. but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption onions olives capers cucumbers and gherkins other vegetables 10 20 90 10 90 20 90 30 90 40 90 50 90 60 90 70 0711 10 20 30 40 90 113 . sapodillo plums. provisionally preserved (for example. in sulphur water or in other preservative solutions). in brine. by sulphur dioxide gas. mangosteens. but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption cherries strawberries apricots oranges papaws (papayas) fruit of the species vaccinium myrtillus black currants raspberries guavas. pitahaya and tropical nuts VEGETABLES Vegetables provisionally preserved (for example.

480 Poland 200.042 3.703 3.592.355 3.792 Source: Eurostat.840 79.079.077 188.631 44.254 5.973 24.570 16.422.028 27.030 1.494 29.919 46.090 1.492 14.299 Austria 345.260 194.527 5.090.982 421.971 14.425 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Germany 3.712 136.762 2002 value € volume 13.488 863.045 Spain 537.023 3.988 3.646 14.855 86.075 1.450 44.060.133 162.055.252 170.584.486.783 Slovakia 42.991 170.610 124.977 312.456. Table 1 Imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU.937.641 1.418 2.062 1.750 358.939 3.485 26.449.595.601 Latvia 26.989 144.698 41.912 45.324 The Netherlands 1.703.842 331.612 1.428 2.637 294.393.407 169.342 Italy 912.126 41.034 48.158 668.706 3.808 17.548 139.881 37.089 1.426.402 Finland 133.476 United Kingdom 1.643 229.428.386.967 Denmark 233.020 336.291 162.699 643.458 317.518 199.814.528 627.379 Malta 13.540 5.947 1.590 61.160 6.479 30.876.673.196 2.515 3.434 322.006.120.855 46.787.397 303.635 328.010.839 Estonia 22.781 13.943 952.136 9.236 597.568 139.378 5.781.745 1.086 Ireland 209.489 3.344 Greece 122.134.2 DETAILED IMPORT/EXPORT STATISTICS The source of the data presented below is Eurostat COMEXT 2003.625 66.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 12.130.042 239.615 France 1.239 635.700 1.437.676 250.578.952 Slovenia 41.981 8.325 1.574 495.739.233 117.502 35.170 202.453 39.977 14.459 Sweden 305. 126.830.228.176 1.530 1.428 3.161 15.257 151.192.427 Czech Republic 99.174 47.893.696.995 295. The leading suppliers mentioned in the statistics supplied at least 80 percent of total value imports in 2003.866 68. 2003 114 .107.868 4.994 158.838 Cyprus 13.133 Hungary 57.988 161.808 27.504 Luxembourg 39.258 22.764 1. € 1.302 24.565 Portugal 129.499 971.543 2.576 400.065 Belgium 1.909 231.010.934.667 66.777.117 148.917 44.890 29.435 3.543.525 37.895.149 14.823 60.003 2003 value € volume 13.642 1.001 41.901. 2001-2003.040 136.867 236.257 Lithuania 34.147 44.023 158.519 204.779.458.220 1.221.814 13.162 3.634 68.816 392.590.199 121.428 2.267 136.172 10.745 27.

125.099.603.705 290.644.427 93.417 12.359 64.833 66.872 39.439 257.731 64.728.500 15.111 886.360 104. € 1.616 0 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Germany The Netherlands France United Kingdom Belgium Italy Austria Spain Denmark Sweden Ireland Poland Greece Finland Portugal Czech Republic Hungary Luxembourg Slovenia Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Estonia Cyprus Malta Table 3 Imports of canned vegetables into the EU.295 72.342 773.292 3.075 31.866 49.790 622.070.594 9.386 7.955 596.448 2.424 804.264 28.680 55.039 494.417 0 2002 value € volume 4.214 230.725 262.274 13.288 3.594 30.470 43.639 1.508 11.047 44.884 17.927 209.349 2.851 81.611 731.386 23.716.349 8.420 4.739 12.027.150 283.982 512.877.282 4.885 135.218 275.651 3.031 79.852 4.490 1.993 74.109.934.514 8.654 866.086 561.766 568.578 88.486 3.782 181.368 933.035 536.274 4.678 1.331 51.070 47.836 851.320 4.533 163.015 498.336.604 324.152 4.690 672.572 15.624 494.526 1.528 113.503.828 730.617 92.574 86.111 839.281 113.230 523.566 260.509 456.922 2.728 213.529 14.748 2003 value € volume 3.556 3.416 717.933 5.873 862.510 88.615 6.484 94.692 7.829 580.696 298.559 14.644 189.020 8.252 7.171 288.671 522.934 339.695 6.155 115 .037 16.425 97.938 12.008 722.208 44.333 9.302 115.787 184.392 216.268 1.159 117.730 8.979 5.222 5.397 285.230.825. 2001-2003.806 25.555.219 970.652 519.958 111.948 160.193.516 40.455 812.719 61.003 49.507.878 255.660 42.912 1.636 1.056.553 6.761 241.354 12.631 11.263 204.363 43.826 100.828 141.682.628 4.896 3.000/tonnes 2001 value € volume 2002 value € volume 3.610 401.167 456.091.145.511 40.666 261.033 182.019.735 55.142.940 49.442 98.933 39.634 500.734 12.945 37.164 5.069.266 764.583 777.853 32.867 42.845 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany United Kingdom France Italy The Netherlands Belgium Spain Sweden Denmark Ireland 3.485 2.151. 2001-2003.859 236.408 848.801 396.916 8.743 896.581 232.738 65.555 781.522 0 2003 value € volume 4.610 296.625 893.905 67.955 453.745 57.293 159.403 2.477 150.369 776.886 764.681 100.210 486.298 93.768 647.Table 2 Imports of fruit juice/concentrate into the EU.138 1.782 1.802 773.956 55.424.059.407 2.140 14.157.031 946.779 31.698 57.566 216.180 189.321 34.500 47.379 937.675 11.206 61.360.850 598.016 99.710 205.366 272.985 73.981 1.955 6.700 13.896 519.411 147.680 76.377 116.183 33.385 176. € 1.553 11.615 42.869 10.624 8.417 6.674 38.187.549 98.956 217.493 2.904 14.380.900 43.482 75.870 791.273 69.736 1.756 720.116 185.474 5.725 7.167 877.223 77.118 426.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 4.064 77.

630 367.327 46.330 498.067 8.582 34.084 9.365 106.826 12.920 27.840 3.011 24.500 206.739 32.677 1.536 26.640 3.217 5.463 15.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 1.819 31.319 144.109 27.247 9.257 42.812 21.855 1.086 2.425 46.592 14.300 6.948 22.477 16.611 85.510 9.290 178.584 3.728.155 2.076 31.904 196.584 20.183 8.030 31.237 172.016 15.475 3.292 3.713 5.307 9.670 2.369.798 22.175 196.629 26.955 40.040 2.610 70.762 3.590 86.099 38.031 35.867 3.605 4.671 2.466 8.303 13.630 26.798 1.289 275.059 19.879 39.343 28.373 148.238 42.760 188.026 4.121 171.732 20.387 35.315 19.858 53.622 14.354 43.702 593.243 26.473 14.177 135.930 64.951 18.913 33.837 6.192 6.226 42.280 28.416 2.886 168.939 1.834 23.680 52.401 42.606 13.082 508.782 45.680 1.361 37.492 279.197 1.885 40.971 2.285 23.014 102.689 4.567 12.320 389.012 20.215 21.369 4.306 23.738 2.196 148.089 49. 2003 Table 4 58.327 18.115 10.401 24.782 14.027 33.596 4.703 12.048 3.301 18.248 119.268 32.813 4.476 37. € 1.507 39.780 13.338 4.551 27.639 96.729 361.Austria Poland Greece Finland Portugal Czech Republic Luxembourg Slovenia Latvia Slovakia Hungary Lithuania Estonia Malta Cyprus Source: Eurostat.976 2.129 236.554 2.363 60.893 13.211 339.479 1.882 20.111 191.151 1.605 282.563 3.322 767.005 258.097 13.280 2.248 158.559 16.913 45.662 263.250 3.777 3.589 32.244 6.134 11.392 2002 value € volume 1.176 12.389 5.449 4.518 5.470 3.403 30.314 39.855 1.720 38.188 7.859.657.421 8.400 500.167 35.285 126.804 21.624 4.895 16.924 2.128 37.233 18.915 45.208 143.981 13.733.685 2.822 8.469 25.083 437.985 275.543 477.573 3.145 382.437 53.396 15.021 5.368 128.880 51.592 14.314.740 3.739 2.779 14.781 38.593 12.004 6.655 46.231 Imports of frozen vegetables into the EU.567 9.614 49.797 39.161 12.811 27.904 1.809 2.275 965.051 93.971 3.215 16.152 13.847 14.567 162.955 39.419 401.073 1.203 51.638 260.809 4.959 149.707 5. 2001-2003.358 8.539 14.627 2003 value € volume 1.311 143.664 2.623 81.604 1.616 2.449 497.866 249.031 374.146 12.552 29.736 1.477 21.551 1.968 2.462 21.593 14.871 40.776.673 31.403 27.139 68.425 15.839 31.131 3.157 317.582 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany France United Kingdom Belgium Italy Spain The Netherlands Sweden Ireland Austria Denmark Greece Portugal Finland Czech Republic Poland Luxembourg Slovenia Malta Cyprus Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Estonia Latvia 116 .

463 41.093 23.253 78.114 403.494 195.808 427.767 3.098 63.930 2.385 37.063 10.284 93.994 6.989 15.947 23.894 24.907 225.779 11.484 73.812 52.425 27.273 99.279 17.240 1.431 16.796 16.414 522.111 15.576 47.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 1.966 14.447 2.605 23.866 1.085 25.281 336.379.846 131.666 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany France United Kingdom The Netherlands Belgium Spain Italy Austria Poland Sweden Finland Portugal Czech Republic Greece Hungary Ireland Denmark Slovakia Slovenia Lithuania Estonia Luxembourg Latvia Malta Cyprus Table 6 Imports of frozen fruit into the EU.771 616.031 26.750 2.788 65.086 76.540 547.573 29.149 12.932 213.413 29.578 86.643 17.701 81.744 1.940 25.947 26.042 2003 value € 1.425 20.641 18.835 1.465 1.914 4.944 28.644 33.035 8.555 104.523.387 7.123 195.137 14.831 24.467 3.116 1.054 19.355 236.841 40.471 1.125 533.465 30.173 9.566 55.950 753.126 19.096 55.757 45.955 17.974 21.652 67.086 12.881 60.982 20.789 2.360 50.444 9.473 18.270 490.896 14.654 1.468 1.933 1.075 10.145 492.268 318.574 189.925 501.342 13.300 582.418 21.899 24.570 8.758 1. 2001-2003.472 1.748 231.373 21.339 2002 value € volume 1.313 90.305 72.996 56.995 211.951 187.696 55.268 350.901 16.660 28.520 73.207 394.164 40.635 1.399 45.513 184.696 39.890 1.487 volume 832.792 1.425 18.726 13.740 648.791 116.370 2.857 597.915 312.334 1.699 1.424 491.637 1.202 18.024 25.084 6.177 8.902 218.985 217.502.836 50.494 26.310 2.893 546.821 114.832 25.Table 5 Imports of canned fruit into the EU.784 2.123 517.423 2003 value € volume 1.051 71.163 2.955 14.083 49.077.355 44.176 54.367 201.477 572.804 251.732 664.677 118.447 51.008 447.621 68.698 1.940 681.742 31.997 60.376 volume 896.274 47.334.240 97.000 70.850 2002 value € 931.438 196.350 86.368 13.441 1.859 29.505 119.571 7. 2001-2003.742 391.820 15.135 26.517 205.023 27.353 69.781 475.578.433 54.510 84.649 351.616 26. € 1.895 109.724 6.183 284.188 8.431 306.685 30.835 56.570 411.283 18.594 8.014 2.890 73.957 1.283 16. € 1.448 18.205 21.440 37.253 16.408 52.129 27.821 158.396 572.962 18.924 99.723 59.481 3.680 20.448.312 24.316 17.535 35.921 75.854 24.826 65.365 2.261 92.141 25.021 93.247 78.043 1.834 117 .586 21.884 3.578 46.405 4.592 72.151 95.116 25.716 16.916 1.795 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany France The Netherlands United Kingdom Italy Belgium Austria Denmark Sweden Spain Poland volume 766.258 43.895 44.145 22.743 62.331 37.000 / tonnes 2001 value € 833.

431 2.962 10.773 5.749 33.021 21.798 4.500 51.419 125.165 4.657 4.253 5.900 2.418 876 674 275 70 43 Imports of dried fruit into the EU.871 21.856 24.154 9. € 1.571 1.919 5.680 220.117 864 2002 value € 889.756 21.257 2.Finland Czech Republic Lithuania Ireland Slovenia Greece Portugal Hungary Estonia Latvia Slovakia Luxembourg Cyprus Malta Table 7 13.386 3.000 / tonnes 2001 value € 840.284 2.068 150.132 1.526 10.536 8.774 423.374 1.267 2.052 1.650 527 522 260 166 55 37 15.141 2.736 1.434 9.890 3.349 4.695 10.883 21.033 3.620 46.442 4.283 1.080 20.565 168.422 1.084 7.247 7.610 6.740 1.269 4.108 1.328 11.353 44.961 19.190 33.341 2.370 64.460 3.049 1.307 478.844 4.890 2.954 12.715 1.049 1.549 68.628 2.779 3.894 709 786 638 118 .533 8.483 10.864 21.709 614.833 20.112 3.909 6.692 2.573 38.684 6.681 10.859 5.637 6.024 2.768 5.922 8.439 479 773 707 volume 605.806 3.271 474.071 893 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries United Kingdom Germany France Italy The Netherlands Belgium Spain Poland Denmark Sweden Austria Greece Finland Czech Republic Ireland Portugal Slovakia Lithuania Hungary Slovenia Latvia Estonia Luxembourg Cyprus Malta volume 587.866 12.363 3.108 21.098 1.131 1.740 72.706 147.296 3.431 6.080 1.474 1.448 4.443 57.854 1.534 7.064 59.351 13.623 20.034 10.555 646.793 11.346 1.943 9.646 2.551 2.697 8.819 4.815 4.375 10.125 73.207 470.266 222.039 7.495 3.757 17.629 8.399 116.400 2.550 387.203 366.159 888 819 172 48 11.428 75.072 35.703 9.757 9.360 113.226 18.993 22.820 116.458 25.632 646.874 20.761 1.020 119.492 1.598 4.427 177.314 3.200 24.051 63.426 3.212 5.251 4.876 3.996 3.747 35.547 10.329 3.014 4.859 1.678 552 585 285 530 123 49 11.488 11.323 395.144 4.394 18.465 5. 2001-2003.137 3.075 579 838 870 564 134 33 11.174 20.436 3.047 4.690 68.155 933 2003 value € 879.590 7.667 22.282 162.028 220.324 73.547 812 490 760 762 190 51 27 17.635 1.686 39.223 6.429 5.415 4.390 456 770 621 volume 611.450 3.970 100.349 4.255 1.786 4.497 4.848 1.284 149.362 1.700 6.566 4.140 2.567 67.608 5.669 1.293 494.625 20.823 464.340 9.984 75.

222 5.374 58. 2001-2003.565 11.670 72.246 97.265 14.424 40.786 45.586 7.277 253.031 113.717 37.013 1.484 10.444 124. 2001-2003.106 474 573 244 157 214 66 45 2003 value € volume 466.342 26.765 9.767 37.924 5.033 2.376 14.631 3.208 21.243 8.335 4.940 85.288 2003 value € volume 231.814 8.288 5.779 3.888 25.481 25.323 2.078 65.061 209.197 140.564 1.259 70.264 17.414 22.223 1.256 958 1.481 19.818 142.326 5.631 3.341 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Italy Germany United Kingdom France Spain The Netherlands Belgium Portugal Greece Austria 119 .839 13.457 10.013 51.198 8.804 23.445 1.521 26.001 14.661 18.267 5.434 1.046 1.603 4.137 24.548 60.517 3.898 2.564 15.018 10.941 65.953 19.309 850 1.682 1.162 25.523 34.718 9.591 103.828 4.020 2.160 33.137 12.498 8.849 3.741 3.584 4.910 10.021 437 621 292 168 180 26 28 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany The Netherlands United Kingdom France Italy Poland Belgium Austria Spain Hungary Denmark Sweden Ireland Czech Republic Greece Finland Slovakia Portugal Slovenia Lithuania Estonia Luxembourg Latvia Cyprus Malta Table 9 Imports of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU.831 30.375 25. € 1.183 16.053 2.693 28.834 170.519 1.087 51.261 25.724 55.955 200.814 218.358 147.520 3.395 132.944 18.994 9.088 2.837 88.528 7.723 8.054 8.454 24.130 119.309 14.513 3.571 60.170 58.123 56.892 1.696 38.621 3.571 1.199 57.617 10.924 156.947 14.130 12.631 125.022 17.668 17.276 154.186 774 747 265 111 92 45.999 44.336 4.229 12.338 17.092 4.095 16.027 711 673 299 132 153 50.921 229.121 139.568 8.127 8.321 3.493 26.606 91.938 34.281 16.166 25.671 60.239 2.313 15.410 13.110 1.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 270.969 724 774 681 224 154 121 45.570 3.208 6.284 42.965 68.723 19.324 217.568 3.809 14.784 232.094 32.902 17. € 1.156 2.144 11.107 5.498 3.993 267.479 115.287 8.983 98.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 475.853 57.085 60.798 18.326 3.144 61.241 2.633 2.177 9.091 2.654 2.384 2002 value € volume 247.581 25.740 31.282 14.Table 8 Imports of dried vegetables into the EU.595 23.264 8.494 98.636 8.985 8.392 4.099 10.827 7.708 219.204 71.939 15.648 97.292 29.827 2.277 8.312 2.896 9.375 31.619 19.496 5.032 483 355 273 143 142 49 27 2002 value € volume 507.700 4.903 2.

Ireland Denmark Poland Lithuania Sweden Finland Slovenia Czech Republic Slovakia Luxembourg Malta Estonia Latvia Hungary Cyprus

7,360 2,061 1,672 1,385 953 975 608 1,281 166 531 283 152 160 27 23

5,131 2,126 1,730 1,051 358 827 690 2,336 537 283 230 335 175 83 11

5,324 2,782 1,246 858 1,372 1,014 457 1,270 341 258 193 105 103 479 10

5,144 3,144 1,500 728 579 1,006 645 2,836 1,052 84 217 271 170 869 6

4,876 3,405 1,357 1,299 1,271 973 671 623 395 260 234 170 125 55 15

3,407 2,570 1,587 626 646 1,154 866 1,484 1,551 76 209 147 113 116 10

Table 10

Exports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables by EU member countries, 2001-2003, € 1,000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 11,124,208 13,105,812 8,615,327 10,531,314 2,508,881 2,574,498 2002 value € volume 11,861,192 13,337,834 9,143,645 10,625,357 2,717,547 2,712,477 2003 value € volume 11,971,430 13,469,427 9.423,100 10,911,184 2,548,330 2,558,243

Total Intra-EU Extra-EU Leading destinations Belgium Italy Spain The Netherlands Germany France Poland Greece

1,637,694 1,678,620 1,471,729 1,400,965 1,272,797 990,319 603,887 591,746

1,999,700 2,545,654 1,578,452 1,505,986 1,550,538 885,053 791,299 800,461

1,765,850 1,835,886 1,626,408 1,559,235 1,320,241 962,863 675,639 614,882

2,062,997 2,565,462 1,761,251 1,509,016 1,526,711 894,777 829,290 649,977

1,804,471 1,766,992 1,761,231 1,540,147 1,294,595 1,012,969 750,507 470,661

2,171,673 2,336,046 1,906,218 1,572,015 1,482,673 975,315 915,056 452,056



Standards organisations

INTERNATIONAL International Organization for Standardization (ISO) E-mail: Internet: EUROPEAN UNION Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) European Committee for Standardization E-mail: Internet: BELGIUM Institut Belge de Normalisation (IBN) Belgian Institute for Standardization E-mail: Internet: FRANCE Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR) French Association for Standardization E-mail: Internet: GERMANY Deutsches Institut für Normung eV (DIN) German Institute for Standardization E-mail: Internet: ITALY Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (UNI) Italian Institute for Standardization E-mail: Internet: THE NETHERLANDS Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut (NEN) Netherlands Standardisation Institute E-mail: Internet: UNITED KINGDOM British Standards Institution (BSI) E-mail: Internet:



Sources of price information

INTERNATIONAL FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Publisher of ‘Monthly Bulletin of Statistics’, ‘Commodity and Market Review’, and ‘Food Outlook’ E-mail: Internet: International Trade Centre (ITC) Publisher of ‘Market News Service for Fruit Juices’ E-mail: Internet: UNITED KINGDOM Agra Europe Ltd. Publisher of ‘The Public Ledger’ and ‘Fruit and Vegetable Markets’ E-mail: Internet: 3.3 Trade associations

EUROPE Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars from Fruit and Vegetables of the European Union (AIJN) E-mail: Internet: Organisation Européenne des Industries Transformatrices de Fruits et Légumes (OEITFL) Association of European Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries E-mail: Internet: Fédération des Associations de Fabricants de Produits Alimentaires Surgelés de l’UE (FAFPAS) Federation of the Frozen Products’ Producers Association in the EU E-mail: European Federation of Dried Fruit (FRUCOM) (Fédération Européenne de Commerce de Fruits Secs) Telephone: +49 (0)40 3747 190 Fax: +49 (0)40 3747 1926 E-mail: Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU (CIAA) E-mail: Internet:


nl Vereniging van de Nederlandse Groenten en Fruitverwerkende Industrie. Gemüse und Kartoffelverarbeitenden Industrie Fédération Nationale des Syndicats de Confituriers et Conserveurs de Fruits French Federation of Fruit Preserving Industry Telephone: +33 (0)1 5391 4491 Fax: +33 (0)1 5391 4470 Syndicat National des Déshydrateurs des Produits Alimentaires French Association of Dried Food Products Industry Telephone: +33 (0)1 5391 4444 Fax: +33 (0)1 5391 4470 GERMANY Bundesverband der Waren-Verein Telephone: +49 (0)40 3747 190 Fax: +49 (0)40 3747 1919 ITALY Associazione Italiana Industrie Prodotti Alimentari.I.aiipa. AIPPA Italian Association of Food Industry E-mail: FRANCE Chambre Syndicale Nationale des Industries de la Conserve French Association of Preserving Industry Telephone: +33 (0)1 5391 4444 Fax: +33 (0)1 5391 4470 Fédération Nationale des Conserveries Coopératives et S. German Association of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry Telephone: +49 (0)228 3540 25 Fax: +49 (0)228 3618 89 E-mail: mailto:bogk-vds@t-online. VIGEF Netherlands Association of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry 123 .nl Internet: http://www.BELGIUM Verbond van Groentenverwerkende Bedrijven en Industriegroenten Groothandelaars en Exporteurs (VEGEBE) Federation of Processing Industry for Internet: http://www. Wholesalers and Exporters Telephone: +32 (0)2 2380 620 Fax: +32 (0)2 2380 408 E-mail: THE NETHERLANDS Productschap voor de Tuinbouw Netherlands Horticulture Commodity Board E-mail: mailto:pt@tuinbouw.C. French Federation of Preserving Cooperations Telephone: +33 (0)1 4326 1447 Fax: +33 (0)1 4326 3520 E-mail: mailto:fncc@wanadoo. Bio Fach (Certified organic products) The largest trade fair in the EU for organic POLAND Polish Association of Juice & Soft Drinks Producers Telephone: +48 22 3361329 Fax: +48 22 827 1875 E-mail: mailto:biuro@kupsinb.endre@sioeckes.E-mail: Internet: UNITED KINGDOM British Association of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry (BFVCA) Telephone: +44 (0)20 7420 7110 Fax: +44 (0)20 7836 0580 National Dried Fruit Association (NDFTA) Telephone: +44 (0)207 7227 488 Fax: +44 (0)207 7222 009 Food & Drink Federation (members include the British Fruit & Vegetable Canners’ Association) E-mail: Internet: http://www. Specerijen en Aanverwante Artikelen Netherlands Dried Fruit Trade Association E-mail: Internet: http://www.4 Trade fair organisers ANUGA Together with the SIAL the leading trade fair for food and beverages in the EU Frequency: biennial (October 2005 Köln) E-mail: 124 .vigef. both end products and ingredients Nürnberg Messe GmbH Frequency: annual (February 2006 Nurnberg) E-mail: British Frozen Food Federation Internet: Internet: Nederlandse Vereniging voor de Handel in Gedroogde HUNGARY Hungarian Juice Association Telephone: +36 84 501503 Fax: +36 84 501500 E-mail: Internet: http://www.biofach. Internet: http://www.Food Ingredients Europe Together with Health Ingredients Europe the largest trade fair for food ingredients in the EU Miller Freeman BV Frequency: biennial. the leading trade fair for food and beverages in the EU Frequency: biennial (October 2006 Paris) Internet: http://www. Fruit World International ( Fruit and Vegetable Markets (English language) Main subjects: fresh and processed fruit and vegetables in the European and worldwide markets E-mail: Internet: Internet: http://www. 3.ife. SIAL Together with the Anuga.5 Trade press Fruit Processing Main subjects: international articles for the fruit processing and juice producing industry E-mail: mailto:info@fruit-processing.sana. alternates with Health Ingredients Europe (November 2005 Paris) E-mail: Internet: http://www. agents and exporters of food and beverage SANA A smaller trade fair for food and beverages in Italy Fiere e Comunicazioni Frequency : biennial (September 2005 Bologna) E-mail: Internet: IFE A smaller trade fair for food and beverages in the United Kingdom Frequency: biennial (March 2007 London) E-mail: 125 . French language) Main subjects: fresh fruit and vegetables in worldwide markets E-mail: Above mentioned fairs are targeted at Internet: Natural Products Europe A smaller trade fair for natural and organic products in The Netherlands New Hope International Media Ltd. Frequency: annual (June 2006 Amsterdam) Internet:

com Internet: Internet: Internet: http://www.6 Other useful addresses INTERNATIONAL International Chamber of Commerce E-mail: Internet: Internet: Ecocert (Contact point for organic certification) E-mail: Internet: EUROPE TransFair International (Fair trade organisation) E-mail: Naturland Verband für naturgemäßen Landbau UnitednatureX Europe / Green Trade Net Office (Green Trade Net is an information network on organic raw materials worldwide) Telephone: +49 (0)228 7215 776 Fax: +49 (0)228 7215 777 Internet: IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) E-mail: GERMANY BCS ÖKO-GARANTIE GMBH (Contact point for organic certification) E-mail: 126 .org Internet: http://www.tiefkuehlinstitut.International Food Ingredients Main subjects: ingredients and additives E-mail: mailto:Aemmens@cmpinformation.V (Germany’s Naturland association for organic agriculture) E-mail: mailto:naturland@naturland.bcs-oeko. E-mail: Deutsches Tiefkühlinstitut Internet: http://www.

nl Internet: 127 . inspecting and certifying sustainable agricultural production methods and products) E-mail: Stichting Max Havelaar (Max Havelaar Internet: Internet: THE NETHERLANDS CBI/AccessGuide (CBI’s database on European non-tariff trade barriers E-mail: UNITED KINGDOM Soil Association (IFOAM accredited contact point for organic certification) E-mail: SKAL (Internationally operating Internet: Internet: http://www.skal. fair trade organisation) E-mail: mailto:website@maxhavelaar.FRANCE Ecocert (Contact point for organic certification) E-mail: mailto:info@ecocert.

as applied in this market survey. Helena Cambodia Lebanon St. Kitts-Nevis Cameroon Lesotho St. Fed. Afghanistan Georgia Pakistan Albania Ghana Palau Islands Algeria Grenada Palestinian Admin. Marshall Islands Thailand Congo Rep. Areas Angola Guatemala Panama Anguilla Guinea Papua New Guinea Antigua and Barbuda Guinea-Bissau Paraguay Argentina Guyana Peru Armenia Haiti Philippines Azerbaijan Honduras Rwanda Bahrain India Samoa Bangladesh Indonesia São Tomé & Principe Barbados Iran Saudi Arabia Belize Iraq Senegal Benin Jamaica Serbia and Montenegro Bhutan Jordan Seychelles Bolivia Kazakhstan Sierra Leone Bosnia & Herzegovina Kenya Solomon Islands Botswana Kiribati Somalia Brazil Korea. Lucia Cape Verde Liberia St. States Tunisia Cuba Moldova Turkey Djibouti Mongolia Turkmenistan Dominica Montserrat Turks & Caicos Islands Dominican republic Morocco Tuvalu Ecuador Mozambique Uganda East Timor Myanmar Uruguay Egypt Namibia Uzbekistan El Salvador Nauru Vanuatu Equatorial Guinea Nepal Venezuela Eritrea Nicaragua Vietnam Ethiopia Niger Wallis & Futuna Fiji Nigeria Yemen Gabon Niue Zambia Gambia Oman Zimbabwe January 2003 128 . Mauritania Togo Cook Islands Mauritius Tokelau Costa Rica Mayotte Tonga Côte d'Ivoire Mexico Trinidad & Tobago Croatia Micronesia. Vincent and Grenadines Central African rep. rep of South Africa Burkina Faso Kyrghyz Rep.4 LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Please note that the OECD list of developing countries. may include countries that are usually not considered as developing countries. Rep. Sri Lanka Burundi Laos St. Macedonia Sudan Chad Madagascar Surinam Chile Malawi Swaziland China Malaysia Syria Colombia Maldives Tajikistan Comoros Mali Tanzania Congo Dem.

government agencies.minlnv. Nature Management and Fishery provides information on policy and statistics on agriculture. publications and other relevant Market access database of the EU. The site combines the resources of food E-mail or (Language: English and Dutch) http://www. This site offers a variety of sites. please refer to Food Info Net is an Internet site for information and services related to food technology. then transmitted to MNS subscribers by airmail. The collected information is then analysed. trade and (European) fruit juice associations. tabulated and processed in a computer programme specially designed for each product group.minlnv. Depending on the product group. (Language: English) supply and demand and other economic information. http://europe. nature management and fisheries. and non-profit special interest groups. it contains links to the fruit juice industry. For an overview of information by country.intracen. articles.5 USEFUL INTERNET SITES http://www. industry suppliers. (Language: English) http://www. the MNS product specialist contacts these sources of information to obtain up-to-the-minute data concerning the prices of products.fruchtsaft. (Language: German and English).html Website of the European Food Safety Authority http://mkaccdb. Each Internet review offers direct access to the chosen material and a brief explanation about the Web site of ITC with link to MNS Market News Service. It also links up to other useful sites in Main website of the EU giving access to all kind of information on EU matters http://efsa. research and academic Research and Information Centre on food ingredients and the food ingredients industry. R&D and manufacturing. surveys and other products relevant to the food Web site of the Association of the German Fruit Juice Industry (VdF) containing information on fruit juices. giving trade barriers to third country suppliers 129 .nl The web site of The Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture. (Language: English) http://www.

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