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1 ABSTRACT

Localization is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks. In most localization systems beacons are being placed as references to determine the positions of objects or events appearing in sensing field. The underlying assumption is that beacons are always reliable. Assuming that there are unnoticed changes of locations of some beacons in the system, the existing Beacon Movement Detection(BMD) problem concerns how to automatically monitor such situations and identify such unreliable beacons based on the mutual observations among beacons only. Existence of such unreliable beacons may affect the localization accuracy. After identifying such beacons, we can remove them from the localization engine. In the presence of cheating beacon nodes, the necessary and sufficient conditions to guarantee a bounded error during twodimensional distance-based location estimation are unaddressed. Under these necessary and sufficient conditions, what class of localization algorithms can provide this error bound is not known. Specifically, the proposed system first show that when the number of cheating beacon nodes is greater than or equal to a given threshold, there do not exist any two-dimensional distance-based localization algorithms that can guarantee a bounded error. Furthermore, when the number of cheating beacons is below this threshold, it identifies a class of distance-based localization algorithms that can always guarantee a bounded localization error. Finally, this outlines three novel distance-based localization algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error localization algorithms. We verify their accuracy and efficiency by means of extensive simulation experiments using both simple and practical distance estimation error models.

Index Terms- Wireless networks, distance-based localization, security

2 INTRODUCTION

2.1 Distributed Wireless Ad-hoc Networks:


Localization or location discovery in distributed wireless networks is the problem of determining the location, with respect to some local or global coordinate system, of a mobile device in the network in an efficient and accurate fashion. Distributed localization protocols in such networks can be broadly classified into range-based and range-free techniques. Range based techniques can be further classified into two broad categories, viz., 1) Beacon-based techniques and 2) Beacon-free techniques. In this work, we focus primarily on beacon-based localization algorithms. Beacon-based algorithms require the presence of special nodes, called beacon or anchor nodes, which know their own location and are strategically placed in the network. Other nodes first compute the distance (or angle) estimates to a set of neighboring beacons and then estimate their own location using basic trilateration (or triangulation). Most beacon-based techniques in the literature assume that the nodes acting as beacons always behave honestly. It is not surprising that beacon-based methods perform well when all the beacon nodes are honest. But their accuracy suffers considerably in the presence of malicious or cheating beacon nodes. Beacons can cheat by broadcasting their own locations inaccurately or by manipulating the distance estimation process, thus, adversely affecting the location computation by the other nodes.

2.2 PURPOSE
Secure distance-based localization in the presence of cheating beacon (or anchor) nodes is an important problem in wireless sensor networks. In the presence of cheating beacon nodes, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions to guarantee a bounded error during twodimensional distance-based location estimation are remain unaddressed. Under these necessary and sufficient conditions, what class of localization algorithms can provide this error bound is not known. The proposed system attempt to answer these and other related questions by following a careful analytical approach. Specifically, it first shows that when the number of cheating beacon nodes is greater than or equal to a given threshold, there do not exist any two-dimensional distance-based localization algorithms that can guarantee a bounded error. Furthermore, when the number of cheating beacons is below this threshold, it identifies a class of distance-based localization algorithms that can always guarantee a bounded localization error. Finally, it outline three novel distance-based localization algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error localization algorithms.

2.3 PROJECT SCOPE


The aim of this project is to secure reputation of data between nodes and to drop the malicious activities of Beacons (Cheating beacons). One approach followed by researchers to secure distance based localization is to detect the cheating beacon nodes and eliminate them from consideration during the localization process. I have also proposed three novel distance-based localization algorithms, specifically a polynomial-time algorithm and two heuristic-based algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error distance-based localization algorithms. Finally, I have to use Heuristic2 algorithm for secure data transaction between nodes in the presence of cheating beacon nodes in the wireless sensor network.

3 LITERATURE SURVEY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Surveys of the various papers, which are studied for this phase, are listed below. These papers were comprehensively analyzed with their output performances for their impact over the wireless ad-hoc networks.

3.2 SURVEY

The Beacon Movement Detection Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks for Localization Applications:
Sheng-Po Kuo in (2009) states that localization is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks. He define a new Beacon Movement Detection (BMD) problem. The BMD problem involves two issues. First, we need to determine those beacons that are unexpectedly relocated. Second, the result has to be forwarded to the positioning engine to reduce the impact of movement on localization accuracy. To solve the first issue, we will allow beacons to monitor each other to identify those moved beacons automatically. Here , we show that without any assumption, it is impossible for a general BMD problem correctly identify those moved beacons because an ambiguity situation will always exist. He proposed four schemes such as , LB-Location Based Scheme: Used to calculate each beacons correct location and compares the result with its predefined location to decide if it has been moved. NB-Neighbor Based Scheme: Using this beacons will keep track of their nearby beacons and report their observations to the BMD engine to determine if some beacons have been moved. SSB-Signal Strength Binary Scheme: Here the change of signal strengths of beacons will be exploited. SSR-Signal Strength Real Scheme: Here the BMD engine will collect the sum of reported signal strength changes of each beacon to make decisions. 4

Towards a Theory of Robust Localization Against Malicious Beacon Nodes


Sheng Zhong in (2008) states that localization in the presence of malicious beacon nodes is an important problem in wireless networks. Although significant progress has been made on this problem, some fundamental theoretical questions still remain unanswered: in the presence of malicious beacon nodes, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions to guarantee a bounded error during 2-dimensional location estimation? Under these necessary and sufficient conditions, what class of localization algorithms can provide that error bound? Here, he tried to answer those questions. Specifically, he showed that, when the number of malicious beacons is greater than or equal to some threshold, there is no localization algorithm that can have bounded error. Furthermore, when the number of malicious beacons is below that threshold, we identify a class of localization algorithms that can ensure that the localization error is bounded. He also outline two algorithms in this class, one of which is guaranteed to finish in polynomial time in the worst case, while the other is based on a heuristic and is practically efficient. For completeness, he also extend the above results to the 3-dimensional case. Experimental results demonstrate that our solution has very good localization accuracy and computational efficiency.

A Beacon-Less Location Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks


Lei Fang, Wenliang Du and Peng Ning in (2005) state that in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), sensor location plays a critical role in many applications. Having a GPS receiver on every sensor node is costly. In the past, a number of location discovery schemes have been proposed. Most of these schemes share a common feature: they use some special nodes, called beacon nodes, which are assumed to know their own locations (e.g., through GPS receivers or manual conguration). Other sensors discover their locations based on the information provided by these beacon nodes. Here, they show that efcient location discovery can be achieved in sensor networks without using beacons. They proposed a beacon-less location discovery scheme. based on the following observations: in practice, it is quite common that sensors are deployed in groups, i.e., sensors are put into n groups, and sensors in the same group are deployed together at the same deployment point (the deployment point is different from the sensors nal resident location). Sensors from the same group can land in different locations, and those locations 5

usually follow a probability distribution that can be known a priori. With this prior deployment knowledge, they showed that sensors can discover their locations by observing the group memberships of its neighbors. They modeled the location discovery problem as a statistical estimation problem, and they use the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method to estimate the location.

Robust Statistical Methods for Securing Wireless Localization in Sensor Networks


Zang Li, Wade Tr appe, Yanyong Zhang, Badri Nath in (2005) state that many sensor applications are being developed that require the location of wireless devices, and localization schemes have been developed to meet this need. However, as location-based services become more prevalent, the localization infrastructure will become the target of malicious attacks. These attacks will not be conventional security threats, but rather threats that adversely affect the ability of localization schemes to provide trustworthy location information. They identify a list of attacks that are unique to localization algorithms. Since these attacks are diverse in nature, and there may be many unforeseen attacks that can bypass traditional security countermeasures, it is desirable to alter the underlying localization algorithms to be robust to intentionally corrupted measurements. Here they developed robust statistical methods to make localization attacktolerant. They examine two broad classes of localization: triangulation and RF-based ngerprinting methods. For triangulation-based localization, they proposed an adaptive least squares and least median squares position estimator that has the computational advantages of least squares in the absence of attacks and is capable of switching to a robust mode when being attacked. They introduced robustness to ngerprinting localization through the use of a medianbased distance metric. Finally, they evaluate our robust localization schemes under different threat conditions.

Sensor

Positioning

in

Wireless

Ad-hoc

Sensor

Networks

Using

Multidimensional Scaling
Xiang Ji, Hongyuan Zha in (2004) state that Sensor Positioning is a fundamental and crucial issue for sensor network operation and management. Here, they rst study some situations where most existing sensor positioning methods tend to fail to perform well, an example being when the topology of a sensor network is anisotropic. Then, they explore the idea of using dimensionality reduction techniques to estimate sensors coordinates in two (or three) dimensional space, and they propose a distributed sensor positioning method based on multidimensional scaling technique to deal with these challenging conditions. Multidimensional scaling and coordinate alignment techniques are applied to recover positions of adjacent sensors. The estimated positions of the anchors are compared with their true physical positions and corrected, The positions of other sensors are corrected accordingly. With iterative adjustment, our method can overcome adverse network and terrain conditions, and generate accurate sensor position. They also propose an on demand sensor positioning method based on the above method.

4 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

POSITIONING ENGINE

B 2 B 11 LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM

LOCATION DATABASE B B

5 ALGORITHM 5.1 Polynomial Time Algorithm


Polynomial Time Algorithm is used to increase the accuracy of the localization. The following are the steps to increase the accuracy of the localization: Step 1: Let S be the set initially containing two boundary circles of ring R. Step 2: for i=2,.,n do Step 3: Let S be a set initially containing the two boundary circles of ring R Step 4: for each arc in S and each arc in S do Step 5: Step 6: if the above two arcs intersect then Split each of these two arcs using the intersection(s), and replace them in the

corresponding arc sets (S or S) with the new splitted arcs (result of the splitting operation) Step 7: Step 8: end for Step 9: Let S=S U S Step10:end for Step 11: for each arc Cj in S do Step 12: Step 13: Step 14: Step 15: Step 16: Step 17: Step 18: Step 19: Step 20: Step 21: Step 22: Step 23: Step 24: Step 25: end if Stop the algorithm end if end for if j Kmax + 2 then if Cj is on an inner boundary circle then Output is defined on the side out of this circle else if Cj is on an outer boundary circle then Output is defined on the side inside this circle Set the corresponding counter j to 0 for i=1,,n do if R is related to Cj then j = j + 1 end if end if

Step 26: end for 9

5.2 Heuristic 1 Algorithm


This algorithm is used to estimate the target location around a critical point that lies on the intersection of large number of rings. Step 1: Count the number of rings intersecting with each ring Step 2: for each ring R, in the order of decreasing number of rings intersecting with it do Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Step 9: Step 10: Step 11: Step 12: Step 13: Step 14: end if end for end for for each ring Rj, Rj R, in order of decreasing number of rings intersecting with it do Compute the intersection points of the boundary circles of R and Rj for m=1,.., do Choose a random point intersection point computed above Choose a random point near this intersection point Count the number of rings containing if there are atleast Kmax+3 rings containing then Output Stop the algorithm

Step 15:end for

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5.3 Heuristic 2 Algorithm


The second heuristic tries to guess the location of the target closer to the center (or centroid) of the continuous region of at least kmax 3 intersecting rings. This is because the actual location of the target is more likely to be near the center of the continuous region than near the boundary.

Step 1: Count the number of rings intersecting with each ring Step 2: for each ring Ri, in the order of decreasing number of rings intersecting with it to do Step 3: for each ring Rj, Rj+1, Rj+2| Rj, Rj+1, Rj+2 Ri, in the order of decreasing number of Compute the intersection points of the boundary circles of Ri and Rj, Ri and Choose a point (x1,y1) from the intersection of the ring pair Ri, Rj at Compute = (x1+x2+x3/3, y1+y2+y3/3) Count the number of rings containing if there are atleast kmax+3 rings containing then Output Stop the algorithm end if end for rings intersecting with it do Step 4: Rj+1 and Ri and Rj+2 Step 5: random. Similarly, choose intersection points (x2,y2) and (x3,y3) from the other two pairs Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Step 9: Step 10: Step 11: Step 12:

Step 13: end for

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6 DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION There are three modules to describe the project. They are as follows: Localization Finding Beacon Nodes Data Communication

6.1.1 LOCALIZATION Localization or location discovery in distributed wireless networks is the problem of determining the location, with respect to some local or global coordinate system, of a (mobile) device in the network in an efficient and accurate fashion. Other nodes first compute the distance (or angle) estimates to a set of neighboring beacons and then estimate their own location using basic trilateration. Every nodes present in a frame first find out the nearest beacons once find out the nearest beacons it use that beacon as a node for data communication.

6.1.2 FINDING BEACON NODES Beacon Nodes are boundary nodes which is used to communicate one boundary beacon to another thats its main purpose of beacon nodes Its acts either intermediates as well as node. Its always update the location to its nearest node. The node try to send the data mean through which beacon nodes it passes to the destination. Beacons can cheat by broadcasting their own locations inaccurately or by manipulating the distance estimation process, thus, adversely affecting the location computation by the other nodes called as cheating beacon nodes. 6.1.3 DATA COMMUNICATION Other nodes first compute the distance (or angle) estimates to a set of neighboring beacons and then estimate their own location using basic trilateration. A node tries to send a signal to destination. It first passes the signal through the beacon node and then it searches the nearest beacon of various other ranges of beacon and then it carry the data and check the proper destination or not if it not mean passes the data through other beacon until it reaches the destination node. 12

Analysis Models Activity Diagram

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Sequence Diagram

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Use Case Diagram

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Class Diagram

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Collaboration Diagram

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7 SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION

7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1.1 Purpose


Secure distance-based localization in the presence of cheating beacon (or anchor) nodes is an important problem in mobile wireless adhoc and sensor networks. Despite significant research efforts in this direction, some fundamental questions still remain unaddressed: In the presence of cheating beacon nodes, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions to guarantee a bounded error during two-dimensional distance-based location estimation? Under these necessary and sufficient conditions, what class of localization algorithms can provide this error bound? In this paper, we attempt to answer these and other related questions by following a careful analytical approach. Specifically, we first show that when the number of cheating beacon nodes is greater than or equal to a given threshold, there do not exist any two-dimensional distance-based localization algorithms that can guarantee a bounded error. Furthermore, when the number of cheating beacons is below this threshold, we identify a class of distance-based localization algorithms that can always guarantee a bounded localization error. Finally, we outline three novel distance-based localization algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error localization algorithms.

7.1.2 Project Scope


The aim of this project is to secure reputation of data between nodes and to drop the malicious activities of Beacons (Cheating beacons). One approach followed by researchers to secure distance based localization approaches is to detect the cheating beacon nodes and eliminate them from consideration during the localization process. We have also proposed three novel distance-based localization algorithms, specifically a polynomial-time algorithm and two heuristic-based algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error distance-based localization algorithms. Finally, we have to use heuristic2 algorithm for secure data transaction between nodes in the presence of cheating beacon.

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7.1.3 References
X. Ji and H. Zha, Sensor Positioning in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks Using Multidimensional Scaling, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004. L. Fang, W. Du, and P. Ning, A Beacon-Less Location Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005. Z. Li, W. Trappe, Y. Zhang, and B. Nath, Robust Statistical Methods for Securing Wireless Localization in Sensor Networks, Proc. Fourth Intl Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 05), 2005. D. Moore, J. Leonard, D. Rus, and S. Teller, Robust Distributed Network Localization with Noisy Range Measurements, Proc.Second Intl Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 04), 2004. S. Zhong, M. Jadliwala, S. Upadhyaya, and C. Qiao, Towards a Theory of Robust Localization against Malicious Beacon Nodes,Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.

7.2 Overall Description

7.2.1 Product Perspective


Location discovery in distributed wireless networks is the problem of determining the location, with respect to some local or global coordinate system, of a (mobile) device in the network in an efficient and accurate fashion. Distributed localization protocols in such networks can be broadly classified into range-based and range-free techniques. The boundary nodes or edge nodes are simply called as beacons or anchor nodes, which know their own location and are strategically placed in the network. Other nodes first compute the distance (or angle) estimates to a set of neighboring beacons and then estimate their own location using basic trilateration (or triangulation). The working of a two-dimensional beaconbased localization scheme using distance estimates to neighboring beacons and further secure reputation of data between nodes and to drop the malicious activities of Beacons (Cheating beacons). Beacons can cheat by broadcasting their own locations inaccurately or by manipulating the distance estimation process, thus, adversely affecting the location computation by the other nodes. 19

7.2.2 Product Features


Our scheme has several advantages: 1) Beacon Nodes are boundary nodes which are used to communicate one boundary beacon to another for data transfer between the two various location nodes. 2) Beacons or anchor nodes, which know their own location and are strategically placed in the network. Other nodes first compute the distance (or angle) estimates to a set of neighboring beacons and then estimate their own location. 3) And further, beacon automatically updates its location to its node. At the same time malicious also occur in the network area called cheating beacons. During transaction it identifies and avoids the malicious beacons.

7.2.3 User Classes and Characteristics


Localization Localization is simply called as location discovery we use heuristic algorithm to identify its location. Beacons Beacons are simply called as nodes. At the same time it should be on boundaries called as beacon nodes Beacon Nodes or a boundary node which is used to communicate one boundary beacon to another. Cheating Beacons Cheating beacons are beacons can cheat by broadcasting their own locations inaccurately.

7.2.4 Operating Environment

7.2.4.1 Software Requirements


Windows Operating System 2000 and Above JDK 1.6 Java JavaFX 1.1

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7.2.4.2 Hardware Requirements


Hard Disk: 10GB and Above RAM: 512MB and Above Processor: Pentium III and Above

7.2.5 Design and Implementation Constraints


7.2.5.1 Constraints in Analysis
Constraints as Informal Text Constraints as Operational Restrictions Constraints Integrated in Existing Model Concepts Constraints as a Separate Concept Constraints Implied by the Model Structur

7.2.5.2 Constraints in Design


Determination of the Involved Classes Determination of the Involved Objects Determination of the Involved Actions Determination of the Require Clauses

Global actions and Constraint Realization 7.2.5.3 Constraints in Implementation


A hierarchical structuring of relations may result in more classes and a more complicated structure to implement. Therefore it is advisable to transform the hierarchical relation structure to a simpler structure such as a classical flat one. It is rather straightforward to transform the developed hierarchical model into a bipartite, flat model, consisting of classes on the one hand and flat relations on the other. Flat relations are preferred at the design level for reasons of simplicity and implementation ease. There is no identity or functionality associated with a flat relation. A flat relation corresponds with the relation concept of entity-relationship modeling and many object oriented methods.

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7.3 System Features


One approach followed by researchers to secure distance based localization approaches is to detect the cheating nodes and eliminate them from consideration during the localization process. It proposes a method for securing beacon-based localization by eliminating malicious data. In this paper, we attempt to answer these and other related questions by following a careful analytical approach. Specifically, we first show that when the number of cheating beacon nodes is greater than or equal to a given threshold, there do not exist any two-dimensional distancebased localization algorithms that can guarantee a bounded error.

7.4 External Interface Requirements

7.4.1 User Interfaces


All the contents in the project are implemented using Graphical User Java through JavaFX concepts. Every conceptual part of the projects is reflected using the JavaFX. System gets the input and delivers through the GUI based. Interface (GUI) in

7.4.2 Hardware Interfaces ISDN


You can connect your AS/400 to an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) for faster, more accurate data transmission. An ISDN is a public or private digital communications network that can support data, fax, image, and other services over the same physical interface. Also, you can use other protocols on ISDN, such as IDLC and X.25.

7.4.3 Software Interfaces


This software is interacted with the TCP/IP protocol, Socket and listening on unused ports. This software is also interacted with the SMTP protocol, sending and receiving on SMTP protocol.

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7.4.4 Communication Interface


1. TCP/IP protocol. 2. SMTP.

7.5 Other Nonfunctional Requirements 7.5.1 Performance Requirements


It addressed the problem of secure distance-based localization in the presence of cheating beacon nodes. By means of a sound mathematical analysis, I have derived the conditions for secure and robust distance-based localization in the presence of cheating beacons. Specifically, I have outlined the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a bounded localization error, and defined a nonempty class of algorithms that can achieve such a bounded error. We have also proposed three novel distance-based localization algorithms, specifically a polynomial-time algorithm and two heuristic-based algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error distancebased localization algorithms.

7.5.2 Safety Requirements


level. The software may not be safety-critical although it forms part of a safety-critical system. The software may be safety-critical. If so, there are issues associated with its integrity

For example, software may simply log transactions. If a system must be of a high integrity level and if the software is shown to be of that

integrity level, then the hardware must be at least of the same integrity level. There is little point in producing 'perfect' code in some language if hardware and system

software (in widest sense) are not reliable. If a computer system is to run software of a high integrity level then that system should

not at the same time accommodate software of a lower integrity level. Systems with different requirements for safety levels must be separated. Otherwise, the highest level of integrity required must be applied to all systems in the

same environment.

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7.5.3 Security Requirements


Do not block the some available ports through the windows firewall

7.5.4 Software Quality Attributes

Functionality: are the required functions available, including Interoperability and security

Reliability: maturity, fault tolerance and recoverability

Usability: how easy it is to understand, learn, and operate the software system

Efficiency: performance and resource behavior.

Maintainability: Maintaining the software.

Portability: can the software easily be transferred to another environment, Including install ability

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8 CONCLUSION
In this work, I have addressed the problem of secure distance based localization in the presence of cheating beacon nodes. By means of a sound mathematical analysis, I have derived the conditions for secure and robust distance based localization in the presence of cheating beacons. Specifically, I have outlined the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a bounded localization error, and defined a nonempty class of algorithms that can achieve such a bounded error. I have also proposed three novel distance based localization algorithms, specifically a polynomial-time algorithm and two heuristic-based algorithms that belong to this class of bounded error distance-based localization algorithms. I have verified the localization accuracy and execution efficiency of these algorithms using measurements from simulation experiments. Experimental results show that all the algorithms performed consistently for different distributions of the distance measurement error. I have also extended the existing localization framework to include more practical models for the distance measurement error and have verified the performance of the algorithms under such scenarios.

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