Resources, Conservation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240

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Scavenging in America: back to the future?
Martin Medina *
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, P.O. Box L, Chula Vista, CA 91912, USA Received 28 July 1999; accepted 25 August 2000

Abstract The informal recovery of recyclables in the US has been carried out by scavengers since soon after the arrival of the European settlers. This paper analyzes scavenging activities in America from the 17th century to the present. It argues that throughout this period scavenging has been an important survival strategy to mostly poor and immigrant individuals. Scavenging continued to exist even in the booming economy of the 1990s due to industrial demand for inexpensive raw materials and the persistence of poverty. The paper also argues that, in the event of a downturn in the US economy and if the safety net for the poor were severely curtailed, scavenging could increase significantly. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Scavenging; Recycling; History; US

1. Introduction The literature on recycling contains several assertions on scavengers and their activities. First, it is often assumed that scavenging is a relatively recent activity. Second, scavengers are often portrayed as the poorest of the poor. Third, scavenging is considered as a marginal occupation, i.e an activity that has a negligible economic impact on society. This paper examines the previous three statements by analyzing contemporary and historical evidence on scavenging in the US. Scavenging has been a common occupation among immigrant and poor individuals throughout the American history. Since the arrival of European settlers to the present, individuals have salvaged various waste materials to be reused or recycled.
* Tel.: + 1-52-66313535; fax: +1-52-66313065. E-mail address: martin.medina-martinez.grd.genr@aya.yale.edu (M. Medina). 0921-3449/01/$ - see front matter © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 2 1 - 3 4 4 9 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 8 2 - 3

The reuse and recycling of materials involved less effort and energy than obtaining them from virgin sources. only 22 years after the pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. Nevertheless. The colonists developed a resource-efficient culture in which products were used for as long as possible. This paper attempts to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of scavenging and discusses a possible scenario for the next few years. made economic sense compared with the mining and refining necessary for obtaining them from virgin sources. 1954a. Medina / Resources. the causes of scavenging activities are fundamentally economic (Medina. repaired. the Massachusetts patriot. The first paper mill in the country was established in 1690. economic and environmental impact of scavenging. Evidence suggests that scavenging and recycling activities appeared in colonial America as an adaptive response to scarcity. produced their own soap from animal fat Dolan. 2. Rags were scarce. Prior to the widespread use of wood pulp in paper manufacture. because people used clothing as long as possible and discarded them infrequently. We know little about the social. Joseph Jenks used commercial scrap in the first iron furnace in the country. Melting and recycling metals. 1997a. given the current trend towards cutting back welfare benefits for the poor. Scavenging in the past The recovery of recyclables from the waste stream by scavengers has a long tradition in America. A significant percentage of the European immigrants arrived with little money. for instance.230 M. to prevent the industrial activities in the colonies from competing with the British industry. Scavengers recovered post-consumer rags thus playing a crucial role in papermaking. due to widespread poverty. nearly every home produced some kind of manufactured items on a small scale. advertising for and buying scrap copper and brass for his foundry (Barringer. when they were useless. Second. Many households. Thus. Newspaper ads and appeals for people — particularly housewives. 1964a. reused. Weeks. Paul Revere. also engaged in recycling activities. First. 2000a). Rag pickers formed an important and essential part of the recycling system. to ensure that the colonists would purchase British products. mended. for example. Sometimes the ads offered monetary . Some of the earliest documented instances of recycling in America are the following. children and domestics — to save their rags were common in the 18th century. which created a chronic shortage of rags. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 Despite being an ordinary pursuit. We lack a thorough understanding of the characteristics of the individuals and of the causal factors that compel them to become scavengers. built in Massachusetts in 1642. linen and cotton rags constituted the most important raw materials for the paper industry. The demand for rags often exceeded the supply. and for about 125 years papermaking relied on scavengers or ‘rag pickers’ who supplied rags to the mills. the study of scavenging activities — past and present — in America has been neglected. and. Britain prohibited industrial activities in Colonial America for two main reasons. 1969a). recovered and recycled.

Medina / Resources. bones. Peddlers distributed consumer goods and supplies to pioneer families. Scavengers called for rags from house to house until the end of the 18th century. Lipsett. shipbuilder or apprentice to a tailor. soap boiler or silversmith. manufactured horn products. 1964b). and so on. The traditional occupations available to ‘goodmen’ were sailor. and so forth. During the 18th and 19th centuries. scrap metal and other waste materials. while bones were used to make glue. beeswax. 1969b. in exchange for rags. first equipped with backpacks and canoes and then with rafts and horse wagons. washbasins. 1941. Some peddlers specialized in a particular product and others provided services. Scrap metal was melted and recycled into new products. went from house to house repairing pewter objects and collecting cracked or bent pewter ware to be recycled. Scrap collection provided a livelihood to many poor immigrants from Northern and Eastern Europe that escaped from the economic and social turmoil in Europe in the 1840s. Leominster. and industrial tools and equipment. Peddling provided an alternative livelihood and opportunities for advance. therefore. Peddlers. peddlers accepted animal furs. where many towns specialized in the manufacture of a particular product. 1954b). Peddlers were the main link between producers and consumers (Dolan. Some peddlers prospered and became wholesalers. scrap metal and other waste materials from city alleys and municipal dumps. MA. and rags to make paper or rag rugs (Barringer. 1969c. They bartered a wide array of merchandise. Colonial society imposed rigid social distinctions between ‘freemen’ and ‘goodmen’. such as combs and buttons. bones. pans. was considered a strategic activity by the authorities. Industrial activities developed first in New England. CT produced brass. and urging people to save their rags. Rag collection. Peddling played a significant role in American society and economy for nearly three centuries. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 231 rewards for rags in addition to their full value (Anonymous. eyeglasses. Since cash was scarce in the colonial period. Many Jews and Italians started collecting scrap in horse carts. 1964c). who tried to convey this to the public by propagandizing it as a patriotic endeavor and appealed to people to save their rags (Weeks. Waterbury. the main port in the East Coast. In 1776. candle maker. for example.M. fisherman. Peddling originated in Boston. Industry began producing consumer goods. selling to other peddlers. Munsell. Weeks. prospered and became dealers and owners of steel . 1974a). medicines. collected rags. Enterprising Italian and Jewish immigrants played a significant role in founding the scrap recycling industry in America. agricultural implements. and freed from the restrictions on trade and industry imposed by Britain. such as pots. scrap metal and other items as payment. such as rags for papermaking and metals for various industrial uses. trays. Massachusetts enacted a law appointing a person in each town to receive rags for the paper mills. Economic activities created demand for raw materials. adventure and travel. industrial activities grew gradually. in the 17th century. Scavenging activities satisfied that demand for materials while providing a livelihood to many immigrants (Dolan. calico. peddling flourished. and as late as the 1930s. After independence. 1980). Tinkers.

with the larger ones based in Brooklyn. plus 50¢ per day for feed (Barringer. 1974b). Strasser. in which individuals exchanged tin ware for rags. glycerin. 1973). Anonymous. 1976. These individuals rummaged through mixed wastes on the dumping scows — barges used to transport the refuse from the city to the disposal sites — searching for reusable and recyclable items. 1921. There were a number of depots specialized in equipping those immigrants as peddlers throughout the Northeast. rubber and metals. 1954c. dead cats and dogs. and street sweepings in Boston in 1890. Melosi. Scrap rubber could also be obtained in large quantities from discarded rubber boots and shoes. collectors could hire horses and wagons for $1 a day. wagon tires and metal scrap from old agricultural equipment. the city of New York paid the so-called ‘scow trimmers’ for their services and allowed them to keep what they recovered from the wastes. as opposed to integrated mills. the country experienced rapid urban growth. ashes. A method commonly used at the turn of the century was called ‘reduction’. cattle and horse bones accumulated on the prairies of Kansas. Also in New York. 1879. that use virgin materials. candles and soap — as well as a residual used as fertilizer (Lipsett. The present-day giants of scrap and waste materials. Hering and Greely. a man named Pratt made a fortune by collecting scrap leather from harness-makers’ shops and shoemakers’ shops to make shoestrings (Katzman. Scavenging teams collected approximately 350 000 loads of household wastes. Several fortunes were made in the 19th century by recovering and recycling waste materials. Most of these scow trimmers were Italian immigrants organized by the local padrones (Thompson. 1981. In Randolph. by which dead animals and organic wastes were cooked to produce grease — used in the manufacture of perfume. and an average of 612 t of wastes a day in New York City at the turn of the century. MA. and all kinds of materials to make a living. Up until the end of the 19th century. about 2000 cubic yards of refuse daily in Chicago during the same year. And starting in 1882. 1988). the most common materials gathered by scavengers in the Midwest and the Southeast were horseshoes. scavengers removed 15 000 dead horses — then used widely for transportation — from city streets in 1888. American Public Works Association. As late as the 1930s. Scavengers performed the bulk of waste collection in many American towns and cities at the turn of the century. Melosi. bison. . Until 1878. After the Civil War. rubber rollers from old washing machines and other products. At the beginning of the 20th century. From 1878 to 1882 the city eliminated the payments but allowed scavengers to salvage any items from the waste. which were used by glue-making companies. Oklahoma and Texas. 1891. most American cities lacked municipal waste collection. Medina / Resources. local authorities charged a flat rate to scow trimmers for the privilege of scavenging the city’s refuse. 1999). And in the Southwest. Recycling was particularly extensive in New England during the nineteenth century.232 M. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 minimills. lubricants. as well as several leading US financiers and merchants started out as peddlers. which increased the generation of wastes and provided scavengers more opportunities to recover kitchen wastes. such as Sears Roebuck and Scovill Manufacturing Co. Minimills use scrap metal as its main raw material in steel manufacture.

Medina / Resources. 1987). No hard. 1992). Poverty is an important factor that causes people to become scavengers. but it is not the only one. And during World War II and the Korean War. reliable data exist on the number of individuals engaged in scavenging. During the Civil War. the women of the colonies brought to the town squares their spare lead. scavenging reappears with particular intensity. such as selling their plasma or cleaning lots. and 42% were war veterans. The poor and the homeless recover materials from the waste stream for reuse or recycling. No research has been conducted to obtain an estimate of informal recycling activities. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 233 Scavenging at a large scale continued during the first half of the twentieth century in the US from streets and dumps. compared to the recovery of aluminum from bauxite. sash weights. and the environmental benefits of recycling aluminum. 36% received Social Security. 3. As for reasons why they scavenge. of scrap that would not have been available under normal conditions (Barringer. Ninety-six percent of the respondents were male. Kentucky. iron kettles and pots in order to be melted for weapons. during the American Revolution. drives in the South produced water pipes. 26% were black. Of the individuals in the sample. 76% indicated that they could not find another job or that they were disabled or too old (Royse. Scavengers collected various types of materials for reuse or recycling in American dumps until the 1950s. dump scavenging was banned (Rathje and Murphy. found that 14% of the individuals interviewed reported to be homeless. In the aftermath of the Great Depression. For example.5 million t. and 4% had full-time jobs. many unemployed individuals collected scrap as a means of obtaining some cash. 1995). Homeless and poor individu- . 18% reported to be engaged in odd jobs. about 700 000 homeless people in the US. for sanitary considerations. Collecting aluminum cans provides scavengers with cash while rendering a valuable service to society. Thus.M. In times of war or severe economic crises. Ohio and Lexington. when. scavenging still exists in America. such as energy savings. pewter. it has been estimated that there are. recovering aluminum cans supplements other sources of income. respectively. at any given night. Nevertheless. for these collectors. since it is an unregulated and unrecorded activity. but a 1987 study among aluminum can collectors in Cincinnati. Contemporary scavenging Although in different form than in the past. salvage drives in the US produced 9 and 2. 1967). 1954d. Extraordinary circumstances demand extraordinary measures. and scavenging has been found to be a common activity among them (Demko and Jackson. as well as potential liability suits from scavengers. 16% received assistance from their family or friends. Hunter. reduced water consumption and lower air and water pollution. Among the benefits of salvaging aluminum cans are the reduction of litter. Research on homelessness and scavenging is scarce. disability or pension payments. bells and other metal items to be recycled and made into weapons. 26% received welfare or charity.

5 million in 1995 by beating city crews on recycling days. resold or recycled (Anonymous. discarded clothes for reuse. Louis. Those bricks are later reused in construction projects. Thomas. Washington DC. the recovery and stealing of paper by scavengers has also increased. went from $445 per t in June 1993 to $680 in May 1995 and market pulp went from $465 per t to $910 in the same period (Jaffe. The price of newsprint. 1995). bottles. while the latter use plastic garbage bags and shopping carts. scavengers steal aluminum cans that have been separated at the source by households participating in recycling programs. magazines. St. around the country. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 als also recover food to eat from grocery stores’ dumpsters. Construction companies often ‘hire’ and pay individuals to recover bricks from those buildings. aluminum cans have been one of the most common items recovered by scavengers. 220 cities and 33 counties in California have recycling programs with anti-scavenging provisions (Lacey. organized scavengers working in teams in order to steal cans and bottles from recycling bins. Brick scavenging has been reported in the Bronx. Mason. New York. recyclables for sale. vans and even trailer beds to transport the paper. Medina / Resources. cities have followed different approaches. A reportedly common practice. Thus. are common in Southern California. “ Paper thieves cost New York City around $4. and even crackdowns conducted by police officers. Sanitation police officers started arresting and fining paper poachers in January 1995. to make scavenging more difficult (Mitchell. As a result of persistent scavenging. particularly in big cities. “ According to several reports. is the scavenging of bricks of abandoned and partially destroyed buildings. San . scavengers have resorted to stealing source-separated paper from recycling programs. 1995. 1995). Boston. 1995). 1995. “ Theft of recyclables from recycling bins have been observed in cities across the country. In an effort to stop scavenging and the drain of revenue. including Chicago. to outright banning of scavenging. The city plans to instruct participants in its recycling program to separate at the source mixed grades of paper with the newsprint. For a number of years. 1989. which sometimes constitute criminal activities. Hartstein. 1995. the paper poachers reduce the local recycling programs’ revenues. 1995. ranging from requiring a permit to collect materials. Paper poachers use different methods than the aluminum can collectors: the former use pick up trucks. known as ‘paper poachers’. The problem of paper poaching has been more severe in big cities “ Los Angeles lost an estimated 4000 tons of newsprint a month to paper poachers at a cost of $2 million in lost revenues in 1995. In many cities. The thieves. 1994). clothes and anything else that can be restored. and whatever items they find that can be resold. In recent years. Bowles. 1995). 2000b). steal the newspapers placed curbside before being picked up by city crews. especially in poor neighborhoods. Houston. such as books (Medina. Encouraged by historical price highs for most grades of paper in the mid-1990s. Scavengers also recover cans. Scavengers show a high degree of creativity in their undertakings. Verhoevek. for instance. and San Francisco (Warren. Matthews. Aluminum can collectors can be observed.234 M. 1995. Detroit.

Medina / Resources. Variables such as interest rates. North Carolina. recover scrap metal from abandoned buildings along the waterfront. Almeida. A potentially dangerous practice. and consumer expectations about the future affect the demand and prices paid for recyclables. John. Theft of copper wire has also been reported in Russia and Mexico (Faison. and from subway transmission lines. Pages and pages could be filled with predictions that never materialized. 1995). investment. natural disasters in producing areas. for instance. 1996. when students move out and discard furniture and other reusable or repairable items (Colborn. In Harlem. economic growth. the supply of recyclables has shown a steady increase over the last several years due to the proliferation of recycling programs in American cities: curbside pickup programs for recyclables went from 1042 in 1988 to 6678 in 1995. In Detroit. such thefts have existed for several years. In the New York City subway. scavengers. Scavengers take advantage of special occasions in which unusual items are discarded. on rags as its main raw material.. The future of scavenging? Predicting the future is a risky business. scavengers strip historic buildings of recyclable materials. 1993. Also in Detroit. Holland. St. St. 1993. 4. which has prompted a federal investigation (Aiges. mandated minimum recycled product content. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 235 Francisco. Medina. Prices paid for recyclables tend to fluctuate widely. 1994. 1989. The return of the ‘rag men’ can be considered highly doubtful. Detroit. MA. Sullivan. Lowell and Lawrence. In 1992 alone there were 384 cases of theft of copper wire in the New York City subways. i. For example. Kahn et al. many of them homeless. a large number of scavengers were out during the designated week that residents of Birmingham. the interplay of factors that affect demand and supply determine the price for that material. is the theft of copper wire from electrical facilities. construction sites. 1991. 1995). as well as in New Orleans. as well as of items to be sold to antique collectors. New York City. depending on market conditions. For any recyclable material. it seems improbable that the paper industry will rely. Two components are necessary for a market to exist. And scavengers are usually out and active at the end of each semester in the college town of Chapel Hill. for the scavengers themselves and for city dwellers in general. electrical and telephone lines. In the future.e. 1993. supply and demand. consumer spending.M. Nevertheless. It is also unlikely that the ‘peddlers’ will make a comeback in the future and be as common as they once were in 19th-century America. Santacruz. and the death of a thief in 1993. On the other hand. scavengers are . scavengers steal scrap metal in midnight raids from abandoned manufacturing plants. Scrap dealers sometimes assist the thieves by waiting nearby with a van or truck. Louis. Bivens. 1995). Michigan could throw away large pieces of furniture. The high prices for pulp and the different grades of paper in the mid-1990s encouraged scavengers to steal paper from recycling programs. causing delays. 1993. once again.

4. Scavengers’ substandard earnings may be due to their low educational level or to the lack of marketable skills. the following generalizations can be advanced. this occupation seems to be an important survival strategy for the poor. Sca6enging acti6ities supplement other sources of income Even though information on scavenging in the US is scarce. and owners of steel minimills.236 M. Sca6engers tend to be migrants For most of US history. 1995). Nevertheless. Scavengers are willing to put up with direct contact with mixed wastes.’ and less than honest individuals.4. scavengers will collect that material. Scavengers in the 17th century were English and Irish. Society ascribes a low status to sca6engers Society considers scavenging as one of the least desirable activities due to scavengers’ daily proximity with garbage and their sometimes raggedly appearance. Sca6engers tend to be poor Scavenging constitutes a source of cash for disabled or old individuals with low incomes. scavengers have tended to be migrants. wholesalers. 4. 4. particularly in states and regions with large Hispanic populations. 4. Texas. Based on historical and recent experience on scavenging. such as California. And in the second half of the 20th century. then mostly Italians and Eastern European Jews in the 19th century. buildings. and from existing electrical wires. The .’ ‘vagrants. Medina / Resources.1. because they may have no other choice.5. people referred to scavengers and peddlers as ‘rascals’ and in posterior centuries as ‘vagabonds. founders of companies. Sca6engers react to market conditions In an effort to maximize their earnings. telephone lines or subway transmission lines.3. scavenging in the past provided opportunities for upward mobility to some entrepreneurial individuals. Public contempt for scavengers is still common nowadays. and in some cases. and some migrants. The national origin of scavengers reflects the large migratory movements into the US. and the New York City metropolitan area. If the price is high enough. the homeless. scavenging by Hispanic individuals grew significantly. which may entail health risks. they will steal it from recycling programs. scavengers retrieve the recyclables that command the highest prices. In the 17th century. 4.2. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 likely to react in a similar fashion to high prices of recyclable materials (Young. who became middlemen.

Therefore. International trade in recyclables has been growing rapidly over the last few years. Furthermore. such as books. Homeless and poor individuals in other developed countries. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 237 US is the world’s largest source of recyclable materials and the largest exporter. as well as the lower capital and operating costs of recycling aluminum. widespread poverty and lack of a safety net for the poor. due to the ubiquitous presence of aluminum cans in the waste stream. disability. despite the existence of shelters. and social security payments with scavenging (Medina. Japan. aluminum recycling makes economic sense (Conny and Coors. such as Canada. recyclables for sale. given the current backlash against welfare. which translates into lower costs. in order to survive. Demand and prices paid for recyclables will certainly continue to fluctuate. poor individuals willing to scavenge and industrial demand for materials are two necessary conditions for scavenging to exist. Moreover. the collection of aluminum cans by scavengers will probably continue to exist in the foreseeable future.2 million t in 1997. These factors and others that affect the global supply and demand for recyclables determine the prices paid for those materials. It is highly unlikely that poverty will be completely eradicated in America in the near future. Medina / Resources. Thus. materials from curbside recycling programs are sold and recycled abroad. Sorrentino. aluminum companies raised prices for aluminum sheet (used to make beverage cans) by 50% on 1 January 1995. Some of the homeless individuals who scavenge have decided to live on the streets. but it is expected to go up again in the near future. living on the streets and scavenging is a lifestyle that they prefer. which has increased imports by Mexico from 700 000 t in 1993 to 1. because of high unemployment. The current economic crisis in Asia has reduced demand and trade in recyclables in that area. It seems that for some. particularly in Mexico and Asia. Companies that manufacture their own cans by recycling used beverage cans avoid the payment of the new fee. The new price for converting the ingot into sheet is $0. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated most tariffs on recyclables. Furthermore. 1997b).32 per ingot plus the market price of the ingot. depending on market conditions. Scavenging has persisted in the US despite a booming economy in the 1990s. Still others complement income from minimum wage earnings. the existing safety net for the poor could be severely curtailed. Some scavengers suffer from mental illnesses and substance abuse problems. a plant that recycles aluminum cans can be built at a fraction of the cost of building one that makes cans from virgin resources. Mexico purchased 1 billion dollars of recyclables from the US in 1998. as well as discarded clothing to be reused. and whatever items they find that can be resold. the poor could be forced to scavenge to make up for lost income or to supplement minimum-wage earnings. 1995).M. Scavenging is a common occurrence in the Third World countries. If that happens. Despite the existence of a safety net for the poor and widespread prosperity in industrialized countries. compared to the use of virgin aluminum. welfare. low unemployment and general prosperity. 1990. Increasingly. Spain and Italy recover food to eat from dumpsters located outside grocery stores. scavenging persists. Nevertheless. .

April 9. Individuals become scavengers due to lack of education. Conclusions The study of scavenging activities in the past and in the present in America has been neglected. . scavenging could increase. therefore. 1776 – 1976. 5. In the event of a downturn in the US economy and removal of the safety net for the poor. 1891. such as papermaking and steel making. 1997c). particularly to obtain an estimate of the economic importance of this activity and on its linkages with the formal sector. 9:4. and environmental impact. 1976. Thus. Scavengers respond to economic factors and recover the materials with the highest prices that the industry demand. Before cities had municipal waste collection. scavengers performed this activity as well. in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union. 164. Scientific American. Homes razed one brick at a time. Scavenging. economic. 1995. Chicago: Butler Paper Company. could become as common as the ‘rag men’ and the ‘peddlers’ of the past (Medina. its patterns. If the safety net for America’s poor were removed. Conser6ation and Recycling 31 (2001) 229–240 Scavenging has also increased in Eastern Europe. When the price of a material is high.1:1. this activity provided a livelihood to many immigrants as well opportunities for upward mobility. Medina / Resources. drug or mental problems. which could cause conflicts with municipal recycling programs. History of Public Works in the United States. BT 1989. and is more prevalent in periods of high unemployment and poverty. scavengers. marketable skills. Despite appearances that scavengers were the poorest of the poor. has had a significant social. More research is necessary. CY. 1941. The New York Times.238 M. June 30. Nevertheless. The lack of a safety net could result in a return to widespread scavenging by the poor. economic crises and during wars. Baltimore: American Public Works Association. old age. and the ensuing unemployment and removal of the safety net in those countries. Some clever and enterprising scavengers were even able to make a fortune by recovering particular waste materials. Almeida M. There are many gaps in our knowledge of scavenging. how it has evolved throughout history. Anonymous Disposal of Refuse in American Cities. and on its importance. it is possible to conclude that scavenging has existed since the arrival of European settlers. Abandoned waterfront is quarry for wire scavengers. Today. scavenging supplements other sources of income for disadvantaged individuals. particularly aluminum can collectors. References Aiges S. Scavenging played a crucial role in supplying raw materials to various industries. 136. scavengers may even resort to stealing it. and based on the evidence examined for this paper. Times-Picayune. scavenging would probably increase. Scavenging constitutes an adaptive response to scarcity. The Story of Paper-Making. magnifying the theft of recyclables and potential conflict between scavengers and recycling programs. American Public Works Association. Anonymous. 35.

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